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Sample records for py-tract consensus sequence

  1. The sequence of spacers between the consensus sequences modulates the strength of procaryotic promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    A library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis was constructed, in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 relative units, and up to more t......-reactors and cell factories....

  2. A safe an easy method for building consensus HIV sequences from 454 massively parallel sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caballero Rico, Jose Ángel; Chueca Porcuna, Natalia; Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Mosquera Gutiérrez, María Del Mar; Marcos Maeso, María Ángeles; García, Federico

    2018-02-01

    To show how to generate a consensus sequence from the information of massive parallel sequences data obtained from routine HIV anti-retroviral resistance studies, and that may be suitable for molecular epidemiology studies. Paired Sanger (Trugene-Siemens) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) (454 GSJunior-Roche) HIV RT and protease sequences from 62 patients were studied. NGS consensus sequences were generated using Mesquite, using 10%, 15%, and 20% thresholds. Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) was used for phylogenetic studies. At a 10% threshold, NGS-Sanger sequences from 17/62 patients were phylogenetically related, with a median bootstrap-value of 88% (IQR83.5-95.5). Association increased to 36/62 sequences, median bootstrap 94% (IQR85.5-98)], using a 15% threshold. Maximum association was at the 20% threshold, with 61/62 sequences associated, and a median bootstrap value of 99% (IQR98-100). A safe method is presented to generate consensus sequences from HIV-NGS data at 20% threshold, which will prove useful for molecular epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal treatment sequence in COPD: Can a consensus be found?

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    J. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no consensus on the treatment sequence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, although it is recognized that early diagnosis is of paramount importance to start treatment in the early stages of the disease. Although it is fairly consensual that initial treatment should be with an inhaled short-acting beta agonist, a short-acting muscarinic antagonist, a long-acting beta-agonist or a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. As the disease progresses, several therapeutic options are available, and which to choose at each disease stage remains controversial. When and in which patients to use dual bronchodilation? When to use inhaled corticosteroids? And triple therapy? Are the existing non-inhaled therapies, such as mucolytic agents, antibiotics, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, methylxanthines and immunostimulating agents, useful? If so, which patients would benefit? Should co-morbitities be taken into account when choosing COPD therapy for a patient?This paper reviews current guidelines and available evidence and proposes a therapeutic scheme for COPD patients. We also propose a treatment algorithm in the hope that it will help physicians to decide the best approach for their patients. The authors conclude that, at present, a full consensus on optimal treatment sequence in COPD cannot be found, mainly due to disease heterogeneity and lack of biomarkers to guide treatment. For the time being, and although some therapeutic approaches are consensual, treatment of COPD should be patient-oriented. Keywords: COPD, Treatment sequence, SABA, SAMA, LABA, LAMA, ICS, Triple therapy, Non-inhaled therapies

  4. Sparc: a sparsity-based consensus algorithm for long erroneous sequencing reads

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    Chengxi Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The third generation sequencing (3GS technology generates long sequences of thousands of bases. However, its current error rates are estimated in the range of 15–40%, significantly higher than those of the prevalent next generation sequencing (NGS technologies (less than 1%. Fundamental bioinformatics tasks such as de novo genome assembly and variant calling require high-quality sequences that need to be extracted from these long but erroneous 3GS sequences. Results. We describe a versatile and efficient linear complexity consensus algorithm Sparc to facilitate de novo genome assembly. Sparc builds a sparse k-mer graph using a collection of sequences from a targeted genomic region. The heaviest path which approximates the most likely genome sequence is searched through a sparsity-induced reweighted graph as the consensus sequence. Sparc supports using NGS and 3GS data together, which leads to significant improvements in both cost efficiency and computational efficiency. Experiments with Sparc show that our algorithm can efficiently provide high-quality consensus sequences using both PacBio and Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies. With only 30× PacBio data, Sparc can reach a consensus with error rate <0.5%. With the more challenging Oxford Nanopore data, Sparc can also achieve similar error rate when combined with NGS data. Compared with the existing approaches, Sparc calculates the consensus with higher accuracy, and uses approximately 80% less memory and time. Availability. The source code is available for download at https://github.com/yechengxi/Sparc.

  5. Simplifying complex sequence information: a PCP-consensus protein binds antibodies against all four Dengue serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, David M; Lewis, Jessica A; Lu, Wenzhe; Schein, Catherine H

    2012-09-14

    Designing proteins that reflect the natural variability of a pathogen is essential for developing novel vaccines and drugs. Flaviviruses, including Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV), evolve rapidly and can "escape" neutralizing monoclonal antibodies by mutation. Designing antigens that represent many distinct strains is important for DENV, where infection with a strain from one of the four serotypes may lead to severe hemorrhagic disease on subsequent infection with a strain from another serotype. Here, a DENV physicochemical property (PCP)-consensus sequence was derived from 671 unique sequences from the Flavitrack database. PCP-consensus proteins for domain 3 of the envelope protein (EdomIII) were expressed from synthetic genes in Escherichia coli. The ability of the purified consensus proteins to bind polyclonal antibodies generated in response to infection with strains from each of the four DENV serotypes was determined. The initial consensus protein bound antibodies from DENV-1-3 in ELISA and Western blot assays. This sequence was altered in 3 steps to incorporate regions of maximum variability, identified as significant changes in the PCPs, characteristic of DENV-4 strains. The final protein was recognized by antibodies against all four serotypes. Two amino acids essential for efficient binding to all DENV antibodies are part of a discontinuous epitope previously defined for a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The PCP-consensus method can significantly reduce the number of experiments required to define a multivalent antigen, which is particularly important when dealing with pathogens that must be tested at higher biosafety levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Presence of a consensus DNA motif at nearby DNA sequence of the mutation susceptible CG nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Tanu; Sharma, Ankit; Bhagat, Meenakshi; Kamai, Asangla; Ford, Bridget M; Asthana, Shailendra; Mandal, Chandi C

    2018-01-10

    Complexity in tissues affected by cancer arises from somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications in the genome. The mutation susceptible hotspots present within the genome indicate a non-random nature and/or a position specific selection of mutation. An association exists between the occurrence of mutations and epigenetic DNA methylation. This study is primarily aimed at determining mutation status, and identifying a signature for predicting mutation prone zones of tumor suppressor (TS) genes. Nearby sequences from the top five positions having a higher mutation frequency in each gene of 42 TS genes were selected from a cosmic database and were considered as mutation prone zones. The conserved motifs present in the mutation prone DNA fragments were identified. Molecular docking studies were done to determine putative interactions between the identified conserved motifs and enzyme methyltransferase DNMT1. Collective analysis of 42 TS genes found GC as the most commonly replaced and AT as the most commonly formed residues after mutation. Analysis of the top 5 mutated positions of each gene (210 DNA segments for 42 TS genes) identified that CG nucleotides of the amino acid codons (e.g., Arginine) are most susceptible to mutation, and found a consensus DNA "T/AGC/GAGGA/TG" sequence present in these mutation prone DNA segments. Similar to TS genes, analysis of 54 oncogenes not only found CG nucleotides of the amino acid Arg as the most susceptible to mutation, but also identified the presence of similar consensus DNA motifs in the mutation prone DNA fragments (270 DNA segments for 54 oncogenes) of oncogenes. Docking studies depicted that, upon binding of DNMT1 methylates to this consensus DNA motif (C residues of CpG islands), mutation was likely to occur. Thus, this study proposes that DNMT1 mediated methylation in chromosomal DNA may decrease if a foreign DNA segment containing this consensus sequence along with CG nucleotides is exogenously introduced to dividing

  7. Accurate RNA consensus sequencing for high-fidelity detection of transcriptional mutagenesis-induced epimutations.

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    Reid-Bayliss, Kate S; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2017-08-29

    Transcriptional mutagenesis (TM) due to misincorporation during RNA transcription can result in mutant RNAs, or epimutations, that generate proteins with altered properties. TM has long been hypothesized to play a role in aging, cancer, and viral and bacterial evolution. However, inadequate methodologies have limited progress in elucidating a causal association. We present a high-throughput, highly accurate RNA sequencing method to measure epimutations with single-molecule sensitivity. Accurate RNA consensus sequencing (ARC-seq) uniquely combines RNA barcoding and generation of multiple cDNA copies per RNA molecule to eliminate errors introduced during cDNA synthesis, PCR, and sequencing. The stringency of ARC-seq can be scaled to accommodate the quality of input RNAs. We apply ARC-seq to directly assess transcriptome-wide epimutations resulting from RNA polymerase mutants and oxidative stress.

  8. Prediction of Protein Structural Classes for Low-Similarity Sequences Based on Consensus Sequence and Segmented PSSM

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    Yunyun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences is useful for understanding fold patterns, regulation, functions, and interactions of proteins. It is well known that feature extraction is significant to prediction of protein structural class and it mainly uses protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure sequence, and position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Currently, prediction solely based on the PSSM has played a key role in improving the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel method called CSP-SegPseP-SegACP by fusing consensus sequence (CS, segmented PsePSSM, and segmented autocovariance transformation (ACT based on PSSM. Three widely used low-similarity datasets (1189, 25PDB, and 640 are adopted in this paper. Then a 700-dimensional (700D feature vector is constructed and the dimension is decreased to 224D by using principal component analysis (PCA. To verify the performance of our method, rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on 1189, 25PDB, and 640 datasets. Comparison of our results with the existing PSSM-based methods demonstrates that our method achieves the favorable and competitive performance. This will offer an important complementary to other PSSM-based methods for prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences.

  9. Identification of Phosphorylation Consensus Sequences and Endogenous Neuronal Substrates of the Psychiatric Risk Kinase TNIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Amato, Stephen P; Rubitski, David M; Hayward, Matthew M; Kormos, Bethany L; Verhoest, Patrick R; Xu, Lan; Brandon, Nicholas J; Ehlers, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) is a serine/threonine kinase highly expressed in the brain and enriched in the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses in the mammalian brain. Accumulating genetic evidence and functional data have implicated TNIK as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, the endogenous substrates of TNIK in neurons are unknown. Here, we describe a novel selective small molecule inhibitor of the TNIK kinase family. Using this inhibitor, we report the identification of endogenous neuronal TNIK substrates by immunoprecipitation with a phosphomotif antibody followed by mass spectrometry. Phosphorylation consensus sequences were defined by phosphopeptide sequence analysis. Among the identified substrates were members of the delta-catenin family including p120-catenin, δ-catenin, and armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), each of which is linked to psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Using p120-catenin as a representative substrate, we show TNIK-induced p120-catenin phosphorylation in cells requires intact kinase activity and phosphorylation of TNIK at T181 and T187 in the activation loop. Addition of the small molecule TNIK inhibitor or knocking down TNIK by two shRNAs reduced endogenous p120-catenin phosphorylation in cells. Together, using a TNIK inhibitor and phosphomotif antibody, we identify endogenous substrates of TNIK in neurons, define consensus sequences for TNIK, and suggest signaling pathways by which TNIK influences synaptic development and function linked to psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

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    Vinod Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS, that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme.

  11. AMS 4.0: consensus prediction of post-translational modifications in protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz; Basu, Subhadip; Saha, Indrajit

    2012-08-01

    We present here the 2011 update of the AutoMotif Service (AMS 4.0) that predicts the wide selection of 88 different types of the single amino acid post-translational modifications (PTM) in protein sequences. The selection of experimentally confirmed modifications is acquired from the latest UniProt and Phospho.ELM databases for training. The sequence vicinity of each modified residue is represented using amino acids physico-chemical features encoded using high quality indices (HQI) obtaining by automatic clustering of known indices extracted from AAindex database. For each type of the numerical representation, the method builds the ensemble of Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) pattern classifiers, each optimising different objectives during the training (for example the recall, precision or area under the ROC curve (AUC)). The consensus is built using brainstorming technology, which combines multi-objective instances of machine learning algorithm, and the data fusion of different training objects representations, in order to boost the overall prediction accuracy of conserved short sequence motifs. The performance of AMS 4.0 is compared with the accuracy of previous versions, which were constructed using single machine learning methods (artificial neural networks, support vector machine). Our software improves the average AUC score of the earlier version by close to 7 % as calculated on the test datasets of all 88 PTM types. Moreover, for the selected most-difficult sequence motifs types it is able to improve the prediction performance by almost 32 %, when compared with previously used single machine learning methods. Summarising, the brainstorming consensus meta-learning methodology on the average boosts the AUC score up to around 89 %, averaged over all 88 PTM types. Detailed results for single machine learning methods and the consensus methodology are also provided, together with the comparison to previously published methods and state-of-the-art software tools. The

  12. Genetic stability of the VHSV consensus sequence of G-gene in diagnostic samples from an acute outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ahrens, Peter; Lorenzen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The negative stranded RNA virus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is an important disease-causing agent in aquacultured fish and internationally harmonized diagnostic procedures are continuously under development. The present study concerns the suitability of genotyping by sequencing...... collected tissue material as well as from inoculated cell culture. No nucleotide substitutions where identified when aligning the obtained sequence data for the two sample types. The presented data indicate that the overall consensus sequence of the virus outbreak was stable during the survey...

  13. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  14. Construction of a virtual Mycobacterium tuberculosis consensus genome and its application to data from a next generation sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kayo; Kato, Masako; Kirikae, Teruo; Kayano, Mitsunori; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

    2015-03-20

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates are consisted of several different lineages and the epidemiology analyses are usually assessed relative to a particular reference genome, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, which might introduce some biased results. Those analyses are essentially based genome sequence information of M. tuberculosis and could be performed in sillico in theory, with whole genome sequence (WGS) data available in the databases and obtained by next generation sequencers (NGSs). As an approach to establish higher resolution methods for such analyses, whole genome sequences of the M. tuberculosis complexes (MTBCs) strains available on databases were aligned to construct virtual reference genome sequences called the consensus sequence (CS), and evaluated its feasibility in in sillico epidemiological analyses. The consensus sequence (CS) was successfully constructed and utilized to perform phylogenetic analysis, evaluation of read mapping efficacy, which is crucial for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and various MTBC typing methods virtually including spoligotyping, VNTR, Long sequence polymorphism and Beijing typing. SNPs detected based on CS, in comparison with H37Rv, were utilized in concatemer-based phylogenetic analysis to determine their reliability relative to a phylogenetic tree based on whole genome alignment as the gold standard. Statistical comparison of phylogenic trees based on CS with that of H37Rv indicated the former showed always better results that that of later. SNP detection and concatenation with CS was advantageous because the frequency of crucial SNPs distinguishing among strain lineages was higher than those of H37Rv. The number of SNPs detected was lower with the consensus than with the H37Rv sequence, resulting in a significant reduction in computational time. Performance of each virtual typing was satisfactory and accorded with those published when those are available. These results indicated that virtual CS

  15. Genomic Variability of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Mexican Children Determined by Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-De-Leon, Patricia; Santos, Jose I.; Caballero, Javier; Gomez, Demostenes; Espinosa, Luz E.; Moreno, Isabel; Piñero, Daniel; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Genomic fingerprints from 92 capsulated and noncapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with different diseases and healthy carriers were generated by PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. A cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages based on the overall similarity as estimated from the characteristics of the genomic fingerprints, was conducted to group the strains. A total of 69 fingerprint...

  16. A complex array of Hpr consensus DNA recognition sequences proximal to the enterotoxin gene in Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynestad, S; Iwanejko, L A; Stewart, G S; Granum, P E

    1994-01-01

    Enterotoxin production in Clostridium perfringens is both strain dependent and sporulation associated. Underlying these phenotypic observations must lie a genetic and molecular explanation and the principal keys will be held within the DNA sequence both upstream and downstream of the structural gene cpe. In accordance with the above we have sequenced 4.1 kbp of DNA upstream of cpe in the type strain NCTC 8239. A region of DNA extending up to 1.5 kb 5' to cpe is conserved in all enterotoxin-positive strains. This region contains a putative ORF with substantial homology to an ORF in the Salmonella typhimurium IS200 insertion element and, in addition, contains multiple perfect consensus DNA-binding sequences for the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator Hpr. The detailed structural elements revealed by the sequence analysis are presented and used to develop a new perspective on the molecular basis of enterotoxin production in this important food-poisoning bacterium.

  17. Defining a conformational consensus motif in cotransin-sensitive signal sequences: a proteomic and site-directed mutagenesis study.

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    Wolfgang Klein

    Full Text Available The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity.

  18. Defining a Conformational Consensus Motif in Cotransin-Sensitive Signal Sequences: A Proteomic and Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study

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    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity. PMID:25806945

  19. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

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    Olson, Nathan D.; Lund, Steven P.; Zook, Justin M.; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S.; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  20. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

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    Nathan D. Olson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1 identity of biologically conserved position, (2 ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3 the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies.

  1. Chimaeric Virus-Like Particles Derived from Consensus Genome Sequences of Human Rotavirus Strains Co-Circulating in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C.; O'Neill, Hester G.; Potgieter, A. Christiaan; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) are potential alternative non-live vaccine candidates due to their high immunogenicity. They mimic the natural conformation of native viral proteins but cannot replicate because they do not contain genomic material which makes them safe. To date, most RV-VLPs have been derived from cell culture adapted strains or common G1 and G3 rotaviruses that have been circulating in communities for some time. In this study, chimaeric RV-VLPs were generated from the consensus sequences of African rotaviruses (G2, G8, G9 or G12 strains associated with either P[4], P[6] or P[8] genotypes) characterised directly from human stool samples without prior adaptation of the wild type strains to cell culture. Codon-optimised sequences for insect cell expression of genome segments 2 (VP2), 4 (VP4), 6 (VP6) and 9 (VP7) were cloned into a modified pFASTBAC vector, which allowed simultaneous expression of up to four genes using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System (BEVS; Invitrogen). Several combinations of the genome segments originating from different field strains were cloned to produce double-layered RV-VLPs (dRV-VLP; VP2/6), triple-layered RV-VLPs (tRV-VLP; VP2/6/7 or VP2/6/7/4) and chimaeric tRV-VLPs. The RV-VLPs were produced by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda 9 and Trichoplusia ni cells with recombinant baculoviruses using multi-cistronic, dual co-infection and stepwise-infection expression strategies. The size and morphology of the RV-VLPs, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, revealed successful production of RV-VLPs. The novel approach of producing tRV-VLPs, by using the consensus insect cell codon-optimised nucleotide sequence derived from dsRNA extracted directly from clinical specimens, should speed-up vaccine research and development by by-passing the need to adapt rotaviruses to cell culture. Other problems associated with cell culture adaptation, such as possible changes in epitopes, can also be circumvented

  2. Molecular phylogeny of 21 tropical bamboo species reconstructed by integrating non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) sequences and their consensus secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayadri Sekhar; Bhattacharya, Samik; Pal, Amita

    2017-06-01

    The unavailability of the reproductive structure and unpredictability of vegetative characters for the identification and phylogenetic study of bamboo prompted the application of molecular techniques for greater resolution and consensus. We first employed internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) sequences to construct the phylogenetic tree of 21 tropical bamboo species. While the sequence alone could grossly reconstruct the traditional phylogeny amongst the 21-tropical species studied, some anomalies were encountered that prompted a further refinement of the phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we integrated the secondary structure of the ITS sequences to derive individual sequence-structure matrix to gain more resolution on the phylogenetic reconstruction. The results showed that ITS sequence-structure is the reliable alternative to the conventional phenotypic method for the identification of bamboo species. The best-fit topology obtained by the sequence-structure based phylogeny over the sole sequence based one underscores closer clustering of all the studied Bambusa species (Sub-tribe Bambusinae), while Melocanna baccifera, which belongs to Sub-Tribe Melocanneae, disjointedly clustered as an out-group within the consensus phylogenetic tree. In this study, we demonstrated the dependability of the combined (ITS sequence+structure-based) approach over the only sequence-based analysis for phylogenetic relationship assessment of bamboo.

  3. Consensus coding sequence (CCDS) database: a standardized set of human and mouse protein-coding regions supported by expert curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Shashikant; O'Leary, Nuala A; Farrell, Catherine M; Loveland, Jane E; Mudge, Jonathan M; Wallin, Craig; Girón, Carlos G; Diekhans, Mark; Barnes, If; Bennett, Ruth; Berry, Andrew E; Cox, Eric; Davidson, Claire; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gonzalez, Jose M; Hunt, Toby; Jackson, John; Joardar, Vinita; Kay, Mike P; Kodali, Vamsi K; Martin, Fergal J; McAndrews, Monica; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael; Rajput, Bhanu; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Riddick, Lillian D; Seal, Ruth L; Suner, Marie-Marthe; Webb, David; Zhu, Sophia; Aken, Bronwen L; Bruford, Elspeth A; Bult, Carol J; Frankish, Adam; Murphy, Terence; Pruitt, Kim D

    2018-01-04

    The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) project provides a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assembly in genome annotations produced independently by NCBI and the Ensembl group at EMBL-EBI. This dataset is the product of an international collaboration that includes NCBI, Ensembl, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Mouse Genome Informatics and University of California, Santa Cruz. Identically annotated coding regions, which are generated using an automated pipeline and pass multiple quality assurance checks, are assigned a stable and tracked identifier (CCDS ID). Additionally, coordinated manual review by expert curators from the CCDS collaboration helps in maintaining the integrity and high quality of the dataset. The CCDS data are available through an interactive web page (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CCDS/CcdsBrowse.cgi) and an FTP site (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/CCDS/). In this paper, we outline the ongoing work, growth and stability of the CCDS dataset and provide updates on new collaboration members and new features added to the CCDS user interface. We also present expert curation scenarios, with specific examples highlighting the importance of an accurate reference genome assembly and the crucial role played by input from the research community. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  4. A genosensor for detection of consensus DNA sequence of Dengue virus using ZnO/Pt-Pd nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Chaitali; Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2017-11-15

    An electrochemical genosensor based on Zinc oxide/platinum-palladium (ZnO/Pt-Pd) modified fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate was fabricated for detection of consensus DNA sequence of Dengue virus (DENV) using methylene blue (MB) as an intercalating agent. To achieve it, probe DNA (PDNA) was immobilized on the surface of ZnO/Pt-Pd nanocomposites modified FTO electrode. The synthesized nano-composites were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. This PDNA modified electrode (PDNA/ZnO/Pt-Pd/FTO) served as a signal amplification platform for the detection of the target hybridized DNA (TDNA). The hybridization between PDNA and TDNA was detected by reduction in current, generated by interaction of anionic mediator, i.e., methylene blue (MB) with free guanine (3'G) of ssDNA. The sensor showed a dynamic linear range of 1 × 10 -6 M to 100 × 10 -6 M with LOD as 4.3 × 10 -5 M and LOQ as 9.5 × 10 -5 M. Till date, majorly serotype specific biosensors for dengue detection have been developed. The genosensor reported here eliminates the possibility of false result as in case of serotype specific DNA sensor. This is the report where conserved sequences present in all the serotypes of Dengue virus has been employed for fabrication of a genosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Basis for Polypyrimidine Tract Recognition by the Essential Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor U2AF65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E.; Frato, K.; Shen, H.; Paranawithana, S.; Green, M.; Kielkopf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF 65 , guides the early stages of splice site choice by recognizing a polypyrimidine (Py)-tract consensus sequence near the 3'-splice site. Since Py-tracts are relatively poorly conserved in higher eukaryotes, U2AF 65 is faced with the problem of specifying uridine-rich sequences, yet tolerating a variety of nucleotide substitutions found in natural Py-tracts. To better understand these apparently contradictory RNA binding characteristics, the X-ray structure of the U2AF 65 RNA binding domain bound to a Py-tract composed of seven uridines has been determined at 2.5Angstroms resolution. Specific hydrogen bonds between U2AF 65 and the uracil bases provide an explanation for polyuridine recognition. Flexible sidechains and bound water molecules form the majority of the base contacts, and potentially could rearrange when the U2AF 65 structure adapts to different Py-tract sequences. The energetic importance of conserved residues for Py-tract binding is established by analysis of site-directed mutant U2AF 65 proteins using surface plasmon resonance

  6. First full-length genome sequence of the polerovirus luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) reveals the presence of at least two consensus sequences in an isolate from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Dennis; Maiss, Edgar; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Menzel, Wulf

    2015-10-01

    Luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) was proposed as the name for a previously undescribed polerovirus based on partial genome sequences obtained from samples of cucurbit plants collected in Thailand between 2008 and 2013. In this study, we determined the first full-length genome sequence of LABYV. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genome properties, it is clear that this virus represents a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus. Analysis of sequences from sample TH24, which was collected in 2010 from a luffa plant in Thailand, reveals the presence of two different full-length genome consensus sequences.

  7. Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the 3'-UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Saori; Sato, Yutaka; Asano, Tomoya; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3'-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3'-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3'-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.

  8. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (F...

  9. Association of poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine sequences with meiotic recombination hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Joel PW

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic recombination events have been found to concentrate in 1–2.5 kilo base regions, but these recombination hot spots do not share a consensus sequence and why they occur at specific sites is not fully understood. Some previous evidence suggests that poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine (poly-pu/py tracts (PPTs, a class of sequence with distinctive biochemical properties, could be involved in recombination, but no general association of PPTs with meiotic recombination hot spots has previously been reported. Results We used computational methods to investigate in detail the relationship between PPTs and hot spots. We show statistical associations of PPT frequency with hot spots of meiotic recombination initiating lesions, double-strand breaks, in the genome of the yeast S. cerevisiae and with experimentally well characterized human meiotic recombination hot spots. Supporting a possible role of poly-pu/py-rich sequences in hot spot recombination, we also found that all three single nucleotide polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with human hot spot activity changes occur within sequence contexts of 14 bp or longer that are 85% or more poly-pu/py and at least 70% G/C. These polymorphisms are all close to the hot spot mid points. Comparing the sequences of experimentally characterized human hot spots with the orthologous regions of the chimpanzee genome previously shown not to contain hot spots, we found that in all five cases in which comparisons for the hot spot central regions are possible with publicly available sequence data, there are differences near the human hot spot mid points within sequences 14 bp or longer consisting of more than 80% poly-pu/py and at least 50% G/C. Conclusion Our results, along with previous evidence for the unique biochemical properties and recombination-stimulating potential of poly-pu/py-rich sequences, suggest that the possible functional involvement of this type of sequence in meiotic

  10. Towards a consensus Y-chromosomal phylogeny and Y-SNP set in forensics in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Kayser, Manfred; van Oven, Mannis; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-03-01

    Currently, several different Y-chromosomal phylogenies and haplogroup nomenclatures are presented in scientific literature and at conferences demonstrating the present diversity in Y-chromosomal phylogenetic trees and Y-SNP sets used within forensic and anthropological research. This situation can be ascribed to the exponential growth of the number of Y-SNPs discovered due to mostly next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies. As Y-SNPs and their respective phylogenetic positions are important in forensics, such as for male lineage characterization and paternal bio-geographic ancestry inference, there is a need for forensic geneticists to know how to deal with these newly identified Y-SNPs and phylogenies, especially since these phylogenies are often created with other aims than to carry out forensic genetic research. Therefore, we give here an overview of four categories of currently used Y-chromosomal phylogenies and the associated Y-SNP sets in scientific research in the current NGS era. We compare these categories based on the construction method, their advantages and disadvantages, the disciplines wherein the phylogenetic tree can be used, and their specific relevance for forensic geneticists. Based on this overview, it is clear that an up-to-date reduced tree with a consensus Y-SNP set and a stable nomenclature will be the most appropriate reference resource for forensic research. Initiatives to reach such an international consensus are therefore highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimotif Miner 3.0: database expansion and significantly improved reduction of false-positive predictions from consensus sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Tian; Merlin, Jerlin Camilus; Deverasetty, Sandeep; Gryk, Michael R; Bill, Travis J; Brooks, Andrew W; Lee, Logan Y; Rathnayake, Viraj; Ross, Christian A; Sargeant, David P; Strong, Christy L; Watts, Paula; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Schiller, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Minimotif Miner (MnM available at http://minimotifminer.org or http://mnm.engr.uconn.edu) is an online database for identifying new minimotifs in protein queries. Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences that have a known function in at least one protein. Here we report the third release of the MnM database which has now grown 60-fold to approximately 300,000 minimotifs. Since short minimotifs are by their nature not very complex we also summarize a new set of false-positive filters and linear regression scoring that vastly enhance minimotif prediction accuracy on a test data set. This online database can be used to predict new functions in proteins and causes of disease.

  12. Full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong K; Shakya, Akhalesh K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2016-01-04

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100 bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt -89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100 bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Full trans–activation mediated by the immediate–early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong K.; Shakya, Akhalesh K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100 bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt −89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100 bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). PMID:26541315

  14. Mutations of the central tyrosines of putative cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) sequences modify folding, activity, and sterol-sensing of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Hegedüs, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs; Özvegy-Laczka, Csilla

    2015-02-01

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein causing multidrug resistance in cancer. Membrane cholesterol and bile acids are efficient regulators of ABCG2 function, while the molecular nature of the sterol-sensing sites has not been elucidated. The cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC, L/V-(X)(1-5)-Y-(X)(1-5)-R/K) sequence is one of the conserved motifs involved in cholesterol binding in several proteins. We have identified five potential CRAC motifs in the transmembrane domain of the human ABCG2 protein. In order to define their roles in sterol-sensing, the central tyrosines of these CRACs (Y413, 459, 469, 570 and 645) were mutated to S or F and the mutants were expressed both in insect and mammalian cells. We found that mutation in Y459 prevented protein expression; the Y469S and Y645S mutants lost their activity; while the Y570S, Y469F, and Y645F mutants retained function as well as cholesterol and bile acid sensitivity. We found that in the case of the Y413S mutant, drug transport was efficient, while modulation of the ATPase activity by cholesterol and bile acids was significantly altered. We suggest that the Y413 residue within a putative CRAC motif has a role in sterol-sensing and the ATPase/drug transport coupling in the ABCG2 multidrug transporter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparative analysis of seven viral nuclear export signals (NESs reveals the crucial role of nuclear export mediated by the third NES consensus sequence of nucleoprotein (NP in influenza A virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Chutiwitoonchai

    Full Text Available The assembly of influenza virus progeny virions requires machinery that exports viral genomic ribonucleoproteins from the cell nucleus. Currently, seven nuclear export signal (NES consensus sequences have been identified in different viral proteins, including NS1, NS2, M1, and NP. The present study examined the roles of viral NES consensus sequences and their significance in terms of viral replication and nuclear export. Mutation of the NP-NES3 consensus sequence resulted in a failure to rescue viruses using a reverse genetics approach, whereas mutation of the NS2-NES1 and NS2-NES2 sequences led to a strong reduction in viral replication kinetics compared with the wild-type sequence. While the viral replication kinetics for other NES mutant viruses were also lower than those of the wild-type, the difference was not so marked. Immunofluorescence analysis after transient expression of NP-NES3, NS2-NES1, or NS2-NES2 proteins in host cells showed that they accumulated in the cell nucleus. These results suggest that the NP-NES3 consensus sequence is mostly required for viral replication. Therefore, each of the hydrophobic (Φ residues within this NES consensus sequence (Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, or Φ4 was mutated, and its viral replication and nuclear export function were analyzed. No viruses harboring NP-NES3 Φ2 or Φ3 mutants could be rescued. Consistent with this, the NP-NES3 Φ2 and Φ3 mutants showed reduced binding affinity with CRM1 in a pull-down assay, and both accumulated in the cell nucleus. Indeed, a nuclear export assay revealed that these mutant proteins showed lower nuclear export activity than the wild-type protein. Moreover, the Φ2 and Φ3 residues (along with other Φ residues within the NP-NES3 consensus were highly conserved among different influenza A viruses, including human, avian, and swine. Taken together, these results suggest that the Φ2 and Φ3 residues within the NP-NES3 protein are important for its nuclear export function

  16. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-08-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (FP1). The nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 also yielded four fragments but constituted a different FP group (FP2). A total of 15 different patterns were observed among the V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two patterns were observed most frequently for V. cholerae non-01 strains, 25% of which have FP3, with five fragments, and 16.7% of which have FP4, with two fragments. Three fragments, 1.75, 0.79, and 0.5 kb, were found to be common to both toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains as well as to group FP3, containing V. cholerae non-O1 strains. Two fragments of group FP3, 1.3 and 1.0 kb, were present in FP1 and FP2 respectively. The 0.5-kb fragment was common to all strains and serogroups of V. cholerae analyzed. It is concluded from the results of this study, based on DNA FPs of environmental isolates, that it is possible to detect an emerging virulent strain in a cholera-endemic region. ERIC-PCR constitutes a powerful tool for determination of the virulence potential of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in surveillance programs and for molecular epidemiological investigations.

  17. Crafting consensus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1–2 (2017), s. 169-200 ISSN 0048-5829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-27902P Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : consensus building * agenda setting * vote buying Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2016

  18. Why Consensus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Polletta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activists have long justified their egalitarian organizational forms in prefigurative terms. Making decisions by consensus, decentralizing organization, and rotating leadership serves to model the radically democratic society that activists hope to bring into being. Our comparison of consensus-based decision-making in three historical periods, however, shows that activists have understood the purposes of prefiguration in very different ways. Whereas radical pacifists in the 1940s saw their cooperative organizations as sustaining movement stalwarts in a period of political repression, new left activists in the 1960s imagined that their radically democratic practices would be adopted by ever-widening circles. Along with the political conditions in which they have operated, activists’ distinctive understandings of equality have also shaped the way they have made decisions. Our interviews with 30 leftist activists today reveal a view of decision-making as a place to work through inequalities that are informal, unacknowledged, and pervasive.

  19. A universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated RNA viruses using the Illumina MiSeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Freimanis, Graham L; King, David J; Valdazo-González, Begoña; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Sanderson, Nicholas D; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P; Cottam, Eleanor M

    2014-09-30

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (WGS) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during PCR amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. We describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genome sequences on the Illumina MiSeq. This protocol is specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) or other polyadenylated RNA viruses and circumvents both the use of PCR and the requirement for large amounts of initial template. The protocol was successfully validated using five FMDV positive clinical samples from the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, as well as a panel of representative viruses from all seven serotypes. In addition, this protocol was successfully used to recover 94% of an FMDV genome that had previously been identified as cell culture negative. Genome sequences from three other non-FMDV polyadenylated RNA viruses (EMCV, ERAV, VESV) were also obtained with minor protocol amendments. We calculated that a minimum coverage depth of 22 reads was required to produce an accurate consensus sequence for FMDV O. This was achieved in 5 FMDV/O/UKG isolates and the type O FMDV from the serotype panel with the exception of the 5' genomic termini and area immediately flanking the poly(C) region. We have developed a universal WGS method for FMDV and other polyadenylated RNA viruses. This method works successfully from a limited quantity of starting material and eliminates the requirement for genome-specific PCR amplification. This protocol has the potential to generate consensus-level sequences within a routine high-throughput diagnostic environment.

  20. Human adenovirus serotype 12 virion precursors pMu and pVI are cleaved at amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal sites that conform to the adenovirus 2 endoproteinase cleavage consensus sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, P; Anderson, C W

    1993-03-01

    The sequence of a 1158-base pair fragment of the human adenovirus serotype 12 (Ad12) genome was determined. This segment encodes the precursors for virion components Mu and VI. Both Ad12 precursors contain two sequences that conform to a consensus sequence motif for cleavage by the endoproteinase of adenovirus 2 (Ad2). Analysis of the amino terminus of VI and of the peptide fragments found in Ad12 virions demonstrated that these sites are cleaved during Ad12 maturation. This observation suggests that the recognition motif for adenovirus endoproteinases is highly conserved among human serotypes. The adenovirus 2 endoproteinase polypeptide requires additional co-factors for activity (C. W. Anderson, Protein Expression Purif., 1993, 4, 8-15). Synthetic Ad12 or Ad2 pVI carboxy-terminal peptides each permitted efficient cleavage of an artificial endoproteinase substrate by recombinant Ad2 endoproteinase polypeptide.

  1. Defining the plasticity of transcription factor binding sites by Deconstructing DNA consensus sequences: the PhoP-binding sites among gamma/enterobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Harari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulators recognize specific DNA sequences. Because these sequences are embedded in the background of genomic DNA, it is hard to identify the key cis-regulatory elements that determine disparate patterns of gene expression. The detection of the intra- and inter-species differences among these sequences is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of both differential gene expression and evolution. Here, we address this problem by investigating the target promoters controlled by the DNA-binding PhoP protein, which governs virulence and Mg(2+ homeostasis in several bacterial species. PhoP is particularly interesting; it is highly conserved in different gamma/enterobacteria, regulating not only ancestral genes but also governing the expression of dozens of horizontally acquired genes that differ from species to species. Our approach consists of decomposing the DNA binding site sequences for a given regulator into families of motifs (i.e., termed submotifs using a machine learning method inspired by the "Divide & Conquer" strategy. By partitioning a motif into sub-patterns, computational advantages for classification were produced, resulting in the discovery of new members of a regulon, and alleviating the problem of distinguishing functional sites in chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray genome-wide analysis. Moreover, we found that certain partitions were useful in revealing biological properties of binding site sequences, including modular gains and losses of PhoP binding sites through evolutionary turnover events, as well as conservation in distant species. The high conservation of PhoP submotifs within gamma/enterobacteria, as well as the regulatory protein that recognizes them, suggests that the major cause of divergence between related species is not due to the binding sites, as was previously suggested for other regulators. Instead, the divergence may be attributed to the fast evolution of orthologous target

  2. The Limits of Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, John B.

    Dynamics in the education policy arena suggest that, despite two generations of researchers extolling democratic leadership styles and consensus building over autocratic techniques, wide participation in policymaking and the broadest possible consensus are not always productive: American society has not yet agreed on what schools should…

  3. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Martini, C.; Boumans, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce "rational consensus", that is, "mathematical aggregation", by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  4. Informed consent -- Building consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovenheim, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author shares his observations and offers an approach to 'building consensus' for what he believes is the only environmentally sound option, i.e., safe, permanent disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Consensus does not mean unanimity, acceptance, or harmony. The low-level radioactive waste disposal issue is fraught with fear and hysteria. The paper discusses major emotions that fracture public opinion regarding this issue. The author defines consensus as the informed consent of LLRW disposal strategies by a majority of citizens whose cooperation is required to achieve the goals of environmentally sound solution. The political aspects are reviewed. The need for US Department of Energy to fulfill its importance technical assistance role is discussed

  5. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    maternal leave. These changes can be explained as adjustments to post-industrial conditions within a political culture relying on class compromises and a broad consensus informed by expert advice coming from civil servants and ad hoc policy commissions. The paper concludes that changes in Danish family...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  6. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce “rational consensus”, that is, “mathematical aggregation”, by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  7. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  8. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  9. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A.; Jones, R.M.; Walker, J.A.; Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). They define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of their planned applied research, the authors first discuss nominal group technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities

  10. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  11. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  12. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  13. Expert consensus document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehm, Ulrich; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder caused by the deficient production, secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is the master hormone regulating the reproductive axis. CHH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with >25 different...... migration of GnRH-synthesizing neurons. CHH can be challenging to diagnose, particularly when attempting to differentiate it from constitutional delay of puberty. A timely diagnosis and treatment to induce puberty can be beneficial for sexual, bone and metabolic health, and might help minimize some...... of the psychological effects of CHH. In most cases, fertility can be induced using specialized treatment regimens and several predictors of outcome have been identified. Patients typically require lifelong treatment, yet ∼10-20% of patients exhibit a spontaneous recovery of reproductive function. This Consensus...

  14. ConStruct: Improved construction of RNA consensus structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steger Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aligning homologous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs correctly in terms of sequence and structure is an unresolved problem, due to both mathematical complexity and imperfect scoring functions. High quality alignments, however, are a prerequisite for most consensus structure prediction approaches, homology searches, and tools for phylogeny inference. Automatically created ncRNA alignments often need manual corrections, yet this manual refinement is tedious and error-prone. Results We present an extended version of CONSTRUCT, a semi-automatic, graphical tool suitable for creating RNA alignments correct in terms of both consensus sequence and consensus structure. To this purpose CONSTRUCT combines sequence alignment, thermodynamic data and various measures of covariation. One important feature is that the user is guided during the alignment correction step by a consensus dotplot, which displays all thermodynamically optimal base pairs and the corresponding covariation. Once the initial alignment is corrected, optimal and suboptimal secondary structures as well as tertiary interaction can be predicted. We demonstrate CONSTRUCT's ability to guide the user in correcting an initial alignment, and show an example for optimal secondary consensus structure prediction on very hard to align SECIS elements. Moreover we use CONSTRUCT to predict tertiary interactions from sequences of the internal ribosome entry site of CrP-like viruses. In addition we show that alignments specifically designed for benchmarking can be easily be optimized using CONSTRUCT, although they share very little sequence identity. Conclusion CONSTRUCT's graphical interface allows for an easy alignment correction based on and guided by predicted and known structural constraints. It combines several algorithms for prediction of secondary consensus structure and even tertiary interactions. The CONSTRUCT package can be downloaded from the URL listed in the Availability and

  15. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    quality consensus conference was underwrit- ten in part by unrestricted educational grants from Molnlycke Health Care and Baxter Health Care. Address... nutrition , psychological outcomes, resuscitation, and wound repair. After reviewing the literature, debating the issues at the consensus conference and...need for intubation, concomitant trauma. 3. Resuscitation characteristics: Lab values (base defi- cit, lactate, hemoglobin /hematocrit, blood urea

  16. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  17. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  18. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  19. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  20. Between consensus and contestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism. Findings - The different theoretical approaches can be associated with different ways of understanding priority setting. In particular, agonistic democratic theory would understand priority setting as system of inclusions and exclusions rather than the determination of a consensus of social values, which is the typical deliberative way of thinking about the issues. Originality/value - The paper shows the value of drawing out explicitly the tacit assumptions of practices of political participation in order to reveal their scope and limitations. It suggests that making such theoretical presuppositions explicit has value for health services management in recognizing these implicit choices.

  1. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  2. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  3. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  4. Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W.; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken

    2016-04-01

    The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts such as economic geologists and a self-selected group of those who reject the consensus. We demonstrate that this outcome is not unexpected because the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science. At one point, Tol also reduces the apparent consensus by assuming that abstracts that do not explicitly state the cause of global warming (‘no position’) represent non-endorsement, an approach that if applied elsewhere would reject consensus on well-established theories such as plate tectonics. We examine the available studies and conclude that the finding of 97% consensus in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies.

  5. Mexican consensus on dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the 2007 dyspepsia guidelines of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología, there have been significant advances in the knowledge of this disease. A systematic search of the literature in PubMed (01/2007 to 06/2016 was carried out to review and update the 2007 guidelines and to provide new evidence-based recommendations. All high-quality articles in Spanish and English were included. Statements were formulated and voted upon using the Delphi method. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation of each statement were established according to the GRADE system. Thirty-one statements were formulated, voted upon, and graded. New definition, classification, epidemiology, and pathophysiology data were provided and include the following information: Endoscopy should be carried out in cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia when there are alarm symptoms or no response to treatment. Gastric and duodenal biopsies can confirm Helicobacter pylori infection and rule out celiac disease, respectively. Establishing a strong doctor-patient relationship, as well as dietary and lifestyle changes, are useful initial measures. H2-blockers, proton-pump inhibitors, prokinetics, and antidepressants are effective pharmacologic therapies. H. pylori eradication may be effective in a subgroup of patients. There is no evidence that complementary and alternative therapies are beneficial, with the exception of Iberogast and rikkunshito, nor is there evidence on the usefulness of prebiotics, probiotics, or psychologic therapies. The new consensus statements on dyspepsia provide guidelines based on up-to-date evidence. A discussion, level of evidence, and strength of recommendation are presented for each statement. Resumen: Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la

  6. NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-04

    To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the use and effectiveness of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, biophysics, and the representatives of the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1200. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that were part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Alternative Medicine and the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. The literature, produced from January 1970 to October 1997, was searched through MEDLINE, Allied and Alternative Medicine, EMBASE, and MANTIS, as well as through a hand search of 9 journals that were not indexed by the National Library of Medicine. An extensive bibliography of 2302 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Expert speakers prepared abstracts of their own conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in the open forum and scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience

  7. Is There a Consensus on Consensus Methodology? Descriptions and Recommendations for Future Consensus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.

  8. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  9. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  10. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  11. Cofactor specificity switch in Shikimate dehydrogenase by rational design and consensus engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guevara, Fernando; Bravo, Iris; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Segovia, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    Consensus engineering has been used to design more stable variants using the most frequent amino acid at each site of a multiple sequence alignment; sometimes consensus engineering modifies function, but efforts have mainly been focused on studying stability. Here we constructed a consensus Rossmann domain for the Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme; separately we decided to switch the cofactor specificity through rational design in the Escherichia coli Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme and then analyzed the effect of consensus mutations on top of our design. We found that consensus mutations closest to the 2' adenine moiety increased the activity in our design. Consensus engineering has been shown to result in more stable proteins and our findings suggest it could also be used as a complementary tool for increasing or modifying enzyme activity during design. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  13. Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Swift, Stephen; Liu, Xiaohui

    Ensemble Clustering has been developed to provide an alternative way of obtaining more stable and accurate clustering results. It aims to avoid the biases of individual clustering algorithms. However, it is still a challenge to develop an efficient and robust method for Ensemble Clustering. Based on an existing ensemble clustering method, Consensus Clustering (CC), this paper introduces an advanced Consensus Clustering algorithm called Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering (MOCC), which utilises an optimised Agreement Separation criterion and a Multi-Optimisation framework to improve the performance of CC. Fifteen different data sets are used for evaluating the performance of MOCC. The results reveal that MOCC can generate more accurate clustering results than the original CC algorithm.

  14. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan

    2016-01-01

    that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord......From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term...... on the effects of physical activity on children’s and youth’s fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process...

  15. A branch point consensus from Arabidopsis found by non-circular analysis allows for better prediction of acceptor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Niels; Rouzé, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Little knowledge exists about branch points in plants; it has even been claimed that plant introns lack conserved branch point sequences similar to those found in vertebrate introns. A putative branch point consensus sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana resembling the well known metazoan consensus s...... in the recognition of true acceptor sites; the false positive rate being reduced by a factor of 2. We take this as an indication that the consensus found here is the genuine one and that the branch point does play a role in the proper recognition of the acceptor site in plants.......Little knowledge exists about branch points in plants; it has even been claimed that plant introns lack conserved branch point sequences similar to those found in vertebrate introns. A putative branch point consensus sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana resembling the well known metazoan consensus...... sequence has been proposed, but this is based on search of sequences similar to those in yeast and metazoa. Here we present a novel consensus sequence found by a non-circular approach. A hidden Markov model with a fixed A nucleotide was trained on sequences upstream of the acceptor site. The consensus...

  16. Stabilizing IkappaBalpha by "consensus" design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Diego U; Cervantes, Carla F; Truhlar, Stephanie M E; Cho, Samuel S; Wolynes, Peter G; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-26

    IkappaBalpha is the major regulator of transcription factor NF-kappaB function. The ankyrin repeat region of IkappaBalpha mediates specific interactions with NF-kappaB dimers, but ankyrin repeats 1, 5 and 6 display a highly dynamic character when not in complex with NF-kappaB. Using chemical denaturation, we show here that IkappaBalpha displays two folding transitions: a non-cooperative conversion under weak perturbation, and a major cooperative folding phase upon stronger insult. Taking advantage of a native Trp residue in ankyrin repeat (AR) 6 and engineered Trp residues in AR2, AR4 and AR5, we show that the cooperative transition involves AR2 and AR3, while the non-cooperative transition involves AR5 and AR6. The major structural transition can be affected by single amino acid substitutions converging to the "consensus" ankyrin repeat sequence, increasing the native state stability significantly. We further characterized the structural and dynamic properties of the native state ensemble of IkappaBalpha and the stabilized mutants by H/(2)H exchange mass spectrometry and NMR. The solution experiments were complemented with molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the microscopic origins of the stabilizing effect of the consensus substitutions, which can be traced to the fast conformational dynamics of the folded ensemble.

  17. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    of nodding in a particular professional-client setting, namely, hair salon interactions. My interest specifically lies in the frequent occurrence of synchronized head nods during the “service-assessment sequence,” where both service provider and customer inspect and determine whether the completed work...... is adequate. I pursue mechanisms of synchronized head nods by revealing exactly how participants collaborate in producing a nod, and how their verbal actions may at times be designed accordingly. In doing so, the study provides insight into what consensus may look like at service encounters in Japan......While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role...

  18. Building consensus in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1994-01-01

    The importance for the development of UK renewable energy projects of building consensus in the community is discussed. After outlining the benefits of such an approach, some of the likely concerns and questions from a developer's viewpoint are explored. The key principles of good practice are considered and an example from a wind project examined. (UK)

  19. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  20. Possibilities of consensus: toward democratic moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B

    1991-08-01

    The concept of consensus is often appealed to in discussions of biomedical ethics and applied ethics, and it plays an important role in many influential ethical theories. Consensus is an especially influential notion among theorists who reject ethical realism and who frame ethics as a practice of discourse rather than a body of objective knowledge. It is also a practically important notion when moral decision making is subject to bureaucratic organization and oversight, as is increasingly becoming the case in medicine. Two models of consensus are examined and criticized: pluralistic consensus and overlapping consensus. As an alternative to these models, the paper argues that consensus refers to the dialogic aspects of a broader normative conception of democratic moral agency. When the preconditions for that dialogic democratic practice are met, consensus has a justificatory role in ethics; when they are not, consensus, as distinct from mere agreement, does not emerge and can have no moral authority.

  1. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  2. Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhijie; Cong, Kelong; Pouwelse, Johan; Erkin, Zekeriya

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the blockchain technique was put in the spotlight as it introduced a systematic approach for multiple parties to reach consensus without needing trust. However, the application of this technique in practice is severely restricted due to its limitations in throughput. In this paper, we propose a novel consensus model, namely the implicit consensus, with a distinctive blockchain-based distributed ledger in which each node holds its individual blockchain. In our system, the consensus i...

  3. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  4. Endodontic retreatment decisions: no consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; D'Hoore, W

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the consensus, if any, amongst dental schools, students and their instructors managing the same clinical cases, all of which involved endodontically treated teeth; and (ii) determine the predominant proposed treatment option. Final year students, endodontic staff members and instructors of 10 European dental schools were surveyed as decision makers. Fourteen different radiographic cases of root canal treated teeth accompanied by a short clinical history were presented to them in a uniform format. For each case the decision makers were requested to: (i) choose only one out of nine treatment alternatives proposed, from 'no treatment' to 'extraction' via 'retreatment' and 'surgery' (ii) assess on two 5-point scales: the difficulty of making a decision, and the technical complexity of the retreatment procedure. The results indicate wide inter- and also intra-school disagreements in the clinical management of root canal treated teeth. Analysis of variance showed that the main source of variation was the 'school effect', explaining 1.8% (NS) to 18.6% (P < 0.0001) of the treatment variations. No other factor explained as much variance. Decision difficulty was moderately correlated to technical complexity (Pearsons' r ranging from 0.19 to 0.35, P < 0.0001). No clear consensus occurred amongst and within dental schools concerning the clinical management of the 14 cases. The lack of consensus amongst schools seems to be due mainly to chance or uncertainty, but can be partly explained by the 'school effect'.

  5. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis: consensus conference guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretto, N; Carrara, A; Corradi, A; De Vivo, G; Lazzaro, L; Ricciardelli, L; Agresta, F; Amodio, C; Bergamini, C; Borzellino, G; Catani, M; Cavaliere, D; Cirocchi, R; Gemini, S; Mirabella, A; Palasciano, N; Piazza, D; Piccoli, M; Rigamonti, M; Scatizzi, M; Tamborrino, E; Zago, M

    2012-05-01

    Laparoscopic adhesiolysis has been demonstrated to be technically feasible in small bowel obstruction and carries advantages in terms of post-surgical course. The increasing dissemination of laparoscopic surgery in the emergency setting and the lack of concrete evidence in the literature have called for a consensus conference to draw recommendations for clinical practice. A literature search was used to outline the evidence, and a consensus conference was held between experts in the field. A survey of international experts added expertise to the debate. A public jury of surgeons discussed and validated the statements, and the entire process was reviewed by three external experts. Recommendations concern the diagnostic evaluation, the timing of the operation, the selection of patients, the induction of the pneumoperitoneum, the removal of the cause of obstructions, the criteria for conversion, the use of adhesion-preventing agents, the need for high-technology dissection instruments and behaviour in the case of misdiagnosed hernia or the need for bowel resection. Evidence of this kind of surgery is scanty because of the absence of randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless laparoscopic skills in emergency are widespread. The recommendations given with the consensus process might be a useful tool in the hands of surgeons. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. International consensus on safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been regularly requested by its Member States to provide evidence that radioactive waste can be managed safely and to help demonstrate a harmonization of approach at the international level by providing safety documents. In response, IAEA established a special series of safety documents devoted to radioactive waste management. These documents will be elaborated within the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme [1,2] which covers all aspects of radioactive waste management. The RADWASS programme develops a series of international consensus documents on all parts of the safe management of radioactive waste, including disposal. The purpose of the RADWASS programme is to (i) document existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe radioactive waste management, (ii) create a mechanism to establish consensus where it does not exist and (iii) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to complement national standards and criteria. This paper describes the RADWASS programme, and covers the structure, implementation plans and status of documents under preparation

  7. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  8. Risk communication strategies : achieving a multidisciplinary consensus; La communication des risques : un consensus multidisciplinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, B.; Cloutier, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Genie Industriel; Sabourin, J.P. [Ville de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Risk management related to floods and dam failures requires input from a variety of stakeholders from both the private and the public sector. This paper provided details of a risk management communication strategy based on a consequence approach that established work sequence modes to achieve a multidisciplinary consensus of opinion. The communication of risk was considered as a bilateral exchange of information between concerned parties, who were divided into 2 spheres: (1) a public sphere which included interest groups, government agencies, individuals and the media; and (2) a technical sphere comprised of industry members, scientific experts, and government agencies. Divided between the 2 spheres, government agencies play a distinct role in both the communication and understanding of risk. In Quebec, municipal agencies are required to identify risk and develop plans that ensure public safety. Risk management plans developed by industry members are a valuable source of information for municipal authorities, who can identify vulnerabilities in their own risk communication strategies. In addition, members of the public play an important role in eliciting further risk communications to improve areas of vulnerability. Interest groups can demand further analyses from impartial sources on sensitive issues. Conflicting results offer a plurality of opinions that must be considered to obtain a consensus in risk assessment, which is the ultimate aim of all risk analyses and communications strategies. It was concluded that risk communication strategies benefit from the engagement of a variety of often conflicting views. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Genome-wide conserved consensus transcription factor binding motifs are hyper-methylated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Down Thomas A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation can regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction between DNA and proteins or protein complexes. Conserved consensus motifs exist across the human genome ("predicted transcription factor binding sites": "predicted TFBS" but the large majority of these are proven by chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq not to be biological transcription factor binding sites ("empirical TFBS". We hypothesize that DNA methylation at conserved consensus motifs prevents promiscuous or disorderly transcription factor binding. Results Using genome-wide methylation maps of the human heart and sperm, we found that all conserved consensus motifs as well as the subset of those that reside outside CpG islands have an aggregate profile of hyper-methylation. In contrast, empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs have a profile of hypo-methylation. 40% of empirical TFBS with conserved consensus motifs resided in CpG islands whereas only 7% of all conserved consensus motifs were in CpG islands. Finally we further identified a minority subset of TF whose profiles are either hypo-methylated or neutral at their respective conserved consensus motifs implicating that these TF may be responsible for establishing or maintaining an un-methylated DNA state, or whose binding is not regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions Our analysis supports the hypothesis that at least for a subset of TF, empirical binding to conserved consensus motifs genome-wide may be controlled by DNA methylation.

  10. Validation of consensus panel diagnosis in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Matthew J; Foster, Norman L; Heidebrink, Judith L; Higdon, Roger; Aizenstein, Howard J; Arnold, Steven E; Barbas, Nancy R; Boeve, Bradley F; Burke, James R; Clark, Christopher M; Dekosky, Steven T; Farlow, Martin R; Jagust, William J; Kawas, Claudia H; Koeppe, Robert A; Leverenz, James B; Lipton, Anne M; Peskind, Elaine R; Turner, R Scott; Womack, Kyle B; Zamrini, Edward Y

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of dementing diseases largely depends on the subjective interpretation of patient symptoms. Consensus panels are frequently used in research to determine diagnoses when definitive pathologic findings are unavailable. Nevertheless, research on group decision making indicates that many factors can adversely affect panel performance. To determine conditions that improve consensus panel diagnosis. Comparison of neuropathologic diagnoses with individual and consensus panel diagnoses based on clinical scenarios only, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography images only, and scenarios plus images. Expert and trainee individual and consensus panel deliberations using a modified Delphi method in a pilot research study of the diagnostic utility of fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography. Forty-five patients with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease or frontotemporal dementia. Statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy, agreement, and confidence for individual raters and panelists before and after consensus deliberations. The consensus protocol using trainees and experts surpassed the accuracy of individual expert diagnoses when clinical information elicited diverse judgments. In these situations, consensus was 3.5 times more likely to produce positive rather than negative changes in the accuracy and diagnostic certainty of individual panelists. A rule that forced group consensus was at least as accurate as majority and unanimity rules. Using a modified Delphi protocol to arrive at a consensus diagnosis is a reasonable substitute for pathologic information. This protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and certainty when panelist judgments differ and is easily adapted to other research and clinical settings while avoiding the potential pitfalls of group decision making.

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  12. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  13. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  14. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  15. In vitro site selection of a consensus binding site for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 homolog midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Najand

    Full Text Available We employed in vitro site selection to identify a consensus binding sequence for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 T-box transcription factor homolog Midline. We purified a bacterially expressed T-box DNA binding domain of Midline, and used it in four rounds of precipitation and polymerase-chain-reaction based amplification. We cloned and sequenced 54 random oligonucleotides selected by Midline. Electromobility shift-assays confirmed that 27 of these could bind the Midline T-box. Sequence alignment of these 27 clones suggests that Midline binds as a monomer to a consensus sequence that contains an AGGTGT core. Thus, the Midline consensus binding site we define in this study is similar to that defined for vertebrate Tbx20, but differs from a previously reported Midline binding sequence derived through site selection.

  16. Delay-Induced Consensus and Quasi-Consensus in Multi-Agent Dynamical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Ren, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus and quasi-consensus in multi-agent dynamical systems. A linear consensus protocol in the second-order dynamics is designed where both the current and delayed position information is utilized. Time delay, in a common perspective, can induce periodic oscillations or even

  17. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  18. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  19. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing enterprise IP SoP was adapted to ARM through literature analysis and produced a draft ARM SoP. The draft ARM SoP was applied in a rote fashion to a small sample of government-operated archives to identify likely areas of consensus and lack of consensus surrounding the various elements of the SoP.

  20. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  1. Automated consensus contour building for prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Inter-observer variability is the lack of agreement among clinicians in contouring a given organ or tumour in a medical image. The variability in medical image contouring is a source of uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Consensus contour of a given case, which was proposed to reduce the variability, is generated by combining the manually generated contours of several clinicians. However, having access to several clinicians (e.g., radiation oncologists) to generate a consensus contour for one patient is costly. This paper presents an algorithm that automatically generates a consensus contour for a given case using the atlases of different clinicians. The algorithm was applied to prostate MR images of 15 patients manually contoured by 5 clinicians. The automatic consensus contours were compared to manual consensus contours where a median Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 88% was achieved.

  2. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  3. [Spanish consensus on infantile haemangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselga Torres, Eulalia; Bernabéu Wittel, José; van Esso Arbolave, Diego L; Febrer Bosch, María Isabel; Carrasco Sanz, Ángel; de Lucas Laguna, Raúl; Del Pozo Losada, Jesús; Hernández Martín, Ángela; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo; López Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Redondo Bellón, Pedro; Ruíz-Canela Cáceres, Juan; Torrelo Fernández, Antonio; Vera Casaño, Ángel; Vicente Villa, María Asunción

    2016-11-01

    Infantile haemangiomas are benign tumours produced by the proliferation of endothelial cells of blood vessels, with a high incidence in children under the age of one year (4-10%). It is estimated that 12% of them require treatment. This treatment must be administered according to clinical practice guidelines, expert experience, patient characteristics and parent preferences. The consensus process was performed by using scientific evidence on the diagnosis and treatment of infantile haemangiomas, culled from a systematic review of the literature, together with specialist expert opinions. The recommendations issued were validated by the specialists, who also provided their level of agreement. This document contains recommendations on the classification, associations, complications, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with infantile haemangioma. It also includes action algorithms, and addresses multidisciplinary management and referral criteria between the different specialities involved in the clinical management of this type of patient. The recommendations and the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms of infantile haemangiomas contained in this document are a useful tool for the proper management of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Ferrucci, R; Habas, C; Keulen, S; Kirkby, K C; Leggio, M; Mariën, P; Molinari, M; Moulton, E; Orsi, L; Van Overwalle, F; Papadelis, C; Priori, A; Sacchetti, B; Schutter, D J; Styliadis, C; Verhoeven, J

    2017-04-01

    Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.

  5. Improving consensus contact prediction via server correlation reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Bu, Dongbo; Xu, Jinbo; Li, Ming

    2009-05-06

    Protein inter-residue contacts play a crucial role in the determination and prediction of protein structures. Previous studies on contact prediction indicate that although template-based consensus methods outperform sequence-based methods on targets with typical templates, such consensus methods perform poorly on new fold targets. However, we find out that even for new fold targets, the models generated by threading programs can contain many true contacts. The challenge is how to identify them. In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model for consensus contact prediction. In contrast to the simple majority voting method assuming that all the individual servers are equally important and independent, the newly developed method evaluates their correlation by using maximum likelihood estimation and extracts independent latent servers from them by using principal component analysis. An integer linear programming method is then applied to assign a weight to each latent server to maximize the difference between true contacts and false ones. The proposed method is tested on the CASP7 data set. If the top L/5 predicted contacts are evaluated where L is the protein size, the average accuracy is 73%, which is much higher than that of any previously reported study. Moreover, if only the 15 new fold CASP7 targets are considered, our method achieves an average accuracy of 37%, which is much better than that of the majority voting method, SVM-LOMETS, SVM-SEQ, and SAM-T06. These methods demonstrate an average accuracy of 13.0%, 10.8%, 25.8% and 21.2%, respectively. Reducing server correlation and optimally combining independent latent servers show a significant improvement over the traditional consensus methods. This approach can hopefully provide a powerful tool for protein structure refinement and prediction use.

  6. Improving consensus contact prediction via server correlation reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jinbo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein inter-residue contacts play a crucial role in the determination and prediction of protein structures. Previous studies on contact prediction indicate that although template-based consensus methods outperform sequence-based methods on targets with typical templates, such consensus methods perform poorly on new fold targets. However, we find out that even for new fold targets, the models generated by threading programs can contain many true contacts. The challenge is how to identify them. Results In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model for consensus contact prediction. In contrast to the simple majority voting method assuming that all the individual servers are equally important and independent, the newly developed method evaluates their correlation by using maximum likelihood estimation and extracts independent latent servers from them by using principal component analysis. An integer linear programming method is then applied to assign a weight to each latent server to maximize the difference between true contacts and false ones. The proposed method is tested on the CASP7 data set. If the top L/5 predicted contacts are evaluated where L is the protein size, the average accuracy is 73%, which is much higher than that of any previously reported study. Moreover, if only the 15 new fold CASP7 targets are considered, our method achieves an average accuracy of 37%, which is much better than that of the majority voting method, SVM-LOMETS, SVM-SEQ, and SAM-T06. These methods demonstrate an average accuracy of 13.0%, 10.8%, 25.8% and 21.2%, respectively. Conclusion Reducing server correlation and optimally combining independent latent servers show a significant improvement over the traditional consensus methods. This approach can hopefully provide a powerful tool for protein structure refinement and prediction use.

  7. Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M

    2011-01-01

    Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...

  8. A high density barley microsatellite consensus map with 775 SSR loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varshney, R.K.; Marcel, T.C.; Ramsay, L.; Russell, J.; Roder, M.S.; Stein, N.; Waugh, R.; Langridge, P.; Niks, R.E.; Graner, A.

    2007-01-01

    A microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) consensus map of barley was constructed by joining six independent genetic maps based on the mapping populations 'Igri x Franka', 'Steptoe x Morex', 'OWBRec x OWBDom', 'Lina x Canada Park', 'L94 x Vada' and 'SusPtrit x Vada'. Segregation data for

  9. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  10. Prediction of antigenic epitopes on protein surfaces by consensus scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of antigenic epitopes on protein surfaces is important for vaccine design. Most existing epitope prediction methods focus on protein sequences to predict continuous epitopes linear in sequence. Only a few structure-based epitope prediction algorithms are available and they have not yet shown satisfying performance. Results We present a new antigen Epitope Prediction method, which uses ConsEnsus Scoring (EPCES from six different scoring functions - residue epitope propensity, conservation score, side-chain energy score, contact number, surface planarity score, and secondary structure composition. Applied to unbounded antigen structures from an independent test set, EPCES was able to predict antigenic eptitopes with 47.8% sensitivity, 69.5% specificity and an AUC value of 0.632. The performance of the method is statistically similar to other published methods. The AUC value of EPCES is slightly higher compared to the best results of existing algorithms by about 0.034. Conclusion Our work shows consensus scoring of multiple features has a better performance than any single term. The successful prediction is also due to the new score of residue epitope propensity based on atomic solvent accessibility.

  11. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  12. OGC Consensus: How Successful Standards Are Made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Reed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the history, background, and current status of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards development consensus process. The roots of the formation of the OGC lie in the early 1990s when a very strong market requirement for exchanging GIS data content was clearly stated. At that time, each GIS vendor had their own formats for publishing and/or exchanging their GIS data. There was no mechanism or organization that provided a forum for the GIS vendors and GIS data users to collaborate and agree on how to share GIS data. That requirement, along with the vision of a few individuals, led to the formation of the OGC. This paper describes the early development of the consensus process in the OGC, how this process has evolved over time, why consensus is so important for defining open standards that are implemented in the marketplace, and the future of the OGC consensus process.

  13. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Complex networks; overlapping community; consensus clustering. PACS Nos 89.75 ... networks, a person may be in several social groups like family, friends ..... the social interactions between individuals in a karate club in an.

  14. The emergence of consensus: a primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples. It focuses on those situations in which consensus emerges `spontaneously' in the absence of centralized institutions and covers topics that include the macroscopic consequences of the different microscopic rules of behavioural contagion, the role of social networks and the mechanisms that prevent the formation of a consensus or alter it after it has emerged. Special attention is devoted to the recent wave of experiments on the emergence of consensus in social systems.

  15. Statistical Inference for Cultural Consensus Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Social Network Conference XXXII , Redondo Beach, California, March 2012. Agrawal, K. (Presenter), and Batchelder, W. H. Cultural Consensus Theory...Aggregating Complete Signed Graphs Under a Balance Constraint -- Part 2. International Sunbelt Social Network Conference XXXII , Redondo Beach

  16. Genome Sequence of a Novel Archaeal Rudivirus Recovered from a Mexican Hot Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, L; Peng, X; Garrett, R

    2013-01-01

    We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico.......We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico....

  17. Predicting Consensus Structures for RNA Alignments Via Pseudo-Energy Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junilda Spirollari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic processes with free energy parameters are often used in algorithms that solve the free energy minimization problem to predict secondary structures of single RNA sequences. While results from these algorithms are promising, an observation is that single sequence-based methods have moderate accuracy and more information is needed to improve on RNA secondary structure prediction, such as covariance scores obtained from multiple sequence alignments. We present in this paper a new approach to predicting the consensus secondary structure of a set of aligned RNA sequences via pseudo-energy minimization. Our tool, called RSpredict, takes into account sequence covariation and employs effective heuristics for accuracy improvement. RSpredict accepts, as input data, a multiple sequence alignment in FASTA or ClustalW format and outputs the consensus secondary structure of the input sequences in both the Vienna style Dot Bracket format and the Connectivity Table format. Our method was compared with some widely used tools including KNetFold, Pfold and RNAalifold. A comprehensive test on different datasets including Rfam sequence alignments and a multiple sequence alignment obtained from our study on the Drosophila X chromosome reveals that RSpredict is competitive with the existing tools on the tested datasets. RSpredict is freely available online as a web server and also as a jar file for download at http:// datalab.njit.edu/biology/RSpredict.

  18. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  19. Judicial Deference Allows European Consensus to Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dothan, Shai

    2018-01-01

    jurisdiction. But the ECHR sometimes defers to countries, even if their policies fall short of the standard accepted by most of the countries in Europe. This deference is accomplished by using the so-called "margin of appreciation" doctrine. Naturally, emerging consensus and margin of appreciation are often......, the paper demonstrates that a correct application of the margin of appreciation doctrine actually helps emerging consensus reach optimal results, by giving countries an incentive to make their policies independently....

  20. Pragmatism and Political Pluralism - Consensus and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2015-07-01

    In our day the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has in a way revived these Peircean insights, putting forward an influential theory to the effect that consensus indeed plays a key role in human praxis, so that the primary task of philosophy is to foster it by eliminating the disagreement which we constantly have to face in the course of our daily life. In his “communicative theory of consensus,” furthermore, he claims that human communication rests on an implicit commitment to a sort of “ideal speech situation” which is the normative foundation of agreement in linguistic matters. Consequently, the quest for consensus is a constitutive feature of our nature of (rational human beings: rationality and consensus are tied together. A very strong consequence derives from Habermas’ premises: were we to abandon the search for consensus we would lose rationality, too, and this makes us understand that he views the pursuit of consensus as a regulative principle (rather than as a merely practical objective. Rescher opposes both Peirce’s eschatological view and Habermas’ regulative and idealized one.

  1. R2R - software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. Results We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. Conclusions R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file. PMID:21205310

  2. R2R--software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Zasha; Breaker, Ronald R

    2011-01-04

    With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file.

  3. R2R - software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinberg Zasha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. Results We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. Conclusions R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file.

  4. Sampled-Data Consensus of Linear Multi-agent Systems With Packet Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang; Huang, Tingwen; Kurths, Jurgen

    In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function approach and the decomposition method, the design problem of a distributed controller is solved in terms of convex optimization. The interplay among the allowable bound of the sampling interval, the probability of random packet losses, and the rate of deterministic packet losses are explicitly derived to characterize consensus conditions. The obtained criteria are closely related to the maximum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix versus the second minimum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix, which reveals the intrinsic effect of communication topologies on consensus performance. Finally, simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function

  5. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  6. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  7. 43 CFR 46.110 - Incorporating consensus-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporating consensus-based management... § 46.110 Incorporating consensus-based management. (a) Consensus-based management incorporates direct... carry out those plans and activities. For the purposes of this Part, consensus-based management involves...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients: recommendations from the 2012 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbaro, Brunella [Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luis [Coimbra University Hospitals, Coimbra (Portugal); Fenlon, Helen M. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Gollub, Marc J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS FT, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hoeffel, Christine [Reims University Hospital, Reims (France); Kim, Seung Ho [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza - University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Maier, Andrea [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Rafaelsen, Soeren R. [Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Torkzad, Michael R. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart [Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) was conducted following the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) chairs facilitated the meeting. Two hundred and thirty-six items were scored by participants for appropriateness and classified subsequently as appropriate or inappropriate (defined by {>=} 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by < 80 % consensus). Items not reaching 80 % consensus were noted. Consensus was reached for 88 % of items: recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences, angulation, criteria for MRI assessment and MRI reporting were constructed from these. These expert consensus recommendations can be used as clinical guidelines for primary staging and restaging of rectal cancer using MRI. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  10. Comparison of two Next Generation sequencing platforms for full genome sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Höper, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    to the consensus sequence. Additionally, we got an average sequence depth for the genome of 4000 for the Iontorrent PGM and 400 for the FLX platform making the mapping suitable for single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection. The analysis revealed a single non-silent SNV A10665G leading to the amino acid change D......Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is becoming more adopted into viral research and will be the preferred technology in the years to come. We have recently sequenced several strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) by NGS on both Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) and Iontorrent PGM platforms...

  11. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  13. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  14. CoVaCS: a consensus variant calling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Gioiosa, Silvia; Chillemi, Giovanni; D'Antonio, Mattia; Flati, Tiziano; Picardi, Ernesto; Zambelli, Federico; Horner, David Stephen; Pesole, Graziano; Castrignanò, Tiziana

    2018-02-05

    The advent and ongoing development of next generation sequencing technologies (NGS) has led to a rapid increase in the rate of human genome re-sequencing data, paving the way for personalized genomics and precision medicine. The body of genome resequencing data is progressively increasing underlining the need for accurate and time-effective bioinformatics systems for genotyping - a crucial prerequisite for identification of candidate causal mutations in diagnostic screens. Here we present CoVaCS, a fully automated, highly accurate system with a web based graphical interface for genotyping and variant annotation. Extensive tests on a gold standard benchmark data-set -the NA12878 Illumina platinum genome- confirm that call-sets based on our consensus strategy are completely in line with those attained by similar command line based approaches, and far more accurate than call-sets from any individual tool. Importantly our system exhibits better sensitivity and higher specificity than equivalent commercial software. CoVaCS offers optimized pipelines integrating state of the art tools for variant calling and annotation for whole genome sequencing (WGS), whole-exome sequencing (WES) and target-gene sequencing (TGS) data. The system is currently hosted at Cineca, and offers the speed of a HPC computing facility, a crucial consideration when large numbers of samples must be analysed. Importantly, all the analyses are performed automatically allowing high reproducibility of the results. As such, we believe that CoVaCS can be a valuable tool for the analysis of human genome resequencing studies. CoVaCS is available at: https://bioinformatics.cineca.it/covacs .

  15. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  16. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  17. Consensus and Cognitivism in Habermas's Discourse | Moellendorf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habermas asserts that his discourse ethics rests on two main commitments: 1) Moral judgements have cognitive content analogous to truth value; and 2) moral justification requires real- life discourse. Habermas elaborates on the second claim by making actual consensus a necessary condition of normative validity. I argue ...

  18. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... the purpose of this consensus map (containing QTL) is to provide a tool for scientists to accurately locate molecular markers to ... community with powerful tools for comparative genomics. (Gai et al., 2000; Mekhdov et al., ...... and controlled by almost the same loci (Marquez et al.,. 2000). In the present study ...

  19. Consensus over peri-implantaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, A J

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, in a workshop of the European Federation on Periodontology, a consensus was reached concerning oral peri-implant infections on the basis of the state of the art in the relevant sciences. Important conclusions were that peri-implant mucositis occurs in 80% of subjects with oral implants, and

  20. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  1. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roila, Fausto; Warr, David; Hesketh, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: An update of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute and delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy published after the last MASCC/ESMO antiemetic consensus conference in 2009 has been carried out. METHODS: A systematic literature search using PubMed from Janua...

  2. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  3. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  4. A consensus view on liquidity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, V.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    Liquidity risk - which was at the heart of the September 2008 financial meltdown and explains regulatory concerns about a Greek default today - remains an open issue in financial regulatory reform. This column presents a consensus view of several leading academics on what more needs to be done to

  5. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  6. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  7. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  8. Building consensus in developing radioactive waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, R.; Philpott, R.; Smith, S.L.; Gibson, J.

    1991-01-01

    To successfully develop radioactive waste management systems, national authorities must work to establish consensus on numerous complex issues among many affected and interested parties. This paper explores the meaning of consensus in waste management, with special attention to the different arenas in which consensus is established and how DOE can respond if consensus is withheld. Highlights of other national waste management programs are introduced to provide a broader perspective on consensus. It is suggested that the US waste management program has reached a point where Congress needs to act to reaffirm consensus on the direction of the US program

  9. Identification of Meconopsis species by a DNA barcode sequence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding is a novel technology that uses a standard DNA sequence to facilitate species identification. Species identification is necessary for the authentication of traditional plant based medicines. Although a consensus has not been agreed regarding which DNA sequences can be used as ...

  10. The Consensus of Strategic Consensus: A Study of the State of the Art about the Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the strategic consensus, emphasizing the approaches and the nature of the research methods used, the results obtained and the future agenda for this theme studies. Analyzing beyond the last four decades of publications, it was understood that relating the strategic consensus only with the performance and strategic levels can be seen as something limited, suggesting the need to bring to the researching field new aspects and backgrounds as innovation, the methods for generating new ideas, the occurrence beyond the Top Management Team level (TMT, among others. Moreover, concludes that the predominant approach the strategic consensus is a process and the methodology used is based on quantitative techniques. As a suggestion for future studies, this study indicates the investigation of situations in which the strategic consensus is not positive.

  11. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J; Marshall, Randall D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Shalev, Arieh Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To provide an update to the "Consensus Statement on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety" that was published in a supplement to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2000) by presenting important developments in the field, the latest recommendations for patient care, and suggestions for future research. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty who were invited by the chair were Randall D. Marshall, Charles B. Nemeroff, Arieh Y. Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review articles in this supplement and the related scientific literature. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed topics to be represented by the 7 review articles in this supplement, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all faculty. There have been advancements in the science and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Attention to this disorder has increased with recent world events; however, continued efforts are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  12. Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Bobes, J; Beidel, D C; Ono, Y; Westenberg, H G

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this consensus statement is to provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Julio Bobes, Deborah C. Beidel, Yukata Ono, and Herman G. M. Westenberg. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review papers published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these papers. The group met over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the importance of recognizing social anxiety disorder and provides recommendations on how it may be distinguished from other anxiety disorders. It proposes definitions for response and remission and considers appropriate management strategies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy, and effective treatment should be continued for at least 12 months. Long-term treatment is indicated if symptoms are unresolved, the patient has a comorbid condition or a history of relapse, or there was an early onset of the disorder.

  13. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwendicke, F.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.F.; Innes, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental

  14. Consensus Through Conversation How to Achieve High-Commitment Decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dressler, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Facilitation expert Larry Dressler's Consensus Through Conversation is a guide for the effective facilitation and practice of one of business's most popular - but most widely misunderstood - decision-making models: consensus.

  15. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... previously accepted consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport... Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  16. [Experts consensus of dental esthetic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    Clinical photography in esthetic dentistry is an essential skill in clinical practice. It is widely applied clinically in multiple fields related to esthetic dentistry. Society of Esthetic Dentistry of Chinese Stomatological Association established a consensus for clinical photography and standards for images in esthetic dentistry in order to standardize domestic dental practitioners' procedure, and meet the demands of diagnosis and design in modern esthetic dentistry. It was also developed to facilitate domestic and international academic communication. Sixteen commonly used images in practice, which are of apparent importance in guiding esthetic analysis, design and implementation, are proposed in the standards. This consensus states the clinical significance of these images and the standard protocol of acquiring them.

  17. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. ESMO consensus conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladetto, M; Buske, C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommen......The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop...... to their potentially high prognostic value, at least in some lymphoma entities, implementation of interim PET, COO and MRD was highly recommended in the context of clinical trials. All expert panel members approved this final article....

  19. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the reporting of exercise programs in all evaluative study designs and contains 7 categories: materials, provider, delivery, location, dosage, tailoring, and compliance. The CERT will encourage transparency, improve trial interpretation and replication, and facilitate implementation of effective exercise......BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical...... trials: the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the EQUATOR Network's methodological framework, 137 exercise experts were invited to participate in a Delphi consensus study. A list of 41 items was identified from a meta-epidemiologic study of 73 systematic reviews...

  20. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  1. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  2. IAEA Director General welcomes NPT consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that the Director General of the IAEA welcomed the adoption with consensus by the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of the final document on the review and operation of the Treaty, and that he was pleased by the vote of confidence shown in the IAEA and its role in the implementation of the Treaty

  3. Consensus in the Age of Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shehar; Sonnino, Alberto; Al-Bassam, Mustafa; Azouvi, Sarah; McCorry, Patrick; Meiklejohn, Sarah; Danezis, George

    2017-01-01

    The blockchain initially gained traction in 2008 as the technology underlying bitcoin, but now has been employed in a diverse range of applications and created a global market worth over $150B as of 2017. What distinguishes blockchains from traditional distributed databases is the ability to operate in a decentralized setting without relying on a trusted third party. As such their core technical component is consensus: how to reach agreement among a group of nodes. This has been extensively s...

  4. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  6. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert...... lesions in gout, demonstrated good reliability overall. It constitutes an essential step in developing a core outcome measurement that permits a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability between multicentre studies....

  7. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Valdovinos; E. Montijo; A.T. Abreu; S. Heller; A. González-Garay; D. Bacarreza; M. Bielsa-Fernández; M.C. Bojórquez-Ramos; F. Bosques-Padilla; A.I. Burguete-García; R. Carmona-Sánchez; A. Consuelo-Sánchez; E. Coss-Adame; J.A. Chávez-Barrera; M. de Ariño

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. Aim: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendati...

  8. Adherence to MRI protocol consensus guidelines in multiple sclerosis: an Australian multi-centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curley, Michael; Josey, Lawrence; Lucas, Robyn; Dear, Keith; Taylor, Bruce V.; Coulthard, Alan; Ausimmune Investigator Group

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus guidelines for MRI in MS exist to define correct sequence type and imaging technique, but it is not clear to what extent they are followed. This study reviewed MRI studies performed on Australian individuals presenting with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD) for adherence to published guidelines and discussed practical implementation of MS guidelines in light of recent updates. The Ausimmune study was a prospective case control study of Australian participants presenting with FCD from 2003 to 2006. Baseline cranial and spinal cord MRI studies of 226 case participants from four separate Australian regions were reviewed. MRI sequences were classified according to anatomical location, slice plane, tissue weighting and use of gadolinium-containing contrast media. Results were compared with the 2003 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol for the diagnosis of MS. The composition of core cranial MRI sequences performed varied across the 226 scans. Of the studies, 91% included sagittal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cranial axial T2-weighted, axial FLAIR and axial proton density-weighted sequences were performed in 88%, 60% and 16% (respectively) of scans. Only 25% of the studies included a T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence. Concordance with the guidelines in all sequences was very low (2). Only a small number of MRI investigations performed included all of the sequences stipulated by consensus guidelines. This is likely due to poor awareness in the imaging community of the guidelines and the rationale behind certain sequences. Radiologists with a sub

  9. Detection and typing of human papillomavirus in archival cervical cancer specimens by DNA amplification with consensus primers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RESNICK, R. M.; Cornelissen, M. T.; WRIGHT, D. K.; EICHINGER, G. H.; FOX, H. S.; ter Schegget, J.; MANOS, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification system using two distinct consensus oligonucleotide primer sets for the improved detection and typing of a broad spectrum of human genital papillomavirus (HPV) sequences, including those of novel viruses. The system incorporates one primer

  10. Applying consensus standards to cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatham, J.; Abbott, D.G.; Warrant, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is procuring cask systems for transporting commercial spent nuclear fuel and is encouraging development of innovative cask designs and materials to improve system efficiency. New designs and innovative materials require that consensus standards be established so that cask designers and regulators have criteria for determining acceptability. Recent DOE experience in certifying three spent fuel shipping casks, NUPAC-125B, TN-BRP, and TN-REG, is discussed. Certification of the NUPAC-125B was expedited because it was made of conventional American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) materials and complied with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides. The TN-BRP and TN-REG cask designs are still being reviewed because baskets included in the casks are made of borated stainless steel, which has no ASTM Specification or ASME Code approval. The process of developing and approving consensus standards is discussed, including the role of ANSI and ANSI N14. Specific procedures for ASTM and ASME are described. A draft specification or standard must be prepared and then approved by the appropriate body. For new material applications to the ASME Code, an existing ASTM Specification is needed. These processes may require several years. The status of activities currently in progress to develop consensus standards for spent fuel casks is discussed, including (1) ASME NUPAC, and (2) ASTM Specifications for ductile cast iron and borated stainless steel

  11. ESMO Consensus Conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buske, C; Hutchings, M; Ladetto, M

    2018-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommen......The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop...... of the three key areas identified. This manuscript presents the consensus recommendations regarding the clinical management of elderly patients diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Four clinically-relevant topics identified by the panel were: 1) how to define patient fitness, 2) assessing quality of life, 3......) diagnostic work-up and 4) clinical management of elderly patients with lymphoma. Each of these key topics is addressed in the context of five different lymphoma entities, namely: CLL, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Results, including...

  12. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  13. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Baldwin, D S; den Boer, J A; Kasper, S; Shear, M K

    1998-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four faculty invited by the chairman also participated: David S. Baldwin, Johan A. den Boer, Siegfried Kasper, and M. Katherine Shear. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review papers that are published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to these issues. There were group meetings held during a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper and the chairman and discussant (Dr. Kasper) identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these key issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chairman and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement provides standard definitions for response and remission and identifies appropriate strategy for the management of panic disorder in a primary care setting. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors are recommended as drugs of first choice with a treatment period of 12 to 24 months. Pharmacotherapy should be discontinued slowly over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  14. Automated degenerate PCR primer design for high-throughput sequencing improves efficiency of viral sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kelvin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a high-throughput environment, to PCR amplify and sequence a large set of viral isolates from populations that are potentially heterogeneous and continuously evolving, the use of degenerate PCR primers is an important strategy. Degenerate primers allow for the PCR amplification of a wider range of viral isolates with only one set of pre-mixed primers, thus increasing amplification success rates and minimizing the necessity for genome finishing activities. To successfully select a large set of degenerate PCR primers necessary to tile across an entire viral genome and maximize their success, this process is best performed computationally. Results We have developed a fully automated degenerate PCR primer design system that plays a key role in the J. Craig Venter Institute’s (JCVI high-throughput viral sequencing pipeline. A consensus viral genome, or a set of consensus segment sequences in the case of a segmented virus, is specified using IUPAC ambiguity codes in the consensus template sequence to represent the allelic diversity of the target population. PCR primer pairs are then selected computationally to produce a minimal amplicon set capable of tiling across the full length of the specified target region. As part of the tiling process, primer pairs are computationally screened to meet the criteria for successful PCR with one of two described amplification protocols. The actual sequencing success rates for designed primers for measles virus, mumps virus, human parainfluenza virus 1 and 3, human respiratory syncytial virus A and B and human metapneumovirus are described, where >90% of designed primer pairs were able to consistently successfully amplify >75% of the isolates. Conclusions Augmenting our previously developed and published JCVI Primer Design Pipeline, we achieved similarly high sequencing success rates with only minor software modifications. The recommended methodology for the construction of the consensus

  15. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  16. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  17. Constructive conflict and staff consensus in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Wexler, Harry K; Chaple, Michael; Cleland, Charles M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the relationship between consensus among both staff and clients with client engagement in treatment and between client consensus and 1-year treatment outcomes. The present article explores the correlates of staff consensus, defined as the level of agreement among staff as to the importance of treatment activities in their program, using a national sample of 80 residential substance abuse treatment programs. Constructive conflict resolution had the largest effect on consensus. Low client-to-staff ratios, staff education, and staff experience in substance abuse treatment were also significantly related to consensus. Frequency of training, an expected correlate of consensus, was negatively associated with consensus, whereas frequency of supervision was not a significant correlate. The implications of the findings for future research and program improvement are discussed.

  18. Integrated consensus genetic and physical maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Ragupathy, Raja; Miranda, Evelyn; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Ward, Kerry; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Banik, Mitali

    2012-12-01

    Three linkage maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were constructed from populations CDC Bethune/Macbeth, E1747/Viking and SP2047/UGG5-5 containing between 385 and 469 mapped markers each. The first consensus map of flax was constructed incorporating 770 markers based on 371 shared markers including 114 that were shared by all three populations and 257 shared between any two populations. The 15 linkage group map corresponds to the haploid number of chromosomes of this species. The marker order of the consensus map was largely collinear in all three individual maps but a few local inversions and marker rearrangements spanning short intervals were observed. Segregation distortion was present in all linkage groups which contained 1-52 markers displaying non-Mendelian segregation. The total length of the consensus genetic map is 1,551 cM with a mean marker density of 2.0 cM. A total of 670 markers were anchored to 204 of the 416 fingerprinted contigs of the physical map corresponding to ~274 Mb or 74 % of the estimated flax genome size of 370 Mb. This high resolution consensus map will be a resource for comparative genomics, genome organization, evolution studies and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence.

  19. New ICRP recommendations 2005: without full consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ionising radiation is viewed as one of the most studied of all known carcinogens. Over the last 50 years Recommendations of International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been changed regularly every 10 years. At the beginning these changes were significant, sometimes even radical, according to quick acquiring of new scientific evidence on physical, biological and health effects of radiation. In order to handle each new situation evolution of the radiation protection system has been extended and new portions have been added (the ubiquitous exposure of public to radon gas and its progeny, and the need to develop an appropriate response to emergency situations, increasing social desire to participate in decision making processes, concern for the protection of non-human species and environment), that resulted in a system that is increasingly complicated. Over the last few years very broad discussions of major radiation protection concepts have been encouraged by the ICRP in order to achieve consensus on a more operational and coherent system of radiation protection elaborated in a transparent fashion, and presented in readily understandable terms. This process for the first time involves a broad spectrum of stake holders in these discussions. It is further assumed that these debates will eventually result in consensus on the basis for the next round of ICRP general recommendations, probably in the 2005. While now it is certain that the consensus is not yet reached within the international community and the discussion of these issues will continue for some time the new recommendations should be seen as a consolidation of recommendations from 1990 to give a single unified set that can be simply and coherently expressed. The paper presents essential issues of the outcome of the Commission discussions and improvement of the current system of radiation protection.(author)

  20. II Brazilian consensus statement on endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf-Filho, Fauze; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Carbonari, Augusto; Maciente, Bruno Antônio; Salomão, Bruno Chaves; Medrado, Bruno Frederico; Dotti, Carlos Marcelo; Lopes, César Vivian; Braga, Cláudia Utsch; M Dutra, Daniel Alencar; Retes, Felipe; Nakao, Frank; de Sousa, Giovana Biasia; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Ardengh, Jose Celso; Dos Santos, Juliana Bonfim; Sampaio, Luciana Moura; Okawa, Luciano; Rossini, Lucio; de Brito Cardoso, Manoel Carlos; Ribeiro Camunha, Marco Antonio; Clarêncio, Marcos; Lera Dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo; Franco, Matheus; Schneider, Nutianne Camargo; Mascarenhas, Ramiro; Roda, Rodrigo; Matuguma, Sérgio; Guaraldi, Simone; Figueiredo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    At the time of its introduction in the early 80s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was indicated for diagnostic purposes. Recently, EUS has been employed to assist or to be the main platform of complex therapeutic interventions. From a series of relevant new topics in the literature and based on the need to complement the I Brazilian consensus on EUS, twenty experienced endosonographers identified and reviewed the pertinent literature in databases. The quality of evidence, strength of recommendations, and level of consensus were graded and voted on. Consensus was reached for eight relevant topics: treatment of gastric varices, staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, biliary drainage, tissue sampling of subepithelial lesions (SELs), treatment of pancreatic fluid collections, tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions, celiac neurolysis, and evaluation of the incidental pancreatic cysts. There is a high level of evidence for staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer; biopsy of SELs as the safest method; unilateral and bilateral injection techniques are equivalent for EUS-guided celiac neurolysis, and in patients with visible ganglia, celiac ganglia neurolysis appears to lead to better results. There is a moderate level of evidence for: yield of tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions is not influenced by the needle shape, gauge, or employed aspiration technique; EUS-guided and percutaneous biliary drainage present similar clinical success and adverse event rates; plastic and metallic stents are equivalent in the EUS-guided treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst. There is a low level of evidence in the routine use of EUS-guided treatment of gastric varices.

  1. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  2. Energy consensus talks collapse over nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Germany's energy consensus talks, ongoing since March 1993, were brought to unsuccessful end on October 26. Representatives from the Social Democratic Party (SDP), led by Lower Saxony's prime minister, Gerhard Schroeder, failed to get approval from party leaders on continued development of advanced reactors with enhanced safety - notably the Siemens/Framatome-designed 1500-MWe European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plan, for which the prospective schedule envisages a construction start in 1998. Nor would the SDP leadership accept the continued operation of existing nuclear plans to the end of their design life (some 20 to 25 years)

  3. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Valdovinos

    2017-04-01

    Results and conclusions: Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy.

  4. International consensus and States non-Parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    It is significant to recognize the contribution that international law can make to the promotion of consensus for arms control. Issues surface with a constancy that demand consistent, codified responses. International law should be more powerful, especially in addressing non-members and non-complying states. Successful negotiation of a multilateral treaty is not an end but a means to establish a law enforcement system capable of promoting important global interests. Accordingly arms control should generate the development of authoritative legal doctrines and institutions that can meet the challenge

  5. PROSPECT improves cis-acting regulatory element prediction by integrating expression profile data with consensus pattern searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Wataru; Anderson, John S. J.; Landsman, David

    2001-01-01

    Consensus pattern and matrix-based searches designed to predict cis-acting transcriptional regulatory sequences have historically been subject to large numbers of false positives. We sought to decrease false positives by incorporating expression profile data into a consensus pattern-based search method. We have systematically analyzed the expression phenotypes of over 6000 yeast genes, across 121 expression profile experiments, and correlated them with the distribution of 14 known regulatory elements over sequences upstream of the genes. Our method is based on a metric we term probabilistic element assessment (PEA), which is a ranking of potential sites based on sequence similarity in the upstream regions of genes with similar expression phenotypes. For eight of the 14 known elements that we examined, our method had a much higher selectivity than a naïve consensus pattern search. Based on our analysis, we have developed a web-based tool called PROSPECT, which allows consensus pattern-based searching of gene clusters obtained from microarray data. PMID:11574681

  6. Direct chloroplast sequencing: comparison of sequencing platforms and analysis tools for whole chloroplast barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brozynska

    Full Text Available Direct sequencing of total plant DNA using next generation sequencing technologies generates a whole chloroplast genome sequence that has the potential to provide a barcode for use in plant and food identification. Advances in DNA sequencing platforms may make this an attractive approach for routine plant identification. The HiSeq (Illumina and Ion Torrent (Life Technology sequencing platforms were used to sequence total DNA from rice to identify polymorphisms in the whole chloroplast genome sequence of a wild rice plant relative to cultivated rice (cv. Nipponbare. Consensus chloroplast sequences were produced by mapping sequence reads to the reference rice chloroplast genome or by de novo assembly and mapping of the resulting contigs to the reference sequence. A total of 122 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels between the wild and cultivated rice chloroplasts were predicted by these different sequencing and analysis methods. Of these, a total of 102 polymorphisms including 90 SNPs were predicted by both platforms. Indels were more variable with different sequencing methods, with almost all discrepancies found in homopolymers. The Ion Torrent platform gave no apparent false SNP but was less reliable for indels. The methods should be suitable for routine barcoding using appropriate combinations of sequencing platform and data analysis.

  7. Methodological Quality of Consensus Guidelines in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.

  8. Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry

    2016-12-01

    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.

  9. Consensus for the brain metastases treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabadan, Alejandra; Diez, Blanca; Martinez, Ana M.; Antico, Julio; Saidon, Patricia; Christiansen, Silvia; Rojas, Galeno

    2006-01-01

    The advancement in oncology therapies has made brain metastases treatment a major factor influencing the survival time and quality of life of patients with cancer. Although there are numerous publications on the issue, there is not yet to be consensus regarding the best strategy for treatment, which is probably due to population heterogeneity in terms of functional status, type of neoplasia, control of the systemic disease, and the number and localization of the lesions in the central nervous system. Our objective is to present general recommendations based on rational analysis in order to guide the practical management of brain metastases. With this purpose, a multidisciplinary team composed by neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neuro-pathologist, radio therapist and neurologists was brought together, conducting a thorough search, in english and spanish, for publications in Pub- Med from 1980 to July 2006 (the starting period was set at the beginning of use of RM in medical practice). Review and original articles with n= or >20 were selected. Also, book chapters of renowned authors in the different consulted areas were included. The assessment of the literature, in addition to the experience of the authors allowed for the development of the 'Consensus for the brain metastases treatment'. Finally, the authors expect the present work will contribute to the multidisciplinary approach for the management of brain metastases with simple and practical recommendations, and probably stimulating future developments in this field. (author)

  10. Calcium hydroxylapatite for jawline rejuvenation: consensus recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallara, Jean-Marie; Baspeyras, Martine; Bui, Patrick; Cartier, Hugues; Charavel, Marie-Hélène; Dumas, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Age-associated volume loss is now known to play an important role in the structural changes of the aging face. In the lower face, this manifests as drooping of the corners of the mouth and jowl leading to a loss of the oval jawline of youth. Jawline reshaping by replacing volume has therefore become an indispensable component of modern facial rejuvenation. Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA; Radiesse® , Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany) is an injectable filler with a cosmetic indication for tissue augmentation. The ability of calcium hydroxylapatite to provide immediate and long-lasting volume enhancement makes it an ideal agent for restoring an oval jawline. This consensus statement has been developed to assist clinicians who would like to gain more experience in the use of volumizing agents to achieve an optimal outcome with this procedure. Using the recently developed Merz Aesthetics Scale® for jawline, the consensus provides a treatment protocol for individuals at each stage of oval loss and presents a series of before and after images to illustrate the improvements that can be achieved. Specific recommendations for calcium hydroxylapatite including type of anesthesia, injection techniques, volume for injection, use in combination with other procedures, and expected duration of corrections are provided. Techniques for minimizing and managing expected problems and potential complications are also described. Calcium hydroxylapatite is appropriate for treating patients at any stage of oval loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  12. Maastricht consensus-5: analytical review of statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the statements of Maastricht consensus-5 on H. pylori infection studying. There was shown the changes in approaches to diagnostics and treatment of H. pylori infection in previous Maastricht consensuses. H. pylori associated gastritis was considered to be an infection disease. There was also analyzed the relation between this infection and gatroduodenal pathology including functional dyspepsia, NSAID-gastropathy and others. The paper deals with up-to-date approaches to diagnostics of H. pylori infection with determination of the most optimal diagnostic method in different situations. The approaches to antihelicobacter therapy were analyzed. The special attention was paid to dependence of modern therapeutic schemes of helicobacteriosis therapy on H. pylori resistance to key antibiotics. There was confirmed the importance of H. pylori eradication for prevention of precancerous changes in the stomach. The increased interest of researchers to non-helicobacter flora in the stomach was shown. There was regarded an important role of probiotics in antihelicobacter therapy.

  13. [SECOT consensus on painful knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J; Macule, F; Bello, S; Chana, F; Forriol, F

    2013-01-01

    The opinions of 21 experts in knee surgery were evaluated in this study, using a DELPHI questionnaire method in two successive rounds, on 64 controversial scenarios that covered both the diagnosis and possible treatment of painful knee replacements. The level of consensus was significantly unanimous in 42 items and of the design in 5, with no agreement in 17 of the questions presented. light of the published scientific evidence, the surgeons who took part showed to have a notable level of information on the most effective diagnostic tests, although, it should be pointed out that there was a lack of confidence in the possibility of ruling out an infection when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein were within normal values, which have been demonstrated in the literature to have a high negative predictive value As regards the treatments to employ in the different situations, the responses of the expert panel were mainly in agreement with the data in the literature. The conclusions of this consensus may help other surgeons when they are faced with a painful knee prosthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  15. Consensus statement on posttraumatic stress disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Foa, E B; Kessler, R C; McFarlane, A C; Shalev, A Y

    2000-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate management strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Edna B. Foa, Ronald C. Kessler, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Arieh Y. Shalev. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. PTSD is often a chronic and recurring condition associated with an increased risk of developing secondary comorbid disorders, such as depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are generally the most appropriate choice of first-line medication for PTSD, and effective therapy should be continued for 12 months or longer. The most appropriate psychotherapy is exposure therapy, and it should be continued for 6 months, with follow-up therapy as needed.

  16. The Mexican consensus on chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Remes-Troche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Significant advances have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic constipation, since the publication of the 2011 guidelines on chronic constipation diagnosis and treatment in Mexico from the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Aims: To present a consensus review of the current state of knowledge about chronic constipation, providing updated information and integrating the new scientific evidence. Methods: Three general coordinators reviewed the literature published within the time frame of January 2011 and January 2017. From that information, 62 initial statements were formulated and then sent to 12 national experts for their revision. The statements were voted upon, using the Delphi system in 3 voting rounds (2 electronic and one face-to-face. The statements were classified through the GRADE system and those that reached agreement > 75% were included in the consensus. Results and conclusions: The present consensus is made up of 42 final statements that provide updated knowledge, supplementing the information that had not been included in the previous guidelines. The strength of recommendation and quality (level of evidence were established for each statement. The current definitions of chronic constipation, functional constipation, and opioid-induced constipation are given, and diagnostic strategies based on the available diagnostic methods are described. The consensus treatment recommendations were established from evidence on the roles of diet and exercise, fiber, laxatives, new drugs (such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, biofeedback therapy, and surgery. Resumen: Introducción: Desde la publicación de las guías de diagnóstico y tratamiento del estreñimiento crónico (EC en México de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología en el 2011 se han producido avances significativos en el conocimiento de la

  17. Targeted assembly of short sequence reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René L Warren

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequence (NGS production continues to increase, analysis is becoming a significant bottleneck. However, in situations where information is required only for specific sequence variants, it is not necessary to assemble or align whole genome data sets in their entirety. Rather, NGS data sets can be mined for the presence of sequence variants of interest by localized assembly, which is a faster, easier, and more accurate approach. We present TASR, a streamlined assembler that interrogates very large NGS data sets for the presence of specific variants by only considering reads within the sequence space of input target sequences provided by the user. The NGS data set is searched for reads with an exact match to all possible short words within the target sequence, and these reads are then assembled stringently to generate a consensus of the target and flanking sequence. Typically, variants of a particular locus are provided as different target sequences, and the presence of the variant in the data set being interrogated is revealed by a successful assembly outcome. However, TASR can also be used to find unknown sequences that flank a given target. We demonstrate that TASR has utility in finding or confirming genomic mutations, polymorphisms, fusions and integration events. Targeted assembly is a powerful method for interrogating large data sets for the presence of sequence variants of interest. TASR is a fast, flexible and easy to use tool for targeted assembly.

  18. Sampled-data consensus in switching networks of integrators based on edge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Tongwen

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the event-driven sampled-data consensus in switching networks of multiple integrators and studies both the bidirectional interaction and leader-following passive reaction topologies in a unified framework. In these topologies, each information link is modelled by an edge of the information graph and assigned a sequence of edge events, which activate the mutual data sampling and controller updates of the two linked agents. Two kinds of edge-event-detecting rules are proposed for the general asynchronous data-sampling case and the synchronous periodic event-detecting case. They are implemented in a distributed fashion, and their effectiveness in reducing communication costs and solving consensus problems under a jointly connected topology condition is shown by both theoretical analysis and simulation examples.

  19. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  20. On the Control of Consensus Networks: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias

    Signed networks allow the study of positive and negative interactions between agents. In this thesis, three papers are presented that address controllability of networked dynamics. First, controllability of signed consensus networks is approached from a symmetry perspective, for both linear and nonlinear consensus protocols. It is shown that the graph-theoretic property of signed networks known as structural balance renders the consensus protocol uncontrollable when coupled with a certain type of symmetry. Stabilizability and output controllability of signed linear consensus is also examined, as well as a data-driven approach to finding bipartite consensus stemming from structural balance for signed nonlinear consensus. Second, an algorithm is constructed that allows one to grow a network while preserving controllability, and some generalizations of this algorithm are presented. Submodular optimization is used to analyze a second algorithm that adds nodes to a network to maximize the network connectivity.

  1. Consensus paper: the role of the cerebellum in perceptual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Borra, Ronald J; Bower, James M; Cullen, Kathleen E; Habas, Christophe; Ivry, Richard B; Leggio, Maria; Mattingley, Jason B; Molinari, Marco; Moulton, Eric A; Paulin, Michael G; Pavlova, Marina A; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2015-04-01

    Various lines of evidence accumulated over the past 30 years indicate that the cerebellum, long recognized as essential for motor control, also has considerable influence on perceptual processes. In this paper, we bring together experts from psychology and neuroscience, with the aim of providing a succinct but comprehensive overview of key findings related to the involvement of the cerebellum in sensory perception. The contributions cover such topics as anatomical and functional connectivity, evolutionary and comparative perspectives, visual and auditory processing, biological motion perception, nociception, self-motion, timing, predictive processing, and perceptual sequencing. While no single explanation has yet emerged concerning the role of the cerebellum in perceptual processes, this consensus paper summarizes the impressive empirical evidence on this problem and highlights diversities as well as commonalities between existing hypotheses. In addition to work with healthy individuals and patients with cerebellar disorders, it is also apparent that several neurological conditions in which perceptual disturbances occur, including autism and schizophrenia, are associated with cerebellar pathology. A better understanding of the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual processes will thus likely be important for identifying and treating perceptual deficits that may at present go unnoticed and untreated. This paper provides a useful framework for further debate and empirical investigations into the influence of the cerebellum on sensory perception.

  2. Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuma; Shiroma, Akino; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Ashimine, Noriko; Ohki, Shun; Shinzato, Misuzu; Minami, Maiko; Nakanishi, Tetsuhiro; Teruya, Kuniko; Satou, Kazuhito; Hirano, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II's sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing, complex population analysis, RNA sequencing, and epigenetics characterization. With PacBio RS II, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of many species, from viruses to humans. Herein, we summarize and review some of our key genome sequencing projects, including full-length viral sequencing, complete bacterial genome and almost-complete plant genome assemblies, and long amplicon sequencing of a disease-associated gene region. We believe that PacBio RS II is not only an effective tool for use in the basic biological sciences but also in the medical/clinical setting.

  3. Consensus of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems with Arbitrarily Bounded Communication Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem of high-order heterogeneous multiagent systems with arbitrarily bounded communication delays. Through the method of nonnegative matrices, we get a sufficient consensus condition for the systems with dynamically changing topology. The results of this paper show, even when there are arbitrarily bounded communication delays in the systems, all agents can reach a consensus no matter whether there are spanning trees for the corresponding communication graphs at any time.

  4. A new fast method for inferring multiple consensus trees using k-medoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Nadia; Willems, Matthieu; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2018-04-05

    Gene trees carry important information about specific evolutionary patterns which characterize the evolution of the corresponding gene families. However, a reliable species consensus tree cannot be inferred from a multiple sequence alignment of a single gene family or from the concatenation of alignments corresponding to gene families having different evolutionary histories. These evolutionary histories can be quite different due to horizontal transfer events or to ancient gene duplications which cause the emergence of paralogs within a genome. Many methods have been proposed to infer a single consensus tree from a collection of gene trees. Still, the application of these tree merging methods can lead to the loss of specific evolutionary patterns which characterize some gene families or some groups of gene families. Thus, the problem of inferring multiple consensus trees from a given set of gene trees becomes relevant. We describe a new fast method for inferring multiple consensus trees from a given set of phylogenetic trees (i.e. additive trees or X-trees) defined on the same set of species (i.e. objects or taxa). The traditional consensus approach yields a single consensus tree. We use the popular k-medoids partitioning algorithm to divide a given set of trees into several clusters of trees. We propose novel versions of the well-known Silhouette and Caliński-Harabasz cluster validity indices that are adapted for tree clustering with k-medoids. The efficiency of the new method was assessed using both synthetic and real data, such as a well-known phylogenetic dataset consisting of 47 gene trees inferred for 14 archaeal organisms. The method described here allows inference of multiple consensus trees from a given set of gene trees. It can be used to identify groups of gene trees having similar intragroup and different intergroup evolutionary histories. The main advantage of our method is that it is much faster than the existing tree clustering approaches, while

  5. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yu-Pin [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, 63201, Taiwan (China); Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan [Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jinn-Wen [Department of Applied Mathematics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ming-Chang, E-mail: mchuang@cycu.edu.tw [Center for Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-03

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states.

  6. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yu-Pin; Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Jinn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states

  7. Cultural Consensus Theory for the ordinal data case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Batchelder, William H

    2015-03-01

    A Cultural Consensus Theory approach for ordinal data is developed, leading to a new model for ordered polytomous data. The model introduces a novel way of measuring response biases and also measures consensus item values, a consensus response scale, item difficulty, and informant knowledge. The model is extended as a finite mixture model to fit both simulated and real multicultural data, in which subgroups of informants have different sets of consensus item values. The extension is thus a form of model-based clustering for ordinal data. The hierarchical Bayesian framework is utilized for inference, and two posterior predictive checks are developed to verify the central assumptions of the model.

  8. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  9. Using Network Dynamical Influence to Drive Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; MacDonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2016-05-01

    Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks.

  10. [First Mexican Consensus of Vaccination in Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Caro-López, Elizabeth; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; García-Lara, Juan Miguel; Medina-López, Zaira; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Díaz-López, Elsa; Avila-Fematt, Flor Maria de Guadalupe; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes

    2017-03-01

    For years our efforts have been focused on vaccination during childhood. Today we know that this is not enough to ensure health in the rest of the life. Childhood is as important as any other stage and, therefore, vaccination must be permanent and differentiated, according to our age, throughout life. Introducing a life course perspective in vaccination programs, with emphasis on adult vaccination, particularly in older adults, offers us the opportunity to review the performance of health programs, actions, and services in the field of immunization, as well as strengthening health promotion actions. In this context, the first Mexican Consensus on Adult Vaccination was carried out in a joint effort of the National Institute of Geriatrics, bringing together a group of specialists who worked on three central objectives: establishing vaccination guidelines throughout the life course, with emphasis on new vaccines; defining priority groups according to their risk factors; and contributing to the effort to promote healthy aging.

  11. Consensus and new improvements of disability glare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early cataract may have normal visual acuity(VAbut complain that they have problems in driving at night, like seeing things through a veil. This phenomenon is defined as disability glare which maybe caused by growing stray light. Patients with intraocular lens following cataract surgery may complain about glare, halos and shadows in visual field, which are also resulted from dysphotopia. Disability glare is the VA loss due to disturbing luminance in visual field. In other words, it's the retinal contrast sensitivity reduction because of the straylight. This article contains the consensus and new progress of disability glare. It provides solutions according to its effect factors and offers clues for further study.

  12. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  13. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  14. Consensus classification of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Murray, Melissa; Snowden, Julie S; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Vandenberghe, Rik; Ahmed, Samrah; Bak, Thomas H; Boeve, Bradley F; Butler, Christopher; Cappa, Stefano F; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Dubois, Bruno; Felician, Olivier; Galasko, Douglas; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Hof, Patrick R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Magnin, Eloi; Mendez, Mario F; Nestor, Peter J; Onyike, Chiadi U; Pelak, Victoria S; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Primativo, Silvia; Rossor, Martin N; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Suárez González, Aida; Tang-Wai, David F; Yong, Keir X X; Carrillo, Maria; Fox, Nick C

    2017-08-01

    A classification framework for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is proposed to improve the uniformity of definition of the syndrome in a variety of research settings. Consensus statements about PCA were developed through a detailed literature review, the formation of an international multidisciplinary working party which convened on four occasions, and a Web-based quantitative survey regarding symptom frequency and the conceptualization of PCA. A three-level classification framework for PCA is described comprising both syndrome- and disease-level descriptions. Classification level 1 (PCA) defines the core clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging features and exclusion criteria of the clinico-radiological syndrome. Classification level 2 (PCA-pure, PCA-plus) establishes whether, in addition to the core PCA syndrome, the core features of any other neurodegenerative syndromes are present. Classification level 3 (PCA attributable to AD [PCA-AD], Lewy body disease [PCA-LBD], corticobasal degeneration [PCA-CBD], prion disease [PCA-prion]) provides a more formal determination of the underlying cause of the PCA syndrome, based on available pathophysiological biomarker evidence. The issue of additional syndrome-level descriptors is discussed in relation to the challenges of defining stages of syndrome severity and characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity within the PCA spectrum. There was strong agreement regarding the definition of the core clinico-radiological syndrome, meaning that the current consensus statement should be regarded as a refinement, development, and extension of previous single-center PCA criteria rather than any wholesale alteration or redescription of the syndrome. The framework and terminology may facilitate the interpretation of research data across studies, be applicable across a broad range of research scenarios (e.g., behavioral interventions, pharmacological trials), and provide a foundation for future collaborative work. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  15. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, M A; Montijo, E; Abreu, A T; Heller, S; González-Garay, A; Bacarreza, D; Bielsa-Fernández, M; Bojórquez-Ramos, M C; Bosques-Padilla, F; Burguete-García, A I; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Coss-Adame, E; Chávez-Barrera, J A; de Ariño, M; Flores-Calderón, J; Gómez-Escudero, O; González-Huezo, M S; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Larrosa-Haro, A; Morales-Arámbula, M; Murata, C; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rizo-Robles, T; Peláez-Luna, M; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Torre, A; Urquidi-Rivera, M E; Vázquez, R; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Guarner, F

    Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology. Controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to 2015 were selected, using the MESH terms: probiotics, gastrointestinal diseases, humans, adults, AND children. The Delphi method was employed. Eighteen gastroenterologists treating adult patients and 14 pediatric gastroenterologists formulated statements that were voted on until agreement>70% was reached. The level of evidence based on the GRADE system was evaluated for each statement. Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Consensus for the management of IPMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    International Consensus Guidelines for management of intraductal papillary mucious neoplasms (IPMIN) and mucious cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas defined their difference in 2006 Sendai Conference, and this paper describes about their still remaining problem in the consensus by referring related literatures. The author explains the macroscopic classification of IPMIN in types of brunch duct (BD), main duct (MD) and their mixture. Guidelines are obscure concerning which of the histology or preoperative imaging is appropriate for diagnosis of the mixed type and the author considers that the latter imaging is better as the method used has influence on indication of surgery thereafter. MD-IPMIN is easily diagnosed differentially from chronic pantreatitis, but differential diagnosis of BD-IPMIN and other cystic lesion is rather complex, particularly, for MCN tending to malignancy and macrocystic serous CN (SCN). For this, analysis of the intraductal mucious liquid obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is useful but its safety to see the grade of malignancy for extending the indication leading to resection is not established. Diagnosis of the malignancy of BD-IPMIN can be done best based on the presence of mural nodules, and other markers are of low reliability. In fact, cysts with >3 cm, when resected, are found mostly (80%) benign, indicating the necessity of a more reliable sign and of detailed classification of sub-tissue type. The purpose of progress observation involves diagnoses of changing to malignancy, of concurrent cancer and of recurrence of resected lesion, and an author's case report of this is given with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), CT and MRI images. Observatory approach, interval and period of the disease progression are yet unestablished. (T.T.)

  17. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  18. Robust point matching via vector field consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set.

  19. Characterizing leader sequences of CRISPR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhnbashi, Omer; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system in many archaea and bacteria, which provides resistance against invading genetic elements. The first phase of CRISPR-Cas immunity is called adaptation, in which small DNA fragments are excised from genetic elements and are inserted into a CRISPR...... array generally adjacent to its so called leader sequence at one end of the array. It has been shown that transcription initiation and adaptation signals of the CRISPR array are located within the leader. However, apart from promoters, there is very little knowledge of sequence or structural motifs...... sequences by focusing on the consensus repeat of the adjacent CRISPR array and weak upstream conservation signals. We applied our tool to the analysis of a comprehensive genomic database and identified several characteristic properties of leader sequences specific to archaea and bacteria, ranging from...

  20. Distributed Data-aggregation Consensus for Sensor Networks: Relaxation of Consensus Concept and Convergence Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    consensus algorithm called randomized gossip is more suitable [7, 8]. In asynchronous randomized gossip algorithms, pairs of neighboring nodes exchange...messages and perform updates in an asynchronous and unattended manner, and they also 1 The class of broadcast gossip algorithms [9, 10, 11, 12] are...dynamics [2] and asynchronous pairwise randomized gossip [7, 8], broadcast gossip algorithms do not require that nodes know the identities of their

  1. Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Borkovec, T D; Rickels, K; Stein, D J; Wittchen, H U

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate treatment strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R.T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four additional faculty members invited by the chair were Karl Rickels, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Dan J. Stein, and Thomas D. Borkovec. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. GAD is the most common anxiety disorder in primary care and is highly debilitating. Furthermore, it is frequently comorbid with depression and other anxiety disorders, which exacerbates functional impairment. Antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsedating tricyclic antidepressants) are generally the most appropriate first-line pharmacotherapy for GAD, since they are also effective against comorbid psychiatric disorders and are suitable for long-term use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred form of psychotherapy for GAD, although when GAD is comorbid with depression, pharmacotherapy is increasingly indicated.

  2. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate

  3. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent cushing's syndrome: A consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M.K. Biller; A. Grossman (Ashley Barry); P.M. Stewart; S. Melmed (Shlomo); X. Bertagna; J. Bertherat (Jerome); M. Buchfelder; A. Colao (Annamaria); A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); L.J. Hofland (Leo); A. Klibanski; A. Lacroix; J.R. Lindsay; J. Newell-Price (John); L.K. Nieman; S. Petersenn; N. Sonino; G.K. Stalla (Günter); B. Swearingen; M.L. Vance; J.A.H. Wass (John); M. Boscaro

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. Participants: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists,

  4. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biller, B.M.; Grossman, A.B.; Stewart, P.M.; Melmed, S.; Bertagna, X.; Bertherat, J.; Buchfelder, M.; Colao, A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hofland, L.J.; Klibanski, A.; Lacroix, A.; Lindsay, J.R.; Newell-Price, J.; Nieman, L.K.; Petersenn, S.; Sonino, N.; Stalla, G.K.; Swearingen, B.; Vance, M.L.; Wass, J.A.; Boscaro, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists, clinicians,

  5. Communitarian Consensus: A New Social Philosophy for Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and discuss the communitarian consensus as a new social philosophy of development and reconstruction for Africa. The notion of consensus as first canvassed by Kwasi Wiredu, is an important element in traditional African societies. It revolves around the view that African should be able to speak with one voice on issues ...

  6. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... accepted consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport...

  7. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in Africa which is ...

  8. Compilation and analysis of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, D K; McClure, W R

    1983-01-01

    The DNA sequence of 168 promoter regions (-50 to +10) for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were compiled. The complete listing was divided into two groups depending upon whether or not the promoter had been defined by genetic (promoter mutations) or biochemical (5' end determination) criteria. A consensus promoter sequence based on homologies among 112 well-defined promoters was determined that was in substantial agreement with previous compilations. In addition, we have tabulated 98 promoter ...

  9. Reconstruction of ancestral RNA sequences under multiple structural constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay-Savard, Olivier; Reinharz, Vladimir; Waldisp?hl, J?r?me

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary structures form the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) families. An accurate reconstruction of ancestral ncRNAs must use this structural signal. However, the inference of ancestors of a single ncRNA family with a single consensus structure may bias the results towards sequences with high affinity to this structure, which are far from the true ancestors. Methods In this paper, we introduce achARNement, a maximum parsimony approach that, given...

  10. Model of Decision Making through Consensus in Ranking Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Gim; Darnius, Open

    2018-01-01

    The basic problem to determine ranking consensus is a problem to combine some rankings those are decided by two or more Decision Maker (DM) into ranking consensus. DM is frequently asked to present their preferences over a group of objects in terms of ranks, for example to determine a new project, new product, a candidate in a election, and so on. The problem in ranking can be classified into two major categories; namely, cardinal and ordinal rankings. The objective of the study is to obtin the ranking consensus by appying some algorithms and methods. The algorithms and methods used in this study were partial algorithm, optimal ranking consensus, BAK (Borde-Kendal)Model. A method proposed as an alternative in ranking conssensus is a Weighted Distance Forward-Backward (WDFB) method, which gave a little difference i ranking consensus result compare to the result oethe example solved by Cook, et.al (2005).

  11. First brazilian consensus of advanced prostate cancer: recommendations for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Deeke Sasse

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Prostate cancer still represents a major cause of morbidity, and still about 20% of men with the disease are diagnosed or will progress to the advanced stage without the possibility of curative treatment. Despite the recent advances in scientific and technological knowledge and the availability of new therapies, there is still considerable heterogeneity in the therapeutic approaches for metastatic prostate cancer. Objectives This article presents a summary of the I Brazilian Consensus on Advanced Prostate Cancer, conducted by the Brazilian Society of Urology and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology. Materials and Methods Experts were selected by the medical societies involved. Forty issues regarding controversial issues in advanced disease were previously elaborated. The panel met for consensus, with a threshold established for 2/3 of the participants. Results and Conclusions The treatment of advanced prostate cancer is complex, due to the existence of a large number of therapies, with different response profiles and toxicities. The panel addressed recommendations on preferred choice of therapies, indicators that would justify their change, and indicated some strategies for better sequencing of treatment in order to maximize the potential for disease control with the available therapeutic arsenal. The lack of consensus on some topics clearly indicates the absence of strong evidence for some decisions.

  12. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Galsky, Matthew D; Konety, Badrinath R; Lamm, Donald L; Langham, David; Lee, Cheryl T; Milowsky, Matthew I; O'Donnell, Michael A; O'Donnell, Peter H; Petrylak, Daniel P; Sharma, Padmanee; Skinner, Eila C; Sonpavde, Guru; Taylor, John A; Abraham, Prasanth; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2017-08-15

    The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression. However, these reports have not penetrated the community, and many patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Additionally, several immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently been approved for treatment of metastatic disease. The approval of immune checkpoint blockade for patients with platinum-resistant or -ineligible metastatic bladder cancer has led to considerations of expanded use for both advanced and, potentially, localized disease. To address these issues and others surrounding the appropriate use of immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force of experts, including physicians, patient advocates, and nurses, to address issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical endpoints, as well as the combination and sequencing of therapies. Following the standard approach established by the Society for other cancers, a systematic literature review and analysis of data, combined with consensus voting was used to generate guidelines. Here, we provide a consensus statement for the use of immunotherapy in patients with bladder cancer, with plans to update these recommendations as the field progresses.

  13. Event-Triggered Distributed Average Consensus Over Directed Digital Networks With Limited Communication Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Huang, Tingwen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Lan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the event-triggered distributed average-consensus of discrete-time first-order multiagent systems with limited communication data rate and general directed network topology. In the framework of digital communication network, each agent has a real-valued state but can only exchange finite-bit binary symbolic data sequence with its neighborhood agents at each time step due to the digital communication channels with energy constraints. Novel event-triggered dynamic encoder and decoder for each agent are designed, based on which a distributed control algorithm is proposed. A scheme that selects the number of channel quantization level (number of bits) at each time step is developed, under which all the quantizers in the network are never saturated. The convergence rate of consensus is explicitly characterized, which is related to the scale of network, the maximum degree of nodes, the network structure, the scaling function, the quantization interval, the initial states of agents, the control gain and the event gain. It is also found that under the designed event-triggered protocol, by selecting suitable parameters, for any directed digital network containing a spanning tree, the distributed average consensus can be always achieved with an exponential convergence rate based on merely one bit information exchange between each pair of adjacent agents at each time step. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of presented protocol and the correctness of the theoretical results.

  14. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  15. The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004 is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law. The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. The latest outcome is the revised definition reprinted below. It is the result of three rounds of consultations among academics and other professionals. A description how it was arrived at can be found on pp. 39 - 98 of Alex P. Schmid (Ed.. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. The same volume also contains 260 other definitions compiled by Joseph J. Easson and Alex P. Schmid on pp. 99 -200.

  16. Consensus conference on irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Danish government is obliged to define its attitude to a proposal made by the European Communities regarding common regulations for the irradiation of food (May 1989). Denmark, in comparison to some other European countries, tends to show reserve on this issue. At the consensus conference a panel discussed related questions. The participants reached the conclusion that as yet disagreement and uncertainty about the subjects of safety, public health and food quality is so significant that they were not able to recommend that sanctions for irradiation of food should be given in Denmark. It was also agreed that problems related to control and determination of radiation content were too serious to allow this method of food preservation. The panel felt that there were many areas of research, such as long-term biological effects, that had not been investigated satisfactorily. Experiments carried out in India and China did not encourage confidence, as the people tested had recommenced eating food preserved by other methods, so that long term effects could not be measured. The specialists claim that Danish standards in relation to the food industry are very high so that alternative methods of preservation to those already used do not appear to be necessary. The only applications to the National Food Agency for authorization to irradiate food had come from producers of spices and in relation to educative acitivites. (AB)

  17. The Delphi Technique: Making Sense of Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a widely used and accepted method for gathering data from respondents within their domain of expertise. The technique is designed as a group communication process which aims to achieve a convergence of opinion on a specific real-world issue. The Delphi process has been used in various fields of study such as program planning, needs assessment, policy determination, and resource utilization to develop a full range of alternatives, explore or expose underlying assumptions, as well as correlate judgments on a topic spanning a wide range of disciplines. The Delphi technique is well suited as a method for consensus-building by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data from a panel of selected subjects. Subject selection, time frames for conducting and completing a study, the possibility of low response rates, and unintentionally guiding feedback from the respondent group are areas which should be considered when designing and implementing a Delphi study.

  18. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with onset in infancy affecting 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients is refractory to antiepileptic drugs and they pose a challenge for the health care team. The ketogenic diet is an effective, non-pharmacological, alternative treatment for the management of refractory epilepsy. There is a need to establish guidelines for the adequate and increased use of the ketogenic diet in Spanish-speaking countries. The National Committee on the Ketogenic Diet, consisting of paediatric neurologists, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians, of the Argentine Society of Child Neurology has developed this consensus statement to standardize the use of the ketogenic diet based on the literature and clinical experience. Patient selection, pre-treatment family counseling, drug interactions, micronutrient supplementation, adverse effects, and discontinuation of the diet are discussed. The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for children with refractory epilepsy. Education and collaboration of the patient and their family is essential. The patient should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a protocol. The formation of a national multidisciplinary team and the publication of this document provide possibilities for new centers to integrate the ketogenic diet into their treatment options.

  19. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  20. Consensus and Synchronization in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks is one of the most captivating cooperative phenomena in nature and has been shown to be of fundamental importance in such varied circumstances as the continued existence of species, the functioning of heart pacemaker cells, epileptic seizures, neuronal firing in the feline visual cortex and cognitive tasks in humans. E.g. coupled visual and acoustic interactions make fireflies flash, crickets chirp, and an audience clap in unison. On the other hand, in distributed systems and networks, it is often necessary for some or all of the nodes to calculate some function of certain parameters, e.g. sink nodes in sensor networks being tasked with calculating the average measurement value of all the sensors or multi-agent systems in which all agents are required to coordinate their speed and direction. When all nodes calculate the same function of the initial values in the system, they are said to reach consensus. Such concepts - sometimes also called state agreement, rendezvous, and ...

  1. UK quantitative WB-DWI technical workgroup: consensus meeting recommendations on optimisation, quality control, processing and analysis of quantitative whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Anna; Alonzi, Roberto; Blackledge, Matthew; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Collins, David J; Cook, Gary; Coutts, Glynn; Goh, Vicky; Graves, Martin; Kelly, Charles; Koh, Dow-Mu; McCallum, Hazel; Miquel, Marc E; O'Connor, James; Padhani, Anwar; Pearson, Rachel; Priest, Andrew; Rockall, Andrea; Stirling, James; Taylor, Stuart; Tunariu, Nina; van der Meulen, Jan; Walls, Darren; Winfield, Jessica; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-01-01

    Application of whole body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI) for oncology are rapidly increasing within both research and routine clinical domains. However, WB-DWI as a quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) has significantly slower adoption. To date, challenges relating to accuracy and reproducibility, essential criteria for a good QIB, have limited widespread clinical translation. In recognition, a UK workgroup was established in 2016 to provide technical consensus guidelines (to maximise accuracy and reproducibility of WB-MRI QIBs) and accelerate the clinical translation of quantitative WB-DWI applications for oncology. A panel of experts convened from cancer centres around the UK with subspecialty expertise in quantitative imaging and/or the use of WB-MRI with DWI. A formal consensus method was used to obtain consensus agreement regarding best practice. Questions were asked about the appropriateness or otherwise on scanner hardware and software, sequence optimisation, acquisition protocols, reporting, and ongoing quality control programs to monitor precision and accuracy and agreement on quality control. The consensus panel was able to reach consensus on 73% (255/351) items and based on consensus areas made recommendations to maximise accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI studies performed at 1.5T. The panel were unable to reach consensus on the majority of items related to quantitative WB-DWI performed at 3T. This UK Quantitative WB-DWI Technical Workgroup consensus provides guidance on maximising accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI for oncology. The consensus guidance can be used by researchers and clinicians to harmonise WB-DWI protocols which will accelerate clinical translation of WB-DWI-derived QIBs.

  2. A Consensus Map in Cultivated Hexaploid Oat Reveals Conserved Grass Synteny with Substantial Subgenome Rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley S. Chaffin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid oat ( L., 2 = 6 = 42 is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (∼12.5 Gb containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional 9678 markers were placed on this map with a lower degree of certainty. Assignment to physical chromosomes with high confidence was made for nine chromosomes. Comparison of homeologous regions among oat chromosomes and matches to orthologous regions of rice ( L. reveal that the hexaploid oat genome has been highly rearranged relative to its ancestral diploid genomes as a result of frequent translocations among chromosomes. Heterogeneous chromosome rearrangements among populations were also evident, probably accounting for the failure of some linkage groups to match the consensus. This work contributes to a further understanding of the organization and evolution of hexaploid grass genomes.

  3. Transatlantic Multispecialty Consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills: Results of a Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Macdonald, S; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills (FES) for educational purposes and development of training curricula for endovascular procedures. The term "Fundamental Endovascular Skills" is widely used; however, the current literature does not explicitly describe what skills are included in this concept. Endovascular interventions are performed by several specialties that may have opposing perspectives on these skills. A two round Delphi questionnaire approach was used. Experts from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, and vascular surgery from the United States and Europe were invited to participate. An electronic questionnaire was generated by endovascular therapists with an appropriate educational background but who would not participate in subsequent rounds. The questionnaire consisted of 50 statements describing knowledge, technical, and behavioral skills during endovascular procedures. Experts received the questionnaires by email. They were asked to rate the importance of each skill on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. A statement was considered fundamental when more than 90% of the experts rated it 4 or 5 out of 5. Twenty-three of 53 experts invited agreed to participate: six interventional radiologists (2 USA, 4 Europe), 10 vascular surgeons (4 USA, 6 Europe), and seven interventional cardiologists (4 USA, 3 Europe). There was a 100% response rate in the first round and 87% in the second round. Results showed excellent consensus among responders (Cronbach's alpha = .95 first round; .93 second round). Ninety percent of all proposed skills were considered fundamental. The most critical skills were determined. A transatlantic multispecialty consensus was achieved about the content of "FES" among interventional radiologists, interventional cardiologists, and vascular surgeons from Europe and the United States. These results can serve as directive principles for developing endovascular training curricula

  4. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  5. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  6. Expert surgical consensus for prenatal counseling using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Loren; Jackson, Jordan; Miller, Kristen; Kowalski, Rebecca; Kolm, Paul; Luks, Francois I

    2017-11-28

    Pediatric surgeons frequently offer prenatal consultation for congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); however, there is no evidence-based consensus to guide prenatal decision making and counseling for these conditions. Eliciting feedback from experts is integral to defining best practice regarding prenatal counseling and intervention. A Delphi consensus process was undertaken using a panel of pediatric surgeons identified as experts in fetal therapy to address current limitations. Areas of discrepancy in the literature on CPAM and CDH were identified and used to generate a list of content and intervention questions. Experts were invited to participate in an online Delphi survey. Items that did not reach first-round consensus were broken down into additional questions, and consensus was achieved in the second round. Fifty-four surgeons (69%) responded to at least one of the two survey rounds. During round one, consensus was reached on 54 of 89 survey questions (61%), and 45 new questions were developed. During round two, consensus was reached on 53 of 60 survey questions (88%). We determined expert consensus to establish guidelines regarding perinatal management of CPAM and CDH. Our results can help educate pediatric surgeons participating in perinatal care of these patients. V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A collaborative platform for consensus sessions in pathology over Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Eric; Le Bozec, Christel; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    The design of valid databases in pathology faces the problem of diagnostic disagreement between pathologists. Organizing consensus sessions between experts to reduce the variability is a difficult task. The TRIDEM platform addresses the issue to organize consensus sessions in pathology over the Internet. In this paper, we present the basis to achieve such collaborative platform. On the one hand, the platform integrates the functionalities of the IDEM consensus module that alleviates the consensus task by presenting to pathologists preliminary computed consensus through ergonomic interfaces (automatic step). On the other hand, a set of lightweight interaction tools such as vocal annotations are implemented to ease the communication between experts as they discuss a case (interactive step). The architecture of the TRIDEM platform is based on a Java-Server-Page web server that communicate with the ObjectStore PSE/PRO database used for the object storage. The HTML pages generated by the web server run Java applets to perform the different steps (automatic and interactive) of the consensus. The current limitations of the platform is to only handle a synchronous process. Moreover, improvements like re-writing the consensus workflow with a protocol such as BPML are already forecast.

  8. Public Awareness of the Scientific Consensus on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Hamilton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions about climate change elicit some of the widest political divisions of any items on recent U.S. surveys. Severe polarization affects even basic questions about the reality of anthropogenic climate change (ACC, or whether most scientists agree that humans are changing the Earth’s climate. Statements about scientific consensus have been contentious among social scientists, with some arguing for consensus awareness as a “gateway cognition” that leads to greater public acceptance of ACC, but others characterizing consensus messaging (deliberate communication about the level of scientific agreement as a counterproductive tactic that exacerbates polarization. A series of statewide surveys, with nationwide benchmarks, repeated questions about the reality of ACC and scientific consensus many times over 2010 to 2016. These data permit tests for change in beliefs and polarization. ACC and consensus beliefs have similar trends and individual background predictors. Both rose gradually by about 10 points over 2010 to 2016, showing no abrupt shifts that might correspond to events such as scientific reports, leadership statements, or weather. Growing awareness of the scientific consensus, whether from deliberate messaging or the cumulative impact of many studies and publicly engaged scientists, provides the most plausible explanation for this rise in both series. In state-level data, the gap between liberal and conservative views on the reality of ACC did not widen over this period, whereas the liberal–conservative gap regarding existence of a scientific consensus narrowed.

  9. The sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage in a systematically altered DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoe, Clairine V; Chung, Long H; Murray, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    The sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage was investigated in a specifically designed DNA plasmid using two procedures: end-labelling and linear amplification. Absorption of UV photons by DNA leads to dimerisation of pyrimidine bases and produces two major photoproducts, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). A previous study had determined that two hexanucleotide sequences, 5'-GCTC*AC and 5'-TATT*AA, were high intensity UV-induced DNA damage sites. The UV clone plasmid was constructed by systematically altering each nucleotide of these two hexanucleotide sequences. One of the main goals of this study was to determine the influence of single nucleotide alterations on the intensity of UV-induced DNA damage. The sequence 5'-GCTC*AC was designed to examine the sequence specificity of 6-4PPs and the highest intensity 6-4PP damage sites were found at 5'-GTTC*CC nucleotides. The sequence 5'-TATT*AA was devised to investigate the sequence specificity of CPDs and the highest intensity CPD damage sites were found at 5'-TTTT*CG nucleotides. It was proposed that the tetranucleotide DNA sequence, 5'-YTC*Y (where Y is T or C), was the consensus sequence for the highest intensity UV-induced 6-4PP adduct sites; while it was 5'-YTT*C for the highest intensity UV-induced CPD damage sites. These consensus tetranucleotides are composed entirely of consecutive pyrimidines and must have a DNA conformation that is highly productive for the absorption of UV photons. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  11. In control? IQC consensus and statutory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    have provided a template to potentially harmonise IQC practice nationally. Given the central and critical role that IQC practice plays in ensuring the quality of patient results' importance, the authors contend that the time has come for international consensus and statutory regulation regarding the minimally acceptable criteria for its implementation, monitoring and review.

  12. Consensus statement on diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While T1DM has been traditionally seen as a minor concern in the larger picture of pediatric ailments, new data reveals that the incidence of T1DM has assumed alarming proportions. It has long been clear that while the disease may be diagnosed at an early age, its impact is not isolated to afflicted children. The direct impact of the disease on the patient is debilitating due to the nature of the disease and lack of proper access to treatment in India. But this impact is further compounded by the utter apathy and often times antipathy, which patients withT1DM have to face. Lack of awareness of the issue in all stakeholders, low access to quality healthcare, patient, physician, and system level barriers to the delivery of optimal diabetes care are some of the factors which hinder successful management of T1DM. The first international consensus meet on diabetes in children was convened with the aim of providing a common platform to all the stakeholders in the management of T1DM, to discuss the academic, administrative and healthcare system related issues. The ultimate aim was to articulate the problems faced by children with diabetes in a way that centralized their position and focused on creating modalities of management sensitive to their needs and aspirations. It was conceptualized to raise a strong voice of advocacy for improving the management of T1DM and ensuring that "No child should die of diabetes". The unique clinical presentations of T1DM coupled with ignorance on the part of the medical community and society in general results in outcomes that are far worse than that seen with T2DM. So there is a need to substantially improve training of HCPs at all levels on this neglected aspect of healthcare.

  13. Detection and Analysis of Six Lizard Adenoviruses by Consensus Primer PCR Provides Further Evidence of a Reptilian Origin for the Atadenoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2004-01-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phyloge...

  14. Deconstruction of archaeal genome depict strategic consensus in core pathways coding sequence assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayon Pal

    Full Text Available A comprehensive in silico analysis of 71 species representing the different taxonomic classes and physiological genre of the domain Archaea was performed. These organisms differed in their physiological attributes, particularly oxygen tolerance and energy metabolism. We explored the diversity and similarity in the codon usage pattern in the genes and genomes of these organisms, emphasizing on their core cellular pathways. Our thrust was to figure out whether there is any underlying similarity in the design of core pathways within these organisms. Analyses of codon utilization pattern, construction of hierarchical linear models of codon usage, expression pattern and codon pair preference pointed to the fact that, in the archaea there is a trend towards biased use of synonymous codons in the core cellular pathways and the Nc-plots appeared to display the physiological variations present within the different species. Our analyses revealed that aerobic species of archaea possessed a larger degree of freedom in regulating expression levels than could be accounted for by codon usage bias alone. This feature might be a consequence of their enhanced metabolic activities as a result of their adaptation to the relatively O2-rich environment. Species of archaea, which are related from the taxonomical viewpoint, were found to have striking similarities in their ORF structuring pattern. In the anaerobic species of archaea, codon bias was found to be a major determinant of gene expression. We have also detected a significant difference in the codon pair usage pattern between the whole genome and the genes related to vital cellular pathways, and it was not only species-specific but pathway specific too. This hints towards the structuring of ORFs with better decoding accuracy during translation. Finally, a codon-pathway interaction in shaping the codon design of pathways was observed where the transcription pathway exhibited a significantly different coding frequency signature.

  15. Deconstruction of archaeal genome depict strategic consensus in core pathways coding sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ayon; Banerjee, Rachana; Mondal, Uttam K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis; Bothra, Asim K

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive in silico analysis of 71 species representing the different taxonomic classes and physiological genre of the domain Archaea was performed. These organisms differed in their physiological attributes, particularly oxygen tolerance and energy metabolism. We explored the diversity and similarity in the codon usage pattern in the genes and genomes of these organisms, emphasizing on their core cellular pathways. Our thrust was to figure out whether there is any underlying similarity in the design of core pathways within these organisms. Analyses of codon utilization pattern, construction of hierarchical linear models of codon usage, expression pattern and codon pair preference pointed to the fact that, in the archaea there is a trend towards biased use of synonymous codons in the core cellular pathways and the Nc-plots appeared to display the physiological variations present within the different species. Our analyses revealed that aerobic species of archaea possessed a larger degree of freedom in regulating expression levels than could be accounted for by codon usage bias alone. This feature might be a consequence of their enhanced metabolic activities as a result of their adaptation to the relatively O2-rich environment. Species of archaea, which are related from the taxonomical viewpoint, were found to have striking similarities in their ORF structuring pattern. In the anaerobic species of archaea, codon bias was found to be a major determinant of gene expression. We have also detected a significant difference in the codon pair usage pattern between the whole genome and the genes related to vital cellular pathways, and it was not only species-specific but pathway specific too. This hints towards the structuring of ORFs with better decoding accuracy during translation. Finally, a codon-pathway interaction in shaping the codon design of pathways was observed where the transcription pathway exhibited a significantly different coding frequency signature.

  16. Consensus Making in Requirements Negotiation: the communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Price

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing an Information System (IS, organizational goals of various stakeholders are commonly in direct conflict. Furthermore, individuals often rank their private objectives well over their management's directions. Recognising and reconciling all these diverse goals, and reaching agreement among the stakeholders, are prerequisite to establishing project cooperation and collaboration. This paper focuses, in particular, on the negotiation and consensus making during requirements elicitation - the earliest stages of the IS development process. As requirements elicitation involves rich communication between project stakeholders, we therefore explore negotiation and consensus making from the communication perspective. The resulting model assists our understanding of the communication factors that influence the consensus process during requirements negotiation.

  17. A first report and complete genome sequence of alfalfa enamovirus from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full genome sequence of a viral pathogen, provisionally named alfalfa enamovirus 2 (AEV-2), was reconstructed from short reads obtained by Illumina RNA sequencing of alfalfa sample originating from Sudan. Ambiguous nucleotides in the resultant consensus assembly and identity of the predicted virus...

  18. The development of a consensus definition for healthcare improvement science (HIS) in seven European countries: A consensus methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Rooney, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    There is a limited body of research in the field of healthcare improvement science (HIS). Quality improvement and 'change making' should become an intrinsic part of everyone's job, every day in all parts of the healthcare system. The lack of theoretical grounding may partly explain the minimal transfer of health research into health policy. This article seeks to present the development of the definition for healthcare improvement science. A consensus method approach was adopted with a two-stage Delphi process, expert panel and consensus group techniques. A total of 18 participants were involved in the expert panel and consensus group, and 153 answers were analysed as a part of the Delphi survey. Participants were researchers, educators and healthcare professionals from Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, England, Poland, and Romania. A high level of consensus was achieved for the broad definition in the 2nd Delphi iteration (86%). The final definition was agreed on by the consensus group: 'Healthcare improvement science is the generation of knowledge to cultivate change and deliver person-centred care that is safe, effective, efficient, equitable and timely. It improves patient outcomes, health system performance and population health.' The process of developing a consensus definition revealed different understandings of healthcare improvement science between the participants. Having a shared consensus definition of healthcare improvement science is an important step forward, bringing about a common understanding in order to advance the professional education and practice of healthcare improvement science.

  19. Towards a New Democracy: Consensus Through Quantum Parliament

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Diederik

    2005-01-01

    We compare different actual forms of democracy and analyse in which way they are variations of a 'natural consensus decision process'. We analyse how 'consensus decision followed by majority voting' is open to 'false play' by the majority, and investigate how other types of false play appear in alternative types of democratic decision procedures. We introduce the combined notion of 'quantum parliament' and 'quantum decision procedure', and prove it to be the only one, when applied after conse...

  20. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild (Keynote Talk)

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  1. Consensus algorithm in smart grid and communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfagee, Husain Abdulaziz

    On a daily basis, consensus theory attracts more and more researches from different areas of interest, to apply its techniques to solve technical problems in a way that is faster, more reliable, and even more precise than ever before. A power system network is one of those fields that consensus theory employs extensively. The use of the consensus algorithm to solve the Economic Dispatch and Load Restoration Problems is a good example. Instead of a conventional central controller, some researchers have explored an algorithm to solve the above mentioned problems, in a distribution manner, using the consensus algorithm, which is based on calculation methods, i.e., non estimation methods, for updating the information consensus matrix. Starting from this point of solving these types of problems mentioned, specifically, in a distribution fashion, using the consensus algorithm, we have implemented a new advanced consensus algorithm. It is based on the adaptive estimation techniques, such as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm, to solve the same problems. This advanced work was tested on different case studies that had formerly been explored, as seen in references 5, 7, and 18. Three and five generators, or agents, with different topologies, correspond to the Economic Dispatch Problem and the IEEE 16-Bus power system corresponds to the Load Restoration Problem. In all the cases we have studied, the results met our expectations with extreme accuracy, and completely matched the results of the previous researchers. There is little question that this research proves the capability and dependability of using the consensus algorithm, based on the estimation methods as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm to solve such power problems.

  2. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  3. Consensus formation in science modeled by aggregated bibliographic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2012-01-01

    as their unit of analysis. To produce a more fine grained citation analysis one needs to study consensusformation on an even more detailed level – i.e. the scientific document or article. To do so, we have developed a new technique that measures consensus by aggregatedbibliographiccouplings (ABC) between...... documents. The advantages of the ABC-technique are demonstrated in a study of two selected disciplines in which the levels of consensus are measured using the propopsed technique....

  4. Deriving consensus rankings via multicriteria decision making methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Poh Ai Ling; Mohamad Nasir Saludin; Masao Mukaidono

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to take a cautionary stance to the impact of the marketing mix on customer satisfaction, via a case study deriving consensus rankings for benchmarking on selected retail stores in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach - The ELECTRE I model is used in deriving consensus rankings via multicriteria decision making method for benchmarking base on the marketing mix model 4P's. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze best practice among the four marketing tactics. Finding...

  5. Consensus clustering approach to group brain connectivity matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rasero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach rooted on the notion of consensus clustering, a strategy developed for community detection in complex networks, is proposed to cope with the heterogeneity that characterizes connectivity matrices in health and disease. The method can be summarized as follows: (a define, for each node, a distance matrix for the set of subjects by comparing the connectivity pattern of that node in all pairs of subjects; (b cluster the distance matrix for each node; (c build the consensus network from the corresponding partitions; and (d extract groups of subjects by finding the communities of the consensus network thus obtained. Different from the previous implementations of consensus clustering, we thus propose to use the consensus strategy to combine the information arising from the connectivity patterns of each node. The proposed approach may be seen either as an exploratory technique or as an unsupervised pretraining step to help the subsequent construction of a supervised classifier. Applications on a toy model and two real datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, which represents heterogeneity of a set of subjects in terms of a weighted network, the consensus matrix.

  6. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we...... used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality consensus sequence for 92% of the Asian individual's genome. We identified approximately 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside this region, of which 13.6% were not in the dbSNP database. Genotyping analysis showed that SNP...... identification had high accuracy and consistency, indicating the high sequence quality of this assembly. We also carried out heterozygote phasing and haplotype prediction against HapMap CHB and JPT haplotypes (Chinese and Japanese, respectively), sequence comparison with the two available individual genomes (J...

  7. Alcohol use and pregnancy consensus clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, George; Cox, Lori Vitale; Crane, Joan; Croteau, Pascal; Graves, Lisa; Kluka, Sandra; Koren, Gideon; Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; Midmer, Deana; Nulman, Irena; Poole, Nancy; Senikas, Vyta; Wood, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    to establish national standards of care for the screening and recording of alcohol use and counselling on alcohol use of women of child-bearing age and pregnant women based on the most up-to-date evidence. published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in May 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy complications, alcohol drinking, prenatal care) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, alcohol consumption, risk reduction). Results were restricted to literature published in the last five years with the following research designs: systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment (HTA) and HTA-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, clinical practice guideline collections, and clinical trial registries. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. the quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. these consensus guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Quebec; the Canadian Association of Midwives; the Canadian Association of Perinatal, Women's Health and Neonatal Nurses (CAPWHN); the College of Family Physicians of

  8. EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Boelens, Petra G; Borras, Josep M; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Cervantes, Andres; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; van den Broek, Colette B M; Brown, Gina; Van Cutsem, Eric; Espin, Eloy; Haustermans, Karin; Glimelius, Bengt; Iversen, Lene H; van Krieken, J Han; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Henning, Geoffrey; Gore-Booth, Jola; Meldolesi, Elisa; Mroczkowski, Pawel; Nagtegaal, Iris; Naredi, Peter; Ortiz, Hector; Påhlman, Lars; Quirke, Philip; Rödel, Claus; Roth, Arnaud; Rutten, Harm; Schmoll, Hans J; Smith, Jason J; Tanis, Pieter J; Taylor, Claire; Wibe, Arne; Wiggers, Theo; Gambacorta, Maria A; Aristei, Cynthia; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organisations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries. The expert panel had delegates of the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), European Society of Pathology (ESP), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Radiology (ESR), European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP), European CanCer Organisation (ECCO), European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) and the European Colorectal Cancer Patient Organisation (EuropaColon), as well as delegates from national registries or audits. Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. For the Delphi process, multidisciplinary experts were invited to comment and vote three web-based online voting rounds and to lecture on the subjects during the meeting (13th-15th December 2012). The sentences in the consensus document were available during the meeting and a televoting round during the conference by all participants was performed. This manuscript covers all sentences of the consensus document with the result of the voting. The consensus document represents sections on diagnostics, pathology, surgery, medical oncology, radiotherapy, and follow-up where

  9. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  10. A consensus statement on how to conduct inclusive health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Garcia Iriarte, E; Buchner, T; Brooker, K; Embregts, P; Joosa, E; Crowther, F; Fudge Schormans, A; Schippers, A; Walmsley, J; O'Brien, P; Linehan, C; Northway, R; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H; Leusink, G

    2018-04-11

    The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement. The consensus statement was developed in three consecutive rounds: (1) an initial feedback round; (2) a roundtable discussion at the 2016 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress; and (3) a final feedback round. This consensus statement provides researchers with guidelines, agreed upon by experts in the field, regarding attributes, potential outcomes, reporting and publishing, and future research directions, for designing and conducting inclusive health research. Consensus was reached on how to design and conduct inclusive health research. However, this statement should be continuously adapted to incorporate recent knowledge. The focus of this consensus statement is largely on inclusive health research, but the principles can also be applied to other areas. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation: international consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Lehner, Burkhard; Willy, Christian; Lavery, Larry; Wolvos, Tom; Orgill, Dennis; Ennis, William; Lantis, John; Gabriel, Allen; Schultz, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is increasingly utilized as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of wounds. Despite its growing popularity, there is a paucity of evidence and lack of guidance to provide effective use of this therapy. A panel of experts was convened to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. A face-to-face meeting was held where the available evidence was discussed and individual clinical experience with this therapy was shared. Follow-up communication among the panelists continued until consensus was achieved. The final consensus recommendations were derived through more than 80 percent agreement among the panelists. Nine consensus statements were generated that address the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. The question of clinical effectiveness of this therapy was not directly addressed by the consensus panel. This document serves as preliminary guidelines until more robust evidence emerges that will support or modify these consensus recommendations.

  12. Consensus guidelines on management of childhood convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Sharma, Suvasini; Sankhyan, Naveen; Konanki, Ramesh; Kamate, Mahesh; Kanhere, Sujata; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-12-01

    Status epilepticus has a wide etiological spectrum, and significant morbidity and mortality. Management using a pre-determined uniform protocol leads to better outcomes. Multiple protocols for management of childhood status epilepticus are available, without much consensus. A 'Multi-disciplinary Consensus Development Workshop on Management of Status Epilepticus in Children in India' was organized. The invited experts included Pediatricians, Pediatric neurologists, Neurologists, Epileptologists, and Pediatric intensive care specialists from India, with experience in the relevant field. Experts had previously been divided into focus groups and had interacted on telephone and e-mail regarding their group recommendations, and developed consensus on the topic. During the meeting, each group presented their recommendations, which were deliberated upon by the house and a consensus was reached on various issues; the document was finalized after incorporating suggestions of experts on the draft document. To provide consensus guidelines on evaluation and management of convulsive status epilepticus in children in India (excluding neonatal and super-refractory status epilepticus). Each institution should use a pre-determined protocol for management of status epilepticus; pre-hospital management and early stabilization is the key to a satisfactory outcome of status epilepticus. Pharmacotherapy should not be delayed for any investigations; the initial management should consist of a parenteral benzodiazepine by any route feasible. Subsequent management has been detailed. The group also felt the need for more epidemiological research on status epilepticus from India, and identified certain research areas for the purpose.

  13. Weighted voting-based consensus clustering for chemical structure databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Salim, Naomie

    2014-06-01

    The cluster-based compound selection is used in the lead identification process of drug discovery and design. Many clustering methods have been used for chemical databases, but there is no clustering method that can obtain the best results under all circumstances. However, little attention has been focused on the use of combination methods for chemical structure clustering, which is known as consensus clustering. Recently, consensus clustering has been used in many areas including bioinformatics, machine learning and information theory. This process can improve the robustness, stability, consistency and novelty of clustering. For chemical databases, different consensus clustering methods have been used including the co-association matrix-based, graph-based, hypergraph-based and voting-based methods. In this paper, a weighted cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (W-CVAA) was developed. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) benchmark chemical dataset was used in the experiments and represented by the AlogP and ECPF_4 descriptors. The results from the clustering methods were evaluated by the ability of the clustering to separate biologically active molecules in each cluster from inactive ones using different criteria, and the effectiveness of the consensus clustering was compared to that of Ward's method, which is the current standard clustering method in chemoinformatics. This study indicated that weighted voting-based consensus clustering can overcome the limitations of the existing voting-based methods and improve the effectiveness of combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures.

  14. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-12-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses.

  15. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  17. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  18. Consensus and stratification in the affective meaning of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrasat, Jens; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus; Schauenburg, Gesche; Schröder, Tobias

    2014-06-03

    We investigate intrasocietal consensus and variation in affective meanings of concepts related to authority and community, two elementary forms of human sociality. Survey participants (n = 2,849) from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in German society provided ratings of 909 social concepts along three basic dimensions of affective meaning. Results show widespread consensus on these meanings within society and demonstrate that a meaningful structure of socially shared knowledge emerges from organizing concepts according to their affective similarity. The consensus finding is further qualified by evidence for subtle systematic variation along SES differences. In relation to affectively neutral words, high-status individuals evaluate intimacy-related and socially desirable concepts as less positive and powerful than middle- or low-status individuals, while perceiving antisocial concepts as relatively more threatening. This systematic variation across SES groups suggests that the affective meaning of sociality is to some degree a function of social stratification.

  19. The importance of assessing and communicating scientific consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W.; van der Linden, Sander L.

    2016-09-01

    The spread of influential misinformation, such as conspiracy theories about the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program (SLAP), is contributing to the politicization of science. In an important recent study, Shearer et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 084011) employ a novel methodology to quantify the expert consensus of popular SLAP assertions. The authors find that 99% (76/77) of surveyed experts have not encountered any evidence that would support the existence of such a program. Here we argue that this finding is important because a growing body of research has shown that the public’s perception of expert consensus on key societal issues acts an important ‘gateway’ to science acceptance. Furthermore, communicating normative agreement among experts, such as the strong scientific consensus against the existence of a SLAP, can help limit the spread of misinformation and promote more effective public decision-making about science and society.

  20. Stem cell research ethics: consensus statement on emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Nelson, Erin; Einsiedel, Edna; Knoppers, Bartha; McDonald, Michael; Brunger, Fern; Downey, Robin; Fernando, Kanchana; Galipeau, Jacques; Geransar, Rose; Griener, Glenn; Grenier, Glenn; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario; Kardel, Melanie; Knowles, Lori; Kucic, Terrence; Lotjonen, Salla; Lyall, Drew; Magnus, David; Mathews, Debra J H; Nisbet, Matthew; Nisker, Jeffrey; Pare, Guillaume; Pattinson, Shaun; Pullman, Daryl; Rudnicki, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Zimmerman, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This article is a consensus statement by an international interdisciplinary group of academic experts and Canadian policy-makers on emerging ethical, legal and social issues in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research in Canada. The process of researching consensus included consultations with key stakeholders in hESC research (regulations, stem cell researchers, and research ethics experts), preparation and distribution of background papers, and an international workshop held in Montreal in February 2007 to discuss the papers and debate recommendations. The recommendations provided in the consensus statement focus on issues of immediate relevance to Canadian policy-makers, including informed consent to hESC research, the use of fresh embryos in research, management of conflicts of interest, and the relevance of public opinion research to policy-making.

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying human consensus decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Adachi, Ryo; Dunne, Simon; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-04-22

    Consensus building in a group is a hallmark of animal societies, yet little is known about its underlying computational and neural mechanisms. Here, we applied a computational framework to behavioral and fMRI data from human participants performing a consensus decision-making task with up to five other participants. We found that participants reached consensus decisions through integrating their own preferences with information about the majority group members' prior choices, as well as inferences about how much each option was stuck to by the other people. These distinct decision variables were separately encoded in distinct brain areas-the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction, and intraparietal sulcus-and were integrated in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings provide support for a theoretical account in which collective decisions are made through integrating multiple types of inference about oneself, others, and environments, processed in distinct brain modules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptance, acceptability, and energy consensus. Can there still be a consensus on nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1995-01-01

    The question of public acceptance of nuclear energy has for years fueled the discussion on social issues. Denial of this acceptance has without doubt delayed, if not altogether prevented, the further development of nuclear energy during the past two decades. Public perception of nuclear energy is still dominated by resent. In the eyes of the German public it is a dangerous and unacceptable technology that deserves to be substituted as soon as possible. The necessity of this is widely agreed, the only unsettled question being how fast it must happen. Sociologists are often reproached for having only created the acceptance problems they purport to analyse. All sociology can do is describe our reality and make suggestions how to cope with social problems more effectively. The sociologist is the herald of social reality: he should neither gloss over nor dramatise things but rather present a real picture of what is happening. With this premise in mind the author attempts to point out possibilities of and limits to a consensus on the valuation of energy systems, particularly that of nuclear energy. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Pediatric psycho-oncology care: standards, guidelines, and consensus reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Koretski, Julia; Perper, Emily Diana; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify existing guidelines, standards, or consensus-based reports for psychosocial care of children with cancer and their families. Psychosocial standards of care for children with cancer can systematize the approach to care and create a replicable model that can be utilized in pediatric hospitals around the world. Determining gaps in existing standards in pediatric psycho-oncology can guide development of useful evidence-based and consensus-based standards. The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched by investigators at two major pediatric oncology centers for existing guidelines, consensus-based reports, or standards for psychosocial care of patients with pediatric cancer and their families published in peer-reviewed journals in English between 1980 and 2013. We located 27 articles about psychosocial care that met inclusion criteria: 5 set forth standards, 19 were guidelines, and 3 were consensus-based reports. None was sufficiently up to date, comprehensive, specific enough, or evidence- or consensus-based to serve as a current standard for psychosocial care for children with cancer and their families. Despite calls by a number of international pediatric oncology and psycho-oncology professional organizations about the urgency of addressing the psychosocial needs of the child with cancer to reduce suffering, there remains a need for development of a widely acceptable, evidence-based and consensus-based, comprehensive standard of care to guide provision of essential psychosocial services to all patients with pediatric cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multiagent System With Unknown Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the distributed optimal cooperative control for continuous-time nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with completely unknown dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology. By introducing predesigned extra compensators, the augmented neighborhood error systems are derived, which successfully circumvents the system knowledge requirement for ADP. It is revealed that the optimal consensus protocols actually work as the solutions of the MAS differential game. Policy iteration algorithm is adopted, and it is theoretically proved that the iterative value function sequence strictly converges to the solution of the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Based on this point, a novel online iterative scheme is proposed, which runs based on the data sampled from the augmented system and the gradient of the value function. Neural networks are employed to implement the algorithm and the weights are updated, in the least-square sense, to the ideal value, which yields approximated optimal consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Genetic map of artichoke × wild cardoon: toward a consensus map for Cynara cardunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Gatto, Angela; Morgese, Anita; Montemurro, Francesco; Sarli, Giulio; Blanco, Emanuela; Pignone, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    An integrated consensus linkage map is proposed for globe artichoke. Maternal and paternal genetic maps were constructed on the basis of an F(1) progeny derived from crossing an artichoke genotype (Mola) with its progenitor, the wild cardoon (Tolfa), using EST-derived SSRs, genomic SSRs, AFLPs, ten genes, and two morphological traits. For most genes, mainly belonging to the chlorogenic acid pathway, new markers were developed. Five of these were SNP markers analyzed through high-resolution melt technology. From the maternal (Mola) and paternal (Tolfa) maps, an integrated map was obtained, containing 337 molecular and one morphological markers ordered in 17 linkage groups (LGs), linked between Mola and Tolfa. The integrated map covers 1,488.8 cM, with an average distance of 4.4 cM between markers. The map was aligned with already existing maps for artichoke, and 12 LGs were linked via 31 bridge markers. LG numbering has been proposed. A total of 124 EST-SSRs and two genes were mapped here for the first time, providing a framework for the construction of a functional map in artichoke. The establishment of a consensus map represents a necessary condition to plan a complete sequencing of the globe artichoke genome.

  7. Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The proced......Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS...

  8. Acute pancreatitis: reflections through the history of the Atlanta Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres López, Ana María; Hoyos Duque, Sergio Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with systemic and local repercussions. Most cases are mild with low mortality rate, but 20% of the patients have severe pancreatitis with a mortality rate up to 30%. Through the years the medical community has tried to reach consensus about this disease in order to better understand, classify and treat it. The most important of these has been known as the Atlanta Consensus 1992, in use for many years. However, it has been recently the subject of v...

  9. Consensus paper on post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudrunardottir, Thora; Morgan, Angela T; Lux, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    -operative pediatric CMS" was formed, preliminary recommendations for diagnostic and follow-up procedures were created, two working groups on a new scoring scale and risk prediction and prevention were established, and areas were identified where further information is needed. DISCUSSION: The consensus process...... to provide a more solid foundation for future clinical and research work. It is thought as a consensus for moving forward and hopefully paves the way to developing a standard approach to this challenging problem with the advent of better scoring methods and ultimate goal of reducing the risk of CMS....

  10. [GEITDAH consensus on conduct disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco

    2015-08-16

    In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  11. Acute pancreatitis: reflections through the history of the Atlanta Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres López, Ana María

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with systemic and local repercussions. Most cases are mild with low mortality rate, but 20% of the patients have severe pancreatitis with a mortality rate up to 30%. Through the years the medical community has tried to reach consensus about this disease in order to better understand, classify and treat it. The most important of these has been known as the Atlanta Consensus 1992, in use for many years. However, it has been recently the subject of various proposals for changes and updates, which are discussed in this review article.

  12. Consensus Based Nuclear Public-Hearing System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Wook Lee; Suk Hoon Kim; Young Ho Cho; Hyun Seok Ko; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Sun Kang; Joo Hyun Moon

    2006-01-01

    Although the government admit the benefit of construction of a nuclear facility for national electric source, related policy could be developed and carried out only if the public, especially who have some stake on it, recognize the benefit and accept the policy. For public participation, Korea has a system of public-hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean public-hearing system is only a conceptual model. Therefore, some specific system for Korean Public-Hearing should be developed and applied. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, decision making components and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. The criteria weight for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making components, which should be based on the social consensus. On these foundations, a system for aggregation and reflection of the public opinion was proposed. The system named 'CPDM' (Consensus based Participatory Decision Making) has three authority groups for decision making. At first, 'advisory experts group' play a role for the technical assessment and the serve utility value on the criteria for each alternatives. Next, 'participatory deliberation group' play a role for consensus building on the relative-importance (weight) between the criteria by feedback to promote degree of consensus. Lastly including gentlemen of the long robe, 'expert group for decision making' play a role to reflect the utility and weight and make a decision with agreement for performance of it. Also, in this study, a mathematical model for the quantification of the degree of consensus was conceptualized using Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator and fuzzy similarity theory, which is a comparison concept. Since this model enables influence of each

  13. The polymorphic integumentary mucin B.1 from Xenopus laevis contains the short consensus repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, J C; Hauser, F; Joba, W; Hoffmann, W

    1992-03-25

    The frog integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1), discovered by molecular cloning, contains a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain which is homologous with von Willebrand factor. With the help of the polymerase chain reaction, we now characterize a contiguous region 5' to the von Willebrand factor domain containing the short consensus repeat typical of many proteins from the complement system. Multiple transcripts have been cloned, which originate from a single animal and differ by a variable number of tandem repeats (rep-33 sequences). These different transcripts probably originate solely from two genes and are generated presumably by alternative splicing of an huge array of functional cassettes. This model is supported by analysis of genomic FIM-B.1 sequences from Xenopus laevis. Here, rep-33 sequences are arranged in an interrupted array of individual units. Additionally, results of Southern analysis revealed genetic polymorphism between different animals which is predicted to be within the tandem repeats. A first investigation of the predicted mucins with the help of a specific antibody against a synthetic peptide determined the molecular mass of FIM-B.1 to greater than 200 kDa. Here again, genetic polymorphism between different animals is detected.

  14. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  15. BAUM: Improving genome assembly by adaptive unique mapping and local overlap-layout-consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Zhanyu; Li, Zheng; Li, Lei M

    2018-01-15

    It is highly desirable to assemble genomes of high continuity and consistency at low cost. The current bottleneck of draft genome continuity using the Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) reads is primarily caused by uncertainty among repetitive sequences. Even though the Single-Molecule Real-Time sequencing technology is very promising to overcome the uncertainty issue, its relatively high cost and error rate add burden on budget or computation. Many long-read assemblers take the overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) paradigm, which is less sensitive to sequencing errors, heterozygosity and variability of coverage. However, current assemblers of SGS data do not sufficiently take advantage of the OLC approach. Aiming at minimizing uncertainty, the proposed method BAUM, breaks the whole genome into regions by adaptive unique mapping; then the local OLC is used to assemble each region in parallel. BAUM can: (1) perform reference-assisted assembly based on the genome of a close species; (2) or improve the results of existing assemblies that are obtained based on short or long sequencing reads. The tests on two eukaryote genomes, a wild rice Oryza longistaminata and a parrot Melopsittacus undulatus, show that BAUM achieved substantial improvement on genome size and continuity. Besides, BAUM reconstructed a considerable amount of repetitive regions that failed to be assembled by existing short read assemblers. We also propose statistical approaches to control the uncertainty in different steps of BAUM. http://www.zhanyuwang.xin/wordpress/index.php/2017/07/21/baum. lilei@amss.ac.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Consensus statement on transcultural issues in depression and anxiety from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Kirmayer, L J; Lépine, J P; Lin, K M; Tajima, O; Ono, Y

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care physicians with a better understanding of transcultural issues in depression and anxiety. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Five faculty invited by the chair also participated: Laurence J. Kirmayer, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Keh-Ming Lin, Osamu Tajima, and Yutaka Ono. The consensus statement is based on the 5 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders across all cultures and nations while recognizing that cultural differences exist in symptom presentation and prevalence estimates. In all countries, the recognition of depression by clinicians in the primary care setting is low (generally less than 50%), and the consensus group recommends a 2-step process to aid the recognition and diagnosis of depression. In line with the low recognition of depression and anxiety disorders is the finding that only a small proportion of patients with depression or anxiety are receiving appropriate treatments for their condition. Biological diversity across ethnic groups may account for the differential sensitivity of some groups to psychotropic medication, but this area requires further investigation.

  17. Somatic cancer variant curation and harmonization through consensus minimum variant level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah I. Ritter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To truly achieve personalized medicine in oncology, it is critical to catalog and curate cancer sequence variants for their clinical relevance. The Somatic Working Group (WG of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen, in cooperation with ClinVar and multiple cancer variant curation stakeholders, has developed a consensus set of minimal variant level data (MVLD. MVLD is a framework of standardized data elements to curate cancer variants for clinical utility. With implementation of MVLD standards, and in a working partnership with ClinVar, we aim to streamline the somatic variant curation efforts in the community and reduce redundancy and time burden for the interpretation of cancer variants in clinical practice. Methods We developed MVLD through a consensus approach by i reviewing clinical actionability interpretations from institutions participating in the WG, ii conducting extensive literature search of clinical somatic interpretation schemas, and iii survey of cancer variant web portals. A forthcoming guideline on cancer variant interpretation, from the Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP, can be incorporated into MVLD. Results Along with harmonizing standardized terminology for allele interpretive and descriptive fields that are collected by many databases, the MVLD includes unique fields for cancer variants such as Biomarker Class, Therapeutic Context and Effect. In addition, MVLD includes recommendations for controlled semantics and ontologies. The Somatic WG is collaborating with ClinVar to evaluate MVLD use for somatic variant submissions. ClinVar is an open and centralized repository where sequencing laboratories can report summary-level variant data with clinical significance, and ClinVar accepts cancer variant data. Conclusions We expect the use of the MVLD to streamline clinical interpretation of cancer variants, enhance interoperability among multiple redundant curation efforts, and increase submission of

  18. The ''Article Act'' - a substitute for the miscarried energy consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, G.

    1994-01-01

    A prerequisite for arriving at a long-term energy policy is that all political parties come to an energy consensus. This paper reviews the chronology of the energy consensus negatiations, their failure, and the consequent energy-political rerouting which is to be realised by an act securing hard coal a share in electricity generation and amending the Atomic Energy Act (termed 'Article Act'). The Article Act is an attempt at a binding definition of central issues of the energy consensus talks even in the absence of an all-party agreement. It is particularly noteworthy that the bill makes mention of both coal and nuclear energy, reviving this link-up between the two energy sources already decined lost. The German electricity industry considers the provisions on atomic energy law contained in the Article Act insufficient for securing already existing power plants an untroubled future and for providing the investment climate needed by the manufacturing industry. To the electricity industry the main problems lie in the execution deficits at the Laender level, but these are not affected by the Article Act. It is concluded that an all-party consensus on an answerable nuclear energy utilisation will have to be found by 1995 at the latest in order to give the manufacturing industry the go-alread for continuing research and provide electricity producers with a sound basis for investment decisions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Yes, But...Creating a Consensus for Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that the division of opinions in a staff can determine an educational innovation's success or failure. Teacher empowerment can help forge widespread agreement and consensus for the innovation. These principles are exemplified by the Sizer initiative in the Delaware schools, which is described. (BB)

  20. Forging Consensus for Implementing Youth Socialization Policy in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development,…

  1. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L; Thacher, Tom D; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.

  2. If Not Consensus, at Least Coherence and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, June K.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that consensus is the result of intellectual inquiry among scholars for some common purpose. External and internal forces impel the academic community to move beyond argumentation about what students should be able to achieve as they progress. Legislatures and boards of regents are exercising increasing oversight over public and private…

  3. When goals diverge: Staff consensus and the organizational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Ulaszek, Wendy R; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Wexler, Harry K

    2009-08-01

    A sample of correctional officers and prison substance abuse treatment staff collected by the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey is used to provide an exploratory study of an aspect of organizational culture consisting of consensus (agreement) among prison personnel regarding their beliefs about rehabilitation in the presence of conflicting organizational goals and aspects of the organizational climate important to change. Findings show that among those staff members responding to the survey, the belief in rehabilitation scale mean score was associated with higher levels of organizational commitment, and interdepartmental coordination. However, an hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis that used an index score derived from the standard deviation for staff consensus regarding these same beliefs about rehabilitation produced a different pattern of results, showing that high levels of consensus were associated with job frustration, cynicism towards the ability of the institution to change, and lower levels of organizational commitment. The authors conclude that, although the sample may not express the beliefs of corrections officers or prison-based treatment staff at large, within the sample, consensus appeared to play a unique role in evaluating the effect of divergent goals on organizational climate as it relates to change, and warrants consideration when considering the effects of organizational climate.

  4. False consensus in situational judgment tests : What would others do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Köbis, N.C.; Ronay, R.; Cremers, M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an alternative response instruction to reduce the fakability of situational judgment tests. This novel instruction is based on the false consensus effect, a robust social psychological bias whereby people infer that the majority of other people’s thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors are

  5. The False Consensus Bias as Applied to Psychologically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adolescents who described themselves as depressed or suicidal and 43 nondisturbed adolescents read article about child's suicidal or viral illness death. Both groups viewed suicidal child and family more negatively than family and child with viral illness. Consistent with false consensus hypothesis, psychologically disturbed adolescents…

  6. Attributions, false consensus and valence: two field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies, with 1,056 Ss, investigated attitudes, knowledge, and behavior with regard to several environmental issues. Findings demonstrate that observers tend to perceive a false consensus with respect to the relative commonness of their own behavioral choices. This phenomenon was replicated

  7. A Computerized Demonstration of the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Replicates a classic psychology laboratory experiment where students either endorsed or refuted personal statements and estimated how other people would respond. Students always overestimated an affirmative response on the statements they endorsed, thus illustrating the false consensus effect. Includes a list of the statements and statistical…

  8. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As presently applied in Africa, consensus building seems to be a product of knowledge ... Often international professional negotiators and .... The conflict model views individual or group relationships in all structures of power as a ..... for political parties to win and maintain power, Weber states that 'parties live in the house of ...

  9. Consensus in the network with uniform constant communication delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xu; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Grip, H°avard Fjær; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus among identical agents that are at most critically unstable and coupled through networks with uniform constant communication delay. An upper bound for delay tolerance is obtained which explicitly depends on agent dynamics and network topology. The dependence on network

  10. Implants and/or teeth: consensus statements and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Carlsson, G E; Jokstad, A

    2008-01-01

    In August 23-25, 2007, the Scandinavian Society for Prosthetic Dentistry in collaboration with the Danish Society of Oral Implantology arranged a consensus conference on the topic 'Implants and/or teeth'. It was preceded by a workshop in which eight focused questions were raised and answered in e...

  11. Helicobacter pylori management in ASEAN: The Bangkok consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rojborwonwitaya, Jarin; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chotivitayatarakorn, Peranart; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Pisespongsa, Pises; Mairiang, Pisaln; Rani, Aziz; Leow, Alex; Mya, Swe Mon; Lee, Yi-Chia; Vannarath, Sengdao; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Chakravuth, Oung; Aung, Moe Myint; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Sollano, Jose D; Trong Quach, Duc; Sansak, Inchaya; Wiwattanachang, Olarn; Harnsomburana, Piyathida; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Fock, Kwong-Ming; Goh, Khean-Lee; Sugano, Kentaro; Graham, David

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains to be the major cause of important upper gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori management in ASEAN: the Bangkok consensus report gathered key opinion leaders for the region to review and evaluate clinical aspects of H. pylori infection and to develop consensus statements, rationales, and grades of recommendation for the management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice in ASEAN countries. This ASEAN Consensus consisted of 34 international experts from 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. The meeting mainly focused on four issues: (i) epidemiology and disease association; (ii) diagnostic tests; (iii) management; and (iv) follow-up after eradication. The final results of each workshop were presented for consensus voting by all participants. Statements, rationale, and recommendations were developed from the available current evidence to help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and its clinical diseases. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Bumstead, N.; Benkel, B.; Briles, E.; Burt, D.W.; Burke, T.; Dodgson, J.; Hillel, J.; Lamont, S.; Ponce, de F.A.; Soller, M.

    2000-01-01

    A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal

  13. Consensus double reading of mammograms in private practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacher, B.; Tscherney, R.; Litmann-Rowenta, B.; Liskutin, J.; Mazewski, I.; Leitner, H.; Tscholakoff, D.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the results of consensus double reading of mammograms in a private practice for a period of 1.5 years (November 2001 to March 2003). Materials and Method: Two independent experts with dedicated training read all mammograms on a weekly basis. All mammograms including sonographic examinations were evaluated independently and categorized using the Bl-RADS classification. The achieved consensus included a possible recommendation for recall or therapy. A total of 3936 mammograms and 1912 sonography studies were evaluated. All cases with BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were compared with the histologic results. For a period of three months, the acceptance of double reading including a delay of the final report by one week was tested with a questionnaire and informed consent sheet. Results: BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were found in 57 cases, with 41 consensus results by two independent readers and 26 carcinomas verified by histology. No consensus could be reached in 16 patients, of which 10 had a final histologic result, with 5 benign lesions and 5 carcinomas of less than 1 cm in diameter. Clinical symptoms or alterations were absent in all patients. The 5 carcinomas were discovered by the double reading procedure. The result of the questionnaire (695 questionnaires) showed a refusal rate of 0.7%, with only 5 women refusing the opportunity of double reading their mammograms. Conclusion: Double reading of mammograms by independent experts is feasible, shows a measurable increase in quality and is accepted by almost all women. (orig.)

  14. Recommendations for Probiotic Use--2015 Update: Proceedings and Consensus Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floch, Martin H.; Walker, W. Allan; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Nieuwdorp, Max; Kim, Adam S.; Brenner, David A.; Qamar, Amir A.; Miloh, Tamir A.; Guarino, Alfredo; Guslandi, Mario; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Ringel, Yehuda; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Brandt, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the consensus opinion of the participants in the 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard Workshop on Probiotic Recommendations. The recommendations update those of the first 3 meetings that were published in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Recommendations for the use of probiotics in necrotizing

  15. On consensus through communication without a commonly known protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakas Elias; Voorneveld Mark

    2010-01-01

    The present paper extends the standard model of pairwise communication among Bayesianagents to cases where the structure of the communication protocol is not commonly known.We show that, even under strict conditions on the structure of the protocols and the nature of the transmitted signals, a consensus may never be reached if very little asymmetric information about the protocol is introduced.

  16. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...

  17. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...

  18. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  19. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53…

  20. Recurrence of Dupuytren's contracture: A consensus-based definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester J Kan

    Full Text Available One of the major determinants of Dupyutren disease (DD treatment efficacy is recurrence of the contracture. Unfortunately, lack of agreement in the literature on what constitutes recurrence makes it nearly impossible to compare the multiple treatments alternatives available today. The aim of this study is to bring an unbiased pool of experts to agree upon what would be considered a recurrence of DD after treatment; and from that consensus establish a much-needed definition for DD recurrence.To reach an expert consensus on the definition of recurrence we used the Delphi method and invited 43 Dupuytren's research and treatment experts from 10 countries to participate by answering a series of questionnaire rounds. After each round the answers were analyzed and the experts received a feedback report with another questionnaire round to further hone in of the definition. We defined consensus when at least 70% of the experts agreed on a topic.Twenty-one experts agreed to participate in this study. After four consensus rounds, we agreed that DD recurrence should be defined as "more than 20 degrees of contracture recurrence in any treated joint at one year post-treatment compared to six weeks post-treatment". In addition, "recurrence should be reported individually for every treated joint" and afterwards measurements should be repeated and reported yearly.This study provides the most comprehensive to date definition of what should be considered recurrence of DD. These standardized criteria should allow us to better evaluate the many treatment alternatives.

  1. Building consensus on clinical procedural skills for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The development of registrar training as part of the newly created speciality of family medicine in South Africa requires the development of a national consensus on the clinical procedural skills outcomes that should be expected of training programmes. Methods: This study utilized a Delphi technique to ...

  2. Differential diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis: a consensus approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D. H.; Weinshenker, B.G.; Filippi, M.; Banwell, B.L.; Cohen, J.A.; Freedman, M.S.; Galetta, S.L.; Hutchinson, M.; Johnson, R.T.; Kappos, L.; Kira, J.; Lublin, F.D.; McFarland, H.F.; Montalban, X.; Panitch, H.; Richert, J.R.; Reingold, S.C.; Polman, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) requires exclusion of diseases that could better explain the clinical and paraclinical findings. A systematic process for exclusion of alternative diagnoses has not been defined. An International Panel of MS experts developed consensus

  3. Effects of heterogeneous convergence rate on consensus in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changwei; Dai, Qionglin; Han, Wenchen; Feng, Yuee; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Haihong

    2018-06-01

    The Deffuant model has attracted much attention in the study of opinion dynamics. Here, we propose a modified version by introducing into the model a heterogeneous convergence rate which is dependent on the opinion difference between interacting agents and a tunable parameter κ. We study the effects of heterogeneous convergence rate on consensus by investigating the probability of complete consensus, the size of the largest opinion cluster, the number of opinion clusters, and the relaxation time. We find that the decrease of the convergence rate is favorable to decreasing the confidence threshold for the population to always reach complete consensus, and there exists optimal κ resulting in the minimal bounded confidence threshold. Moreover, we find that there exists a window before the threshold of confidence in which complete consensus may be reached with a nonzero probability when κ is not too large. We also find that, within a certain confidence range, decreasing the convergence rate will reduce the relaxation time, which is somewhat counterintuitive.

  4. An updated Asia Pacific Consensus Recommendations on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C; Chan, F K L; Chiu, H M; Kim, H S; Matsuda, T; Ng, S S M; Lau, J Y W; Zheng, S; Adler, S; Reddy, N; Yeoh, K G; Tsoi, K K F; Ching, J Y L; Kuipers, E J; Rabeneck, L; Young, G P; Steele, R J; Lieberman, D; Goh, K L

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations. Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements. Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening. Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Kinome profiling of Arabidopsis using arrays of kinase consensus substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieterse Corné MJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinome profiling aims at the parallel analysis of kinase activities in a cell. Novel developed arrays containing consensus substrates for kinases are used to assess those kinase activities. The arrays described in this paper were already used to determine kinase activities in mammalian systems, but since substrates from many organisms are present we decided to test these arrays for the determination of kinase activities in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Kinome profiling using Arabidopsis cell extracts resulted in the labelling of many consensus peptides by kinases from the plant, indicating the usefulness of this kinome profiling tool for plants. Method development showed that fresh and frozen plant material could be used to make cell lysates containing active kinases. Dilution of the plant extract increased the signal to noise ratio and non-radioactive ATP enhances full development of spot intensities. Upon infection of Arabidopsis with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, we could detect differential kinase activities by measuring phosphorylation of consensus peptides. Conclusion We show that kinome profiling on arrays with consensus substrates can be used to monitor kinase activities in plants. In a case study we show that upon infection with avirulent P. syringae differential kinase activities can be found. The PepChip can for example be used to purify (unknown kinases that play a role in P. syringae infection. This paper shows that kinome profiling using arrays of consensus peptides is a valuable new tool to study signal-transduction in plants. It complements the available methods for genomics and proteomics research.

  6. Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2011-11-01

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  7. World Endometriosis Society consensus on the classification of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil P; Hummelshoj, Lone; Adamson, G David; Keckstein, Jörg; Taylor, Hugh S; Abrao, Mauricio S; Bush, Deborah; Kiesel, Ludwig; Tamimi, Rulla; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L; Rombauts, Luk; Giudice, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    What is the global consensus on the classification of endometriosis that considers the views of women with endometriosis? We have produced an international consensus statement on the classification of endometriosis through systematic appraisal of evidence and a consensus process that included representatives of national and international, medical and non-medical societies, patient organizations, and companies with an interest in endometriosis. Classification systems of endometriosis, developed by several professional organizations, traditionally have been based on lesion appearance, pelvic adhesions, and anatomic location of disease. One system predicts fertility outcome and none predicts pelvic pain, response to medications, disease recurrence, risks for associated disorders, quality of life measures, and other endpoints important to women and health care providers for guiding appropriate therapeutic options and prognosis. A consensus meeting, in conjunction with pre- and post-meeting processes, was undertaken. A consensus meeting was held on 30 April 2014 in conjunction with the World Endometriosis Society's 12th World Congress on Endometriosis. Rigorous pre- and post-meeting processes, involving 55 representatives of 29 national and international, medical and non-medical organizations from a range of disciplines, led to this consensus statement. A total of 28 consensus statements were made. Of all, 10 statements had unanimous consensus, however none of the statements was made without expression of a caveat about the strength of the statement or the statement itself. Two statements did not achieve majority consensus. The statements covered women's priorities, aspects of classification, impact of low resources, as well as all the major classification systems for endometriosis. Until better classification systems are developed, we propose a classification toolbox (that includes the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine and, where appropriate, the

  8. Consensus on Recording Deep Endometriosis Surgery: the CORDES statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhie, A; Meuleman, C; Tomassetti, C; Timmerman, D; D'Hoore, A; Wolthuis, A; Van Cleynenbreugel, B; Dancet, E; Van den Broeck, U; Tsaltas, J; Renner, S P; Ebert, A D; Carmona, F; Abbott, J; Stepniewska, A; Taylor, H; Saridogan, E; Mueller, M; Keckstein, J; Pluchino, N; Janik, G; Zupi, E; Minelli, L; Cooper, M; Dunselman, G; Koh, C; Abrao, M S; Chapron, C; D'Hooghe, T

    2016-06-01

    Which essential items should be recorded before, during and after endometriosis surgery and in clinical outcome based surgical trials in patients with deep endometriosis (DE)? A DE surgical sheet (DESS) was developed for standardized reporting of the surgical treatment of DE and an international expert consensus proposal on relevant items that should be recorded in surgical outcome trials in women with DE. Surgery is an important treatment for symptomatic DE. So far, data have been reported in such a way that comparison of different surgical techniques is impossible. Therefore, we present an international expert proposal for standardized reporting of surgical treatment and surgical outcome trials in women with DE. International expert consensus based on a systematic review of literature. Taking into account recommendations from Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), the Innovation Development Exploration Assessment and Long-term Study (IDEAL), the Initiative on Methods, Measurement and Pain Assessment in Clinical trials (IMMPACT) and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project (WERF EPHect), a systematic literature review on surgical treatment of DE was performed and resulted in a proposal for standardized reporting, adapted by contributions from eight members of the multidisciplinary Leuven University Hospitals Endometriosis Care Program, from 18 international experts and from audience feedback during three international meetings. We have developed the DESS to record in detail the surgical procedures for DE, and an international consensus on pre-, intra- and post-operative data that should be recorded in surgical outcome trials on DE. The recommendations in this paper represent a consensus among international experts based on a systematic review of the literature. For several items and recommendations, high-quality RCTs were not available. Further research is needed to validate and evaluate the

  9. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  10. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  11. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  12. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  13. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  14. An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping platform was developed and used to genotype 373 individuals in four barley ( L. mapping populations. This led to a 2943 SNP consensus genetic map with 975 unique positions. In this work, we add data from six additional populations and more individuals from one of the original populations to develop an improved consensus map from 1133 individuals. A stringent and systematic analysis of each of the 10 populations was performed to achieve uniformity. This involved reexamination of the four populations included in the previous map. As a consequence, we present a robust consensus genetic map that contains 2994 SNP loci mapped to 1163 unique positions. The map spans 1137.3 cM with an average density of one marker bin per 0.99 cM. A novel application of the genotyping platform for gene detection allowed the assignment of 2930 genes to flow-sorted chromosomes or arms, confirmed the position of 2545 SNP-mapped loci, added chromosome or arm allocations to an additional 370 SNP loci, and delineated pericentromeric regions for chromosomes 2H to 7H. Marker order has been improved and map resolution has been increased by almost 20%. These increased precision outcomes enable more optimized SNP selection for marker-assisted breeding and support association genetic analysis and map-based cloning. It will also improve the anchoring of DNA sequence scaffolds and the barley physical map to the genetic map.

  15. Learning Gene Regulatory Networks Computationally from Gene Expression Data Using Weighted Consensus

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Chisato

    2015-01-01

    the performance of the consensus. The linear programming- based consensus method is evaluated and it had the best performance on in silico and Saccharomyces cerevisiae networks, and the second best on the Escherichia coli network outperformed by Inferelator

  16. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-01-01

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  17. Nonhybrid, finished microbial genome assemblies from long-read SMRT sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chen-Shan; Alexander, David H; Marks, Patrick; Klammer, Aaron A; Drake, James; Heiner, Cheryl; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Huddleston, John; Eichler, Evan E; Turner, Stephen W; Korlach, Jonas

    2013-06-01

    We present a hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP) for high-quality de novo microbial genome assemblies using only a single, long-insert shotgun DNA library in conjunction with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. Our method uses the longest reads as seeds to recruit all other reads for construction of highly accurate preassembled reads through a directed acyclic graph-based consensus procedure, which we follow with assembly using off-the-shelf long-read assemblers. In contrast to hybrid approaches, HGAP does not require highly accurate raw reads for error correction. We demonstrate efficient genome assembly for several microorganisms using as few as three SMRT Cell zero-mode waveguide arrays of sequencing and for BACs using just one SMRT Cell. Long repeat regions can be successfully resolved with this workflow. We also describe a consensus algorithm that incorporates SMRT sequencing primary quality values to produce de novo genome sequence exceeding 99.999% accuracy.

  18. Secondary Coordinated Control of Islanded Microgrids Based on Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    systems. Nevertheless, the conventional decentralized secondary control, although does not need to be implemented in a microgrid central controller (MGCC), it has the limitation that all decentralized controllers must be mutually synchronized. In a clear cut contrast, the proposed secondary control......This paper proposes a decentralized secondary control for islanded microgrids based on consensus algorithms. In a microgrid, the secondary control is implemented in order to eliminate the frequency changes caused by the primary control when coordinating renewable energy sources and energy storage...... requires only a more simplified communication protocol and a sparse communication network. Moreover, the proposed approach based on dynamic consensus algorithms is able to achieve the coordinated secondary performance even when all units are initially out-of-synchronism. The control algorithm implemented...

  19. Consensus, Polarization, and Alignment in the Economics Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod S. Van Gunten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholars interested in the political influence of the economics profession debate whether the discipline is unified by policy consensus or divided among competing schools or factions. We address this question by reanalyzing a unique recent survey of elite economists. We present a theoretical framework based on a formal sociological approach to the structure of belief systems and propose alignment, rather than consensus or polarization, as a model for the structure of belief in the economics profession. Moreover, we argue that social clustering in a heterogeneous network topology is a better model for disciplinary social structure than discrete factionalization. Results show that there is a robust latent ideological dimension related to economists’ departmental affiliations and political partisanship. Furthermore, we show that economists closer to one another in informal social networks also share more similar ideologies.

  20. Automating the expert consensus paradigm for robust lung tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Clinicians confirm the efficacy of dynamic multidisciplinary interactions in diagnosing Lung disease/wellness from CT scans. However, routine clinical practice cannot readily accomodate such interactions. Current schemes for automating lung tissue classification are based on a single elusive disease differentiating metric; this undermines their reliability in routine diagnosis. We propose a computational workflow that uses a collection (#: 15) of probability density functions (pdf)-based similarity metrics to automatically cluster pattern-specific (#patterns: 5) volumes of interest (#VOI: 976) extracted from the lung CT scans of 14 patients. The resultant clusters are refined for intra-partition compactness and subsequently aggregated into a super cluster using a cluster ensemble technique. The super clusters were validated against the consensus agreement of four clinical experts. The aggregations correlated strongly with expert consensus. By effectively mimicking the expertise of physicians, the proposed workflow could make automation of lung tissue classification a clinical reality.

  1. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increased demand of our society to its quality of life, global security and environmental safety as well as to observing a basic ethical principle of equity have advanced our attitude towards the recent proposals to develop shared multinational projects in the use of nuclear energy technologies, in particular, to: a) Siting of shared deep repositories for high-level radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel safe disposal. In turn, arrangement of multinational facilities requires to gain more complex consensus between all involved parties. Method: We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as Ashby principle of requisite variety. In the siting of a multi-national repository there appears an essential novel component of stake holder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, having possibly diverse political, economic and social interests. Main Results: Following inferences about building of multilevel consensus are developed: 1) The basis of synergetic approach to stake holder interaction - informational SO, by forming a knowledge-creating stake holder community via cooperation and competition among individuals, public bodies/groups, companies, institutions; 2) Building of international stake holder consensus could be promoted by activating and diversifying multilateral interactions between intra- and international stake

  2. A case study of consensus modelling for tracking oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Brian; Brushett, Ben; Lemckert, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Metocean forecast datasets are essential for the timely response to marine incidents and pollutant spill mitigation at sea. To effectively model the likely drift pattern and the area of impact for a marine spill, both wind and ocean current forecast datasets are required. There are two ocean current forecast models and two wind forecast models currently used operationally in the Australia and Asia Pacific region. The availability of several different forecast models provides a unique opportunity to compare the outcome of a particular modelling exercise with the outcome of another using a different model and determining whether there is consensus in the results. Two recent modelling exercises, the oil spill resulting from the damaged Pacific Adventurer (in Queensland) and the oil spill from the Montara well blowout (in Western Australia) are presented as case studies to examine consensus modelling.

  3. [Neuroendocrine dysfunction and brain damage. A consensus statement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Rincón, María Dolores; Domingo, Manel Puig

    2009-01-01

    This consensus statement aims to enhance awareness of the incidence and risks of hypopituitarism in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or brain hemorrhages among physicians treating patients with brain damage. The importance of this problem is related not only to the frequency of TBI but also to its prevalence in younger populations. The consequences of TBI are characterized by a series of symptoms that depend on the type of sequels related to neuroendocrine dysfunction. The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism are often confused with those of other sequels of TBI. Consequently, patients with posttraumatic hypopituitarism may receive suboptimal rehabilitation unless the underlying hormone deficiency is identified and treated. This consensus is based on the recommendation supported by expert opinion that patients with a TBI and/or brain hemorrhage should undergo endocrine evaluation in order to assess pituitary function and, if deficiency is detected, should receive hormone replacement therapy.

  4. Highlights of the international consensus statement on major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2011-06-01

    The International Consensus Group on Depression gathered to outline a universal treatment algorithm for depression with the purpose of merging the evidence base and standards of clinical practice from various countries, including the United States, Europe, the Middle East, China, and Japan. This brief summary includes the following recommendations made by the consensus group: periodically screen all patients for depression, use measurement-based tools and full psychiatric assessments to complete differential diagnoses, refer patients to psychiatric specialists when appropriate, establish a therapeutic alliance with patients and their families, begin treatment with an antidepressant for moderate or severe depression, treat patients to remission, and continually monitor patients' symptomatic improvement. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Engineering large-scale agent-based systems with consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokma, A.; Slade, A.; Kerridge, S.; Johnson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the consensus method for the development of large-scale agent-based systems. Systems can be developed as networks of knowledge based agents (KBA) which engage in a collaborative problem solving effort. The method provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to the development of this type of system. This includes a systematic analysis of user requirements as well as a structured approach to generating a system design which exhibits the desired functionality. There is a direct correspondence between system requirements and design components. The benefits of this approach are that requirements are traceable into design components and code thus facilitating verification. The use of the consensus method with two major test applications showed it to be successful and also provided valuable insight into problems typically associated with the development of large systems.

  6. Weighting sequence variants based on their annotation increases power of whole-genome association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Albrechtsen, Anders; Zink, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The consensus approach to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been to assign equal prior probability of association to all sequence variants tested. However, some sequence variants, such as loss-of-function and missense variants, are more likely than others to affect protein function...... for the family-wise error rate (FWER), using as weights the enrichment of sequence annotations among association signals. We show that this weighted adjustment increases the power to detect association over the standard Bonferroni correction. We use the enrichment of associations by sequence annotation we have...

  7. The False Consensus Effect: Deconstruction and Reconstruction of an Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Engelmann; Martin Strobel

    2004-01-01

    We present a striking example of the deconstruction and reconstruction or an anomaly. In line with previous experiments we show in a one-shot setting that the allegedly robust false consensus effect disappears if representative information is readily available. But the effect reappears if a small cognitive effort is required to retrieve the information. Most subjects apparently ignore valuable information if it is not handed to them on a silver platter. We conclude that the relevance of the f...

  8. To Create a Consensus on Malnutrition Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Gordon L

    2017-03-01

    During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016). Current thinking on diagnostic approaches was shared; ESPEN suggested a grading approach that could encompass various types of signs, symptoms, and etiologies to support diagnosis. ASPEN emphasized where the parties agree; that is, that the 3 major published approaches (ESPEN, ASPEN-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and Subjective Global Assessment [SGA]) all propose weight loss as a key indicator for malnutrition. FELANPE suggested that the anticipated consensus approach needs to prioritize a diagnostic method that is available for everybody since resources differ globally. PENSA highlighted that body mass index varies by ethnicity/race and that sarcopenia/muscle mass evaluation is important for the diagnosis of malnutrition. A Core Working Committee of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition has been established (comprising 2 representatives each from the 4 largest PEN societies) that will lead consensus development in collaboration with a larger working group with broad global representation, using e-mail, telephone conferences, and face-to-face meetings during the upcoming ASPEN and ESPEN congresses. Transparency and external input will be sought. Objectives include (1) consensus development around evidence-based criteria for broad application, (2) promotion of global dissemination of the

  9. Cooperation and Consensus Seeking for Teams of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-30

    border, a spreading forest fire, a growing toxic plume, or a group of fleeing enemy combatants. Our recent work on the development of consensus seeking...shows the airframes used for the flight tests reported in this section. The airframe is a 1.1 m wingspan Unicorn EPP foam flying wing, which was...fail-safe mechanism to facilitate safe operations. Figure 34: (a) Kestrel autopilot, (b) Unicorn airframes, (c) ground station components. Cooperative

  10. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another chal- lenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin...

  11. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another challenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin i...

  12. A new consensus measure based on Pearson correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Chiclana, Francisco; Gonzalez-Arteaga, Teresa; de Andres Calle, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining consensual solutions is an important issue in decision making processes. It depends on several factors such as experts’ opinions, principles, knowledge, experience, etc. In the literature we can find a considerable amount of consensus measurement from different research areas (from a Social Choice perspective: Alcalde-Unzu and Vorsatz [1], Alcantud, de Andres Calle and Cascon [2] and Bosch [3], among others and from Decision Making Theory: Gonzalez-Arteaga, Alcantud and ...

  13. Interdisciplinary consensus document for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miquel, C Alegre; Campayo, J García; Flórez, M Tomás; Arguelles, J M Gómez; Tarrio, E Blanco; Montoya, M Gobbo; Martin, Á Pérez; Salio, A Martínez; Fuentes, J Vidal; Alberch, E Altarriba; de la Cámara, A Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Backgrounds. The elevated prevalence and enormous clinical and social impact of fibromyalgia, together with the complexity of its treatment, require action consensuses that guide health care professionals. Although there are some similar documents in our language, most have been made from the perspective of a single discipline.Objective. To develop a consensus on the treatment of fibromyalgia made by selected representatives and supported by the principal medical associations that intervene in its treatment (rheumatology, neurology, psychiatry,rehabilitation and family medicine) and representatives of the associations of patients. On the other hand, understanding the disease not as a homogenous disorders but also as the sum of different clinical subtypes,having specific symptomatic characteristics and different therapeutic needs is stressed. This approach represented a need perceived by the clinicians and a novelty regarding previous consensuses.Methods. The different clinical classifications proposed in fibromyalgia and the scientific evidence of the treatments used in this disease were reviewed. For the selection of the classification used and performance of the therapeutic recommendations, some of the usual techniques to obtain the consensus (nominal group and brainstorming) were used.Conclusion. The classification of Giesecke of fibromyalgia into 3 subgroups seems to have the greatest scientific evidence and the most useful for the clinician. The guide offers a series of general recommendations for all the patients with fibromyalgia. However, in addition, for each subgroup, there are a series of specific pharmacological and psychological-type recommendations and those of modification of the environment, which will make it possible to have a personalized approach to the patient with fibromyalgia in accordance with their individual clinical characteristics (pain, catastrophizing levels, etc.).

  14. Development of Consensus Treatment Plans for Juvenile Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzanne C.; Torok, Kathryn S.; Pope, Elena; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hong, Sandy; Jacobe, Heidi T.; Rabinovich, C. Egla; Laxer, Ronald M.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ferguson, Polly J.; Lasky, Andrew; Baszis, Kevin; Becker, Mara; Campillo, Sarah; Cartwright, Victoria; Cidon, Michael; Inman, Christi J; Jerath, Rita; O'Neil, Kathleen M.; Vora, Sheetal; Zeft, Andrew; Wallace, Carol A.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop standardized treatment plans, clinical assessments, and response criteria for active, moderate to high severity juvenile localized scleroderma (jLS). Background jLS is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with substantial morbidity and disability. Although a wide range of therapeutic strategies have been reported in the literature, a lack of agreement on treatment specifics and accepted methods for clinical assessment of have made it difficult to compare approaches and identify optimal therapy. Methods A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, dermatologists and a lay advisor was engaged by the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) to develop standardized treatment plans and assessment parameters for jLS using consensus methods/nominal group techniques. Recommendations were validated in two face-to-face conferences with a larger group of practitioners with expertise in jLS and with the full membership of CARRA, which encompasses the majority of pediatric rheumatologists in the U.S and Canada. Results Consensus was achieved on standardized treatment plans that reflect the prevailing treatment practices of CARRA members. Standardized clinical assessment methods and provisional treatment response criteria were also developed. Greater than 90% of pediatric rheumatologists responding to a survey (67% of CARRA membership) affirmed the final recommendations and agreed to utilize these consensus plans to treat patients with jLS. Conclusions Using consensus methodology, we have developed standardized treatment plans and assessment methods for jLS. The high level of support among pediatric rheumatologists will support future comparative effectiveness studies and enable the development of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of jLS. PMID:22505322

  15. Semi-supervised consensus clustering for gene expression data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunli; Pan, Youlian

    2014-01-01

    Background Simple clustering methods such as hierarchical clustering and k-means are widely used for gene expression data analysis; but they are unable to deal with noise and high dimensionality associated with the microarray gene expression data. Consensus clustering appears to improve the robustness and quality of clustering results. Incorporating prior knowledge in clustering process (semi-supervised clustering) has been shown to improve the consistency between the data partitioning and do...

  16. Use of expert consensus to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Brea-Hernando, Ángel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla-Morató, Teresa; Pintó-Sala, Xavier; Simó, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Although atherogenic dyslipidemia is a recognized cardiovascular risk factor, it is often underassessed and thus undertreated and poorly controlled in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to reach a multidisciplinary consensus for the establishment of a set of clinical recommendations on atherogenic dyslipidemia to optimize its prevention, early detection, diagnostic evaluation, therapeutic approach, and follow-up. After a review of the scientific evidence, a scientific committee formulated 87 recommendations related to atherogenic dyslipidemia, which were grouped into 5 subject areas: general concepts (10 items), impact and epidemiology (4 items), cardiovascular risk (32 items), detection and diagnosis (19 items), and treatment (22 items). A 2-round modified Delphi method was conducted to compare the opinions of a panel of 65 specialists in cardiology (23%), endocrinology (24.6%), family medicine (27.7%), and internal medicine (24.6%) on these issues. After the first round, the panel reached consensus on 65 of the 87 items discussed, and agreed on 76 items by the end of the second round. Insufficient consensus was reached on 3 items related to the detection and diagnosis of atherogenic dyslipidemia and 3 items related to the therapeutic goals to be achieved in these patients. The external assessment conducted by experts on atherogenic dyslipidemia showed a high level of professional agreement with the proposed clinical recommendations. These recommendations represent a useful tool for improving the clinical management of patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. A detailed analysis of the current scientific evidence is required for those statements that eluded consensus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Replication, gene expression and particle production by a consensus Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Neumann

    Full Text Available Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV genomes are clonally integrated in tumor tissues of approximately 85% of all Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC cases, a highly aggressive tumor of the skin which predominantly afflicts elderly and immunosuppressed patients. All integrated viral genomes recovered from MCC tissue or MCC cell lines harbor signature mutations in the early gene transcript encoding for the large T-Antigen (LT-Ag. These mutations selectively abrogate the ability of LT-Ag to support viral replication while still maintaining its Rb-binding activity, suggesting a continuous requirement for LT-Ag mediated cell cycle deregulation during MCC pathogenesis. To gain a better understanding of MCPyV biology, in vitro MCPyV replication systems are required. We have generated a synthetic MCPyV genomic clone (MCVSyn based on the consensus sequence of MCC-derived sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Here, we demonstrate that transfection of recircularized MCVSyn DNA into some human cell lines recapitulates efficient replication of the viral genome, early and late gene expression together with virus particle formation. However, serial transmission of infectious virus was not observed. This in vitro culturing system allows the study of viral replication and will facilitate the molecular dissection of important aspects of the MCPyV lifecycle.

  18. Group consensus peer review in radiation oncology: commitment to quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggar, W Neil; Bhandari, Rahul; Yang, Chunli Claus; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2018-03-27

    Peer review, especially prospective peer review, has been supported by professional organizations as an important element in optimal Radiation Oncology practice based on its demonstration of efficacy at detecting and preventing errors prior to patient treatment. Implementation of peer review is not without barriers, but solutions do exist to mitigate or eliminate some of those barriers. Peer review practice at our institution involves three key elements: new patient conference, treatment planning conference, and chart rounds. The treatment planning conference is an adaptation of the group consensus peer review model from radiology which utilizes a group of peers reviewing each treatment plan prior to implementation. The peer group in radiation oncology includes Radiation Oncologists, Physician Residents, Medical Physicists, Dosimetrists, and Therapists. Thus, technical and clinical aspects of each plan are evaluated simultaneously. Though peer review is held in high regard in Radiation Oncology, many barriers commonly exist preventing optimal implementation such as time intensiveness, repetition, and distraction from clinic time with patients. Through the use of automated review tools and commitment by individuals and administration in regards to staffing, scheduling, and responsibilities, these barriers have been mitigated to implement this Group Consensus Peer Review model into a Radiation Oncology Clinic. A Group Consensus Peer Review model has been implemented with strategies to address common barriers to effective and efficient peer review.

  19. Probabilistic consensus scoring improves tandem mass spectrometry peptide identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahnsen, Sven; Bertsch, Andreas; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Nordheim, Alfred; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2011-08-05

    Database search is a standard technique for identifying peptides from their tandem mass spectra. To increase the number of correctly identified peptides, we suggest a probabilistic framework that allows the combination of scores from different search engines into a joint consensus score. Central to the approach is a novel method to estimate scores for peptides not found by an individual search engine. This approach allows the estimation of p-values for each candidate peptide and their combination across all search engines. The consensus approach works better than any single search engine across all different instrument types considered in this study. Improvements vary strongly from platform to platform and from search engine to search engine. Compared to the industry standard MASCOT, our approach can identify up to 60% more peptides. The software for consensus predictions is implemented in C++ as part of OpenMS, a software framework for mass spectrometry. The source code is available in the current development version of OpenMS and can easily be used as a command line application or via a graphical pipeline designer TOPPAS.

  20. Assessment and management of agitation in psychiatry: Expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Marina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Kasper, Siegfried; Zeller, Scott L; Allen, Michael H; Vázquez, Gustavo; Baldaçara, Leonardo; San, Luis; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Courtet, Philippe; Naber, Dieter; Chan, Esther W; Fagiolini, Andrea; Möller, Hans Jürgen; Grunze, Heinz; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Jaffe, Richard L; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Passamar, Marc; Messer, Thomas; Bernardo, Miquel; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Psychomotor agitation is associated with different psychiatric conditions and represents an important issue in psychiatry. Current recommendations on agitation in psychiatry are not univocal. Actually, an improper assessment and management may result in unnecessary coercive or sedative treatments. A thorough and balanced review plus an expert consensus can guide assessment and treatment decisions. An expert task force iteratively developed consensus using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new, re-worded or re-rated items. Out of 2175 papers assessing psychomotor agitation, 124 were included in the review. Each component was assigned a level of evidence. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 22 statements on this topic. Recommendations on the assessment of agitation emphasise the importance of identifying any possible medical cause. For its management, experts agreed in considering verbal de-escalation and environmental modification techniques as first choice, considering physical restraint as a last resort strategy. Regarding pharmacological treatment, the "ideal" medication should calm without over-sedate. Generally, oral or inhaled formulations should be preferred over i.m. routes in mildly agitated patients. Intravenous treatments should be avoided.

  1. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  2. Delayed Consensus Problem for Single and Double Integrator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Velasco-Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis of the consensus problem for networks of agents constituted by single and double integrator systems. It is assumed that the communication among agents is affected by a constant time-delay. Previous and numerous analysis of the problem shows that the maximum communication time-delay that can be introduced to the network without affecting the consensus of the group of the agents depends on the considered topology. In this work, a control scheme that is based on the estimation of future states of the agents and that allows increasing the magnitude of a possible time-delay affecting the communication channels is proposed. How the proposed delay compensation strategy is independent of the network topology in the sense that the maximum allowable time-delay that could be supported by the network depends on a design parameter and not on the maximum eigenvalue of the corresponding Laplacian matrix is shown. It is formally proven that, under the proposed prediction scheme, the consensus of the group can be achieved by improving the maximum time-delay bounds previously reported in the literature. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  3. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Bai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN – the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts’ experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  4. Lack of international consensus in low-risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtwaengler, Nina A F F; de Visser, Richard O

    2013-01-01

    To encourage moderate alcohol consumption, many governments have developed guidelines for alcohol intake, guidelines for alcohol consumption during pregnancy and legislation relating to blood alcohol limits when driving. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of international consensus within such guidelines. Official definitions of standard drinks and consumption guidelines were searched for on government websites, including all 27 European Union Member States and countries from all global geographic regions. There was a remarkable lack of agreement about what constitutes harmful or excessive alcohol consumption on a daily basis, a weekly basis and when driving, with no consensus about the ratios of consumption guidelines for men and women. International consensus in low-risk drinking guidelines is an important--and achievable--goal. Such agreement would facilitate consistent labelling of packaged products and could help to promote moderate alcohol consumption. However, there are some paradoxes related to alcohol content labelling and people's use of such information: although clearer information could increase people's capacity to monitor and regulate their alcohol consumption, not all drinkers are motivated to drink moderately or sensibly, and drinkers who intend to get drunk may use alcohol content labelling to select more alcoholic products. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. European consensus on the histopathology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, F; Langner, C; Driessen, A; Ensari, A; Geboes, K; Mantzaris, G J; Villanacci, V; Becheanu, G; Borralho Nunes, P; Cathomas, G; Fries, W; Jouret-Mourin, A; Mescoli, C; de Petris, G; Rubio, C A; Shepherd, N A; Vieth, M; Eliakim, R

    2013-11-01

    The histologic examination of endoscopic biopsies or resection specimens remains a key step in the work-up of affected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and can be used for diagnosis and differential diagnosis, particularly in the differentiation of UC from CD and other non-IBD related colitides. The introduction of new treatment strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) interfering with the patients' immune system may result in mucosal healing, making the pathologists aware of the impact of treatment upon diagnostic features. The European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly elaborated a consensus to establish standards for histopathology diagnosis in IBD. The consensus endeavors to address: (i) procedures required for a proper diagnosis, (ii) features which can be used for the analysis of endoscopic biopsies, (iii) features which can be used for the analysis of surgical samples, (iv) criteria for diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and (v) special situations including those inherent to therapy. Questions that were addressed include: how many features should be present for a firm diagnosis? What is the role of histology in patient management, including search for dysplasia? Which features if any, can be used for assessment of disease activity? The statements and general recommendations of this consensus are based on the highest level of evidence available, but significant gaps remain in certain areas. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Multiagent Systems With Input Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaipin; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Songlin; Dou, Chunxia; Huaipin Zhang; Dong Yue; Wei Zhao; Songlin Hu; Chunxia Dou; Hu, Songlin; Zhang, Huaipin; Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distributed optimal consensus control for a continuous-time heterogeneous linear multiagent system subject to time varying input delays. First, by discretization and model transformation, the continuous-time input-delayed system is converted into a discrete-time delay-free system. Two delicate performance index functions are defined for these two systems. It is shown that the performance index functions are equivalent and the optimal consensus control problem of the input-delayed system can be cast into that of the delay-free system. Second, by virtue of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations, an optimal control policy for each agent is designed based on the delay-free system and a novel value iteration algorithm is proposed to learn the solutions to the HJB equations online. The proposed adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is implemented on the basis of a critic-action neural network (NN) structure. Third, it is proved that local consensus errors of the two systems and weight estimation errors of the critic-action NNs are uniformly ultimately bounded while the approximated control policies converge to their target values. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed method.

  7. The Oslo consensus conference on protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Strand, P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of international organisations are focussing on a revision of radiation protection policy from the existing system which addresses only effects on man, to one which also addresses effects on the wider environment. These developments are expected to effect a wide range of stakeholders, including industry, regulators, scientists, users and the public. With this in mind a 'Consensus Conference on Protection of the Environment' was arranged as part of an International Seminar on 'Radiation Protection in the 21st Century: Ethical, Philosophical and Environmental Issues' held at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The conference attracted 46 international experts representing various disciplines and affiliations including Environmental Science, Health Physics, Radioecology, Ethics and Philosophy and a wide spectrum of perspectives bearing on the question of radiation protection of the environment. The conference was novel in that the participants were professionals rather than laypersons, and the purpose of the consensus procedure was to identify areas of agreement as an input to the ongoing regulatory developments. The success and innovation of the model is reflected in the significant areas of agreement identified in the final consensus statement, and the subsequent interest at an international level. Participants also noted the need for furthering the debate through ongoing work. Notable issues were the harmonisation of standards for radiation with other environmental stressors, guidance for balancing different interests and values within practical management, and the need for assessment criteria

  8. Spanish Consensus Statement: The Treatment of Muscle Tears in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas F; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel Del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-12-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms-without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period-all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain.

  9. Time for a neonatal-specific consensus definition for sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, James L; Wong, Hector R; Shanley, Thomas P; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Saiman, Lisa; Polin, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    To review the accuracy of the pediatric consensus definition of sepsis in term neonates and to determine the definition of neonatal sepsis used. The review focused primarily on pediatric literature relevant to the topic of interest. Neonatal sepsis is variably defined based on a number of clinical and laboratory criteria that make the study of this common and devastating condition very difficult. Diagnostic challenges and uncertain disease epidemiology necessarily result from a variable definition of disease. In 2005, intensivists caring for children recognized that as new drugs became available, children would be increasingly studied and thus, pediatric-specific consensus definitions were needed. Pediatric sepsis criteria are not accurate for term neonates and have not been examined in preterm neonates for whom the developmental stage influences aberrations associated with host immune response. Thus, specific consensus definitions for both term and preterm neonates are needed. Such definitions are critical for the interpretation of observational studies, future training of scientists and practitioners, and implementation of clinical trials in neonates.

  10. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-05-01

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P

    2016-05-01

    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: towards a unified consensus linkage map for fine mapping and synteny analysis in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Fernandez, Andrea C; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A; McClean, Phillip E; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364 × BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364 × G19833 (DG) and BAT93 × JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning.

  13. Food Security: The Elaboration of Contested Claims to a Consensus Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Patrick H.; Hunt, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates Gamson's claim that behind the apparent agreement implied by "consensus frames" lies considerable dissensus. Ironically, the very potency of consensus frames may generate contested claims to the ownership of a social problem. Food security is a potent consensus frame that has generated at least three distinct collective…

  14. 30 CFR Appendix I to Subpart M of... - National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Consensus Standards I Appendix I to... Machinery and Equipment Pt. 56, Subpt. M, App. I Appendix I to Subpart M of Part 56—National Consensus... object protective structures (FOPS) may consult the following national consensus standards, as applicable...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Consensus Standards B Appendix B to Subpart L of... Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 1910—National Consensus Standards The following table contains a cross-reference listing of those current national consensus standards which contains information and guidelines...

  16. Second-Order Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Directed Topologies and Nonlinear Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Kurths, Juergen; Kurths, Jürgen

    This paper considers a second-order consensus problem for multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics and directed topologies where each agent is governed by both position and velocity consensus terms with a time-varying asymptotic velocity. To describe the system's ability for reaching consensus, a

  17. Increased sequence diversity coverage improves detection of HIV-Specific T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, N.; Kaufmann, D.E.; Yusim, K.

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of HIV-specific T cell responses is important for determining the relationship between immune response, viral control, and disease progression. HIV-specific immune responses are usually measured using peptide sets based on consensus sequences, which frequently miss res...

  18. Perceptions of a fluid consensus: uniqueness bias, false consensus, false polarization, and pluralistic ignorance in a water conservation crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Benoît; Norton, Michael I

    2003-05-01

    A 5-day field study (N = 415) during and right after a shower ban demonstrated multifaceted social projection and the tendency to draw personality inferences from simple behavior in a time of drastic consensus change. Bathers thought showering was more prevalent than did non-bathers (false consensus) and respondents consistently underestimated the prevalence of the desirable and common behavior--be it not showering during the shower ban or showering after the ban (uniqueness bias). Participants thought that bathers and non-bathers during the ban differed greatly in their general concern for the community, but self-reports demonstrated that this gap was illusory (false polarization). Finally, bathers thought other bathers cared less than they did, whereas non-bathers thought other non-bathers cared more than they did (pluralistic ignorance). The study captures the many biases at work in social perception in a time of social change.

  19. Towards global consensus on core outcomes for hidradenitis suppurativa research: an update from the HISTORIC consensus meetings I and II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, L.; Garg, A.; Ingram, J.R.; Villumsen, B.; Riis, P. Theut; Gottlieb, A.B.; Merola, J.F.; Dellavalle, R.; Ardon, C.; Baba, R.; Bechara, F.G.; Cohen, A.D.; Daham, N.; Davis, M.; Emtestam, L.; Fernández-Peñas, P.; Filippelli, M.; Gibbons, A.; Grant, T.; Guilbault, S.; Gulliver, S.; Harris, C; Harvent, C.; Houston, K.; Kirby, J.S.; Matusiak, L.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Mojica, T.; Okun, M.; Orgill, D.; Pallack, L.; Parks-Miller, A.; Prens, E.P.; Randell, S.; Rogers, C.; Rosen, C.F.; Choon, S.E.; van der Zee, H.H.; Christensen, R.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background A core outcomes set (COS) is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific condition. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has no agreed-upon COS. A central aspect in the COS development process is to identify a set of candidate outcome domains from a long list of items. Our long list had been developed from patient interviews, a systematic review of the literature and a healthcare professional survey, and initial votes had been cast in two e-Delphi surveys. In this manuscript, we describe two in-person consensus meetings of Delphi participants designed to ensure an inclusive approach to generation of domains from related items. Objectives To consider which items from a long list of candidate items to exclude and which to cluster into outcome domains. Methods The study used an international and multistakeholder approach, involving patients, dermatologists, surgeons, the pharmaceutical industry and medical regulators. The study format was a combination of formal presentations, small group work based on nominal group theory and a subsequent online confirmation survey. Results Forty-one individuals from 13 countries and four continents participated. Nine items were excluded and there was consensus to propose seven domains: disease course, physical signs, HS-specific quality of life, satisfaction, symptoms, pain and global assessments. Conclusions The HISTORIC consensus meetings I and II will be followed by further e-Delphi rounds to finalize the core domain set, building on the work of the in-person consensus meetings. PMID:29080368

  20. IncobotulinumtoxinA in aesthetics: Russian multidisciplinary expert consensus recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutskovskaya Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yana Yutskovskaya,1 Elena Gubanova,2 Irina Khrustaleva,3 Vasiliy Atamanov,4 Anastasiya Saybel,5 Elena Parsagashvili,6 Irina Dmitrieva,7 Elena Sanchez,8 Natalia Lapatina,9 Tatiana Korolkova,10 Alena Saromytskaya,11 Elena Goltsova,12 Elmira Satardinova13 1Department of Dermatovenereology and Cosmetology, Pacific State Medical University, Vladivostock, 2Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Moscow National University of Food Production, Moscow, 3Department of Plastic Surgery, IP Pavlov Medical State University, St Petersburg, 4Department of Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, SN Fedorova, Federal State Institution, Novosibirsk, 5Clinic Ideal, Laser Technologies Center, Moscow, 6Aestima-clinic, 7Clinic “Academy”, St Petersburg, 8Eklan Medical Center of Cosmetological Correction, 9Clinic of Aesthetic Medicine and Plastic Surgery, Moscow, 10Department of Cosmetology, II Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, St Petersburg, 11Plastic Surgery Clinic, Center of Aesthetic Medicine and Beauty Cosmetology, 12“Neo-Clinic,” Tyumen, 13Botulinum Toxin Therapy Department, Diagnostic Center of the Irkutsk State Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Irkutsk, Russia Background: Although there are various international consensus recommendations on the use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A in facial aesthetics, there are no global or Russian guidelines on the optimal dose of incobotulinumtoxinA, free from complexing proteins, within specific aesthetic indications. This article reports the outcomes of two expert consensus meetings, conducted to review and analyze efficacy and tolerability data for incobotulinumtoxinA in various facial aesthetic indications and to give expert consensus recommendations to ensure best clinical practice among Russian clinicians. Methods: Thirteen dermatology and/or plastic surgery experts attended meetings held in Paris, France (November 2013, and Moscow, Russia (March 2014

  1. Non-consensus Opinion Models on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-04-01

    Social dynamic opinion models have been widely studied to understand how interactions among individuals cause opinions to evolve. Most opinion models that utilize spin interaction models usually produce a consensus steady state in which only one opinion exists. Because in reality different opinions usually coexist, we focus on non-consensus opinion models in which above a certain threshold two opinions coexist in a stable relationship. We revisit and extend the non-consensus opinion (NCO) model introduced by Shao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:01870, 2009). The NCO model in random networks displays a second order phase transition that belongs to regular mean field percolation and is characterized by the appearance (above a certain threshold) of a large spanning cluster of the minority opinion. We generalize the NCO model by adding a weight factor W to each individual's original opinion when determining their future opinion (NCO W model). We find that as W increases the minority opinion holders tend to form stable clusters with a smaller initial minority fraction than in the NCO model. We also revisit another non-consensus opinion model based on the NCO model, the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model (Li et al. in Phys. Rev. E 84:066101, 2011), which introduces inflexible contrarians to model the competition between two opinions in a steady state. Inflexible contrarians are individuals that never change their original opinion but may influence the opinions of others. To place the inflexible contrarians in the ICO model we use two different strategies, random placement and one in which high-degree nodes are targeted. The inflexible contrarians effectively decrease the size of the largest rival-opinion cluster in both strategies, but the effect is more pronounced under the targeted method. All of the above models have previously been explored in terms of a single network, but human communities are usually interconnected, not isolated. Because opinions propagate not

  2. Detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis a virus in water by consensus primer multiplex RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yuan, Chang-Qing; Zheng, Jin-Lai; Jin, Min; Song, Nong; Shi, Xiu-Quan; Chao, Fu-Huan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To develop a rapid detection method of enteroviruses and Hepatitis A virus (HAV). METHODS: A one-step, single-tube consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR was developed to simultaneously detect Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV. A general upstream primer and a HAV primer and four different sets of primers (5 primers) specific for Poliovirus, Coxsacki evirus, Echovirus and HAV cDNA were mixed in the PCR mixture to reverse transcript and amplify the target DNA. Four distinct amplified DNA segments representing Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV were identified by gel electrophoresis as 589-, 671-, 1084-, and 1128 bp sequences, respectively. Semi-nested PCR was used to confirm the amplified products for each enterovirus and HAV. RESULTS: All four kinds of viral genome RNA were detected, and producing four bands which could be differentiated by the band size on the gel. To confirm the specificity of the multiplex PCR products, semi-nested PCR was performed. For all the four strains tested gave positive results. The detection sensitivity of multiplex PCR was similar to that of monoplex RT-PCR which was 24 PFU for Poliovrus, 21 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 60 PFU for Echovirus and 105 TCID50 for HAV. The minimum amount of enteric viral RNA detected by semi-nested PCR was equivalent to 2.4 PFU for Poliovrus, 2.1 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 6.0 PFU for Echovirus and 10.5 TCID50 for HAV. CONCLUSION: The consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR has more advantages over monoplex RT-PCR for enteric viruses detection, namely, the rapid turnaround time and cost effectiveness. PMID:12174381

  3. Reconstruction of ancestral RNA sequences under multiple structural constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Tremblay-Savard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary structures form the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of non-coding RNA (ncRNA families. An accurate reconstruction of ancestral ncRNAs must use this structural signal. However, the inference of ancestors of a single ncRNA family with a single consensus structure may bias the results towards sequences with high affinity to this structure, which are far from the true ancestors. Methods In this paper, we introduce achARNement, a maximum parsimony approach that, given two alignments of homologous ncRNA families with consensus secondary structures and a phylogenetic tree, simultaneously calculates ancestral RNA sequences for these two families. Results We test our methodology on simulated data sets, and show that achARNement outperforms classical maximum parsimony approaches in terms of accuracy, but also reduces by several orders of magnitude the number of candidate sequences. To conclude this study, we apply our algorithms on the Glm clan and the FinP-traJ clan from the Rfam database. Conclusions Our results show that our methods reconstruct small sets of high-quality candidate ancestors with better agreement to the two target structures than with classical approaches. Our program is freely available at: http://csb.cs.mcgill.ca/acharnement .

  4. Reconstruction of ancestral RNA sequences under multiple structural constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Savard, Olivier; Reinharz, Vladimir; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2016-11-11

    Secondary structures form the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) families. An accurate reconstruction of ancestral ncRNAs must use this structural signal. However, the inference of ancestors of a single ncRNA family with a single consensus structure may bias the results towards sequences with high affinity to this structure, which are far from the true ancestors. In this paper, we introduce achARNement, a maximum parsimony approach that, given two alignments of homologous ncRNA families with consensus secondary structures and a phylogenetic tree, simultaneously calculates ancestral RNA sequences for these two families. We test our methodology on simulated data sets, and show that achARNement outperforms classical maximum parsimony approaches in terms of accuracy, but also reduces by several orders of magnitude the number of candidate sequences. To conclude this study, we apply our algorithms on the Glm clan and the FinP-traJ clan from the Rfam database. Our results show that our methods reconstruct small sets of high-quality candidate ancestors with better agreement to the two target structures than with classical approaches. Our program is freely available at: http://csb.cs.mcgill.ca/acharnement .

  5. Improvement in Protein Domain Identification Is Reached by Breaking Consensus, with the Agreement of Many Profiles and Domain Co-occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bernardes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional protein annotation methods describe known domains with probabilistic models representing consensus among homologous domain sequences. However, when relevant signals become too weak to be identified by a global consensus, attempts for annotation fail. Here we address the fundamental question of domain identification for highly divergent proteins. By using high performance computing, we demonstrate that the limits of state-of-the-art annotation methods can be bypassed. We design a new strategy based on the observation that many structural and functional protein constraints are not globally conserved through all species but might be locally conserved in separate clades. We propose a novel exploitation of the large amount of data available: 1. for each known protein domain, several probabilistic clade-centered models are constructed from a large and differentiated panel of homologous sequences, 2. a decision-making protocol combines outcomes obtained from multiple models, 3. a multi-criteria optimization algorithm finds the most likely protein architecture. The method is evaluated for domain and architecture prediction over several datasets and statistical testing hypotheses. Its performance is compared against HMMScan and HHblits, two widely used search methods based on sequence-profile and profile-profile comparison. Due to their closeness to actual protein sequences, clade-centered models are shown to be more specific and functionally predictive than the broadly used consensus models. Based on them, we improved annotation of Plasmodium falciparum protein sequences on a scale not previously possible. We successfully predict at least one domain for 72% of P. falciparum proteins against 63% achieved previously, corresponding to 30% of improvement over the total number of Pfam domain predictions on the whole genome. The method is applicable to any genome and opens new avenues to tackle evolutionary questions such as the reconstruction of

  6. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  7. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea; García-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft...... genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration...... sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection...

  8. Consensus-based perspectives of pediatric inpatient eating disorder services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amy; McCormack, Julie; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Watson, Hunna J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hay, Phillipa; Egan, Sarah J

    2018-03-14

    There are few evidence-based guidelines for inpatient pediatric eating disorders. The aim was to gain perspectives from those providing and receiving inpatient pediatric eating disorder care on the essential components treatment. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus-based opinions. Participants (N = 74) were recruited for three panels: clinicians (n = 24), carers (n = 31), and patients (n = 19), who endorsed three rounds of statements online. A total of 167 statements were rated, 79 were accepted and reached a consensus level of at least 75% across all panels, and 87 were rejected. All agreed that families should be involved in treatment, and thatpsychological therapy be offered in specialist inpatient units. Areas of disagreement included that patients expressed a desire for autonomy in sessions being available without carers, and that weight gain should be gradual and admissions longer, in contrast to carers and clinicians. Carers endorsed that legal frameworks should be used to retain patients if required, and that inpatients are supervised at all times, in contrast to patients and clinicians. Clinicians endorsed that food access should be restricted outside meal times, in contrast to patients and carers. The findings indicate areas of consensus in admission criteria, and that families should be involved in treatment, family involvement in treatment, while there was disagreement across groups on topics including weight goals and nutrition management. Perspectives from patients, carers, and clinicians may be useful to consider during future revisions of best practice guidelines. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radiology curriculum for undergraduate medical studies—A consensus survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Mankad, K.; McCoubrie, P.; Roberts, T.; Kessel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish an expert consensus of what, when, and how the teaching of radiology should be incorporated into the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods and materials: This Delphi survey consisted of four iterative rounds, with feedback given at the start of each successive round in the form of the results of the previous round. The participants consisted of both radiologists and non-radiologists with significant interest and involvement in radiology and undergraduate/Foundation training. The study addressed the questions of how, where, when, and by whom radiology should be taught. Results: The number of responses in rounds 1–4 was 20, 23, 41, and 25 (25, 22, 31, and 61% response rate, respectively). There was good consensus amongst the responders on the following: radiology teaching must be delivered in conjunction with anatomy and clinical case-based teaching, if possible in the department of radiology on picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations, and the teaching should be delivered by a competent and credentialled individual. Case-based assessment was the most agreed method of assessment. The majority of the responders concurred that the curriculum should include general indications for commonly requested radiological investigations, consent and safety issues around radiological tests, and their basic interpretation. Conclusion: The consensus points reached by the present study not only serve as directive principles for developing a more comprehensive radiology curriculum, but also places emphasis on a broader range of knowledge required to promote the best use of a department of radiology by junior doctors in an attempt to improve patient experiences and care.

  10. Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André

    2015-12-01

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of individual biases on consensus formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sales-Pardo

    Full Text Available Social groups of interacting agents display an ability to coordinate in the absence of a central authority, a phenomenon that has been recently amplified by the widespread availability of social networking technologies. Models of opinion formation in a population of agents have proven a very useful tool to investigate these phenomena that arise independently of the heterogeneities across individuals and can be used to identify the factors that determine whether widespread consensus on an initial small majority is reached. Recently, we introduced a model in which individual agents can have conservative and partisan biases. Numerical simulations for finite populations showed that while the inclusion of conservative agents in a population enhances the population's efficiency in reaching consensus on the initial majority opinion, even a small fraction of partisans leads the population to converge on the opinion initially held by a minority. To further understand the mechanisms leading to our previous numerical results, we investigate analytically the noise driven transition from a regime in which the population reaches a majority consensus (efficient, to a regime in which the population settles in deadlock (non-efficient. We show that the mean-field solution captures what we observe in model simulations. Populations of agents with no opinion bias show a continuous transition to a deadlock regime, while populations with an opinion bias, show a discontinuous transition between efficient and partisan regimes. Furthermore, the analytical solution reveals that populations with an increasing fraction of conservative agents are more robust against noise than a population of naive agents because in the efficient regime there are relatively more conservative than naive agents holding the majority opinion. In contrast, populations with partisan agents are less robust to noise with an increasing fraction of partisans, because in the efficient regime there are

  12. Complications to evaluate adult trauma care: An expert consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynne; Lauzier, François; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Le Sage, Natalie; Bourgeois, Gilles; Clément, Julien; Shemilt, Michèle; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2014-08-01

    Complications affect up to 37% of patients hospitalized for injury and increase mortality, morbidity, and costs. One of the keys to controlling complications for injury admissions is to monitor in-hospital complication rates. However, there is no consensus on which complications should be used to evaluate the quality of trauma care. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based list of complications that can be used to assess the acute phase of adult trauma care. We used a three-round Web-based Delphi survey among experts in the field of trauma care quality with a broad range of clinical expertise and geographic diversity. The main outcome measure was median importance rating on a 5-point Likert scale (very low to very high); complications with a median of 4 or greater and no disagreement were retained. A secondary measure was the perceived quality of information on each complication available in patient files. Of 19 experts invited to participate, 17 completed the first (brainstorming) round and 16 (84%) completed all rounds. Of 73 complications generated in Round 1, a total of 25 were retained including adult respiratory distress syndrome, hospital-acquired pneumonia, sepsis, acute renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, wound infection, decubitus ulcers, and delirium. Of these, 19 (76%) were perceived to have high-quality or very high-quality information in patient files by more than 50% of the panel members. This study proposes a consensus-based list of 25 complications that can be used to evaluate the quality of acute adult trauma care. These complications can be used to develop an informative and actionable quality indicator to evaluate trauma care with the goal of decreasing rates of hospital complications and thus improving patient outcomes and resource use. DRG International Classification of Diseases codes are provided.

  13. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T L; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H L; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations. Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians' increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty. Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  14. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  15. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  16. SEPAR-ALAT Consensus Document on Antipneumoccal Vaccination in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Sansores, Raúl; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Luhning, Susana; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Casas Herrera, Alejandro; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for several clinical syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and others. The most severe clinical entity caused by this bacteria is undoubtedly invasive pneumococcal disease. Certain factors are known to increase the risk of presenting invasive pneumococcal disease, the most important being smoking habit and underlying concomitant diseases. This article comprises a consensus document on antipneumococcal vaccination in smokers, drawn up by a Smoking Expert Group from the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery and the Latin American Chest Association. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Global consensus for discrete-time competitive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.-W.; Tseng, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Grossberg established a remarkable convergence theorem for a class of competitive systems without knowing and using Lyapunov function for the systems. We present the parallel investigations for the discrete-time version of the Grossberg's model. Through developing an extended component-competing analysis for the coupled system, without knowing a Lyapunov function and applying the LaSalle's invariance principle, the global pattern formation or the so-called global consensus for the system can be achieved. A numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the present theory.

  18. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large...

  19. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...

  20. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...

  1. Core Outcomes for Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Consensus Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G K McNair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is common, and there is a great need to improve the delivery of such care. The gold standard for evaluating surgery is within well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs; however, the impact of RCTs is diminished by a lack of coordinated outcome measurement and reporting. A solution to these issues is to develop an agreed standard "core" set of outcomes to be measured in all trials to facilitate cross-study comparisons, meta-analysis, and minimize outcome reporting bias. This study defines a core outcome set for CRC surgery.The scope of this COS includes clinical effectiveness trials of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer. Excluded were nonsurgical oncological interventions. Potential outcomes of importance to patients and professionals were identified through systematic literature reviews and patient interviews. All outcomes were transcribed verbatim and categorized into domains by two independent researchers. This informed a questionnaire survey that asked stakeholders (patients and professionals from United Kingdom CRC centers to rate the importance of each domain. Respondents were resurveyed following group feedback (Delphi methods. Outcomes rated as less important were discarded after each survey round according to predefined criteria, and remaining outcomes were considered at three consensus meetings; two involving international professionals and a separate one with patients. A modified nominal group technique was used to gain the final consensus. Data sources identified 1,216 outcomes of CRC surgery that informed a 91 domain questionnaire. First round questionnaires were returned from 63 out of 81 (78% centers, including 90 professionals, and 97 out of 267 (35% patients. Second round response rates were high for all stakeholders (>80%. Analysis of responses lead to 45 and 23 outcome domains being retained after the first and

  2. Fitness voter model: Damped oscillations and anomalous consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, Anthony; Connaughton, Colm; Merali, Yasmin; Vazquez, Federico

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamics of opinion formation in a heterogeneous voter model on a complete graph, in which each agent is endowed with an integer fitness parameter k≥0, in addition to its + or - opinion state. The evolution of the distribution of k-values and the opinion dynamics are coupled together, so as to allow the system to dynamically develop heterogeneity and memory in a simple way. When two agents with different opinions interact, their k-values are compared, and with probability p the agent with the lower value adopts the opinion of the one with the higher value, while with probability 1-p the opposite happens. The agent that keeps its opinion (winning agent) increments its k-value by one. We study the dynamics of the system in the entire 0≤p≤1 range and compare with the case p=1/2, in which opinions are decoupled from the k-values and the dynamics is equivalent to that of the standard voter model. When 0≤psystem approaches exponentially fast to the consensus state of the initial majority opinion. The mean consensus time τ appears to grow logarithmically with the number of agents N, and it is greatly decreased relative to the linear behavior τ∼N found in the standard voter model. When 1/2system initially relaxes to a state with an even coexistence of opinions, but eventually reaches consensus by finite-size fluctuations. The approach to the coexistence state is monotonic for 1/2oscillations around the coexistence value. The final approach to coexistence is approximately a power law t^{-b(p)} in both regimes, where the exponent b increases with p. Also, τ increases respect to the standard voter model, although it still scales linearly with N. The p=1 case is special, with a relaxation to coexistence that scales as t^{-2.73} and a consensus time that scales as τ∼N^{β}, with β≃1.45.

  3. Consensus based Nuclear Public-Hearing system Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Wook; Cho, Young Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kim, Suk Hoon; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    For public participation, Korea has a system of Public-Hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean Public-Hearing system is only a concept model. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, components of decision making and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. It could be said that the relative weight of attributes for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making, which should be based on the social consensus

  4. Consensus based scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a distributed, decentralized method for coordinated scheduling of charge/discharge intervals of storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid. The decentralized algorithm is based on a consensus scheme and solves an optimisation problem with the objective of minimising......, by use of storage capacities, the power flow over a transformer substation from/to the utility grid integrated microgrid. It is shown that when using this coordinated scheduling algorithm, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility grid is achieved. Additionally, mutual charge...

  5. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Mills, Melissa Marie; Matteo, Edward N

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the first stage in a collaborative effort by Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories to design a small-diameter borehole heater test in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). The intention is to complete test design during the remainder of fiscal year 2017 (FY17), and the implementation of the test will begin in FY18. This document is the result of regular meetings between the three national labs and the DOE-NE, and is intended to represent a consensus of these meetings and discussions.

  6. Sequences for Student Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  7. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  8. The nucleotide sequence of satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus, strain F13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M; Pinck, M; Serghini, M A; Ravelonandro, M; Walter, B; Pinck, L

    1989-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of cDNA copies of grapevine fanleaf virus (strain F13) satellite RNA has been determined. The primary structure obtained was 1114 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained only one long open reading frame encoding a 341 residue, highly hydrophilic polypeptide of Mr37275. The coding sequence was bordered by a leader of 14 nucleotides and a 3'-terminal non-coding region of 74 nucleotides. No homology has been found with small satellite RNAs associated with other nepoviruses. Two limited homologies of eight nucleotides have been detected between the satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus and those in tomato black ring virus, and a consensus sequence U.G/UGAAAAU/AU/AU/A at the 5' end of nepovirus RNAs is reported. A less extended consensus exists in this region in comovirus and picornavirus RNA.

  9. [Consensus on the legibility criteria of health education leaflets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Cantalejo, I; Simón-Lorda, P; Jiménez, M Melguizo; Ruiz, A Molina

    2011-01-01

    To identify the most relevant aspects that guarantee the readability, clarity and simplicity of written health education materials. Delphi methodology in order to reach a state of consensus among health education experts on criteria of legibility in the design and publication of informative material and literature. Seventeen experts reached agreement on the principal recommendations for ensuring the legibility of health education materials. They were as follows: a) text content and layout: to structure the text using a title or subtitle, message explanation and conclusion; b) text construction: to use simple and concise sentences, diagrams and examples, and graphically highlighting the principal ideas; c) lexical comprehension: to use simple words and avoid technical language and abbreviations; d) typography: to use an easy-to-read font. There is a high degree of consensus regarding the way health education materials should be drawn up. This list of recommendations could be used as an instrument for reviewing and improving the design of health education materials. In general, it is recommended to identify the users of the leaflets and involve them in the writing and design.

  10. Canadian Paediatric Neurology Workforce Survey and Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif; Orr, Serena L; McMillan, Hugh J; Kirton, Adam; Brna, Paula; Esser, Michael; Tang-Wai, Richard; Major, Philippe; Poulin, Chantal; Prasad, Narayan; Selby, Kathryn; Weiss, Shelly K; Yeh, E Ann; Callen, David Ja

    2016-05-01

    Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.

  11. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B; Delong, Mahlon R; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S C; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, Hyder A; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E; Mink, Jonathan W; Teller, Jan K

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along 2 axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features); and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Consensus in Gestational Diabetes MELLITUS: Looking for the Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2018-05-28

    The world's pre-eminent diabetes, obstetric, endocrine, and health organizations advocate a plethora of diverse algorithms for the screening, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Additionally, there are regional recommendations of local health societies. Several of these proposals for GDM are contentious because some of them were developed from unscientific studies, based on expert-opinion, catered to preserve resources, and subjectively modified for convenience. Due to the wide variety of choices available, the approach to GDM can be extremely diverse even within the same hospital. This lack of consensus creates major problems in addressing prevalence, complications, efficacy of treatment, and follow-up of GDM. Moreover, it becomes nearly impossible to compare the numerous studies. Furthermore, the lack of consensus confuses the health care providers of obstetric health who look to the experts for guidance. Therefore, a clear, objective, "evidence-based" global approach, which is simple, easy to follow, and validated by corroborative research, is crucial. We contend that, despite decades of research, a single acceptable global guideline is not yet on the horizon.

  13. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  14. The UK shielding Forum. Best Practice through consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.; Gunston, K.; Gunston, K.

    2000-01-01

    The UK national shielding Forum has been established to represent all key industry groups in the UK (including the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), the national regulatory authority). The Forum's aim is to increase awareness and confidence in the range of professional practice within the UK shielding community, with a view to having a coherent and dynamic role within the international shielding community. In the past, no comprehensive representative body covering the whole UK nuclear industry has existed, and the different industry shielding groups have developed local ways of working to address their particular requirements. Inevitably, there are common issues arising from these requirements which benefit from a wider consensus. As a result of the formation of the Forum (initiated by the NII and subsequently chaired by BNFL as an industry key player), expertise, experience and best working practice are now being actively shared between shielding professionals, and there has been a strong and successful drive to achieving consensus on key issues, which is also reflected in the increasing quality of industry-regulator relationships. (author)

  15. A conceptualisation framework for building consensus on environmental sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Del Campo, Ainhoa

    2017-09-15

    Examination of the intrinsic attributes of a system that render it more or less sensitive to potential stressors provides further insight into the baseline environment. In impact assessment, sensitivity of environmental receptors can be conceptualised on the basis of their: a) quality status according to statutory indicators and associated thresholds or targets; b) statutory protection; or c) inherent risk. Where none of these considerations are pertinent, subjective value judgments can be applied to determine sensitivity. This pragmatic conceptual framework formed the basis of a stakeholder consultation process for harmonising degrees of sensitivity of a number of environmental criteria. Harmonisation was sought to facilitate their comparative and combined analysis. Overall, full or wide agreement was reached on relative sensitivity values for the large majority of the reviewed criteria. Consensus was easier to reach on some themes (e.g. biodiversity, water and cultural heritage) than others (e.g. population and soils). As anticipated, existing statutory measures shaped the outcomes but, ultimately, knowledge-based values prevailed. The agreed relative sensitivities warrant extensive consultation but the conceptual framework provides a basis for increasing stakeholder consensus and objectivity of baseline assessments. This, in turn, can contribute to improving the evidence-base for characterising the significance of potential impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Blatt, Gene J.; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.; Martin, Loren A.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Persico, Antonio M.; Sweeney, John A.; Webb, Sara J.; Welsh, John P.

    2013-01-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation. PMID:22370873

  17. Distributed consensus with visual perception in multi-robot systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montijano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel responses to the different problems that arise when multiple robots need to execute a task in cooperation, each robot in the team having a monocular camera as its primary input sensor. Its central proposition is that a consistent perception of the world is crucial for the good development of any multi-robot application. The text focuses on the high-level problem of cooperative perception by a multi-robot system: the idea that, depending on what each robot sees and its current situation, it will need to communicate these things to its fellows whenever possible to share what it has found and keep updated by them in its turn. However, in any realistic scenario, distributed solutions to this problem are not trivial and need to be addressed from as many angles as possible. Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems covers a variety of related topics such as: ·         distributed consensus algorithms; ·         data association and robustne...

  18. International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Brenda; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Cabre, Philippe; Carroll, William; Chitnis, Tanuja; de Seze, Jérôme; Fujihara, Kazuo; Greenberg, Benjamin; Jacob, Anu; Jarius, Sven; Lana-Peixoto, Marco; Levy, Michael; Simon, Jack H.; Tenembaum, Silvia; Traboulsee, Anthony L.; Waters, Patrick; Wellik, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) was convened to develop revised diagnostic criteria using systematic literature reviews and electronic surveys to facilitate consensus. The new nomenclature defines the unifying term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which is stratified further by serologic testing (NMOSD with or without AQP4-IgG). The core clinical characteristics required for patients with NMOSD with AQP4-IgG include clinical syndromes or MRI findings related to optic nerve, spinal cord, area postrema, other brainstem, diencephalic, or cerebral presentations. More stringent clinical criteria, with additional neuroimaging findings, are required for diagnosis of NMOSD without AQP4-IgG or when serologic testing is unavailable. The IPND also proposed validation strategies and achieved consensus on pediatric NMOSD diagnosis and the concepts of monophasic NMOSD and opticospinal MS. PMID:26092914

  19. International consensus for a definition of disease flare in lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruperto, N; Hanrahan, L M; Alarcón, G S; Belmont, H M; Brey, R L; Brunetta, P; Buyon, J P; Costner, M I; Cronin, M E; Dooley, M A; Filocamo, G; Fiorentino, D; Fortin, P R; Franks, A G; Gilkeson, G; Ginzler, E; Gordon, C; Grossman, J; Hahn, B; Isenberg, D A; Kalunian, K C; Petri, M; Sammaritano, L; Sánchez-Guerrero, J; Sontheimer, R D; Strand, V; Urowitz, M; von Feldt, J M; Werth, V P; Merrill, J T

    2011-04-01

    The Lupus Foundation of America (LFA) convened an international working group to obtain a consensus definition of disease flare in lupus. With help from the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO), two web-based Delphi surveys of physicians were conducted. Subsequently, the LFA held a second consensus conference followed by a third Delphi survey to reach a community-wide agreement for flare definition. Sixty-nine of the 120 (57.5%) polled physicians responded to the first survey. Fifty-nine of the responses were available to draft 12 preliminary statements, which were circulated in the second survey. Eighty-seven of 118 (74%) physicians completed the second survey, with an agreement of 70% for 9/12 (75%) statements. During the second conference, three alternative flare definitions were consolidated and sent back to the international community. One hundred and sixteen of 146 (79.5%) responded, with agreement by 71/116 (61%) for the following definition: "A flare is a measurable increase in disease activity in one or more organ systems involving new or worse clinical signs and symptoms and/or laboratory measurements. It must be considered clinically significant by the assessor and usually there would be at least consideration of a change or an increase in treatment." The LFA proposes this definition for lupus flare on the basis of its high face validity.

  20. Starling flock networks manage uncertainty in consensus at low cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F Young

    Full Text Available Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors. We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks.

  1. Starling Flock Networks Manage Uncertainty in Consensus at Low Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, George F.; Scardovi, Luca; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors). We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks. PMID:23382667

  2. European Consensus on Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G

    1988-07-01

    The European Consensus on Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease has recommended that providing care for individuals at particular risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) requires case finding through medical examinations in primary care, hospital and employment health examination settings. Decisions concerning management of elevated lipid levels should be based on overall cardiovascular risk. The goal of reducing cholesterol levels through risk reduction can ultimately be accomplished only with the implementation of health education efforts directed toward all age groups and actions by government and supranational agencies, including adequate food labelling to identify fat content, selective taxation to encourage healthful habits and wider availability of exercise facilities. Only measures directed at the overall population can eventually reach the large proportion of individuals at mildly to moderately increased risk for CAD. The European Policy Statement on the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease recognizes that the question of lipid elevation as a risk factor for CAD involves assessment, not only of cholesterol level alone, but also of triglycerides and the HDL cholesterol lipid fraction. Five specific categories of dyslipidemia have been identified, with individualized screening and treatment strategies advised for each. It is the consensus of the study group panel members that these procedures are both practical and feasible. They begin the necessary long term process to reduce the unacceptably high levels of morbidity and mortality due to CAD throughout the European community.

  3. Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L; Blaha, Charles D; Blatt, Gene J; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R; Dickson, Price E; Estes, Annette M; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H; Kemper, Thomas L; King, Bryan H; Martin, Loren A; Millen, Kathleen J; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W; Persico, Antonio M; Sweeney, John A; Webb, Sara J; Welsh, John P

    2012-09-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin-related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism, and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia, and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation.

  4. Consensus-based methodology for detection communities in multilayered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Majd, Amir-Mohsen; Fathian, Mohammad; Makrehchi, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    Finding groups of network users who are densely related with each other has emerged as an interesting problem in the area of social network analysis. These groups or so-called communities would be hidden behind the behavior of users. Most studies assume that such behavior could be understood by focusing on user interfaces, their behavioral attributes or a combination of these network layers (i.e., interfaces with their attributes). They also assume that all network layers refer to the same behavior. However, in real-life networks, users' behavior in one layer may differ from their behavior in another one. In order to cope with these issues, this article proposes a consensus-based community detection approach (CBC). CBC finds communities among nodes at each layer, in parallel. Then, the results of layers should be aggregated using a consensus clustering method. This means that different behavior could be detected and used in the analysis. As for other significant advantages, the methodology would be able to handle missing values. Three experiments on real-life and computer-generated datasets have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of CBC. The results indicate superiority and stability of CBC in comparison to other approaches.

  5. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    The article gives an introductory overview of the use of the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research. It explains the rationale for using the method, examines the range of uses to which it has been put in mental health research, and describes the stages of carrying out a Delphi study using examples from the literature. To ascertain the range of uses, a systematic search was carried out in PubMed. The article also examines the implications of 'wisdom of crowds' research for how to conduct Delphi studies. The Delphi method is a systematic way of determining expert consensus that is useful for answering questions that are not amenable to experimental and epidemiological methods. The validity of the approach is supported by 'wisdom of crowds' research showing that groups can make good judgements under certain conditions. In mental health research, the Delphi method has been used for making estimations where there is incomplete evidence (e.g. What is the global prevalence of dementia?), making predictions (e.g. What types of interactions with a person who is suicidal will reduce their chance of suicide?), determining collective values (e.g. What areas of research should be given greatest priority?) and defining foundational concepts (e.g. How should we define 'relapse'?). A range of experts have been used in Delphi research, including clinicians, researchers, consumers and caregivers. The Delphi method has a wide range of potential uses in mental health research. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Functional promoter upstream p53 regulatory sequence of IGFBP3 that is silenced by tumor specific methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Tadashi; Shinji, Toshiyuki; Shiraha, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yumoto, Eichiro; Ono, Toshiro; Koide, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 functions as a carrier of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in circulation and a mediator of the growth suppression signal in cells. There are two reported p53 regulatory regions in the IGFBP3 gene; one upstream of the promoter and one intronic. We previously reported a hot spot of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 in human hepatocellular carcinomas and derivative cell lines. As the hot spot locates at the putative upstream p53 consensus sequences, these p53 consensus sequences are really functional is a question to be answered. In this study, we examined the p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3. Deletion, mutagenesis, and methylation constructs of IGFBP-3 promoter were assessed in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for promoter activity. Deletions and mutations of these sequences completely abolished the expression of IGFBP-3 in the presence of p53 overexpression. In vitro methylation of these p53 consensus sequences also suppressed IGFBP-3 expression. In contrast, the expression of IGFBP-3 was not affected in the absence of p53 overexpression. Further, we observed by electrophoresis mobility shift assay that p53 binding to the promoter region was diminished when methylated. From these observations, we conclude that four out of eleven p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter are essential for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3, and hypermethylation of these sequences selectively suppresses p53 induced IGFBP-3 expression in HepG2 cells

  8. Consensus shaping and safe space public participation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karita Research AB, Taeaby (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    map public participation - consultation, consensus shaping processes and safe space. In contrast to consensus shaping processes, in the safe space approach there is no intention to develop solutions together between the implementer and other stakeholders. In comparison with the ladder, the basic approaches offer advantages for the mapping of public participation processes: If you strive for consensus or ''only'' clarity and awareness is a crucial question to be answered before a process is launched as it determines which stakeholders can join and which goals are feasible to reach. It is easier to use in assigning properties to a process, as it more straight-forward to understand if a process is consensus shaping or a safe space than where it is on the ladder. It clarifies better the links between the participation processes and the actual political and/or legal decision-making process. A consensus shaping process should produce real advice (or even decisions) but a safe space is limited to improving the decision making base with enhanced clarity.

  9. Consensus shaping and safe space public participation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    map public participation - consultation, consensus shaping processes and safe space. In contrast to consensus shaping processes, in the safe space approach there is no intention to develop solutions together between the implementer and other stakeholders. In comparison with the ladder, the basic approaches offer advantages for the mapping of public participation processes: If you strive for consensus or ''only'' clarity and awareness is a crucial question to be answered before a process is launched as it determines which stakeholders can join and which goals are feasible to reach. It is easier to use in assigning properties to a process, as it more straight-forward to understand if a process is consensus shaping or a safe space than where it is on the ladder. It clarifies better the links between the participation processes and the actual political and/or legal decision-making process. A consensus shaping process should produce real advice (or even decisions) but a safe space is limited to improving the decision making base with enhanced clarity.

  10. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2015-04-01

    Achalasia is an important but relatively uncommon disorder. While highly effective therapeutic options exist, esophageal cancer remains a long-term potential complication. The risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia remains unclear, with current guidelines recommending against routine endoscopic screening. However, given limited data and conflicting opinion, it is unknown whether consensus regarding screening practices in achalasia among experts exists. A 10-question survey to assess screening practices in achalasia was created and distributed to 28 experts in the area of achalasia. Experts were identified based on publications and meeting presentations in the field. Survey responses were received from 17 of 28 (61%) experts. Wide geographic distribution was seen among respondents, with eight (47%) from Europe or Australia, seven (41%) from the United States, and two (12%) from Asia. Screening for esophageal cancer was inconsistent, with nine (53%) experts endorsing the practice and eight (47%) not. Screening practices did not differ among geographic regions. No consensus regarding the risk for esophageal cancer in achalasia was seen, with three experts reporting no increased risk compared with the general population, eight experts a lifetime risk of 0.1-0.5%, three experts a 0.5-1% risk, two experts a 1-2% risk, and one expert a 3-5% risk. However, these differences in perception of risk did not influence screening practices. Upper endoscopy was utilized among all experts who endorsed screening. However, practices still varied with screening commencing at or within 1 year of diagnosis in two practices compared with 5 and 10 years in three respective practices each. Surveillance intervals also varied, performed every 2 years in four practices, every 3 years in four practices, and every 5 years in one practice. Practice variation in the management of achalasia itself was also seen, with initial treatment with Heller myotomy endorsed by eight experts, pneumatic

  11. Osteocalcin protein sequences of Neanderthals and modern primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M; Richards, Michael P; Hauschka, Peter V; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B; Karavanic, Ivor; Poinar, Hendrik; Collins, Matthew J

    2005-03-22

    We report here protein sequences of fossil hominids, from two Neanderthals dating to approximately 75,000 years old from Shanidar Cave in Iraq. These sequences, the oldest reported fossil primate protein sequences, are of bone osteocalcin, which was extracted and sequenced by using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Through a combination of direct sequencing and peptide mass mapping, we determined that Neanderthals have an osteocalcin amino acid sequence that is identical to that of modern humans. We also report complete osteocalcin sequences for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a partial sequence for orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), all of which are previously unreported. We found that the osteocalcin sequences of Neanderthals, modern human, chimpanzee, and orangutan are unusual among mammals in that the ninth amino acid is proline (Pro-9), whereas most species have hydroxyproline (Hyp-9). Posttranslational hydroxylation of Pro-9 in osteocalcin by prolyl-4-hydroxylase requires adequate concentrations of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid), molecular O(2), Fe(2+), and 2-oxoglutarate, and also depends on enzyme recognition of the target proline substrate consensus sequence Leu-Gly-Ala-Pro-9-Ala-Pro-Tyr occurring in most mammals. In five species with Pro-9-Val-10, hydroxylation is blocked, whereas in gorilla there is a mixture of Pro-9 and Hyp-9. We suggest that the absence of hydroxylation of Pro-9 in Pan, Pongo, and Homo may reflect response to a selective pressure related to a decline in vitamin C in the diet during omnivorous dietary adaptation, either independently or through the common ancestor of these species.

  12. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  13. Mapping sequences by parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziolowski Carito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.

  14. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that

  15. Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ningjia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity. Results We have identified 156 genes in Anopheles gambiae that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters. Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle. Conclusion The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other Anopheles genes.

  16. The Colliding Beams Sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Colliding Beam Sequencer (CBS) is a computer program used to operate the pbar-p Collider by synchronizing the applications programs and simulating the activities of the accelerator operators during filling and storage. The Sequencer acts as a meta-program, running otherwise stand alone applications programs, to do the set-up, beam transfers, acceleration, low beta turn on, and diagnostics for the transfers and storage. The Sequencer and its operational performance will be described along with its special features which include a periodic scheduler and command logger. 14 refs., 3 figs

  17. Consensus of Multi-Agent Systems with Prestissimo Scale-Free Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongyong; Lu Lan; Cao Kecai; Zhang Siying

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the relations of the network topology and the moving consensus of multi-agent systems are studied. A consensus-prestissimo scale-free network model with the static preferential-consensus attachment is presented on the rewired link of the regular network. The effects of the static preferential-consensus BA network on the algebraic connectivity of the topology graph are compared with the regular network. The robustness gain to delay is analyzed for variable network topology with the same scale. The time to reach the consensus is studied for the dynamic network with and without communication delays. By applying the computer simulations, it is validated that the speed of the convergence of multi-agent systems can be greatly improved in the preferential-consensus BA network model with different configuration. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.

  19. The TOPCONS web server for consensus prediction of membrane protein topology and signal peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Peters, Christoph; Shu, Nanjiang; Käll, Lukas; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-07-01

    TOPCONS (http://topcons.net/) is a widely used web server for consensus prediction of membrane protein topology. We hereby present a major update to the server, with some substantial improvements, including the following: (i) TOPCONS can now efficiently separate signal peptides from transmembrane regions. (ii) The server can now differentiate more successfully between globular and membrane proteins. (iii) The server now is even slightly faster, although a much larger database is used to generate the multiple sequence alignments. For most proteins, the final prediction is produced in a matter of seconds. (iv) The user-friendly interface is retained, with the additional feature of submitting batch files and accessing the server programmatically using standard interfaces, making it thus ideal for proteome-wide analyses. Indicatively, the user can now scan the entire human proteome in a few days. (v) For proteins with homology to a known 3D structure, the homology-inferred topology is also displayed. (vi) Finally, the combination of methods currently implemented achieves an overall increase in performance by 4% as compared to the currently available best-scoring methods and TOPCONS is the only method that can identify signal peptides and still maintain a state-of-the-art performance in topology predictions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Involving patients in a multidisciplinary European consensus process and in the development of a 'patient summary of the consensus document for colon and rectal cancer care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Petra G; Taylor, Claire; Henning, Geoffrey; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; Espin, Eloy; Wiggers, Theo; Gore-Booth, Jola; Moss, Barbara; Valentini, Vincenzo; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2014-01-01

    High-quality cancer care should be accessible for patients and healthcare professionals. Involvement of patients as partners in guideline formation and consensus processes is still rarely found. EURECCA, short for European Registration of Cancer Care, is the platform to improve outcomes of cancer care by reducing variation in the diagnostic and treatment process. EURECCA acknowledges the important role of patients in implementation of consensus information in clinical practice. The aim of this article is to describe the process of involving patients in the consensus process and in developing the patient summary of the consensus for colon and rectal cancer care. The Delphi method for achieving consensus was used. Three online voting rounds and one tele-voting round were offered to an expert panel of oncology professionals and patient representatives. At four different stages, patients and/or patient representatives were involved in the process: (1) during the consensus process, (2) lecturing about the role of the patient, (3) development of the patient summary, and (4) testing the patient summary. Representatives were invited to the voting and commenting rounds of this process and given an equal vote. Although patients were not consulted during the planning stages of this process, patient involvement increased following the panel's discussion of the implementation of the consensus among the patient population. After the consensus meeting, the patient summary was written by patient representatives, oncologists and nurses. A selection of proactive patients reviewed the draft patient summary; responses were positive and several patient-reported outcomes were added. Questionnaires to evaluate the use and implementation of the patient summary in daily practice are currently being developed and tested. Patient consultation will be needed in future planning for selection of topics. The present study may function as a model for future consensus processes to involve patients

  1. [2018 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixiang; Meng, Qingyi; Yu, Tao

    2018-05-01

    To promote the technical training and scientific popularization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in China, the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Specialized Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association combined with the Science Popularization Branch of the Chinese Medical Association wrote "2018 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China". The formation was based on the general outline about "2016 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China", and to implement the important strategies included the "three pre" policy, prevention, precognition, and pre-warning, before the cardiac arrest (CA); the "three modernization" methods, standardized, diversified and individualized, during the CA; and the "three life" strategies, the rebirth, the extra and the extended, after the CA; and also combined with the concrete National conditions and clinical practice of China area. The document summarized the evidence of published science about CPR training till now, and recommend the establishment of "the CPR Training Triangle" according to the Chinese National conditions. The bases of the triangle were system, training and person, the core of which was CPR science. The main contents were: (1) The "three training" policy for CPR training: the cultivation of a sound system, which included professional credibility, extensive mobilization and continuous driving force, and the participation of the whole people and continuous improvement; the cultivation of scientific guidelines, which included scientific content, methods and thinking; and the cultivation of a healthy culture, which included the enhancement of civic quality, education of rescue scientifically, and advocate of healthy life. (2) The "three training" program of CPR training: training professional skills, which included standard, multiple, and individual skills; training multidimensional, which included time, space, and human; and training flexible, including problem, time

  2. Selective mutism: a consensus based care pathway of good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, D V; Fonseca, S; Wintgens, A

    2008-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) now acknowledged as an anxiety condition, tends to be a poorly understood, highly complex and vastly under-recognised clinical entity. Children with SM are a vulnerable group as the condition is not the remit of any one professional group. This inevitably leads to delay in formal diagnosis and management. There is a lack of systematic research on which to base guidelines for management. To develop, agree and validate key principles underlying the management of SM through a consensus process involving international experts, in order to create a local care pathway. A local multi-agency consultation process developed 11 statements, which were felt to be the key principles underpinning a potential care pathway for managing SM. Thirteen recognised experts from North America, Europe and Australia participated in a modified Delphi process involving two rounds using a Likert-scale and free commentary. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used in the validation or revision of the statements at each stage. Response rates were 100% for Round 1 and 84.6% for Round 2. Despite the differing professional backgrounds and service contexts, by successive revision and/or revalidation of statements, it was possible to arrive at a consensus about key principles relating to early recognition, assessment and intervention. The agreed key principles are presented together with the resulting local care pathway. Through a Delphi process, agreement was reached by a multidisciplinary group of professionals, on key principles that underpin the timely identification, assessment and management of children with SM. These include the potential for staff in school/preschool settings to identify SM and that intervention programmes should generally be based in these settings. Children with SM should receive assessment for possible coexisting disorders, whether developmental, emotional or behavioural and additional specific intervention given for these. Agreement was

  3. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  4. Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Management: 2nd European Rectal Cancer Consensus Conference (EURECA-CC2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Aristei, Cynthia; Glimelius, Bengt; Minsky, Bruce D.; Beets-Tan, Regina; Borras, Jose M.; Haustermans, Karin; Maingon, Philippe; Overgaard, Jens; Pahlman, Lars; Quirke, Phil; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Taylor, Irving; Van Cutsem, Eric; Velde, Cornelius Van de; Cellini, Numa; Latini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: During the first decade of the 21st century a number of important European randomized studies were published. In order to help shape clinical practice based on best scientific evidence from the literature, the International Conference on 'Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Treatment: Looking for an European Consensus' (EURECA-CC2) was organized in Italy under the endorsement of European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), and European Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO). Methods: Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. The document was available to all Committee members as a web-based document customized for the consensus process. Eight chapters were identified: epidemiology, diagnostics, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, treatment toxicity and quality of life, follow-up, and research questions. Each chapter was subdivided by a topic, and a series of statements were developed. Each member commented and voted, sentence by sentence thrice. Sentences upon which an agreement was not reached after voting round no. 2 were openly debated during a Consensus Conference in Perugia (Italy) from 11 December to 13 December 2008. A hand-held televoting system collected the opinions of both the Committee members and the audience after each debate. The Executive Committee scored percentage consensus based on three categories: 'large consensus', 'moderate consensus', and 'minimum consensus'. Results: The total number of the voted sentences was 207. Of the 207, 86% achieved large consensus, 13% achieved moderate consensus, and only 3 (1%) resulted in minimum consensus. No statement was disagreed by more than 50% of the members. All chapters were voted on by at least 75% of the members, and the majority was voted on by >85%. Conclusions: This Consensus Conference represents an expertise opinion process that may help shape future programs, investigational protocols, and guidelines

  5. Revised genomic consensus for the hypermethylated CpG island region of the human L1 transposon and integration sites of full length L1 elements from recombinant clones made using methylation-tolerant host strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowther, P J; Doherty, J P; Linsenmeyer, M E

    1991-01-01

    preferentially from L1 members which have accumulated mutations that have removed sites of methylation. We present a revised consensus from the 5' presumptive control region of these elements. This revised consensus contains a consensus RNA polymerase III promoter which would permit the synthesis of transcripts......Efficient recovery of clones from the 5' end of the human L1 dispersed repetitive elements necessitates the use of deletion mcr- host strains since this region contains a CpG island which is hypermethylated in vivo. Clones recovered with conventional mcr+ hosts seem to have been derived...... from the 5' end of full length L1 elements. Such potential transcripts are likely to exhibit a high degree of secondary structure. In addition, we have determined the flanking sequences for 6 full length L1 elements. The majority of full length L1 clones show no convincing evidence for target site...

  6. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  7. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  8. A 1,681-locus consensus genetic map of cultivated cucumber including 67 NB-LRR resistance gene homolog and ten gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-03-25

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop that is susceptible to many pathogens, but no disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned. The availability of whole genome sequences provides an excellent opportunity for systematic identification and characterization of the nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) type R gene homolog (RGH) sequences in the genome. Cucumber has a very narrow genetic base making it difficult to construct high-density genetic maps. Development of a consensus map by synthesizing information from multiple segregating populations is a method of choice to increase marker density. As such, the objectives of the present study were to identify and characterize NB-LRR type RGHs, and to develop a high-density, integrated cucumber genetic-physical map anchored with RGH loci. From the Gy14 draft genome, 70 NB-containing RGHs were identified and characterized. Most RGHs were in clusters with uneven distribution across seven chromosomes. In silico analysis indicated that all 70 RGHs had EST support for gene expression. Phylogenetic analysis classified 58 RGHs into two clades: CNL and TNL. Comparative analysis revealed high-degree sequence homology and synteny in chromosomal locations of these RGH members between the cucumber and melon genomes. Fifty-four molecular markers were developed to delimit 67 of the 70 RGHs, which were integrated into a genetic map through linkage analysis. A 1,681-locus cucumber consensus map including 10 gene loci and spanning 730.0 cM in seven linkage groups was developed by integrating three component maps with a bin-mapping strategy. Physically, 308 scaffolds with 193.2 Mbp total DNA sequences were anchored onto this consensus map that covered 52.6% of the 367 Mbp cucumber genome. Cucumber contains relatively few NB-LRR RGHs that are clustered and unevenly distributed in the genome. All RGHs seem to be transcribed and shared significant sequence homology and synteny with the melon genome suggesting conservation of

  9. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  10. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  11. General LTE Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Billal, Masum

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we have characterized sequences which maintain the same property described in Lifting the Exponent Lemma. Lifting the Exponent Lemma is a very powerful tool in olympiad number theory and recently it has become very popular. We generalize it to all sequences that maintain a property like it i.e. if p^{\\alpha}||a_k and p^\\b{eta}||n, then p^{{\\alpha}+\\b{eta}}||a_{nk}.

  12. H∞ Consensus for Multiagent Systems with Heterogeneous Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the linear matrix inequality method to consensus and H∞ consensus problems of the single integrator multiagent system with heterogeneous delays in directed networks. To overcome the difficulty caused by heterogeneous time-varying delays, we rewrite the multiagent system into a partially reduced-order system and an integral system. As a result, a particular Lyapunov function is constructed to derive sufficient conditions for consensus of multiagent systems with fixed (switched topologies. We also apply this method to the H∞ consensus of multiagent systems with disturbances and heterogeneous delays. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Bipartite consensus for multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions and communication delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing; Lu, Jianquan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the consensus problems over signed digraphs with arbitrary finite communication delays. For the considered system, the information flow is directed and only locally delayed information can be used for each node. We derive that bipartite consensus of this system can be realized when the associated signed digraph is strongly connected. Furthermore, for structurally balanced networks, this paper studies the pinning partite consensus for the considered system. we design a pinning scheme to pin any one agent in the signed network, and obtain that the network achieves pinning bipartite consensus with any initial conditions. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our main results.

  14. Consensus of second-order multi-agent dynamic systems with quantized data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Zhi-Hong, E-mail: zhguan@mail.hust.edu.cn [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Meng, Cheng [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Liao, Rui-Quan [Petroleum Engineering College,Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 420400 (China); Zhang, Ding-Xue, E-mail: zdx7773@163.com [Petroleum Engineering College,Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 420400 (China)

    2012-01-09

    The consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with quantized link is investigated in this Letter. Some conditions are derived for the quantized consensus of the second-order multi-agent systems by the stability theory. Moreover, a result characterizing the relationship between the eigenvalues of the Laplacians matrix and the quantized consensus is obtained. Examples are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis. -- Highlights: ► A second-order multi-agent model with quantized data is proposed. ► Two sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained. ► The relationship between the eigenvalues of the Laplacians matrix and the quantized consensus is discovered.

  15. A Hybrid Distance-Based Ideal-Seeking Consensus Ranking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Tavana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinal consensus ranking problems have received much attention in the management science literature. A problem arises in situations where a group of k decision makers (DMs is asked to rank order n alternatives. The question is how to combine the DM rankings into one consensus ranking. Several different approaches have been suggested to aggregate DM responses into a compromise or consensus ranking; however, the similarity of consensus rankings generated by the different algorithms is largely unknown. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid distance-based ideal-seeking consensus ranking model (DCM. The proposed hybrid model combines parts of the two commonly used consensus ranking techniques of Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985 into an intuitive and computationally simple model. We illustrate our method and then run a Monte Carlo simulation across a range of k and n to compare the similarity of the consensus rankings generated by our method with the best-known method of Borda and Kendall (Kendall 1962 and the two methods proposed by Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985. DCM and Beck and Lin's method yielded the most similar consensus rankings, whereas the Cook-Kress method and the Borda-Kendall method yielded the least similar consensus rankings.

  16. A note on the consensus finding problem in communication networks with switching topologies

    KAUST Repository

    Haskovec, Jan

    2014-05-07

    In this note, we discuss the problem of consensus finding in communication networks of agents with dynamically switching topologies. In particular, we consider the case of directed networks with unbalanced matrices of communication rates. We formulate sufficient conditions for consensus finding in terms of strong connectivity of the underlying directed graphs and prove that, given these conditions, consensus is found asymptotically. Moreover, we show that this consensus is an emergent property of the system, being encoded in its dynamics and not just an invariant of its initial configuration. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  17. Combating a two-decade campaign attacking the scientific consensus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    2013-01-01

    New research published this year found that among peer-reviewed climate papers stating a position on anthropogenic global warning, over 97% endorsed the scientific consensus that humans were causing climate change. Meanwhile, the public think there is a 50/50 consensus among climate scientists. The article analyses how such a wide consensus gap has developed. At the beginning there was a misinformation campaign originated from opponents of climate action who rather than propose alternative policy solutions to climate change instead opted to attack the science. A key strategy was (and still is) creating the illusion of ongoing debate by magnifying the voices of a few dissenting scientists. Another common technique is the promotion of 'fake experts', using spokespeople unqualified in climate research. It is not easy to close the consensus gap because public perception of consensus is strongly associated with political ideology: the more conservative you are, the lower the consensus you perceive. Closing the consensus gap is absolutely necessary because when people perceive that scientists agree on an issue, they are more likely to support that issue. An intense information campaign focusing on the 97% consensus might be efficient to topple the fifty/fifty consensus. (A.C.)

  18. International, Expert-Based, Consensus Statement Regarding the Management of Acute Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Lynch, Noel; Clancy, Cillian; Winter, Desmond C; Myers, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    This Delphi study provides consensus related to many aspects of acute diverticulitis and identifies other areas in need of research. To generate an international, expert-based, consensus statement to address controversies in the management of acute diverticulitis. This study was conducted using the Delphi technique from April 3 through October 21, 2014. A survey website was used and a panel of acute diverticulitis experts was formed via the snowball method. The top 5 acute diverticulitis experts in 5 international geographic regions were identified based on their number of publications related to acute diverticulitis. The Delphi study used 3 rounds of questions, after which the consensus statement was collated. A consensus statement related to the management of acute diverticulitis. Twenty items were selected for inclusion in the consensus statement following 3 rounds of questioning. A clear definition of uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis is provided. In uncomplicated diverticulitis, consensus was reached regarding appropriate laboratory and radiological evaluation of patients as well as nonsurgical, surgical, and follow-up strategies. A number of important topics, including antibiotic treatment, failed to reach consensus. In addition, consensus was reached regarding many nonsurgical and surgical treatment strategies in complicated diverticulitis. Controversy continues internationally regarding the management of acute diverticulitis. This study demonstrates that there is more nonconsensus among experts than consensus regarding most issues, even in the same region. It also provides insight into the status quo regarding the treatment of acute diverticulitis and provides important direction for future research.

  19. Dynamical organization towards consensus in the Axelrod model on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Beniamino; Poncela, Julia; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics toward cultural consensus in the Axelrod model on scale-free networks. By looking at the microscopic dynamics of the model, we are able to show how culture traits spread across different cultural features. We compare the diffusion at the level of cultural features to the growth of cultural consensus at the global level, finding important differences between these two processes. In particular, we show that even when most of the cultural features have reached macroscopic consensus, there are still no signals of globalization. Finally, we analyze the topology of consensus clusters both for global culture and at the feature level of representation.

  20. Dynamical Consensus Algorithm for Second-Order Multi-Agent Systems Subjected to Communication Delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglin; Liu Fei

    2013-01-01

    To solve the dynamical consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay, delay-dependent compensations are added into the normal asynchronously-coupled consensus algorithm so as to make the agents achieve a dynamical consensus. Based on frequency-domain analysis, sufficient conditions are gained for second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay under leaderless and leader-following consensus algorithms respectively. Simulation illustrates the correctness of the results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Consensus formation on coevolving networks: groups' formation and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, Balazs; Barrat, Alain

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of adaptivity on a social model of opinion dynamics and consensus formation. We analyse how the adaptivity of the network of contacts between agents to the underlying social dynamics affects the size and topological properties of groups and the convergence time to the stable final state. We find that, while on static networks these properties are determined by percolation phenomena, on adaptive networks the rewiring process leads to different behaviors: adaptive rewiring fosters group formation by enhancing communication between agents of similar opinion, though it also makes possible the division of clusters. We show how the convergence time is determined by the characteristic time of link rearrangement. We finally investigate how the adaptivity yields nontrivial correlations between the internal topology and the size of the groups of agreeing agents

  2. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: A Multidisciplinary Consensus Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Low

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is common among children and may have viral, bacterial or, occasionally, other causes. The etiology is complex, with age-related trends, and differs from that in adult CAP, necessitating different management guidelines. There is an absence of current guidelines for the management of pediatric CAP (PCAP that take into account changing etiologies, antimicrobial-resistance issues and the use of newly licensed antimicrobials. The present review does not provide specific guidelines, but it reviews the literature and presents currrent approaches to the treatment of PCAP. To compile the review, an expert panel was convened to provide a consensus. The review discusses the etiology, diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of PCAP as well as indications for referral to a hospital emergency department. The goal of the review is to provide those involved with treatment of PCAP in the community setting with information that can be used to make effective treatment choices.

  3. The Stellenbosch consensus statement on health promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Health promotion uses a range of complementary approaches to provide individuals and communities with knowledge that will enable them to improve their own health and wellbeing. Encouraging children to adopt healthy lifestyle habits is a central objective, and health promotion at a community level, particularly through health promoting schools, may be an effective strategy. Health promoting schools are well within the capacity of even poor countries, as they focus on the school and its culture, and establishing health promoting schools requires a change in mindset and refinement of educational investment rather than the provision of major new resources, engagement of non-government organizations or obtaining international funding. A consensus of current evidence and essential concepts underlying health promotion in schools, principles that contribute to success or failure, and opportunities for implementation and engagement is presented, based on shared experience and dialogue at a 2011 international colloquium held at Stellenbosch University.

  4. Towards consensus in comparative chemical characterization modeling for LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bachmann, Till; Huijbregts, Mark

    2006-01-01

    work within, for instance, the OECD, and guidance from a series of expert workshops held between 2002 and 2005, preliminary guidelines focusing on chemical fate, and human and ecotoxic effects were established. For further elaboration of the fate-, exposure- and effect-sides of the modeling, six models...... by the Task Force and the model providers. While the compared models and their differences are important tools to further advance LCA science, the consensus model is intended to provide a generally agreed and scientifically sound method to calculate consistent characterization factors for use in LCA practice...... and to be the basis of the “recommended practice” for calculation of characterization factors for chemicals under authority of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative....

  5. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D

    2010-01-01

    clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition...... of what is meant by a 'late-presenting' patient. Results Two definitions were agreed upon, as follows. Late presentation: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Presentation with advanced HIV disease...... able to implement this definition (either on its own or alongside their own preferred definition) when reporting surveillance or research data relating to late presentation of HIV infection....

  6. Decentralized energy planning and consensus in energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    1980-05-02

    This paper explores the following three propositions and their relationships: (1) that, in our pluralistic policymaking environment, we cannot solve our nation's energy problems unless we can reach agreement among a diverse group of interested parties about specific actions; (2) that, short of a manifest emergency, such a consensus is difficult to reach unless the scale of the decision-making unit is relatively small; and therefore (3) that one of the keys to an effective energy policy in the United states is to rely heavily on local and regional energy planning and decision-making. First, the paper reviews our problem of irresolution and its roots, and it summaries the policy options for resolving it. Then it explores one of those options, decentralized planning, in a little more detail. Finally, it offers some speculations about the viability of a decentralized approach to energy planninng.

  7. Italian consensus conference for colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Pace, Fabio; Annese, Vito; Bassotti, Gabrio; Binda, Gian Andrea; Casetti, Tino; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Fiocca, Roberto; Laghi, Andrea; Maconi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The statements produced by the Consensus Conference on Diverticular Disease promoted by GRIMAD (Gruppo Italiano Malattia Diverticolare, Italian Group on Diverticular Diseases) are reported. Topics such as epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of diverticular disease (DD) in patients with uncomplicated and complicated DD were reviewed by a scientific board of experts who proposed 55 statements graded according to level of evidence and strength of recommendation, and approved by an independent jury. Each topic was explored focusing on the more relevant clinical questions. Comparison and discussion of expert opinions, pertinent statements and replies to specific questions, were presented and approved based on a systematic literature search of the available evidence. Comments were added explaining the basis for grading the evidence, particularly for controversial areas. PMID:25360320

  8. Consensus on Training and Implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Nader K; Walker, Thomas; Carter, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    ERAS programmes. Teaching modalities exist, but there remains no agreement regarding the optimal training curriculum or how its effectiveness is assessed. We aimed to draw consensus from an expert panel regarding the successful training and implementation of ERAS. METHODS: A modified Delphi technique...... and the structure of training courses; (2) the optimal framework for successful implementation and audit of ERAS including a guide for data collection; (3) a framework to assess the effectiveness of training; (4) criteria to define ERAS training centres of excellence. RESULTS: An ERAS training course must cover...... the evidence-based principles of ERAS with team-oriented training. Successful implementation requires strong leadership, an ERAS facilitator and an effective MDT. Effectiveness of training can be measured by improved compliance. A training centre of excellence should show a willingness to teach...

  9. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  10. The Berlin International Consensus Meeting on Concussion in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gavin A; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Johnston, Karen M; Manley, Geoffrey T; Nagahiro, Shinji; Sills, Allen; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Concussion in Sport was held in Berlin in October 2016. A series of 12 questions and subquestions was developed and the expert panel members were required to perform a systematic review to answer each question. Following presentation at the Berlin meeting of the systematic review, poster abstracts and audience discussion, the summary Consensus Statement was produced. Further, a series of tools for the management of sport-related concussion was developed, including the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool Fifth edition (SCAT5), the Child SCAT5, and the Concussion Recognition Tool Fifth edition. This paper elaborates on this process, the outcomes, and explores the implications for neurosurgeons in the management of sport-related concussion. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  11. An Interactive Multi-Model for Consensus on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocarev, Ljupco [University of California, San Diego

    2014-07-02

    This project purports to develop a new scheme for forming consensus among alternative climate models, that give widely divergent projections as to the details of climate change, that is more intelligent than simply averaging the model outputs, or averaging with ex post facto weighting factors. The method under development effectively allows models to assimilate data from one another in run time with weights that are chosen in an adaptive training phase using 20th century data, so that the models synchronize with one another as well as with reality. An alternate approach that is being explored in parallel is the automated combination of equations from different models in an expert-system-like framework.

  12. Promoting children's health: Toward a consensus statement on food literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Emily; Raine, Kim; Mrklas, Kelly; Prowse, Rachel; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Watson-Jarvis, Katherine; Loewen, Jewel; Gorham, Megan; Ricciardi, Carolin; Tyminski, Sheila; Elliott, Charlene

    2017-06-16

    This consensus statement reflects the views of a diverse group of stakeholders convened to explore the concept of "food literacy" as it relates to children's health. Evidence-based conceptions of food literacy are needed in light of the term's popularity in health promotion and educational interventions designed to increase food skills and knowledge that contribute to overall health. Informed by a comprehensive scoping review that identified seven main themes of food literacy, meeting participants ranked those themes in terms of importance. Discussions highlighted two key points in conceptualizing food literacy: the need to recognize varying food skill and knowledge levels, and the need to recognize critical food contexts. From these discussions, meeting participants created two working definitions of food literacy, as well as the alternative conception of "radical food literacy". We conclude that multiple literacies in relation to food skills and knowledge are needed, and underline the importance of ongoing dialogue in this emergent area of research.

  13. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  14. Treatment of Soft Tissue Filler Complications: Expert Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales-Gálvez, Fernando; Delgado, Nuria Escoda; Figueiredo, Vitor; Lajo-Plaza, José V; Mira, Mar; Moreno, Antonio; Ortíz-Martí, Francisco; Del Rio-Reyes, Rosa; Romero-Álvarez, Nazaret; Del Cueto, Sofía Ruiz; Segurado, María A; Rebenaque, Cristina Villanueva

    2018-04-01

    Dermal fillers have been increasingly used in minimally invasive facial esthetic procedures. This widespread use has led to a rise in reports of associated complications. The aim of this expert consensus report is to describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide guidance on their treatment and avoidance. A multidisciplinary group of experts in esthetic treatments convened to discuss the management of the complications associated with dermal fillers use. A search was performed for English, French, and Spanish language articles in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms "complications" OR "soft filler complications" OR "injectable complications" AND "dermal fillers" AND "Therapy". An initial document was drafted by the Coordinating Committee, and it was reviewed and modified by the experts, until a final text was agreed upon and validated. The panel addressed consensus recommendations about the classification of filler complications according to the time of onset and about the clinical management of different complications including bruising, swelling, edema, infections, lumps and bumps, skin discoloration, and biofilm formation. Special attention was paid to vascular compromise and retinal artery occlusion. Clinicians should be fully aware of the signs and symptoms related to complications and be prepared to confidently treat them. Establishing action protocols for emergencies, with agents readily available in the office, would reduce the severity of adverse outcomes associated with injection of hyaluronic acid fillers in the cosmetic setting. This document seeks to lay down a set of recommendations and to identify key issues that may be useful for clinicians who are starting to use dermal fillers. Additionally, this document provides a better understanding about the diagnoses and management of complications if they do occur. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each

  15. Consensus Coding as a Tool in Visual Appearance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Simmons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in visual appearance research is how to quantitatively characterise the visual appearance of a region of an image which is categorised by human observers in the same way. An example of this is scarring in medical images (Ayoub et al, 2010, The Cleft-Palate Craniofacial Journal, in press. We have argued that “scarriness” is itself a visual appearance descriptor which summarises the distinctive combination of colour, texture and shape information which allows us to distinguish scarred from non-scarred tissue (Simmons et al, ECVP 2009. Other potential descriptors for other image classes would be “metallic”, “natural”, or “liquid”. Having developed an automatic algorithm to locate scars in medical images, we then tested “ground truth” by asking untrained observers to draw around the region of scarring. The shape and size of the scar on the image was defined by building a contour plot of the agreement between observers' outlines and thresholding at the point above which 50% of the observers agreed: a consensus coding scheme. Based on the variability in the amount of overlap between the scar as defined by the algorithm, and the consensus scar of the observers, we have concluded that the algorithm does not completely capture the putative appearance descriptor “scarriness”. A simultaneous analysis of qualitative descriptions of the scarring by the observers revealed that other image features than those encoded by the algorithm (colour and texture might be important, such as scar boundary shape. This approach to visual appearance research in medical imaging has potential applications in other application areas, such as botany, geology and archaeology.

  16. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A F; Innes, N P T

    2016-05-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth tissue and retaining teeth long-term. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. Consensus Paper: Language and the Cerebellum: an Ongoing Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Ackermann, Herman; Adamaszek, Michael; Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Beaton, Alan; Desmond, John; De Witte, Elke; Fawcett, Angela J.; Hertrich, Ingo; Küper, Michael; Leggio, Maria; Marvel, Cherie; Molinari, Marco; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Stoodley, Catherine J.; Thürling, Markus; Timmann, Dagmar; Wouters, Ellen; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    In less than three decades, the concept “cerebellar neurocognition” has evolved from a mere afterthought to an entirely new and multifaceted area of neuroscientific research. A close interplay between three main strands of contemporary neuroscience induced a substantial modification of the traditional view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of autonomic and somatic motor functions. Indeed, the wealth of current evidence derived from detailed neuroanatomical investigations, functional neuroimaging studies with healthy subjects and patients and in-depth neuropsychological assessment of patients with cerebellar disorders shows that the cerebellum has a cardinal role to play in affective regulation, cognitive processing, and linguistic function. Although considerable progress has been made in models of cerebellar function, controversy remains regarding the exact role of the “linguistic cerebellum” in a broad variety of nonmotor language processes. This consensus paper brings together a range of different viewpoints and opinions regarding the contribution of the cerebellum to language function. Recent developments and insights in the nonmotor modulatory role of the cerebellum in language and some related disorders will be discussed. The role of the cerebellum in speech and language perception, in motor speech planning including apraxia of speech, in verbal working memory, in phonological and semantic verbal fluency, in syntax processing, in the dynamics of language production, in reading and in writing will be addressed. In addition, the functional topography of the linguistic cerebellum and the contribution of the deep nuclei to linguistic function will be briefly discussed. As such, a framework for debate and discussion will be offered in this consensus paper. PMID:24318484

  18. Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttin, Bart; Wu, Hemmings; Mayberg, Helen; Hariz, Marwan; Gabriëls, Loes; Galert, Thorsten; Merkel, Reinhard; Kubu, Cynthia; Vilela-Filho, Osvaldo; Matthews, Keith; Taira, Takaomi; Lozano, Andres M; Schechtmann, Gastón; Doshi, Paresh; Broggi, Giovanni; Régis, Jean; Alkhani, Ahmed; Sun, Bomin; Eljamel, Sam; Schulder, Michael; Kaplitt, Michael; Eskandar, Emad; Rezai, Ali; Krauss, Joachim K; Hilven, Paulien; Schuurman, Rick; Ruiz, Pedro; Chang, Jin Woo; Cosyns, Paul; Lipsman, Nir; Voges, Juergen; Cosgrove, Rees; Li, Yongjie; Schlaepfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to ‘standard’ therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. Methods To expand on these earlier documents, representative members of continental and international psychiatric and neurosurgical societies, joined efforts to further elaborate and adopt a pragmatic worldwide set of guidelines. These are intended to address a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders, brain targets and neurosurgical techniques, taking into account cultural and social heterogeneities of healthcare environments. Findings The proposed consensus document highlights that, while stereotactic ablative procedures such as cingulotomy and capsulotomy for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder are considered ‘established’ in some countries, they still lack level I evidence. Further, it is noted that deep brain stimulation in any brain target hitherto tried, and for any psychiatric or behavioural disorder, still remains at an investigational stage. Researchers are encouraged to design randomised controlled trials, based on scientific and data-driven rationales for disease and brain target selection. Experienced multidisciplinary teams are a mandatory requirement for the safe and ethical conduct of any psychiatric neurosurgery, ensuring documented refractoriness of patients, proper consent procedures that respect patient's capacity and autonomy, multifaceted preoperative as well as postoperative long-term follow-up evaluation, and reporting of effects and side effects for all patients. Interpretation This consensus document on ethical and scientific conduct of psychiatric surgery worldwide is designed to enhance patient safety. PMID:24444853

  19. Seeking consensus for cyberinfrastructure governance in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. Lee; Zanzkerkia, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Governance of geosciences cyberinfrastructure is a complex and essential undertaking, critical in enabling distributed knowledge communities to collaborate and communicate across disciplines, distances, and cultures. Advancing science with respect to "grand challenges," such as global change, Earth system observation, modeling, and prediction, and core fundamental science, depends not just on technical cyber systems, but also on social systems for strategic planning, decision-making, project management, learning, teaching, and building a community of practice. Simply put, a robust, agile technical system depends on an equally robust and adaptable social system. Cyberinfrastructure development is wrapped in social, organizational and governance challenges which may significantly impede technical progress and result in inefficiencies, duplication of effort, incompatibilities, wasted resources or user frustration. These issues are also the most time consuming to resolve due to significant institutional and social inertia: hence the urgency for developing a governance blueprint. An agile development process is underway for governance of transformative investments in geosciences cyberinfrastructure through the US National Science Foundation's EarthCube Program. Agile development is iterative and incremental, and promotes adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness. A broad coalition of stakeholder groups comprises an Assembly to serve as a preliminary venue for identifying, evaluating, and testing potential governance models. To offer opportunity for ensure broader end-user input and buy-in, a crowd-source approach engages stakeholders not involved otherwise in the Assembly. Developmental evaluators from the social sciences embedded in the project will provide real-time review and adjustments. In order to ensure an open and

  20. A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.

  1. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Consensus paper: Language and the cerebellum: an ongoing enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Ackermann, Herman; Adamaszek, Michael; Barwood, Caroline H S; Beaton, Alan; Desmond, John; De Witte, Elke; Fawcett, Angela J; Hertrich, Ingo; Küper, Michael; Leggio, Maria; Marvel, Cherie; Molinari, Marco; Murdoch, Bruce E; Nicolson, Roderick I; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Stoodley, Catherine J; Thürling, Markus; Timmann, Dagmar; Wouters, Ellen; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2014-06-01

    In less than three decades, the concept "cerebellar neurocognition" has evolved from a mere afterthought to an entirely new and multifaceted area of neuroscientific research. A close interplay between three main strands of contemporary neuroscience induced a substantial modification of the traditional view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of autonomic and somatic motor functions. Indeed, the wealth of current evidence derived from detailed neuroanatomical investigations, functional neuroimaging studies with healthy subjects and patients and in-depth neuropsychological assessment of patients with cerebellar disorders shows that the cerebellum has a cardinal role to play in affective regulation, cognitive processing, and linguistic function. Although considerable progress has been made in models of cerebellar function, controversy remains regarding the exact role of the "linguistic cerebellum" in a broad variety of nonmotor language processes. This consensus paper brings together a range of different viewpoints and opinions regarding the contribution of the cerebellum to language function. Recent developments and insights in the nonmotor modulatory role of the cerebellum in language and some related disorders will be discussed. The role of the cerebellum in speech and language perception, in motor speech planning including apraxia of speech, in verbal working memory, in phonological and semantic verbal fluency, in syntax processing, in the dynamics of language production, in reading and in writing will be addressed. In addition, the functional topography of the linguistic cerebellum and the contribution of the deep nuclei to linguistic function will be briefly discussed. As such, a framework for debate and discussion will be offered in this consensus paper.

  3. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Lorenz, J

    2010-01-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor

  4. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J K [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lorenz, J [Chair of Systems Design, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2010-06-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor.

  5. Genomic Sequencing of Single Microbial Cells from Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishoey, Thomas; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Novotny, Mark; Lasken, Roger S.

    2008-02-01

    Recently developed techniques allow genomic DNA sequencing from single microbial cells [Lasken RS: Single-cell genomic sequencing using multiple displacement amplification, Curr Opin Microbiol 2007, 10:510-516]. Here, we focus on research strategies for putting these methods into practice in the laboratory setting. An immediate consequence of single-cell sequencing is that it provides an alternative to culturing organisms as a prerequisite for genomic sequencing. The microgram amounts of DNA required as template are amplified from a single bacterium by a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) avoiding the need to grow cells. The ability to sequence DNA from individual cells will likely have an immense impact on microbiology considering the vast numbers of novel organisms, which have been inaccessible unless culture-independent methods could be used. However, special approaches have been necessary to work with amplified DNA. MDA may not recover the entire genome from the single copy present in most bacteria. Also, some sequence rearrangements can occur during the DNA amplification reaction. Over the past two years many research groups have begun to use MDA, and some practical approaches to single-cell sequencing have been developed. We review the consensus that is emerging on optimum methods, reliability of amplified template, and the proper interpretation of 'composite' genomes which result from the necessity of combining data from several single-cell MDA reactions in order to complete the assembly. Preferred laboratory methods are considered on the basis of experience at several large sequencing centers where >70% of genomes are now often recovered from single cells. Methods are reviewed for preparation of bacterial fractions from environmental samples, single-cell isolation, DNA amplification by MDA, and DNA sequencing.

  6. An extended sequence specificity for UV-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Long H; Murray, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage was determined with a higher precision and accuracy than previously reported. UV light induces two major damage adducts: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Employing capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and taking advantages of the distinct properties of the CPDs and 6-4PPs, we studied the sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage in a purified DNA sequence using two approaches: end-labelling and a polymerase stop/linear amplification assay. A mitochondrial DNA sequence that contained a random nucleotide composition was employed as the target DNA sequence. With previous methodology, the UV sequence specificity was determined at a dinucleotide or trinucleotide level; however, in this paper, we have extended the UV sequence specificity to a hexanucleotide level. With the end-labelling technique (for 6-4PPs), the consensus sequence was found to be 5'-GCTC*AC (where C* is the breakage site); while with the linear amplification procedure, it was 5'-TCTT*AC. With end-labelling, the dinucleotide frequency of occurrence was highest for 5'-TC*, 5'-TT* and 5'-CC*; whereas it was 5'-TT* for linear amplification. The influence of neighbouring nucleotides on the degree of UV-induced DNA damage was also examined. The core sequences consisted of pyrimidine nucleotides 5'-CTC* and 5'-CTT* while an A at position "1" and C at position "2" enhanced UV-induced DNA damage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural and sequence variants in patients with Silver-Russell syndrome or similar features-Curation of a disease database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tümer, Zeynep; López-Hernández, Julia Angélica; Netchine, Irène

    2018-01-01

    data of these patients. The clinical features are scored according to the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system (NH-CSS), which has recently been accepted as standard by consensus. The structural and sequence variations are reviewed and where necessary redescribed according to recent...

  8. Coding patient emotional cues and concerns in medical consultations: the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, C.; Piccolo, L. del; Bensing, J.; Bergvik, S.; Haes, H. de; Eide, H.; Fletcher, I.; Goss, C.; Heaven, C.; Humphris, G.; Young-Mi, K.; Langewitz, W.; Meeuwesen, L.; Nuebling, M.; Rimondini, M.; Salmon, P.; Dulmen, S. van; Wissow, L.; Zandbelt, L.; Finset, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES CC), a consensus based system for coding patient expressions of emotional distress in medical consultations, defined as Cues or Concerns. Methods: The system was developed by an international group of communication

  9. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  10. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  11. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  12. Do not do in COPD: consensus statement on overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Álvarez F

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Felipe Villar-Álvarez,1 Raúl Moreno-Zabaleta,2 Jose Joaquin Mira-Solves,3 Eduardo Calvo-Corbella,4 Salvador Díaz-Lobato,5 Fernando González-Torralba,6 Ascensión Hernando-Sanz,7 Sara Núñez-Palomo,8 Sergio Salgado-Aranda,9 Beatriz Simón-Rodríguez,10 Paz Vaquero-Lozano,11 Isabel María Navarro-Soler12On behalf of “Do not do in COPD” Working Group of the Madrid Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (Neumomadrid1Department of Pulmonology, IIS–Fundación Jiménez Díaz, CIBERES, UAM, 2Pulmonology, Inpatient and Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía, Madrid, 3Alicante-Sant Joan Health District, Alicante/Universidad Miguel Hernández Elche/REDISEC, 4Family and Community Medicine, CSU Pozuelo Estación, School of Medicine, UAM, 5Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 6Pulmonology Section, Hospital Universitario del Tajo, Aranjuez, 7Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, 8C.S. Torrelaguna, 9Pulmonology Section, Hospital del Sureste, 10FisioRespiración-Respiratory Physiotherapy Unit, Escuela Universitaria Gimbernat Cantabria, 11S. Pulmonology, CEP Hnos. Sangro HGU Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, 12Calitè Research Group, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, SpainBackground: To identify practices that do not add value, cause harm, or subject patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to a level of risk that outweighs possible benefits (overuse.Methods: A qualitative approach was applied. First, a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals used the Metaplan technique to draft and rank a list of overused procedures as well as self-care practices in patients with stable and exacerbated COPD. Second, in successive consensus-building rounds, description files were created for each “do not do” (DND recommendation, consisting of a definition, description, quality of supporting evidence for the recommendation, and the indicator

  13. 24 CFR 3288.305 - Consultation with the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation with the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee. 3288.305 Section 3288.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Housing Consensus Committee. HUD will seek input from the MHCC when revising the HUD Manufactured Home...

  14. 24 CFR 3286.15 - Consultation with the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee (MHCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation with the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee (MHCC). 3286.15 Section 3286.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Consensus Committee (MHCC). The Secretary will seek input from the MHCC when revising the installation...

  15. 15 CFR 10.7 - Procedure when a recommended standard is not supported by a consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when a recommended standard is not supported by a consensus. 10.7 Section 10.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary... recommended standard is not supported by a consensus. If the Department determines that a recommended standard...

  16. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  17. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  18. Consensus of satellite cluster flight using an energy-matching optimal control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Bo

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an optimal control method for consensus of satellite cluster flight under a kind of energy matching condition. Firstly, the relation between energy matching and satellite periodically bounded relative motion is analyzed, and the satellite energy matching principle is applied to configure the initial conditions. Then, period-delayed errors are adopted as state variables to establish the period-delayed errors dynamics models of a single satellite and the cluster. Next a novel satellite cluster feedback control protocol with coupling gain is designed, so that the satellite cluster periodically bounded relative motion consensus problem (period-delayed errors state consensus problem) is transformed to the stability of a set of matrices with the same low dimension. Based on the consensus region theory in the research of multi-agent system consensus issues, the coupling gain can be obtained to satisfy the requirement of consensus region and decouple the satellite cluster information topology and the feedback control gain matrix, which can be determined by Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal method. This method can realize the consensus of satellite cluster period-delayed errors, leading to the consistency of semi-major axes (SMA) and the energy-matching of satellite cluster. Then satellites can emerge the global coordinative cluster behavior. Finally the feasibility and effectiveness of the present energy-matching optimal consensus for satellite cluster flight is verified through numerical simulations.

  19. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, T.W.; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W.M.A.; Bucknall, Christine E.; Dewan, Naresh A.; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L.; Singh, Sally J.; ZuWallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger S.; Partridge, Martyn R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  20. Standard operating procedures for female orgasmic disorder: consensus of the International Society for Sexual Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Barnes, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    As the field of sexual medicine evolves, it is important to continually improve patient care by developing contemporary "standard operating procedures" (SOPs), reflecting the consensus view of experts in sexual medicine. Few, if any, consensus SOPs have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment