WorldWideScience

Sample records for pva

  1. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  2. PNIPAm/PVA thermo-sensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Chen, L.; Ju, L. L.; Zhao, Y. P.

    2007-07-01

    Using ammonium per sulfate (APS) as initiator, PNIPAm was in situ polymerized in PVA aqueous so1ution and the transparent PNIPAm/PVA blending solution was obtained. PNIPAm/PVA fiber, showing polymer networks cross linked by the entanglement and hydrogen-bonding, was successfully prepared from the blending PNIPAm/PVA solution via wet spinning process with the saturated ammonium per sulfate aqueous solution as coagulation bath. In comparison with the PNIPAm/PVA blending solution, the single PNIPAm solution can not be prepared fibers. The best conditions for preparation of PNIPAm/PVA fiber such as PNIPAm mass ratio in the PNIPAm/PVA solution, PNIPAm polymerized time and reaction temperature in PVA aqueous so1ution was founded. The swelling performance and temperature-sensitive characters of the PNIPAm/PVA fiber were studied. The result showed that PNIPAm/PVA fibers maintain the temperature-sensitive characteristics associated with the roles of the component PNIPAm, the swelling rate of these fibers exhibited sharp change at about 32°C, and the temperature-sensitive property increased with the content of PNIPAm in the fiber increased.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of PVA, PVA/chitosan, and PVA/cyanobacterial exopolysaccharide nanofibrous composite nanofiltration membranes prepared by electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Apresentação efetuada no "245th ACS National Meeting and Exposition", em New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013 A series of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/chitosan (CS) and PVA/cyanobacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) blend nanofibrous membranes were fabricated by electrospinning using a microfiltration poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as a basal membrane, in order to obtain thin-layer composite (TFC) nanofiltration membranes. The morphology, diameter, structure, mechanical and thermal characteristics...

  4. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Jhe Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Chih Chin [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Kai Chiang [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chun Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Science and Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko Shao [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Szi Wen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong Shyan [Department of Physical Therapy and the Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1 day seeded. Cell–cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  5. Comparison of cell behavior on pva/pva-gelatin electrospun nanofibers with random and aligned configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hu, Keng-Hsiang; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.

  6. Properties of nanoclay PVA composites materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/ Na-rich Montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposites were prepared using solution method to create polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN material. The PCN material was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, demonstrating polymer-clay intercalation that has a high d-spacing (lower diffraction angles in the PCN XRD pattern, compared to the pure MMT clay XRD pattern, which has a low d-spacing (high diffraction angles. The nano-scanning electron microscope (NSEM was used to study the morphological image of the PVA, MMT and PCN materials. The results showed that intercalation that took place between the PVA and MMT produced the PCN material. The mechanical properties of the pure PVA and the intercalated polymer material were studied. It was found that the small amount of MMT clay made the tensile modulus and percentage of the total elongation of the nano-composite significantly higher than the pure PVA polymer value, due to polymer-clay intercalation. The thermal stability of the intercalated polymer has been studied using thermal analytical techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results showed that the PCN material is more thermally stable than the pure PVA polymer.

  7. Study of structural modification of PVA by incorporating Ag nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, I.; Sharma, A.; Rozra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of PVA with Ag nanoparticles dispersed in it were synthesized using solution casting method. The morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix were obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE......-SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to examine structural changes taking place inside polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix due to incorporation of Ag nanoparticle. Raman analysis indicates that Ag nanoparticles interact with PVA through H-bonding. © 2016 Author(s)....

  8. Bubbfil spinning for fabrication of PVA nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chun-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubbfil spinning is used to fabricate PVA nanofibers. Multiple polymer bubbles are formed on the spinneret, and an external force is added to burst the bubbles immediately. The ejected jets are accelerated to a high velocity, and fiber diameter is tenable by adjusting the spinning parameters.

  9. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe Hao; Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua; Hsu, Chih Chin; Yang, Kai Chiang; Yang, Chun Chen; Chen, Ko Shao; Chen, Szi Wen; Wang, Jong Shyan

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1day seeded. Cell-cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  10. Syntheses of PVA/starch blend hydrogels by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Maolin [Peking Univ., College of Chemistry, Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Beijing (China); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    A series of excellent PVA/starch blend hydrogels were prepared by gamma and electric beam (EB) radiation at room temperature. The influence of dose, the content of starch in blend system on the properties of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. The gel strength was improved obviously after adding starch into PVA hydrogels, but the swelling properties decreased slightly due to low swelling capacity of starch. The effect of component of starch on the properties of PVA/starch blend hydrogels as well as the reaction mechanism between PVA and starch under irradiation were investigated further. Comparing with PVA/starch blend hydrogels, PVA/amylose blend hydrogels had higher gel fraction, mechanical strength, and lower swelling capacity. PVA/amylopectin blend hydrogels were over the left. It indicated that the amylose of starch was a key component that influenced the properties of PVA/starch blend hydrogels. The analyses of FTIR and DSC spectra of the prepared gel samples after extracting sol indicated that there was a grafting reaction between PVA and starch molecules except for the crosslinking of PVA molecules under irradiation, and the amylose of starch was a key reactive component. (author)

  11. Lysozyme-immobilized electrospun PAMA/PVA and PSSA-MA/PVA ion-exchange nanofiber for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-08-27

    Abstract This research was aimed to develop the lysozyme immobilized ion-exchange nanofiber mats for wound healing. To promote the healing process, the PSSA-MA/PVA and PAMA ion-exchange nanofiber mats were fabricated to mimic the extracellular matrix structure using electrospinning process followed by thermally crosslinked. Lysozyme was immobilized on the ion-exchane nanofibers by an adsorption method. The ion-exchange nanofibers were investigated using SEM, FTIR and XRPD. Moreover, the lysozyme-immobilized ion-exchange nanofibers were further investigated for lysozyme content and activity, lysozyme release and wound healing activity. The fiber diameters of the mats were in the nanometer range. Lysozyme was gradually absorbed into the PSSA-MA/PVA nanofiber with higher extend than that is absorbed on the PAMA/PVA nanofiber and exhibited higher activity than lysozyme-immobilized PAMA/PVA nanofiber. The total contents of lysozyme on the PSSA-MA/PVA and PAMA/PVA nanofiber were 648 and 166 µg/g, respectively. FTIR and lysozyme activity results confirmed the presence of lysozyme on the nanofiber mats. The lysozyme was released from the PSSA-MA/PVA and PAMA/PVA nanofiber in the same manner. The lysozyme-immobilized PSSA-MA/PVA nanofiber mats and lysozyme-immobilized PAMA/PVA nanofiber mats exhibited significantly faster healing rate than gauze and similar to the commercial antibacterial gauze dressing. These results suggest that these nanofiber mats could provide the promising candidate for wound healing application.

  12. Control of nanostructures in PVA, PVA/chitosan blends and PCL through electrospinning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U S Sajeev; K Anoop Anand; Deepthy Menon; Shanti Nair

    2008-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were electrospun and its characteristics were studied as a function of applied potential, tip-target distance and solution flow rate. Solutions of PVA and chitosan were homogeneously mixed and electrospun to result in blend nanofibres and their properties were investigated. Conditions were revealed under which multiscale bi-modal fibres could be electrospun in a single step, producing structures that have potential applications in tissue engineering. Electrospun fibres having a bimodal size distribution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) were also fabricated using a modified electrospinning setup. Nanofibrous microporous PVA scaffolds were fabricated using a cryogenic grinding method with subsequent compaction. Such multiscale porous structures would offer ideal matrices for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Immobilization of activated sludge using improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microbial immobilization method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel as an immobilizing material was improved and used for entrapment of activated sludge. The OUR (oxygen uptake rate) was used to characterize the biological activity of immobilized activated sludge. Three kinds of PVA-immobilized particles of activated sludge, that is, PVA-boric acid beads, PVA-sodium nitrate beads and PVA-orthophosphate beads was prepared, and their biological activity was compared by measuring the OUR value. The bioactivity of both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms of activated sludge was determined using different synthetic wastewater media (containing 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L NH4+-N). The experimental results showed that the bioactivity and stability of the three kinds of immobilized activated sludge was greatly improved after activation. With respect of the bioactivity and the mechanical stability, the PVA-orthophosphate method may be a promising and economical technique for microbial immobilization.

  14. PDMS/PVA composite ferroelectret for improved energy harvesting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luo, Z.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper address the PDMS ferroelectret discharge issue for improved long- term energy harvesting performance. The PDMS/PVA ferroelectret is fabricated using a 3D-printed plastic mould technology and a functional PVA composite layer is introduced. The PDMS/PVA composite ferroelectret achieved 80% piezoelectric coefficient d33 remaining, compared with 40% without the proposed layer over 72 hours. Further, the retained percentage of output voltage is about 73% over 72 hours.

  15. Crosslinking of PVA Pervaporation Membrane by Maleic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane is prepared using a high temperature esterification reaction between PVA and MA in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The crosslinking reaction mechanism is investigated using FT-IR spectral analysis. The results indicate that maleic acid reacts with hydroxyl groups in PVA to form mono- and bis-ester in a two-step process.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical study of pure PVA and CdSe doped PVA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-05-01

    This research work reports the synthesis and optical properties of CdSe/PVA polymer nanocomposite (PNC's) prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation method. The transmission spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer has been investigated to determine the optical properties of PNC's. Absorption spectra give the information about energy band gap (Eg) and type of transition. Refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k) was calculated using well known Swanepoel method. Wemple-Di Domenico model (WDD) has been used to calculate dispersion energy (Ed) and oscillator energy (E0). Boling formula is used to calculate nonlinear refractive index (n2) of CdSe/PVA nanocomposite.

  17. Hybrid silica-PVA nanofibers via sol-gel electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzada, Tahira; Arvidson, Sara A; Saquing, Carl D; Shah, S Sakhawat; Khan, Saad A

    2012-04-03

    We report on the synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-silica hybrid nanofibers via sol-gel electrospinning. Silica is synthesized through acid catalysis of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in ethanol-water), and fibers are obtained by electrospinning a mixture of the silica precursor solution and aqueous PVA. A systematic investigation on how the amount of TEOS, the silica-PVA ratio, the aging time of the silica precursor mixture, and the solution rheology influence the fiber morphology is undertaken and reveals a composition window in which defect-free hybrid nanofibers with diameters as small as 150 nm are obtained. When soaked overnight in water, the hybrid fibers remain intact, essentially maintaining their morphology, even though PVA is soluble in water. We believe that mixing of the silica precursor and PVA in solution initiates the participation of the silica precursor in cross-linking of PVA so that its -OH group becomes unavailable for hydrogen bonding with water. FTIR analysis of the hybrids confirms the disappearance of the -OH peak typically shown by PVA, while formation of a bond between PVA and silica is indicated by the Si-O-C peak in the spectra of all the hybrids. The ability to form cross-linked nanofibers of PVA using thermally stable and relatively inert silica could broaden the scope of use of these materials in various technologies.

  18. Bioactivity of permselective PVA hydrogels with mixed ECM analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafea, Eman H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2015-12-01

    The presentation of multiple biological cues, which simulate the natural in vivo cell environment within artificial implants, has recently been identified as crucial for achieving complex cellular functions. The incorporation of two or more biological cues within a largely synthetic network can provide a simplified model of multifunctional ECM presentation to encapsulated cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of simultaneously and covalently incorporating two dissimilar biological molecules, heparin and gelatin, within a PVA hydrogel. PVA was functionalized with 7 and 20 methacrylate functional groups per chain (FG/c) to tailor the permselectivity of UV photopolymerized hydrogels. Both heparin and gelatin were covalently incorporated into PVA at an equal ratio resulting in a final PVA:heparin:gelatin composition of 19:0.5:0.5. The combination of both heparin and gelatin within a PVA network has proven to be stable over time without compromising the PVA base characteristics including its permselectivity to different proteins. Most importantly, this combination of ECM analogues supplemented PVA with the dual functionalities of promoting cellular adhesion and sequestering growth factors essential for cellular proliferation. Multi-functional PVA hydrogels with synthetically controlled network characteristics and permselectivity show potential in various biomedical applications including artificial cell implants.

  19. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PVA COATED MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-ping Qiu; Francoise Winnik

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol coated magnetic particles (PVA ferrofluids) have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(Ⅱ)/Fe(Ⅲ) salts in 1.5 mol/L NH4OH solution at 70℃ in the presence of PVA. The resultant colloidal particles have core-shell structures, in which the iron oxide crystallites form the cores and PVA chains form the shells. The hydrodynamic diameter of the colloidal particles is in the range of 108 to 155 nm, which increases with increasing PVA concentration from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The size of the magnetic cores is ca. 5~10 nm, which is relatively independent of PVA concentration.Under transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination, the magnetic cores exhibit somewhat irregular shapes varying from spherical, oval, to cubic. Magnetometry measurement revealed that the PVA coated magnetic particles are superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization of 5 wt% and 20 wt% PVA ferrofluids at 300 K is 54 and 49 emu/g,respectively. All the PVA ferrofluids exhibited excellent colloidal stability in pure water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS,pH = 7.4). The ferrofluids can remain stable in above solutions for more than three months at 4℃.

  20. Biosynthesis of PVA encapsulated silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Chandran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an important technique in the methods of eco-friendly nanoparticle production. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was accomplished using Ocimum sanctum leaf extract at room temperature. These particles were then encapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer matrix. The presence of silver was confirmed by different characterization techniques such as UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM images of the synthesized powder shows spherical shaped silver nanoparticles embedded in sponge-like polymer matrix. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the presence of elemental silver along with iron signal. Energy dispersive signal corresponding to elemental iron has been attributed to O. sanctum plant. The silver nanoparticles in PVA matrix thus obtained shows high antibacterial activity against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli water borne bacteria. The inhibition zone against S. aureus and E. coli were also calculated.

  1. Property-based design: optimization and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and PVA-matrix composite for artificial cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Zhang, Aiming; Li, Yubao; Yang, Xiaochao

    2014-03-01

    Each approach for artificial cornea design is toward the same goal: to develop a material that best mimics the important properties of natural cornea. Accordingly, the selection and optimization of corneal substitute should be based on their physicochemical properties. In this study, three types of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels with different polymerization degree (PVA1799, PVA2499 and PVA2699) were prepared by freeze-thawing techniques. After characterization in terms of transparency, water content, water contact angle, mechanical property, root-mean-square roughness and protein adsorption behavior, the optimized PVA2499 hydrogel with similar properties of natural cornea was selected as a matrix material for artificial cornea. Based on this, a biomimetic artificial cornea was fabricated with core-and-skirt structure: a transparent PVA hydrogel core, surrounding by a ringed PVA-matrix composite skirt that composed of graphite, Fe-doped nano hydroxyapatite (n-Fe-HA) and PVA hydrogel. Different ratio of graphite/n-Fe-HA can tune the skirt color from dark brown to light brown, which well simulates the iris color of Oriental eyes. Moreover, morphologic and mechanical examination showed that an integrated core-and-skirt artificial cornea was formed from an interpenetrating polymer network, no phase separation appeared on the interface between the core and the skirt.

  2. 接枝聚合物PVA-g-PNIPA的合成%Synthesis of Graft Copolymer PVA-g-PNIPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊卿; 陈岚; 苏致兴

    2001-01-01

    采用自由基溶液聚合制备了具有温敏性的N-异丙基丙烯酸胺的线性均聚物(PNIPA).利用活性酰胺与聚乙烯醇(PVA)中羟基的交换反应将PNIPA接枝在PVA链上得到接枝聚合物PVA-g-PNIPA.用化学交联法在W/O体系中将PVA-g-PNIPA制成微球.结果表明,接枝聚合物仍具有温敏性.接枝聚合物中PNIPA的含量随PNIPA/PVA(投料比)的增加而增加,并且影响微球的成球率.%Linear homopolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide has been made with AIBN as initiator and DMF as solvent, and it was thermosensitive.Graft copolymer PVA-g-PNIPA could be prepared through the reaction of the terminal active amide of PNIPA and the hydroxy group of PVA.Microspheres could be made of graft copolymer PVA-g-PNIPA with glutaraldehyde as cross-link agent in water/oil system.It was found that graft copolymer PVA-g-PNIPA still had thermosensitivity,and the content of PNIPA in PVA-g-PNIPA could be controlled by the feed proportion of PNIPA and PVA, and microsphere was made readily but it could be affected by the content of PNIPA.

  3. Multi-stage drying of PVA aqueous solution film; PVA suiyoeki no bunri tofu kanso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, M.; Inoue, S. [Dai Nippon Printing Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Imakawa, H. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan), Faculty of Engineering; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-10

    In a multi-stage coating and drying process, in which PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) film was formed by repeating twice a set of operations consisting of coating PVA aqueous solution and convective drying of it, the drying process was numerically simulated using a drying model based on mass transfer within a coated film. The possibility of minimizing drying time was also investigated. Total drying time, summed over the first and second stages, required to yield a target mean moisture concentration in the solution film was calculated while changing the final mean moisture concentration of the first stage. It was found that the minimum drying time appeared for each target concentration and the effect of reduction on the total drying time became significant with increasing target concentration. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of PVA coated nanoparticles on human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Cindy; Gaber, Timo; Maurizi, Lionel; Hahne, Martin; Rauch, Roman; Hoff, Paula; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Poole, A Robin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology provides new opportunities in human medicine, mainly for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often diagnosed after irreversible joint structural damage has occurred. There is an urgent need for a very early diagnosis of RA, which can be achieved by more sensitive imaging methods. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are already used in medicine and therefore represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of RA. The focus of our work was to investigate any potentially negative effects resulting from the interactions of newly developed amino-functionalized amino-polyvinyl alcohol coated (a-PVA) SPION (a-PVA-SPION), that are used for imaging, with human immune cells. We analyzed the influence of a-PVA-SPION with regard to cell survival and cell activation in human whole blood in general, and in human monocytes and macrophages representative of professional phagocytes, using flow cytometry, multiplex suspension array, and transmission electron microscopy. We found no effect of a-PVA-SPION on the viability of human immune cells, but cytokine secretion was affected. We further demonstrated that the percentage of viable macrophages increased on exposure to a-PVA-SPION. This effect was even stronger when a-PVA-SPION were added very early in the differentiation process. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that both monocytes and macrophages are able to endocytose a-PVA-SPION. Our findings demonstrate an interaction between human immune cells and a-PVA-SPION which needs to be taken into account when considering the use of a-PVA-SPION in human medicine.

  5. The influence of silkworm species on cellular interactions with novel PVA/silk sericin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khoon S; Kundu, Joydip; Reeves, April; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Kundu, Subhas C; Martens, Penny J

    2012-03-01

    Sericin peptides and PVA are chemically modified with methacrylate groups to produce a covalent PVA/sericin hydrogel. Preservation of the sericin bioactivity following methacrylation is confirmed, and PVA/sericin hydrogels are fabricated for both B. mori and A. mylitta sericin. Cell adhesion studies confirm the preservation of sericin bioactivity post incorporation in PVA gels. PVA/A. mylitta gels are observed to facilitate cell adhesion to a significantly greater degree than PVA/B. mori gels. Overall, the incorporation of sericin does not alter the physical properties of the PVA hydrogels but does result in significantly improved cellular interaction, particularly from A. mylitta gels.

  6. Novel PVA/MOF Nanofibres: Fabrication, Evaluation and Adsorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Plain polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres and novel polyvinyl alcohol benzene tetracarboxylate nanofibres incorporated with strontium, lanthanum and antimony ((PVA/Sr-TBC), (PVA/La-TBC) and (PVA/Sb-TBC)), respectively, where TBC is benzene 1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate adsorbents, were fabricated by electrospinning. The as-prepared electrospun nanofibres were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Only plain PVA n...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of PVA/Wood Vinegar/PVA Composite Membrane%PVA/木醋液/PVA复合膜的制备和表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莹; 王海英; 杨国亭; 段晓玲; 冯晨

    2014-01-01

    制备了5种聚乙烯醇(PVA)/木醋液/PVA复合膜,并分别对其力学性能和透光率进行表征.研究结果表明PVA/贮藏桶上部白桦精制木醋液/PVA复合膜的平均厚度较小(0.67 mm); PVA/贮藏桶上部白桦精制木醋液/PVA复合膜的拉伸强度较大(82.47 Mpa); PVA/贮藏桶上部白桦精制木醋液/PVA复合膜的断裂伸长率较小(17.5%).PVA/贮藏桶上部白桦精制木醋液PVA复合膜的透光率较好.PVA木醋液/PVA复合膜在木醋液抑菌膜领域具有开发价值.

  8. PEG-grafted PVA Membrane and Its Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Gu; YAO Qi-zhi; DONG Li-quan; MA Feng

    2011-01-01

    Preparation and blood compatibility of different shape polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)membrane were investigated.Firstly,the tabular and tubular[polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)capillary as supporter]PVA membranes were prepared; then,methoxy polyethylene glycol(mPEG)was grafted onto the surface of the PVA membranes.The effects of the shape,structure and properties of the membrane surface on blood compatibility were studied in detail.The experiment results show that mPEG modified PVA membranes,especially mPEG modified tubular membrane,could availably repel the adhesion of the platelets.In addition,the anticoagulant mechanism of mPEG with a steric repulsion effectiveness was confirmed further via different grafting methods.

  9. Release of lysozyme from electrospun PVA/lysozyme-gelatin scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-zhi YANG; Yu-hua LONG; Jun NIE

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an electrospinning process in fabricating ultra fine fibers with core-shell structure. A biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used as the shell; lysozyme was a kind of antioxidant; and gelatin were used as the core. Morphology and microstruc-ture of the ultra fine fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron micro-scopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. As a comparison, composite nanofiber PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend was prepared by a normal electrospinning process. In vitro drug release behaviors of the nanofibrous membranes were determined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. It was found that core-shell nanofibers PVA/lysozyme-gelatin obviously exhibit higher initial release rates compared to that of PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend nanofibers. The current method may find wide application in controlled release of bioactive proteins and tissue engineering.

  10. Cu nanoparticles induced structural, optical and electrical modification in PVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozra, J.; Saini, I.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cu nanoparticles were synthesized in PVA matrix by chemical reduction of cupric nitrate with hydrazine hydrate. Structural characterization of synthesized Cu-PVA nanocomposite was carried out using UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmissi...... measurements showed strong blue visible emission peak at 450 nm at different excitation wavelengths in the range of 220-245 nm. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Closantel nano-encapsulated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Abraham Faustino; Medina-Torres, Luis; Calderas, Fausto; Gracia-Mora, Jesus; Bernad-Bernad, MaJosefa

    2016-08-01

    The influence of closantel on the rheological and physicochemical properties (particle size and by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy) of PVA aqueous solutions is studied here. About 1% PVA aqueous solutions were prepared by varying the closantel content. The increase of closantel content led to a reduction in the particle size of final solutions. All the solutions were buffered at pH 7.4 and exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Furthermore, in oscillatory flow, a "solid-like" type behavior was observed for the sample containing 30 μg/mL closantel. Indicating a strong interaction between the dispersed and continuous phases and evidencing an interconnected network between the nanoparticle and PVA, this sample also showed the highest shear viscosity and higher shear thinning slope, indicating a more intrincate structure disrupted by shear. In conclusion, PVA interacts with closantel in aqueous solution and the critical concentration for closantel encapsulation by PVA was about 30 μg/mL; above this concentration, the average particle size decreased notoriously which was associated to closantel interacting with the surface of the PVA aggregates and thus avoiding to some extent direct polymer-polymer interaction.

  12. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PVA9 and ONK-PVA10 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for groundwater monitoring stations in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2011. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in March 2011 and the drillhole ONK-PVA10 in June 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are 15.95 and 20.10 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 4366 and the ONK-PVA10 in the access tunnel wall at chainage 3851. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in drill cores are 2.9 pcs/m (ONK-PVA9) and 2.3 pcs/m (ONK-PVA10) and the average RQD values 81.6 % and 96.2 % respectively. (orig.)

  13. Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment - PVA Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. IDGE used transparent organic liquids that form dendrites (treelike structures) similar to those inside metal alloys. Comparing Earth-based and space-based dendrite growth velocity, tip size and shape provides a better understanding of the fundamentals of dentritic growth, including gravity's effects. Shalowgraphic images of pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites forming from the melt show the subtle but distinct effects of gravity-driven heat convection on dentritic growth. In orbit, the dendrite grows as its latent heat is liberated by heat conduction. This yields a blunt dendrite tip. On Earth, heat is carried away by both conduction and gravity-driven convection. This yields a sharper dendrite tip. In addition, under terrestrial conditions, the sidebranches growing in the direction of gravity are augmented as gravity helps carry heat out of the way of the growing sidebranches as opposed to microgravity conditions where no augmentation takes place. IDGE was developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and NASA/Glenn Research Center. Advanced follow-on experiments are being developed for flight on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center

  14. Thermal properties of radiolytically synthesized PVA/Ag nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krklješ Aleksandra N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiolytic method was used to synthesize two types of nanocomposites with silver, PVA/Ag by film casting and PVA hydrogel/Ag nanocomposites. This method is particularly suitable for generating metal nanoparticles in solution. The radiolytic species (solvated electrons and secondary radicals exhibit strong reducing properties such that metal ions are reduced at each encounter. Metal atoms then tend to grow into larger clusters. It was found that solid or swollen polymers are able to stabilize small crystallites against spontaneous growth via aggregation. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the melting behavior and kinetics of the PVA/Ag nanocomposites were investigated and compared to those of pure PVA. The melting as well as crystallization behavior of polymers is crucial because it governs the thermal properties, impact resistance and stress strain properties. Understanding the melting behavior is significant not only to tailor the properties of nanocomposites but to investigate the interactions between the constituents. The DSC curves of pure PVA and prepared nanocomposites show only one melting peak between 175 and 230°C, indicating that the melting behavior of these two systems are analogous. In both cases, with increasing heating rate, the melting peak shifts to a higher temperature, but with increasing Ag content the peak melting temperature is lower. When specimens are heated at high heating rate, the motion of PVA molecular chains cannot follow the heating temperature on time due to the influence of heat hysteresis, which leads to a higher peak melting temperature. When Ag nanoparticles are added they increase the heat transfer among the PVA molecular chains decreasing the melting temperature. The Ag content is a major factor affecting the degree of crystallinity. It was observed that at low nanofiller content, up to the 0.5 wt%, the degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites increased, while at a higher content the

  15. CMC-PVA/CS-PVA Bipolar Membrane Modified by PVA-SA-CuTsPc Nanofiber Using Electrospinning Technique%静电纺丝法制备PVA-SA-CuTsPc纳米纤维改性CMC-PVA/CS-PVA双极膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周挺进; 陈晓; 陈日耀; 郑曦; 陈震

    2013-01-01

    分别用Fe3+离子和戊二醛作为交联剂对羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)-聚乙烯醇(PVA)阳膜层和壳聚糖(CS)-聚乙烯醇阴膜层进行改性,利用静电纺丝法制备聚乙烯醇(PVA)-海藻酸钠(SA)-四磺酸基铜酞菁(CuTsPc)纳米纤维纺丝,引入中间界面层,制备CMC-PVA/PVA-SA-CuTsPc/CS-PVA双极膜(BPM),并用扫描电镜、接触角测定仪,电流密度-槽电压关系曲线、交流阻抗谱等对制备的双极膜进行了表征.研究结果表明,经PVA.SA-CuTsPc纳米纤维纺丝改性后,CMC-PVA阳膜表面亲水性增强,双极膜的中间界面层水解离效率提高,膜阻抗和槽电压下降.当电流密度为90 mA/cm2时,CMC-PVA/PVA-SA-CuTsPc/CS-PVA(w (CuTsPc)=3.0%)双极膜的电阻压降(即膜IR降)仅为0.5V.%In this paper, the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cation exchange membranes and the chitosan (CS)-polyvinyl alcohol anion exchange membranes were modified by Fe 3+ and glutaraldehyde as linking reagents, respectively, and the polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate (SA)-copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuTsPc) nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique were introduced into the interlayer to prepare the CMC-PVA/PVA-SA-CuTsPc/CS-PVA bipolar membrane (BPM). The BPM was characterized using SEM, contact angle measurement, current-voltage characteristics, AC impedance spectroscopy and so on. The results show that after the modification with PVA-SA-CuTsPc nanofibers, the hydrophilicity of CMC-PVA membrane surface and the water splitting efficiency at the interlayer increase, and the membrane impedance and cell voltage of the BPM decrease. The trans-membrane voltage drop (IR drop) of the CMC-PVA/PVA-SA-CuTsPc/CS-PVA (w(CuTsPc) = 3.0%) BPM is as low as 0. 5V at a current density of 90 mA/cm2.

  16. Structure and sorption properties of CNC reinforced PVA films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Bio-nanocomposite films based on cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) were obtained by solvent casting method. To assess the structural features of the films, different spectral techniques (FTIR, 2D COS and XRD) have been used. Infrared and 2D correlation spectroscopy evidenced the presence of H-bond interactions between the PVA and CNC, and the variation in the conformational rearrangements, while XRD showed that the crystallite size and the crystallinity degree were affected by the incorporation of CNC. At low content of CNC in the PVA matrix, the crystallinity degree decreased to 29.9%, while at higher CNC content increased to 80.6%, comparing to PVA (35.4%). To evaluate the interaction with water, contact angle measurement, water sorption and NIR spectroscopy were used, respectively. The increase of the CNC content induced a reduction in water sorption ability from 93% for PVA to 75% for PVA/CNC films, indicating the involvement of the hydroxyl groups in new hydrogen bonded interactions. By analyzing the variation of the NIR bands from 1930, 1902 and 1985nm, was observed that the water molecules interact with the polymer matrix through moderate hydrogen bond before diffusing into the free volume of the matrix and form stronger hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 冷冻处理对α-PVA/s-PVA共混溶液静电纺丝的影响%Effect of freezing treatment on α-PVA/s-PVA blend solution electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方乃照; 冯惠; 戴礼兴

    2009-01-01

    将少量的间规聚乙烯醇(s-PVA)加入无规聚乙烯醇(α-PVA)的水溶液中,制得α-PVA/s-PVA共混溶液,对溶液进行冷冻处理,通过高压静电纺丝获得a-PVA/s-PVA纳米纤维毡.研究了s-PVA的加入及冷冻处理对PVA溶液静电纺丝性能的影响.结果表明:随着s-PVA含量的增加,共混溶液的剪切枯度升高,静电纺纤维毡的平均直径减小,拉伸强度增加;冷冻处理后的共混溶液静电纺丝制得的纳米纤维毡与未经冷冻处理的相比,其平均直径增大,珠结减小,拉伸强度提高了约8倍.%A small amount of syndiotactic polyvinyl alcohol ( s- PVA) was added into the aqueous solution of atactic polyvinyl alcohol (α -PVA) to prepare a -PVA/ s -PVA blend solution which was subjected to freezing treatment to produce α -PVA/ s -PVA nanowebs via high-pressure electrospinning process.The effects of the addition of s -PVA and the freezing treatment on the electrospinnability of the PVA solution were studied.The results showed that the shear viscosity of the blend solution was increased while increasing the s- PVA content.The average diameter of the electrospun nanowebs was decreased and the tensile strength was increased.As compared with the nanoweb prepared from the untreated blend solution,the nanowebs prepared from the blend solution subjected to freezing treatment had higher average diameter,less bead knots and the tensile stregnth about 8 time higher.

  18. Determination of mechanical and hydraulic properties of PVA hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska-Drobny, Katarzyna; El Fray, Miroslawa; Kaczmarek, Mariusz

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the identification of mechanical and hydraulic parameters of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels is described. The identification method follows the solution of inverse problem using experimental data from the unconfined compression test and the poroelastic creep model. The sensitivity analysis of the model shows significant dependence of the creep curves on investigated parameters. The hydrogels containing 22% PVA and 25% PVA were tested giving: the drained Youngs modulus of 0.71 and 0.9MPa; the drained Poisson's ratio of 0.18 and 0.31; and the permeability of 3.64·10(-15) and 3.29·10(15)m(4)/Ns, respectively. The values of undrained Youngs modulus were determined by measuring short period deformation of samples in the unconfined tests. A discussion on obtained results is presented.

  19. Preparation and characterization of polysaccharides/PVA blend nanofibrous membranes by electrospinning method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA/chitosan (CS) and PVA/cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) blended nanofibrous membranes were produced by electrospinning using a microfiltration poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) basal membrane, for potential applications in water filtration. Nanofibres were obtained from solutions of 20% (w/w) PVA with 1% (w/w) CS or EPS, using a weight ratio of 60/40. Blended nanofibres have shown a smooth morphology, no beads formation and diamete...

  20. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  1. Water swelling properties of the electron beam irradiated PVA-g-AAc hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingguo, E-mail: qwang@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhou, Xue; Zeng, Jinxia; Wang, Jizeng [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the electron beam irradiation technology being more suitable for the industry application is explored to fabricate the acrylic acid (AAc) monomer-grafted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-g-AAc) hydrogels. ATR-IR spectra of the PVA-g-AAc hydrogels shows an obvious absorption peak of the −C=O group at 1701 cm{sup −1}, indicating that the AAc monomers were grafted onto the PVA macromolecules. This paper also studied some effects of the mass ratio of PVA/AAc, pH of buffer solution and irradiation dosage on the water swelling properties of the electron beam irradiated PVA-g-AAc hydrogels. The water swelling ratio of PVA-g-AAc hydrogels decreases with increased irradiation dosage and mass ratio of PVA/AAc, whereas swelling ratio increases with increased pH of buffer solution and soaking time. The water-swelling behavior of PVA-g-AAc hydrogels occurred easily in an alkaline environment, particularly in a buffer solution with pH 9.2. Both PVA-g-AAc hydrogels (PVA/AAc = 1/5, w/w) irradiated with 5 kilogray (kGy) and PVA-g-AAc hydrogels (PVA/AAc = 1/1, w/w) irradiated with 15 kGy could easily absorb water and lead to high water swelling ratios (up to about 600%), which are potential candidates to meet the requirements for some biomedical applications.

  2. Enhanced efficacy of nitrifying biomass by modified PVA_SB entrapment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Duan, Xiumei; Zhou, Jiti; Cheng, Yingjun; Bhatti, Zafar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel technique for preparing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel as an immobilizing matrix by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. This resulted in an increase in the specific surface area of PVA_sodium bicarbonate (PVA_SB) hydrogel beads to 65.23 m(2) g(-1) hydrogel beads, which was approximately 85 and 14 % higher than those of normal PVA and PVA_sodium alginate (PVA_SA) hydrogel beads, respectively. The D e value of PVA_SB hydrogel beads was calculated as 7.49 × 10(-4) cm(2) s(-1), which was similar to the D e of PVA_SA hydrogel beads but nearly 38 % higher than that of the normal PVA hydrogel beads. After immobilization with nitrifying biomass, the oxygen uptake rate and the ammonium oxidation rate of nitrifying biomass entrapped in PVA_SB hydrogel beads were determined to be 19.53 mg O2 g MLVSS(-1) h(-1) and 10.59 mg N g MLVSS(-1) h(-1), which were 49 and 43 % higher than those of normal PVA hydrogel beads, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observation of the PVA_SB hydrogel beads demonstrated relatively higher specific surface area and revealed loose microstructure that was considered to provide large spaces for microbial growth. This kind of structure was also considered beneficial for reducing mass transfer resistance and increasing pollutant uptake.

  3. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  4. PREPARATION AND THE CULTURE OF LO2 CELLS ON PVA-BASED MICROCARRIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; YU Yaoting; PAN Jilun; WANG lianyong

    2001-01-01

    Using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw material and vacuum pump oil as oil phase medium,PVA-based microcarriers were prepared by suspension method The diameters of the beads were 100-180 μ m. LO2 cells were cultured on PVA-based microcarriers and cytodexⅢ microcarriers.Morphology, attachment and growth rate of LO2 cells were studied.

  5. Selective permeability of PVA membranes. I - Radiation-crosslinked membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. G.; Wydeven, T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The water and salt transport properties of ionizing radiation crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were investigated. The studied membranes showed high permeabilities and low selectivities for both water and salt. The results were found to be in accord with a modified solution-diffusion model for transport across the membranes, in which pressure-dependent permeability coefficients are employed.

  6. Selective Permeability of PVA Membranes. I: Radiation-Crosslinked Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Moshe G.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The water and salt transport properties of ionizing radiation crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were investigated. The studied membranes showed high permeabilities and low selectivities for both water and salt. The results were found to be in accord with a modified solution-diffusion model for transport across the membranes, in which pressure-dependent permeability coefficients are employed.

  7. Nanofibrous nonmulberry silk/PVA scaffold for osteoinduction and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Promita; Kundu, Banani; Naskar, Deboki; Maiti, Tapas K; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-05-01

    Poly-vinyl alcohol and nonmulberry tasar silk fibroin of Antheraea mylitta are blended to fabricate nanofibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration. Nanofibrous matrices are prepared by electrospinning the equal volume ratio blends of silk fibroin (2 and 4 wt%) with poly-vinyl alcohol solution (10 wt%) and designated as 2SF/PVA and 4SF/PVA, respectively with average nanofiber diameters of 177 ± 13 nm (2SF/PVA) and 193 ± 17 nm (4SF/PVA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms retention of the secondary structure of fibroin in blends indicating the structural stability of neo-matrix. Both thermal stability and contact angle of the blends decrease with increasing fibroin percentage. Conversely, fibroin imparts mechanical stability to the blends; greater tensile strength is observed with increasing fibroin concentration. Blended scaffolds are biodegradable and support well the neo-bone matrix synthesis by human osteoblast like cells. The findings indicate the potentiality of nanofibrous scaffolds of nonmulberry fibroin as bone scaffolding material.

  8. Beaded Fiber Mats of PVA Containing Unsaturated Heteropoly Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Shang Bin WEN; Chen SHAO; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing unsaturated heteropoly salt was prepared for the first time. IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM photographs characterized the beaded fiber mats.The viscoelasticity and the conductivity of the solution were the key factors that influence the formation of the beaded fiber mats.

  9. Anammox sludge immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogels to encapsulate slow-growing anammox bacteria for deammonification treatment of wastewater. The cryogel pellets were prepared by a freezing-thawing procedure at -8 oC. On average, pellets contained 11.8 mg TSS/g-pellet of enriched anamm...

  10. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte

    2015-01-01

    body fluid immersed scaffold samples. Culturing human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human bone marrow derived MSC seeded on PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold showed enhanced cell proliferation and in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Cell-containing scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in immune...

  11. Preparation and characterization of PVA/Au composite nanofiber%PVA/Au纳米复合纤维的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 钱琛

    2011-01-01

    以聚乙烯醇(PVA)为还原剂和保护剂,采用PVA还原氯金酸(HAuCl4)制备纳米金(Au),一步法制备PVA/Au溶液,通过静电纺丝制备了PVA/Au纳米复合纤维.利用紫外可见光谱仪、透明电镜和扫描电镜对PVA/Au纳米复合纤维进行了表征.结果表明:随着HAuCl4浓度的增加,Au纳米粒子的粒径逐渐增大;HAuCl4的浓度对纳米复合纤维的形貌影响较大,在HAuCl4浓度较低或较高时,均可以获得直径较为均一的PVA/Au纳米复合纤维;低电导率和高粘度的PVA/Au溶液可得到纤维直径均一的纳米复合纤维.%Using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a reductant and a protectant, gold (Au) mmoparticles were produced from gold chloric acid ( HauCl4 ), from which PVA/Au solution was prepared by one-step process and was spun into PVA/Au composite nanofiber via electrospinning process. PVA/Au composite nanofiber was characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscope, transparent electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the Au runoparticle size gradually increased with the increase of HAuCl4 concentration. The HAuCl4 concentration had a great effect on the morphology of the composite nanofiber. PVA/Au composite nanofiber with uniform diameter can be obtained from PVA/Au solution with low conductivity and high viscosity at relatively high or low HAuCl4 concentration.

  12. Effects of PVA(Polyvinyl Alcohol) on Supercooling Phenomena of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Takizawa, Hiroshi

    In this paper, effects of polymer additive on supercooling of water were investigated experimentally. Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the polymer, and the samples were prepared by dissolving PVA in ultra pure water. Concentration, degree of polymerization and saponification of PVA were varied as the experimental parameters. The sample was cooled, and the temperature at the instant when ice appears was measured. Since freezing of supercooled water is statistical phenomenon, many experiments were carried out and average degrees of supercooling were obtained for each experimental condition. As the result, it was found that PVA affects nucleation of supercooling and the degree of supercooling increases by adding the PVA. Especially, it is found that the average degree of supercooling increases and the standard deviation of average degree of supercooling decreases with increase of degree of saponification of PVA. However, the average degree of supercooling are independent of the degree of polymerization of PVA in the range of this study.

  13. Preparation of PVA/amino multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite microspheres for endotoxin adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wenhui; Chen, Jian; Han, Wenyan; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yue; Wang, Weichao; Ou, Lailiang; Yu, Yaoting; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-23

    A novel polyvinyl alcohol-amino multi-walled carbon nanotube (PVA-AMWCNT) nanocomposite microsphere was prepared successfully for the first time and used for endotoxin removal. The resulting AMWCNT modified PVA microsphere was characterized by SEM, Raman spectrum and fluorescence image, which indicated AMWCNT was dispersed into the macropores of PVA microsphere uniformly. The PVA-AMWCNT microspheres showed better adsorption capability and faster adsorption equilibrium for endotoxin in aqueous solution when compared to the PVA microsphere with polymyxin B (PMB) as ligand. More noteworthy, the PVA based microspheres had little nonspecific adsorption in simulated serum. Therefore, PVA-AMWCNT nanocomposite microsphere with an excellent haemocompatibility has a great potential application in clinical blood purification.

  14. Electrospinning, mechanical properties, and cell behavior study of chitosan/PVA nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Mojtaba; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Electrospinning process has been widely used to produce nanofibers from polymer blends. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) have numerous biomedical applications such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Nanofibers of CS/PVA have been prepared by many works, however, a complete physicochemical and mechanical characterization as well as cell behavior has not been reported. In this study, PVA and CS/PVA blend solutions in acetic acid 70% with different volume ratios (30/70, 50/50, and 70/30) were electrospun in constant electrospinning process parameters. The structure and morphology of nanofibrous mats were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD methods. The best nanofibrous mat was achieved from the CS/PVA 30/70 blend solution regarding the electrospinning throughput. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of PVA and CS/PVA 30/70 nanofibrous mats were measured which were not considered in the previous studies. DMTA results in accordance to the DSC analysis approved the partial compatibility between the two polymers, while a single glass transition temperature was not observed for the blend. The tensile strength of PVA and CS/PVA nanofibers were also reported. Results of cell behavior study indicated that the heat stabilized nanofibrous mat CS/PVA 30/70 was able to support the attachment and proliferation of the fibroblast cells.

  15. Preparation and characterization of polysaccharides/PVA blend nanofibrous membranes by electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla; Silva, Carla J; Büttel, Zsófia; Guimarães, Rodrigo; Pereira, Sara B; Tamagnini, Paula; Zille, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA/chitosan (CS) and PVA/cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) blended nanofibrous membranes were produced by electrospinning using a microfiltration poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) basal membrane, for potential applications in water filtration. Nanofibres were obtained from solutions of 20% (w/w) PVA with 1% (w/w) CS or EPS, using a weight ratio of 60/40. Blended nanofibres have shown a smooth morphology, no beads formation and diameters between 50 and 130 nm. Thermo-mechanical analysis demonstrated that there were inter and/or intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the molecules of PVA/CS and PVA/EPS in the blends. The electrospun blended PVA/EPS membrane showed better tensile mechanical properties when compared with PVA and PVA/CS, and resisted more against disintegration in the temperature range between 10 and 50 °C. Finally, the blended membranes have shown an increase in chromium binding capacity of 5%. This is the first successful report of a blended membrane of electrospinned cyanobacterial polysaccharide with PVA.

  16. Novel PVA/MOF Nanofibres: Fabrication, Evaluation and Adsorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooto, Ntaote David; Dikio, Charity Wokwu; Wankasi, Donbebe; Sikhwivhilu, Lucky Mashudu; Mtunzi, Fanyana Moses; Dikio, Ezekiel Dixon

    2016-09-01

    Plain polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres and novel polyvinyl alcohol benzene tetracarboxylate nanofibres incorporated with strontium, lanthanum and antimony ((PVA/Sr-TBC), (PVA/La-TBC) and (PVA/Sb-TBC)), respectively, where TBC is benzene 1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate adsorbents, were fabricated by electrospinning. The as-prepared electrospun nanofibres were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Only plain PVA nanofibres followed the Freundlich isotherm with a correlation coefficient of 0.9814, while novel nanofibres (PVA/Sb-TBC, PVA/Sr-TBC and PVA/La-TBC) followed the Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficients of 0.9999, 0.9994 and 0.9947, respectively. The sorption process of all nanofibres followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Adsorption capacity of novel nanofibres was twofold and more compared to that of plain PVA nanofibres. The thermodynamic studies: apparent enthalpy (Δ H°) and entropy (Δ S°), showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto nanofibres was spontaneous and exothermic. The novel nanofibres exhibited higher potential removal of Pb(II) ions than plain PVA nanofibres. Ubiquitous cations adsorption test was also investigated and studied.

  17. Integral PVA-PES Composite Membranes by Surface Segregation Method for Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪; 李宪实; 聂明成; 李犇; 姜忠义

    2011-01-01

    A facile surface segregation method was utilized to fabricate poly(vinyl alcohol)-polyethersulfone (PVA-PES) composite membranes. PVA and PES were first dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), then casted on a glass plate and immersed in a coagulation bath. During the phase inversion process in coagulation bath, PVA spontaneously segregated to the polymer solution/coagulation bath interface. The enriched PVA on the surface was further crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the integral and asymmetric membrane structure with a dense PVA-enriched surface and a porous PES-enriched support, as well as the surface enrichment of PVA. The coverage fraction of the membrane surtace by PVA reacned up to 86.8% when me PVA content m me membrane recipe was 16.7% (by mass). The water contact angle decreased with the increase of PVA content. The effect of coagulation bath type on membrane structure was analyzed. The membrane pervaporation performance was evaluated by varying the PVA content, the annealing temperature, feed concentration and operation temperature. The membrane exhibited a fairly good ethanol dehydration capacity and long-term operational stability.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Analysis of PVA-AgnP Composites by Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Betzabe González-Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular dynamics of PVA/AgnP composites were studied by dielectric spectroscopy (DS in the 20–300°C temperature range. Improper water elimination leads to misinterpretation of thermal relaxations in PVA composites in agreement with the previous report for pristine PVA. The evaporation of water and its plasticizing effect are more evident in pure PVA confirming the existence of strong interaction between OH groups of PVA chains and AgnP. Dry films show a single nonlinear VFT dependence (from 45°C until melting associated to the α-relaxation and, therefore, to the glass transition phenomenon and from dielectric measurements, the Tg of composites vary from 88°C for pristine PVA to 125°C for PVA/AgnP (5 wt%. Below 45°C, dry films exhibit a single Arrhenius behavior showing a 3D hopping conductivity as explained based on the variable range hopping model. PVA/AgnP composites have higher conductivity compared to pristine PVA, and it increases as AgnP weight percent increases. Finally, DMA measurements support the statement that a secondary relaxation was erroneously assigned as the glass transition of PVA and composites in previous reports.

  19. Electrospinning of porphyrin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and their acid vapor sensing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kihun; Baek, Il Woong; Back, Sung Yul; Ahn, Heejoon

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescing 5,10,15,20-terakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrin tetra(p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP)-embedded and -coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by using the electrospinning technique. To improve nonpolar solvent solubility of TMPyP/PVA nanofibers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a cross-linking agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed a strong Q band and two relatively weak Soret bands from the TMPyP/PVA nanofibers, and revealed that the TMPyP molecules were homogeneously loaded to the fibers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the electrospun nanofibers had ultrafine structures with an average diameter of ca. 250 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositional structure of TMPyP/PVA/TEOS nanofibers and revealed the relative coverage of TMPyP molecules on the surface of TMPyP-embedded and TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS fibers. For the comparison of the acid vapor sensitivity, TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS films, and TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS fibers, TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS fibers were exposed to 1N nitric-acid vapor for 20-60 seconds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS nanofibers exhibited better acid-sensing capability than TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS nanofibers and films.

  20. Tailored PVA/ECM Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM, which is decellularized Wharton’s jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Wharton’s jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton’s jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration.

  1. Investigation on CuO Dispersed PVA Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Divya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of inorganic nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of physical properties of polymers as well as the implementation of new features in polymer matrix. In the present work, we have made an attempt to disperse CuO nanoparticles in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and to understand the change in structural, optical and electrical properties of the polymer film. CuO nanoparticles were added in four different concentrations, viz. 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 wt%. A total of 5 films were prepared (including the pure PVA film, for comparison.The prepared films were subjected to XRD, FESEM, UV-Vis spectral, PL spectral and electrical analyses. The results obtained are reported.

  2. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  3. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  4. Polyelectrolyte complex/PVA membranes for diffusion dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wu, Cuiming; Wu, Yonghui; Gu, Jingjing; Xu, Tongwen

    2013-10-15

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes are prepared from PVA, anion exchange and cation exchange multisilicon copolymers, which contain plenty of functional groups of OH, N(+)(CH3)3/Si(OCH3)3, and SO3Na/Si(OCH3)3, respectively. The OH and Si(OCH3)3 groups can undertake sol-gel reaction to form crosslinking structure, while the N(+)(CH3)3 and SO3Na groups can be combined through electrostatic interaction. The PECs/PVA membranes exhibit improved thermal stability, swelling resistance and flexibility as compared with single anion or cation exchange hybrid membranes. The PECs/PVA membranes have the water uptakes (WR) of 25.3-70.4%, initial decomposition temperatures (IDTs) of 246-285°C, tensile strength of 23.1-33.8 MPa, and elongation at break of 3.5-13.1%. The membranes can be potentially applied for both acid and alkali recovery through diffusion dialysis (DD) process. The separation factor (S) for HCl/FeCl2 mixture can reach up to 89.9, which is about five times higher than that of commercial DF-120 membrane (18.5 at 25°C). The dialysis coefficients of NaOH (UOH) are in the range of 0.014-0.019 m/h, around 7-9 times higher than the value of commercial SPPO membrane (0.002 m/h at 25°C). The membranes also show potential usefulness for industrial acidic and alkali wastes treatment.

  5. Synergistic effect of ozonation and ionizing radiation for PVA decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Lujun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-08-01

    Ozonation and ionizing radiation are both advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) without chemical addition and secondary pollution. Also, the two processes' efficiency is determined by different pH conditions, which creates more possibilities for their combination. Importantly, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation could be suitable for treating wastewaters with extreme pH values, i.e., textile wastewater. To find synergistic effects, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation mineralization was investigated for degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at different pH levels. A synergistic effect was found at initial pH in the range 3.0-9.4. When the initial pH was 3.0, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation gave a PVA mineralization degree of 17%. This was 2.7 times the sum achieved by the two individual processes, and factors of 2.1 and 1.7 were achieved at initial pH of 7.0 and 9.4, respectively. The combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation was demonstrated to be a feasible strategy for treatment of PVA-containing wastewater.

  6. EFFECT OF PVA MODIFICATION ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are used for modification of the cement-based composites and others building materials since the thirties of 20th century. Based on the conclusions of recent studies, it is assumed that even water soluble polymers could be used as an admixture for such modification. Currently, there exist and are exploited several possibilities for polymer modification of mortars, wood-based products or bituminous asphalts. Various options differ in the way of modification, which can be basically applied to the entire volume or just a surface, but also in the form of the polymer used – either in the form of solution or fibers. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of volume modification by the water soluble polymers, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, on the properties of cement paste and find an optimum additive. It turned out that the addition of PVA solution into fresh cement paste results in an increase of porosity and therefore a stiffness and compressive strength reduction. On the other hand, the bending strength of PVA-rich specimens was significantly higher and their water absorption decreased, which may consequently result in enhanced frost resistance.

  7. Release of DNA from cryogel PVA-DNA membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA hydrogels have been used for numerous biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, as a consequence of their non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and bioadhesive properties. In this communication the effect of different factors, such as type of electrolyte, ionic strength, temperature (ranging from 20 to 40°C and cationic surfactants on the distribution coefficients (α and release rate constants (kR of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA from PVA-DNA blend gel matrices (of a sheet shape, will be presented and discussed. The release kinetic constant and the distribution coefficient of DNA are quite sensitive to the surrounding matrix media (e.g., kR ranges from 1.5•10–8 to 4.7•10–7 s–1. The analysis of the temperature dependence on kR shows that the activation energy for the DNA desorption to an aqueous solution is equal to 21.2 kJ/mol. These results constitute a step forward towards the design of controlled DNA release PVA-based devices.

  8. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers. PMID:24707202

  9. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiyanti, Harlina; Suharyadi, Edi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ribbon of magnetite (Fe3O4)/Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated with various concentration of PVA synthesized by co-precipitation method. Particle size of nanoparticles Fe3O4 sample and ribbon Fe3O4/PVA 25% sample is about 9.34 nm and 11.29 nm, respectively. The result of Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) showed that saturation magnetization value decreased from 76.99 emu/g to 15.01 emu/g and coercivity increased from 49.30 Oe to 158.35 Oe as increasing concentration of PVA. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that encapsulated PVA given decreasing agglomeration, controlled shape of nanoparticles Fe3O4 more spherical and dispersed. Surface roughness decreased with increasing concentration of PVA.

  10. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27 mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  11. Strength development of high-strength ductile concrete incorporating Metakaolin and PVA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Shafiq, Nasir; Ayub, Tehmina

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  12. Hydrogel fibers for ACL prosthesis: design and mechanical evaluation of PVA and PVA/UHMWPE fiber constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jason S; Detrez, Fabrice; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Cantournet, Sabine; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2013-05-31

    Prosthetic devices for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been unsuccessful due to mechanical failure or chronic inflammation. Polymer hydrogels combine biocompatibility and unique low friction properties; however, their prior use for ligament reconstruction has been restricted to coatings due to insufficient tensile mechanics. Here, we investigate new constructs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel fibers. In water, these fibers swell to an equilibrium water content of 50% by weight, retaining a tensile modulus greater than 40 MPa along the fiber axis at low strain. Rope constructs were assembled for ACL replacement and mechanical properties were compared with data from the literature. Pure PVA hydrogel constructs closely reproduce the non-linear tensile stiffness of the native ACL with an ultimate strength of about 2000 N. An additional safety factor in tensile strength was achieved with composite braids by adding ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers around a core of PVA cords. Composition and braiding angle are adjusted to produce a non-linear tensile behavior within the range of the native ligament that can be predicted by a simple rope model. This design was found to sustain over one million cycles between 50 and 450 N with limited damage and less than 20% creep. The promising mechanical performances of these systems provide justification for more extensive in vivo evaluation.

  13. New insight into non-isothermal crystallization of PVA-graphene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengpeng; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; She, Xiaodong; Li, Yongzhen; She, Fenghua; Kong, Lingxue

    2014-10-28

    The melt crystallization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PVA composites has been a controversial subject due to inconclusive evidence and different opinions for its decomposition during crystallization. Using graphene as a model, the melt crystallization of PVA and PVA-graphene composites occurring during single-cycle and multiple-cycle non-isothermal annealing processes was systematically analyzed using different characterization techniques. The results obtained using single-cycle non-isothermal annealing indicated that the entire crystallization process took place through two main stages. The graphene in the PVA matrix regulates the nucleation and crystal growth manner of the PVA, yet resulting in retardation of the entire crystallization. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results particularly demonstrated that the annealing process not only improved the crystallinity but also led to clear decomposition in PVA and PVA-graphene composites, such as the elimination of hydroxyl groups and the production of C=C double bonds. The newly produced C=C double bonds were found to be responsible for the retardation of PVA macromolecule crystallization and the breaking of hydrogen bonds among the hydroxyl groups in the PVA chains. In addition, the morphological observation and multi-cycle non-isothermal crystallization further confirmed the existence of decomposition based on the surface damage as well as decreased crystallization enthalpy and crystallization peak temperature. Therefore, the non-isothermal crystallizations of the pure PVA and the PVA-graphene composites were in fact the combination of non-isothermal crystallization and non-isothermal degradation processes.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Starch-g-PVA/Nano-hydroxyapatite Complex Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Starch-g-PVA/hydroxyapatite complex hydrogel was prepared with two-repeated freezing/ thawing circles. SEM observation results exhibits that hydroxyapatite is dispersed in starch-g-PVA in nanoscale. Thermogravimetric analysis curves show that the remained fraction keeps the same at the temperatures higher than 490℃ . It was found the dried starch-g- PVA/ hydroxyapatite films could reswell within 12 minutes.

  15. Dual functions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA): fabricating particles and electrospinning nanofibers applied in controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Xiaohong, E-mail: xhqin@dhu.edu.cn [Donghua University, College of Textiles (China); Wu Dequn; Chu Chihchang, E-mail: cc62@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The fabrication of submicron size microsphere from 8-Phe-4 poly(ester amide) (PEA) using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsion was reported. The biodegradable microspheres were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, and PVA was used as the emulsion. Furthermore, the emulsion PVA was electrospun into nanofibrous mats, and 8-Phe-4 PEA microspheres were entrapped in the resultant mats. The dual functions of PVA to fabricate ideal nanofibrous mats which can entrap microspheres in them and to obtain 8-Phe-4 microspheres as emulsion in their potential application were demonstrated. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated in the 8-Phe-4 amino acid-based PEA microspheres and the entrapment efficiency is almost 100 %. At the same time, the DOX can be controlled released in PBS solution and in {alpha}-chymotrypsin solution. The cytotoxicity of PVA, PVA mats-entrapped 8-Phe-4 microspheres and PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres, was investigated. Hela cells were used to test the cytotoxicity of the DOX that released from the PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres for 2 days, and the cell viability is below 30 % when the 8-Phe-4 microspheres concentration is 1 mg/mL. It demonstrated that the PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres have a potential biomedical application.Graphical AbstractThe table of contents: DOX-loaded microspheres can be encapsulated in the PVA fibers by electrospinning and the DOX can be controlled released from the PVA fibers-entrapped microspheres. MTT assay indicated that the more than 70 % Hela cells were killed by the DOX released from DOX-loaded microspheres encapsulated in the PVA after 48 h.

  16. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Karla A. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Lopes, Flavio Marques [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Unidade Universitária de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Yamashita, Fabio [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos e Medicamentos, Laboratório de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fernandes, Kátia Flávia, E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film.

  17. Fabrication of a heparin-PVA complex hydrogel for application as a vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Nam, Kwangwoo; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Funamoto, Seiichi; Higami, Tetsuya; Fujisato, Toshiya; Kishida, Akio

    2014-10-01

    A high hydrostatic pressure method, which can apply over 600 MPa pressure was employed for preparing a hydrogel of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded with heparin. The aim of this study was to fabricate a heparin-PVA hydrogel conduit and evaluate its potential for vascular access. Heparin-PVA complex hydrogel showed suppressed heparin release and prevented clot formation, depending on the molecular weight of the PVA. Strength of the hydrogel conduit was increased by embedding a Dacron mesh between two PVA layers. The tubular heparin-PVA complex hydrogel displayed a burst pressure of 750 mmHg. The tubular heparin-PVA complex hydrogel did not show any occlusion or burst for 2 weeks after implantation, implying that this heparin-PVA complex hydrogel shows high potential for use as a vascular access. This is the first report on the preparation of a multilayered PVA hydrogel with heparin embedded on one side only. The proposed approach could be expanded to the fabrication of various biomaterials for specific purposes.

  18. Microstructured, functional PVA hydrogels through bioconjugation with oligopeptides under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siow-Feng; Smith, Anton A A; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2013-03-25

    In this work, bioconjugation techniques are developed to achieve peptide functionalization of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, as both a polymer in solution and within microstructured physical hydrogels, in both cases under physiological conditions. PVA is unique in that it is one of very few polymers with excellent biocompatibility and safety and has FDA approval for clinical uses in humans. However, decades of development have documented only scant opportunities in bioconjugation with PVA. As such, materials derived thereof fail to answer the call for functional biomaterials for advanced cell culture and tissue engineering applications. To address these limitations, PVA is synthesized with terminal thiol groups and conjugated with thiolated peptides using PVA in solution. Further, microstructured, surface-adhered PVA physical hydrogels are assembled, the available conjugation sites within the hydrogels are quantified, and quantitative kinetic data are collected on peptide conjugation to the hydrogels. The success of bioconjugation in the gel phase is quantified through the use of a cell-adhesive peptide and visualization of cell adhesion on PVA hydrogels as cell culture substrates. Taken together, the presented data establish a novel paradigm in bioconjugation and functionalization of PVA physical hydrogels. Coupled with an excellent safety profile of PVA, these results deliver a superior biomaterial for diverse biomedical applications.

  19. Facile fabrication of AgNPs/(PVA/PEI) nanofibers: high electrochemical efficiency and durability for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Wang, LiNa; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2013-11-15

    A novel, facile and green approach for the fabrication of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and glucose detection biosensor using water-stable PVA and PVA/PEI nanofibers decorated with AgNPs by combining an in situ reduction approach and electrospinning technique has been demonstrated. Small, uniform and well-dispersed AgNPs embedded in the PVA nanofibers and immobilized on functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers indicate the highly sensitive detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of 5 μM and exhibit a fast response, broad linear range, low detection limit and excellent stability and reusability.

  20. Cells Attachment Property of PVA Hydrogel Nanofibers Incorporating Hyaluronic Acid for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication and cell affinity studies of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hyaluronic acid (HA) cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning and post cross-linking. FT-IR and TGA analysis demonstrate that HA is not influenced by acid environment such as HCl vapor during cross-linking, and well incorporated into PVA nanofibers. Swelling behavior and cell adhesion of the PVA/HA hydrogel nanofibers are investigated and compared with pure PVA hydrogel nanofibers. It is expe...

  1. Magnetic nanohydroxyapatite/PVA composite hydrogels for promoted osteoblast adhesion and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixia; Zhang, Guohua; Du, Gaolai; Zhan, Danxia; Cong, Yang; Cheng, Yajun; Fu, Jun

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the systematic investigation of novel magnetic nano-hydroxyapatite/PVA composite hydrogels through cyclic freeze-thawing with controllable structure, mechanical properties, and cell adhesion and proliferation properties. The content of the magnetic nano-hydroxyapatite-coated γ-Fe(2)O(3) (m-nHAP) particles exhibited remarkable influence on the porous structures and compressive strength of the nanocomposite hydrogels. The average pore diameter of the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited a minimum of 1.6 ± 0.3 μm whereas the compressive strength reached a maximum of about 29.6 ± 6.5 MPa with the m-nHAP content of around 10 wt% in the nanocomposite hydrogels. In order to elucidate the influence of the composite m-nHAP on the cell adhesion and proliferation on the composite hydrogels, the PVA, γ-Fe(2)O(3)/PVA, nHAP/PVA and m-nHAP/PVA hydrogels were seeded and cultured with osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that the osteoblasts preferentially adhered to and proliferated on the m-nHAP/PVA hydrogels, in comparison to the PVA and nHAP/PVA hydrogels, whereas the γ-Fe(2)O(3)/PVA hydrogels appeared most favorable to the osteoblasts. Moreover, with the increasing m-nHAP content in the composite hydrogels, the adhesion density and proliferation of the osteoblasts were significantly promoted, especially at the content of around 50 wt%.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of PVA-HA-Silk Composite Hydrogel by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dekun Zhang; Kai Chen; Lin Wu; Dagang Wang; Shirong Ge

    2012-01-01

    PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel was synthesized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural silk by using the method of repeated freezing and thawing.A series of tests were performed to study water content,stress relaxation behavior,elastic modulus,and creep characteristics of PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel.Orthogonal experimental design method was used to analyze the influence degree of PVA,HA and silk (three kinds of raw materials) on mechanical properties and water content of the PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel to select the best material ratio according to their overall performance.The results demonstrate that the mass percentage of PVA has the greatest impact on the water content,followed by HA and silk.Compression stress-strain variation of PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel presents a nonlinear relationship,which proves that it is a typical viscoelastic material.Comparing the mechanical properties of 16 formulas,the formula of PVA-HA-silk composite hydrogel with mass percentage of PVA 15%,HA 2.0% and silk 1.0% is the best.

  3. Membranes of polyindene sulfonated and PVA for use as polymer electrolyte; Membranas mistas de poli(indeno) sulfonado e PVA para uso como eletrolito polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loser, N.; Silva, B.B.R. da; Brum, F.J.B.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Escola de Engenharia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on developing polymer poly electrolytes for fuel cell PEM and aims to evaluate the efficiency of sulfonated polyindene as A polymer electrolyte in blends with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For this, polyindene synthesized in the lab was functionalized with sulfonic groups (-SO{sub 3}H), using as sulfonation agent acetyl sulfate in 1,2-dichloroethane. The membranes of sulfonated polyindene (SPInd) and PVA were prepared in aqueous medium, using glutaraldehyde as a PVA cross linker. The membranes SPInd/PVA were evaluated on the content of sulfonic groups, ion exchange capacity (IEC), degree of swelling in water and thermal stability (TGA). Electrochemical impedance analysis was used for ionic conductivity evaluation and DMA for the mechanical strength of the membranes. Preliminary results show that the membranes showed ion exchange capacity about 3.2 m equiv/g and degree of swelling in water of 550%. (author)

  4. Investigating a new drug delivery nano composite membrane system based on PVA/PCL and PVA/HA(PEG) for the controlled release of biopharmaceuticals for bone infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taoyu; Stylios, George K; Giannoudi, Marilena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    The capability for sustained and gradual release of pharmaceuticals is a major requirement in the development of a guided antimicrobial bacterial control system for clinical applications. In this study, PVA gels with varying constituents that were manufactured via a refreeze/thawing route, were found to have excellent potential for antimicrobial delivery for bone infections. Cefuroxime Sodium with poly(ethylene glycol) was incorporated into 2 delivery systems poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA), by a modified emulsion process. Our results indicate that the Cefuroxime Sodium released from poly(e-caprolactone) in PVA was tailored to a sustained release over more than 45 days, while the release from hydroxyapatite PVA reach burst maximum after 20 days. These PVA hydrogel-systems were also capable of controlled and sustained release of other biopharmaceuticals.

  5. Fabrication and properties of capsicum extract-loaded PVA and CA nanofiber patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Sila-On, Warisada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers loaded with capsicum extract (CE) for use in topical skin treatments. CE, 0.5, 1 or 2 wt %, was loaded into PVA and CA electrospun fiber mats. Various properties of the CE-loaded fiber mats as well as release and skin permeation were investigated. The average diameters of these fibers ranged from 251-368 nm. The release rate of capsaicin from CE-loaded as-spun PVA was faster than that of the CA fiber mats and increased as the CE content in CE-loaded as-spun PVA and CA increased. The release kinetics of the CA and PVA fibers followed the Higuchi equation. The percentages of CE that permeated the shed snake skin with PVA and CA fiber mats containing 2 wt % CE after 24 h were 60% and 20%, respectively. The results suggest a potential use of PVA and CA nanofibers being used to control skin permeation of capsicum extract. Our research suggests the potential application of CE-loaded PVA electrospun mats as transdermal drug delivery systems.

  6. Construction of chitin/PVA composite hydrogels with jellyfish gel-like structure and their biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Wang, Zhenggang; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yanteng; Duan, Bo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

    2014-09-08

    High strength chitin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels (RCP) were constructed by adding PVA into chitin dissolved in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and then by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freezing-thawing process. The RCP hydrogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and compressive test. The results revealed that the repeated freezing/thawing cycles induced the bicrosslinked networks consisted of chitin and PVA crystals in the composite gels. Interestingly, a jellyfish gel-like structure occurred in the RCP75 gel with 25 wt % PVA content in which the amorphous and crystalline PVA were immobilized tightly in the chitin matrix through hydrogen bonding interaction. The freezing/thawing cycles played an important role in the formation of the layered porous PVA networks and the tight combining of PVA with the pore wall of chitin. The mechanical properties of RCP75 were much higher than the other RCP gels, and the compressive strength was 20× higher than that of pure chitin gels, as a result of broadly dispersing stress caused by the orderly multilayered networks. Furthermore, the cell culture tests indicated that the chitin/PVA composite hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility and safety, showing potential applications in the field of tissue engineering.

  7. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA.

  8. Coaxial PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers: osseointegration enhancer and controlled drug release device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yu, Xiaowei; Markel, David C; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is mainly due to dysfunctional osseointegration and implant infection. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coaxial electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) core-sheath nanofiber (NF) blended with both hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) and type I collagen (Col) (PCL(Col)/PVA(HA)). Doxycycline (Doxy) and dexamethasone (Dex) were successfully incorporated into the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs for controlled release. The morphology, surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the PCL/PVA NF mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs are biocompatible and enhance the adhesion and proliferation of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The release of Doxy and Dex from coaxial PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs showed more controlled release compared with the blended NFs. Using an ex vivo porcine bone implantation model we found that the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs bind firmly on the titanium rod surface and the NFs coating remained intact on the surface of titanium rods after pullout. No disruption or delamination was observed after the pullout test. These findings indicate that PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs encapsulating drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing implant infection.

  9. Enhanced blue light emission in transparent ZnO:PVA nanocomposite free standing polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, B; Pandiyarajan, T; Mangalaraja, R V

    2016-01-05

    ZnO:PVA nanocomposite films were prepared and their fluorescence and time resolved photoluminescence properties were discussed. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy results confirmed the ZnO:PVA interaction. Optical absorption spectra showed two bands at 280 and 367nm which were ascribed to PVA and excitonic absorption band, respectively. Fluorescence spectra showed that the blue emission of ZnO was enhanced about tenfold through chemical interface electron transfer. The electron transfer from ZnO to PVA and its decay dynamics were experimentally analyzed through time resolved fluorescence measurements. The study revealed that the excited electrons found pathway through PVA to ground state which was slower than the pure ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. Growth of MgO on multi-layered graphene and Mg in PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marka, Sandeep K.; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Prasad, Muvva D.; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2015-07-01

    An easy and low temperature in-situ growth of MgO micro-rods on multi-layered graphene (MLG) in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix is elucidated. MLG decked with nanosized fragments of MgO and PVA are used as the starting materials to form MgO micro-rods (width = ∼1 μm and length = ∼4 μm) and MLG filled PVA composite film. Simple solution mixing, spin coating and simple drying processes are used to obtain the PVA composite. The growth mechanism of MgO micro-rods and the role of PVA in the growth of MgO micro-rods are explained on the basis of the observed morphological, structural and phase characteristics and a further controlled synthesis experiment, respectively.

  11. Biodegradation study of some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elisabeta Tanase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymers are a common choice as protective materials since they combine flexibility, variable sizes and shapes, relatively light weight, stability, resistance to breaking, barrier properties and perceived high-quality image with cost-effectiveness. Currently, mainly non-biodegradable petroleum-based synthetic polymers are used as packaging materials for foods, because of their availability, low cost and functionality. However, biopolymers can be made from renewable resources without the environmental issues of petroleum-based polymers and with the additional advantage of being available from renewable sources or as by-products or waste-products from the food and agriculture industries. The aim of this study was to test some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA. In this respect, some biopolymers for food packaging applications were subjected to biodegradation tests by covering the tested samples with soil. The samples were incubated in known temperature and humidity conditions. The experiment lasted 45 days, after that the samples were washed, weighed and the biodegradation degree was calculated. The obtained results shows that PVA is a promising material for food packaging usage, as it is made from renewable resources and it is environmentally friendly.

  12. Wet spinning of PVA composite fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Lai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PVA composites fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by both covalent and non-covalent functionalization were produced by a wet-spinning process. Model XQ-1 tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers. The TGA results suggested that MWNTs content in composite fibers were ranged from 5.3 wt% to 27.6 wt%. The mechanical properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers were obviously superior to pure PVA fiber. The Young׳s modulus of composite fibers enhanced with increasing the content of MWNTs, and it rised gradually from 6.7 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 12.8 GPa for the composite fibers with 27.6 wt% MWNTs. Meanwhile, the tensile strength increased gradually from 0.39 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 0.74 GPa for the composite fibers with 14.4 wt% MWNTs. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of the composite fibers decreased as the MWNTs content up to 27.6 wt%. SEM results indicated that the MWNTs homogeneously dispersed in the composite fibers, however some agglomerates also existed when the content of MWNTs reached 27.6 wt%. DSC results proved strong interfacial interaction between MWNTs and PVA chain, which benefited composite fibers in the efficient stress-transfer. WXAD characterization showed that the orientation of PVA molecules declined from 94.1% to 90.9% with the increasing of MWNTs content. The good dispersibility of MWNTs throughout PVA matrix and efficient stress-transfer between MWNTs and PVA matrix may contributed to significant enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  13. PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜的制备和表征%Preparation and characterization of PVA/NCC-auramine O/PVA composite fluorescent membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 杨少丽

    2013-01-01

    以金胺O为荧光染色剂,纳米纤维素(NCC)为增强相,氢键为驱动力,层层自组装PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜.NCC的性能表征结果为NCC为纤维素Ⅰ型,结晶度为65.55%,平均尺寸为477.2nm,呈棒状.PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜的性能表征结果为PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜具有优良的拉伸强度,其拉伸强度较纯PVA膜相比,横向拉伸增加了66.8%,纵向拉伸增加了230.9%.PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜具有良好的荧光效应,且PVA/NCC-金胺O/PVA复合荧光膜的荧光发射波长为520nm.

  14. A simple and effective route for the preparation of poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) nanofibers containing gold nanoparticles by electrospinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Songtao; Du, Jianshi; Wang, Shugang; Zheng, Jifu; Wang, Yongzhi; Yang, Qingbiao; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2007-02-01

    Poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) nanofibers containing gold nanoparticles have been simply obtained by electrospinning a solution containing gold nanoparticles without the additional step of introducing other stabilizing agents. The optical property of gold nanoparticles in PVA aqueous solution was observed by UV-visible absorption spectra. Morphology of the Au/PVA nanofibers and distribution of the gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure transformation was characterized from PVA to PVA/Au composite by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  15. A VAMP-associated protein, PVA31 is involved in leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Mie; Nakai, Yusuke; Arima, Keita; Nishiyama, Sayo; Hirano, Tomoko; Sato, Masa H

    2015-01-01

    VAMP-associated proteins (VAPs) are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Here, we report a functional analysis of one of the VAPs, PVA31, and demonstrate its novel function on leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. The expression of PVA31 is highly induced in senescence leaves, and localizes to the plasma membrane as well as the ARA7-positive endosomes. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrates that PVA31 is interacted with the plasma membrane localized-VAMP proteins, VAMP721/722/724 but not with the endosome-localized VAMPs, VAMP711 and VAMP727, indicating that PVA31 is associated with VAMP721/722/724 on the plasma membrane. Strong constitutive expression of PVA31 under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter induces the typical symptom of leaf senescence earlier than WT in normal growth and an artificially induced senescence conditions. In addition, the marker genes for the SA-mediated signaling pathways, PR-1, is promptly expressed with elicitor application. These data indicate that PVA31-overexpressing plants exhibit the early senescence phenotype in their leaves, and suggest that PVA31 is involved in the SA-mediated programmed cell death process during leaf senescence and PR-protein secretion during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis.

  16. PVA-gel beads enhance granule formation in a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, Zhang; Dunqiu, Wang; Yasunori, Koga; Taichi, Yamamoto; Li, Zhang; Kenji, Furukawa

    2008-11-01

    PVA-gel beads were used as a biocarrier in a lab-scale UASB reactor treating synthetic wastewater composed of corn steep liquor (CSL) with the aim of evaluating its use as a growth nucleus to enhance granule formation. Over 117 days of operation, the organic loading rate was increased to 22.5kgCOD/m3/day with an influent COD of about 10.8g/L at an HRT of 12h with COD removal efficiencies greater than 87%. By the end of the study period, the PVA-gel turned black and granule formation was achieved as compared with the formation of much fewer natural granules without the PVA-gel nucleus. No filamentous bacteria were found on the surface or interior of the PVA-gel beads. The PVA-gel granules had an average settling velocity 200m/h (5cm/s), and a biomass attachment of 0.93g VSS/g PVA-gel. The required time for formation of PVA-gel granules was thus demonstrated to be shorter than that of ordinary sludge granules under the experimental conditions used in this study.

  17. Repeatability and reproducibility of Population Viability Analysis (PVA and the implications for threatened species management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Morrison

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage focuses on prioritizing species, populations or habitats based on urgency, biodiversity benefits, recovery potential as well as cost. Population Viability Analysis (PVA is frequently used in population focused conservation prioritizations. The critical nature of many of these management decisions requires that PVA models are repeatable and reproducible to reliably rank species and/or populations quantitatively. This paper assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of a subset of previously published PVA models. We attempted to rerun baseline models from 90 publicly available PVA studies published between 2000-2012 using the two most common PVA modelling software programs, VORTEX and RAMAS-GIS. Forty percent (n = 36 failed, 50% (45 were both repeatable and reproducible, and 10% (9 had missing baseline models. Repeatability was not linked to taxa, IUCN category, PVA program version used, year published or the quality of publication outlet, suggesting that the problem is systemic within the discipline. Complete and systematic presentation of PVA parameters and results are needed to ensure that the scientific input into conservation planning is both robust and reliable, thereby increasing the chances of making decisions that are both beneficial and defensible. The implications for conservation triage may be far reaching if population viability models cannot be reproduced with confidence, thus undermining their intended value.

  18. Mechanically stable antimicrobial chitosan-PVA-silver nanocomposite coatings deposited on titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep K; Ferreira, J M F; Kannan, S

    2015-05-05

    Bionanocomposite coatings with antimicrobial activity comprising polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-capped silver nanoparticles embedded in chitosan (CS) matrix were developed by a green soft chemistry synthesis route. Colloidal sols of PVA-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by microwave irradiating an aqueous solution comprising silver nitrate and PVA. The bionanocomposites were prepared by adding an aqueous solution of chitosan to the synthesized PVA-capped AgNPs sols in appropriate ratios. Uniform bionanocomposite coatings with different contents of PVA-capped AgNPs were deposited onto titanium substrates by "spread casting" followed by solvent evaporation. Nanoindentation and antimicrobial activity tests performed on CS and bionanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of PVA-capped AgNPs enhanced the overall functional properties of the coatings, namely their mechanical stability and bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The coated specimens maintained their antimicrobial activity for 8h due to the slow sustained release of silver ions. The overall benefits for the relevant functional properties of the coatings were shown increase with increasing contents of PVA-capped AgNPs in the bionanocomposites.

  19. Modified PVA-CA blend ultrafiltration membrane by alkali metal chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启修; 邱运仁

    2003-01-01

    The modified PVA-CA blend ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by phase inversion from the casting solutions consisting of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA), cellulose acetate(CA), acetic acid, alkali metal chloride and water. The effects of different concentration of alkali metal chloride on the properties of membranes were investigated. The results show that when the mass fraction of the salt in the casting solution is not greater than 1%, the property of rejection of the alkali metal salt modified ultrafiltration PVA-CA blend membrane has little change compared with that of the unmodified PVA-CA blend membrane, but the permeation flux is much greater than that of the unmodified membrane under the same operation condition. When the mass fraction of the salt is greater than 1.5%, the permeate flux increases much greater than that of the unmodified membrane, but the property of rejection of the modified ultrafiltration membrane decreases greatly. The results also show that the contact angle of the salt modified PVA-CA blend UF membrane decreases but the swelling in water increases with the increment of the mass fraction of alkali metal salts. Furthermore, the NaCl modified PVA-CA blend membrane has a slightly lower swelling and a little smaller contact angle of water than the KCl modified PVA-CA blend membrane does when the mass fraction of salts is the same.

  20. Preparation and in vitro characterization of electrospun PVA scaffolds coated with bioactive glass for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yadong; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Teramoto, Akira; Abe, Koji

    2012-05-01

    An important objective in bone tissue engineering is to fabricate biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that stimulate mineralization for rapid regeneration of bone. In this work, scaffolds of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers (diameter = 286 ± 14 nm) were coated with a sol-gel derived bioactive glass (BG) and evaluated in vitro for potential applications in bone repair. Structural and chemical analyses showed that the BG coating was homogeneously deposited on the PVA fibers. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the BG-coated PVA scaffold had a greater capacity to support proliferation of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization than the uncoated PVA scaffold. The BG coating improved the tensile strength of the PVA scaffold from 18 ± 2 MPa to 21 ± 2 MPa, but reduced the elongation to failure from 94 ± 4% to 64 ± 5%. However, immersion of the BG-coated PVA scaffolds in a simulated body fluid for 5 days resulted in an increase in the tensile strength (24 ± 2 MPa) and elongation to failure (159 ± 4%). Together, the results show that these BG-coated PVA scaffolds could be considered as candidate materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. Preparation of Conductive PANI/PVA Composites via an Emulsion Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and novel strategy for preparing polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol (PANI/PVA composite emulsion is reported wherein the reaction is carried out via the emulsion polymerization using ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS as the oxidizing agent and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA as the protonic acid. The PANI/PVA composite membranes have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and electrochemical workstation. It is interesting that the electrical conductivity of the PANI/PVA composites is estimated to be as high as 1.28 S/cm. The experimental results show that the surface of PANI/PVA composite membranes exhibits good integrity. The PANI particles at the nanoscale are dispersed in the PVA matrix, and the electrochromic behaviors of PANI/PVA composites obtained at different polymerization temperatures can be compared based on cyclic voltammetry (CV curves, revealing that PANI/PVA composites synthesized at room temperature are better than those synthesized at low temperature.

  2. Characterization and mechanical performance study of silk/PVA cryogels: towards nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Puay Yong; Shi, Pujiang; Goh, James Cho-Hong; Toh, Siew Lok

    2014-10-20

    Poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) cryogels are reported in the literature for application in nucleus pulposus (NP) replacement strategies. However, these studies are mainly limited to acellular approaches-in part due to the high hydrophilicity of PVA gels that renders cellular adhesion difficult. Silk is a versatile biomaterial with excellent biocompatibility. We hypothesize that the incorporation of silk with PVA will (i) improve the cell-hosting abilities of PVA cryogels and (ii) allow better tailoring of physical properties of the composite cryogels for an NP tissue engineering purpose. 5% (wt/vol) PVA is blended with 5% silk fibroin (wt/vol) to investigate the effect of silk : PVA ratios on the cryogels' physical properties. Results show that the addition of silk results in composite cryogels that are able to swell to more than 10 times its original dry weight and rehydrate to at least 70% of its original wet weight. Adding at least 20% silk significantly improves surface hydrophobicity and is correlated with an improvement in cell-hosting abilities. Cell-seeded cryogels also display an increment in compressive modulus and hoop stress values. In all, adding silk to PVA creates cryogels that can be potentially used as NP replacements.

  3. Anti-plasticizing effect of amorphous indomethacin induced by specific intermolecular interactions with PVA copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Aikawa, Shohei; Kashima, Yousuke; Kikuchi, Junko; Ida, Yasuo; Tanino, Tadatsugu; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of how poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVA copolymer) stabilizes an amorphous drug was investigated. Solid dispersions of PVA copolymer, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA) with indomethacin (IMC) were prepared. The glass transition temperature (Tg)-proportion profiles were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). General Tg profiles decreasing with the IMC ratio were observed for IMC-PVP and IMC-PVPVA samples. An interesting antiplasticizing effect of IMC on PVA copolymer was observed; Tg increased up to 20% IMC ratio. Further addition of IMC caused moderate reduction with positive deviation from theoretical values. Specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between IMC and PVA copolymer were revealed by infrared spectra. The indole amide of IMC played an important role in hydrogen bonding with PVA copolymer, but not with PVP and PVPVA. X-ray diffraction findings and the endotherm on DSC profiles suggested that PVA copolymer could form a semicrystalline structure and a possibility of correlation of the crystallographic nature with its low hygroscopicity was suggested. PVA copolymer was able to prevent crystallization of amorphous IMC through both low hygroscopicity and the formation of a specific intermolecular interaction compared with that with PVP and PVPVA.

  4. PVA assisted low temperature anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) and properties of titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Shrabani [Functional Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India); Madhuri, Rashmi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India); Sharma, Prashant K., E-mail: prashantnac@gmail.com [Functional Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) of titania nanoparticles is observed at very low temperature (180 °C) just by introducing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during co-precipitation followed by hydrothermal synthesis. The detailed investigations pertaining to the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of the nanosized titania and titania/PVA nanohybrid has been carried out. The crystallite size and crystal structure is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image reveals formation of spherical NPs in both the cases. Identification of functional groups is done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photoluminescence studies showed that emission slightly shifts towards higher wavelength side with remarkable decrease in intensity for TiO{sub 2}/PVA nanocomposite (rutile samples). The remarkable decrease in PL intensity in TiO{sub 2}/PVA nanocomposite (rutile samples) is explained considering the surface passivation during growth process. Ion transportation is monitored via Cyclic voltammetric (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. A significant enhancement of peak cathodic current in case of nanocomposite modified electrode is observed. It is assumed that TiO{sub 2}/PVA (rutile) nanoparticles provided the conducting path for the electrons and hence enhanced the electrochemical reaction. - Graphical abstract: Present work reports anatase to rutile phase transformation (ART) of titania nanoparticles at very low temperature (180 °C) just by introducing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during co-precipitation followed by hydrothermal synthesis. - Highlights: • Low temperature phase transformation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles from anatase to rutile. • Role of PVA in phase transformation. • Synthesis of spherical shaped uniformly distributed PVA capped TiO{sub 2} NPs. • Explained the charge transfer process among anatase to rutile phase transformation via luminescence

  5. Mechanism of Photo-Fenton Degradation of Ethanol and PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷乐成; 沈学优; 何锋

    2003-01-01

    Contrast degradation experiments between ethanol and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were conducted during H2O2, UV/H2O2, Fenton, and Photo-Fenton processes in this study. UV/VIS spectra showed: that complexes between Fe(Ⅲ) and organics were easily formed and degraded within reaction time. Compared with.the degradation of complex, hydroxyl radicals acted weakly in Fenton or Photo-Fenton process. Hydroxyl radicals involved in Photo-Fenton process were deemed to be generated from the split decomposition of H202, photolysis of Feaq3+, and degradation of hydrated Fe(IV)-complex but not traditional Fenton reaction. Experimental evidence to support this point was presented in this paper.

  6. Different Structures of PVA Nanofibrous Membrane for Sound Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mohrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thin nanofibrous layer has different properties in the field of sound absorption in comparison with porous fibrous material which works on a principle of friction of air particles in contact with walls of pores. In case of the thin nanofibrous layer, which represents a sound absorber here, the energy of sonic waves is absorbed by the principle of membrane resonance. The structure of the membrane can play an important role in the process of converting the sonic energy to a different energy type. The vibration system acts differently depending on the presence of smooth fibers in the structure, amount of partly merged fibers, or structure of polymer foil as extreme. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used as a polymer because of its good water solubility. It is possible to influence the structure of nanofibrous layer during the production process thanks to this property of polyvinyl alcohol.

  7. ZnS/PVA nanocomposites for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, K.; Michel, J.; Nechyporuk, B. D.; Ebothé, J.; Kityk, I. V.; Albassam, A. A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Fedorchuk, A. O.

    2016-07-01

    We have found a correlation between ZnS nanocomposite nonlinear optical features and technological processing using electrolytic method. In the earlier researches this factor was neglected. However, it may open a new stage for operation by photovoltaic features of the well known semiconductors within a wide range of magnitudes. The titled nanostructured zinc sulfide (ZnS) was synthesized by electrolytic method. The obtained ZnS nano-crystallites possessed nano-particles sizes varying within 1.6 nm…1.8 nm. The titled samples were analyzed by XRD, HR-TEM, STEM, and nonlinear optical methods such as photo-induced two-photon absorption (TPA) and second harmonic generation (SHG). For this reason the nano-powders were embedded into the photopolymer poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) matrices. Role of aggregation in the mentioned properties is discussed. Possible origin of the such correlations are discussed.

  8. Heat Transfer and Energy Performance of a PVA Wall Tile Containing Macro-Encapsulated PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Feng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated building material engineering, building construction practices, and heat transfer mechanisms to develop a polyvinyl acetate (PVA based wall tile, containing macro-encapsulated phase change material (macro-encapsulated PCM, macroPCM and PVA. The heat transfer characteristics and energy performances of the proposed prototype were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the PVA-based macroPCM wall tile is suitable for use in exterior walls to enhance the thermal performance. The tile shows a lower heat indoor heat flux than other tested similar building materials and increases the time lag of peak load, effectively shifting the summer peak demand.

  9. Using chitosan as a thickener for electrospinning dilute PVA solutions to improve fibre uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Fang, Jian; Wang, Hongxia; Cheng, Tong; Wang, Xungai

    2006-08-01

    Chitosan was added to PVA aqueous solutions as a thickener to improve the electrospinning process. The presence of a small amount of chitosan considerably improved the uniformity of as-spun nanofibres. This improvement is attributed to its significant effect on the solution viscosity and conductivity, with only a slight impact on the surface tension. The concentration of the PVA required to produce bead-free and uniform nanofibres was reduced with the increase in chitosan concentration. The chitosan thickener suppressed the jet break-up and facilitated the jet stretching so that fine and uniform fibres could be electrospun even from a dilute PVA solution.

  10. Using chitosan as a thickener for electrospinning dilute PVA solutions to improve fibre uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Tong; Fang Jian; Wang Hongxia; Cheng Tong; Wang Xungai [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2006-08-14

    Chitosan was added to PVA aqueous solutions as a thickener to improve the electrospinning process. The presence of a small amount of chitosan considerably improved the uniformity of as-spun nanofibres. This improvement is attributed to its significant effect on the solution viscosity and conductivity, with only a slight impact on the surface tension. The concentration of the PVA required to produce bead-free and uniform nanofibres was reduced with the increase in chitosan concentration. The chitosan thickener suppressed the jet break-up and facilitated the jet stretching so that fine and uniform fibres could be electrospun even from a dilute PVA solution.

  11. Immobilisation of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres via electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Immobilisation of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) on nanofibres was demonstrated. CGTase solution (1% v/v) and PVA (8 wt%) solution were mixed followed by electrospinning (−9 kV, 3 h). CGTase/PVA nanofibres with an average diameter of 176 ± 46 nm were successfully produced. The nanofibres that consist of immobilised CGTase were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapour. A CGTase/PVA film made up from the same mixture and treated the same way was used as a control experiment. The immobil...

  12. Development of a PVA Hydrogel for Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Stent and Other Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.F.Zhang; A.J.Hui; D.R.Boughner; G.Campbell; W.K.Wan

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel (15%w/w) was processed by freezing and thawing from one through six thermal cycles to obtain wide range of mechanical properties. The materials were tested under uniaxial tension and results show that matching mechanical properties to that of porcine aortic root can be achieved. A fatigue machine for elastomer materials and tissues was built and fatigue test on PVA sample was carried out. The test results show that the PVA has good fatigue property. The stent prototype was designed and successfully made by mold casting method. Some potential medical applications are discussed.

  13. Effect of γ-ray on optical characteristics of dyed PVA films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Antar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly vinyl alcohol doped with Crystal violet and carbol fuchsine films were prepared using dipping method. The spectral behavior and the effects of dose on the absorption coefficient α, optical energy gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were investigated. The optical energy gap estimated and found to be 1.85 eV and 1.65 at 70 Gy for Direct transition for PVA/CF and PVA/CF + CV respectively and 1.52 eV and 1.5 at 70 Gy for indirect transition for PVA/CF and PVA/CF + CV respectively. The absorption spectra were measured using UV–Visible spectrophotometer in the wave length range (300–700 nm, resulting in a decrease of the absorbance at 560 nm with increasing dose.

  14. Binary PVA bio-nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Puglia, D; Luzi, F; Santulli, C; Kenny, J M; Torre, L

    2013-09-12

    PVA bio-nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and from two types of natural fibres, Phormium tenax and Flax of the Belinka variety, were produced by solvent casting in water. Morphological, thermal, mechanical and transparency properties were studied while the respective efficiency of the extraction process of CNC from the three sources was evaluated. The effect of CNC types and content on PVA properties and water absorption capacity were also evaluated. Natural fibres offered higher levels of extraction efficiency when compared with MCC hydrolysis yield. Thermal analysis proved that CNC promotes the crystallization of the PVA matrix, while improving its plastic response. It was also clarified that all PVA/CNC systems remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale, while being all saturated after the first 18-24h of water absorption.

  15. Fabrication and photocatalytic performance of electrospun PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Lin, Ting-Han

    2015-02-01

    Many organic/inorganic nanocomposites have been fabricated into fibrous materials using electrospinning techniques, because electrospinning processes have many attractive advantages and the ability to produce relatively large-scale continuous films. In this study, the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/silk/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite self-cleaning textiles were successfully produced using electrospinning technique. After optimizing electrospinning conditions, we successfully obtained the PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite fibers with average diameter of ˜220 nm and TiO2 concentration can be as high as 18.0 wt.%. For the case of the PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite textile, the color of brilliant green coated on the textile surface changed from the initial green color to colorless after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Because of its worthy photocatalytic performance, the developed PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite materials in this study will be beneficial for the design and fabrication of multifunctional fibers and textiles.

  16. Hybrid membranes PVA/silicon for use in fuel cells; Membranas hibridas de PVA/silica para aplicacao em celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Liz C.V. de; Almeida, Raquel D. de; Gomes, Ailton de S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lizcontino@ima.ufrj.br; Ramos Filho, Florencio G. de [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrids organic-inorganic membranes PVA-silica have been prepared using sol-gel process in situ with the objective of study the influence of inorganic particles incorporation on the water uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity of PVA membranes. The silica was constituted of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with or without the mixture with the tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS). The hybrids membranes were oxidated to convert the -SH groups in -SO{sub 3}H groups, becoming them proton conducting. The hybrids membranes not oxidated showed lesser water uptake and pervaporated material, probably, due to the formation of crosslink that restricted the swell of the PVA membrane. The protonic conductivity of the hybrid membranes after the oxidation was up to 26 times bigger than of the membrane not oxidated. (author)

  17. Optimization of Co2+ ions removal from water solutions via polymer enhanced ultrafiltration with application of PVA and sulfonated PVA as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Niğmet; Jaworska, Agnieszka; Miśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grażyna; Cojocaru, Corneliu

    2011-10-15

    The paper presents the results of the studies of UF-complexation process applied for the removal of Co(2+) ions from water solutions. As binding agents for cobalt ions, the PVA polymer (M(w)=10,000) and its sulfonated form, synthesized in the laboratory, have been used. The method of experimental design and response surface methodology have been employed to find out the optimal conditions for the complexation process and to evaluate the interaction between the input variables, i.e., initial cobalt concentration, pH and amount of the polymer used, expressed as a polymer/Co(2+) ratio r. The data collected by the designed experiments showed that sulfonation of polymer has improved significantly the binding ability of PVA. The optimal conditions of cobalt ions complexation established by response surface model for non-sulfonated PVA polymer have been found to be as follows: the initial concentration of Co(2+)=5.70 mg L(-1), the ratio between polymer and metal ions, r=8.58 and pH=5.93. The removal efficiency of Co(2+) in these conditions was 31.81%. For sulfonated PVA polymer, the optimal conditions determined are as follows: initial concentration of [Co(2+)](0)=10 mg L(-1), r=1.2 and pH=6.5. For these conditions, a removal efficiency of 99.98% has been determined. The experiments showed that Co(2+) removal ability of sulfonated PVA was much higher than its non-sulfonated precursor. Although the polymer concentrations used in the tests with sulfonated PVA were approximately ten times lower than the non-sulfonated one, the removal efficiency of cobalt ions was significantly higher.

  18. A new fabrication route for PVA/graphene platelets composites with enhanced functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tamburri, Emanuela; Angjellari, Mariglen; Savi, Damiano; Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of composites made of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and oxidized graphene platelets obtained from an ad hoc treatment of graphite. The composite is produced by a modified solution mixing procedure in which the in situ crosslinking of PVA with maleic anhydride has been carried out in the presence of the carbon filler. A complete characterization of the material is presented carried out by SEM, DTGA, Raman spectroscopy and I-V characteristics analysis.

  19. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA.

  20. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hurtado, M; de Vries, E G; Zeng, X; van der Heide, E

    2016-09-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating the length scale dependence of human skin. Thus, blocks of pure PVA and PVA mixed with Cellulose (PVA-Cel) were synthesised via freezing/thawing cycles and their mechanical properties were determined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and creep tests. The dynamic tests addressed to elastic moduli between 38 and 50kPa for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. The fitting of the creep compliance tests in the SLS model confirmed the viscoelastic behaviour of the samples with retardation times of 23 and 16 seconds for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. Micro indentation tests were also achieved and the results indicated elastic moduli in the same range of the dynamic tests. Specifically, values between 45-55 and 56-81kPa were obtained for the PVA and PVA-Cel samples, respectively. The tribological results indicated values of 0.55 at low forces for the PVA decreasing to 0.13 at higher forces. The PVA-Cel blocks showed lower friction even at low forces with values between 0.2 and 0.07. The implementation of these building blocks in the design of a 2-layered skin model (2LSM) is also presented in this work. The 2LSM was stamped with four different textures and their surface properties were evaluated. The hydration of the 2LSM was also evaluated with a corneometer and the results indicated a gradient of hydration comparable to the human skin.

  1. Synthesis, optical, and electrical properties of RNA-mediated Ag/PVA nanobiocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Vidhi, E-mail: nutan.tomar@gmail.com; Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: director@iitp.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2013-03-15

    Synthesis of RNA-templated Ag/PVA nanobiocomposites of controlled morphology was investigated. Surface morphologies of the composites and size distributions of the nanofillers were analyzed by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interfacial interaction between the different components was followed by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles in nanobiocomposites. The band gap approximations suggested semiconducting behavior of the nanobiocomposites with larger band gap than that of the conventional semiconductors. RNA-stabilized Ag/PVA nanobiocomposites revealed the presence of well-dispersed and spherical Ag nanoparticles in PVA matrix with a size distribution of 14-23 nm. IR spectra of the nanobiocomposites demonstrated the complex behavior of RNA with Ag nanoparticles in the polymer matrix due to the presence of noncovalent interactions (electrostatic/van der Waals) between RNA, Ag, and PVA molecules. The effects of the loading of RNA-capped Ag nanoparticles on the electrical properties of PVA were also observed by analyzing I-V characteristics of nanobiocomposites which displayed a large increase ( Almost-Equal-To 89 %) at low concentration relative to neat PVA. The drastic improvement in optical and electrical properties of the nanobiocomposites indicated their promising applications in nanobiotechnology.

  2. Gamma-irradiation assisted seeded growth of Ag nanoparticles within PVA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisa, Wael H., E-mail: waeleisa@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC) (Egypt); Abdel-Moneam, Yasser K. [Menoufia University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department (Egypt); Shaaban, Yasser; Abdel-Fattah, Atef A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Abou Zeid, Amira M. [Menoufia University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department (Egypt)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nucleation and growth must be two completely separated steps. {yields} The amount of zerovalent nuclei can be controlled by varying the irradiation dose. {yields} PVA act as physical barrier to inhibit aggregation or the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ag hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from polymeric film of PVA and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with gamma-irradiation. UV-visible spectra showed a single peak at 422 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanoparticles. The shifting of surface plasmon resonance peak after irradiation reveals that the gamma irradiation can be used as a size controlling agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in PVA film. This result was in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM images. The TEM images showed the narrow size distribution of the obtained Ag nanoparticles with average particle size of 30 nm, which decreased to 17 nm with increasing irradiation dose. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that silver metal was present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These results clearly indicate that monodispersed silver nanoparticles are embedded homogenously in PVA matrix.

  3. Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayal, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V., E-mail: ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-04-06

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  4. Physically crosslinked composite hydrogels of PVA with natural macromolecules: structure, mechanical properties, and endothelial cell compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Vrana, N E; Cahill, P A; McGuinness, G B

    2009-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels have been considered potentially suitable for applications as engineered blood vessels because of their structure and mechanical properties. However, PVA's hydrophilicity hinders its capacity to act as a substrate for cell attachment. As a remedy, PVA was blended with chitosan, gelatin, or starch, and hydrogels were formed by subjecting the solutions to freeze-thaw cycles followed by coagulation bath immersion. The structure-property relationships for these hydrogels were examined by measurement of their swelling, rehydration, degradation, and mechanical properties. For the case of pure PVA hydrogels, the equilibrium swelling ratio was used to predict the effect of freeze thaw cycles and coagulation bath on average molecular weights between crosslinks and on mesh size. For all hydrogels, trends for the reswelling ratio, which is indicative of the crosslinked polymer fraction, were consistent with relative tensile properties. The coagulation bath treatment increased the degradation resistance of the hydrogels significantly. The suitability of each hydrogel for cell attachment and proliferation was examined by protein adsorption and bovine vascular endothelial cell culture experiments. Protein adsorption and cell proliferation was highest on the PVA/gelatin hydrogels. This study demonstrates that the potential of PVA hydrogels for artificial blood vessel applications can be improved by the addition of natural polymers, and that freeze-thawing and coagulation bath treatment can be utilized for fine adjustment of the physical characteristics.

  5. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and endothelialization of hybrid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Julia M; Sju, Ervi; Ollivier, Véronique; Yim, Evelyn K F; Letourneur, Didier; Le Visage, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Engineered grafts are still needed for small diameter blood vessels reconstruction. Ideal materials would prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia by displaying hemocompatibility and mechanical properties close to those of native vessels. In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin blends were investigated as a potential vascular support scaffold. We modified a chemically crosslinked PVA hydrogel by incorporation of gelatin to improve endothelial cell attachment with a single-step method. A series of crosslinked PVA/gelatin films with specific ratios set at 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, and 90:10 (w/w) were prepared and their mechanical properties were examined by uniaxial tensile testing. Tubes, obtained from sutured films, were found highly compliant (3.1-4.6%) and exhibited sufficient mechanical strength to sustain hemodynamic strains. PVA-based hydrogels maintained low level of platelet adhesion and low thrombogenic potential. Endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation were drastically improved on PVA/gelatin films with a feed gelatin content as low as 1% (w/w), leading to the formation of a confluent endothelium. Hydrogels with higher gelatin content did not sustain complete endothelialization because of modifications of the film surface, including phase segregation and formation of microdomains. Thus, PVA/gelatin (99:1, w/w) hydrogels appear as promising materials for the design of endothelialized vascular materials with long-term patency.

  6. Preparation and properties of metal-PVA composite hydrophilic ultrafiltration membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱运仁; 张启修

    2003-01-01

    Metal-polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) composite ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by coating a certain concentration of PVA solution on metallic fiber sintered membranes. The effects of preparation conditions, such as the coating solution concentration, sequence and times of coating, and heat-treatment on the properties of the composite membranes were studied. The results show that the hole diameter of the composite membrane decreases with the increase of the concentration of PVA, the hole diameter of composite membrane is different when the sequence of coating is different. When the higher concentration of PVA solution is used to coat the metallic membrane for the first time and the other smaller one for the second time, the hole diameter of the composite membrane is relatively small, compared with that of the composite membrane made by the smaller concentration of PVA solution for the first time and the other higher one for the second time. The holes of the composite membrane contract and the stability of the membrane is improved by heat treatment. When metal-PVA composite hydrophilic membranes are used to treat the oil/water emulsion with the concentration of 1 000 mg@ L -1, the retention is from 80% to 90%, and the permeate flux is from 15 L @ m-2 @ h-1 to 40 L @ m-2 @ h-1 at pressure of 0.2 to 0.3 MPa.

  7. Application of graphene from exfoliation in kitchen mixer allows mechanical reinforcement of PVA/graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Abdullah, Abu Hannifa; Zainal Abidin, Anis Sakinah; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be reinforced from the addition of graphene into its matrix. However, pristine graphene lacks solubility in water and thus makes dispersion a challenging task. Notably, functionalisation of graphene is required to accommodate graphene presence in the water. In this work, we have used a kitchen mixer to produce gum Arabic-graphene (GGA) for the first time as filler for mechanical reinforcement of PVA. For the characterisation of exfoliated graphene, mean lateral size of GGA was measured from the imaging by transmission electron microscopy while the mean thickness of graphene was predicted from the obtained spectra by Raman spectroscopy. During the preparation of PVA/graphene film by solution casting, GGA was varied between 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10 and 0.15 wt% in concentration. We found that the presence of GGA in PVA improves the tensile stress and elastic modulus about 72-200 and 19-187% from the original values. The data from Halpin-Tsai meanwhile suggested that the mechanical reinforcement of PVA/graphene film is due to the random distribution network of GGA in PVA.

  8. Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Comparison between Nonspherical PVA and Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Leandro Armani; Kruel, Cleber Dario Pinto; Stella, Steffan Frosi; Gravina, Gabriela Leal; Machado Filho, Geraldo; Borges de Almeida, Carlos Podalirio; Pinto, Luiz Cezar Pontes Fonseca; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario Reis; Kruel, Cleber Rosito Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial embolization (TAE) have improved the survival rates of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the optimal TACE/TAE embolic agent has not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different embolic agents such as microspheres (ME) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on survival, tumor response, and complications in patients with HCC submitted to transarterial embolization (TAE). Eighty HCC patients who underwent TAE between June 2008 and December 2012 at a single center were retrospectively studied. A total of 48 and 32 patients were treated with PVA and ME, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival (P = 0.679) or tumoral response (P = 0.369) between groups (PVA or ME). Overall survival rates at 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months were 97.9, 88.8, 78.9, 53.4, and 21.4% in the PVA-TAE group and 100, 92.9, 76.6, 58.8, and 58% in the ME-TAE group (P = 0.734). Patients submitted to TAE with ME presented postembolization syndrome more frequently when compared with the PVA group (P = 0.02). According to our cohort, the choice of ME or PVA as embolizing agent had no significant impact on overall survival.

  9. Structural and permeability characterization of biosynthetic PVA hydrogels designed for cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafea, Eman H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components to synthetic hydrogels has been shown to be the key for successful cell encapsulation devices, by providing a biofunctional microenvironment for the encapsulated cells. However, the influence of adding ECM components into synthetic hydrogels on the permeability as well as the physical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel has had little attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporated ECM analogues on the permeability performance of permselective synthetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels in addition to examining the physico-mechanical characteristics. PVA was functionalized with a systematically increased number of methacrylate functional groups per chain (FG/c) to tailor the permselectivity of UV photopolymerized hydrogel network. Heparin and gelatin were successfully incorporated into PVA network at low percentage (1%), and co-hydrogels were characterized for network properties and permeability to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins. Incorporation of these ECM analogues did not interfere with the base PVA network characteristics, as the controlled hydrogel mesh sizes, swelling and compressive modulii remained unchanged. While the permeation profiles of both BSA and IgG were not affected by the addition of heparin and gelatin as compared with pure PVA, increasing the FG/c from 7 to 20 significantly limited the diffusion of the larger IgG. Consequently, biosynthetic hydrogels composed of PVA with high FG/c and low percent ECM analogues show promise in their ability to be permselective for various biomedical applications.

  10. In vitro hemocompatibility of PVA-alginate ester as a candidate for hemodialysis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Choirul; Mudasir, Mudasir; Siswanta, Dwi; Roto, Roto

    2016-01-01

    Alginate based biopolymer with improved physical and chemical properties after esterification using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been studied for possible application as a hemodialysis membrane. The alginic acid to vinyl alcohol molar ratio was predetermined at 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1. Mechanical strength, hydrophilicity and Ca(2+) adsorption of the membrane before and after modification were evaluated. The obtained PVA-alginate (PVA-Alg) ester membrane was also confirmed using FTIR and SEM. It shows that the PVA-Alg membrane tensile strength is higher than that of native alginate. The water contact angle of the membrane was found to be around 33-50°. The Ca(2+) adsorption capacity tends to decrease with the increase in molar ratio. Furthermore, the modified PVA-Alg ester membrane achieves better protein adsorption and platelet adhesion than the unmodified one. It also exhibits a dialysis performance of 47.1-50.0% for clearance of urea and 42.2-44.6% for clearance of creatinine, respectively. It is expected that this PVA-Alg ester may challenge cellulose acetate for potential application as hemodialysis membranes.

  11. Effects of PVA-coated nanoparticles on human T helper cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Cindy; Schellmann, Saskia; Maurizi, Lionel; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank; Gaber, Timo

    2016-03-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are used as high-sensitive enhancer for magnetic resonance imaging, where they represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since we could demonstrate that professional phagocytes are activated by amino-polyvinyl-alcohol-coated-SPION (a-PVA-SPION), the study here focuses on the influence of a-PVA-SPION on human T cells activity. Therefore, primary human CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects were treated with varying doses of a-PVA-SPION for 20h or 72h. T cells were then analyzed for apoptosis, cellular energy, expression of the activation marker CD25 and cell proliferation. Although, we observed that T cells from RA patients are more susceptible to low-dose a-PVA-SPION-induced apoptosis than T cells from healthy subjects, in both groups a-PVA-SPION do not activate CD4+ T cells per se and do not influence mitogen-mediated T cells activation with regard to CD25 expression and cell proliferation. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects differ in their response to mitogen stimulation and oxygen availability. We conclude from our data, that a-PVA-SPION do neither activate nor significantly influence mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T cells activation and have negligible influence on T cells apoptosis.

  12. Accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds by genipin-crosslinked silk sericin/PVA scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Siritienthong, Tippawan; Srichana, Teerapol; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas

    2013-01-01

    Silk sericin has recently been studied for its advantageous biological properties, including its ability to promote wound healing. This study developed a delivery system to accelerate the healing of full-thickness wounds. Three-dimensional scaffolds were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerin (as a plasticizer) and genipin (as a crosslinking agent), with or without sericin. The physical and biological properties of the genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds were investigated and compared with those of scaffolds without sericin. The genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds exhibited a higher compressive modulus and greater swelling in water than the scaffolds without sericin. Sericin also exhibited controlled release from the scaffolds. The genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds promoted the attachment and proliferation of L929 mouse fibroblasts. After application to full-thickness rat wounds, the wounds treated with genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds showed a significantly greater reduction in wound size, collagen formation and epithelialization compared with the control scaffolds without sericin but lower numbers of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. These results indicate that the delivery of sericin from the novel genipin-crosslinked scaffolds efficiently healed the wound. Therefore, these genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds represent a promising candidate for the accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds.

  13. Evaluation of the potential anti-adhesion effect of the PVA/Gelatin membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Ho; Son, So-Ra; Kumar Sakar, Swapan; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Kim, Shin-Woo; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-05-01

    A common and prevailing complication for patients with abdominal surgery is the peritoneal adhesion that follows during the post-operative recovery period. Biodegradable polymers have been suggested as a barrier to prevent the peritoneal adhesion. In this work, as a preventive method, PVA/Gelatin hydrogel-based membrane was investigated with various combinations of PVA and gelatin (50/50, 30/70/, and 10/90). Membranes were made by casting method using hot PVA-gelatin solution and the gelatin was cross-linked by exposing UV irradiation for 5 days to render stability of the produced sheathed form in the physiological environment. Physical crosslinking was chosen to avoid the problems of potential cytotoxic effect of chemical crosslinking. Their materials characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM surface characterization, hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, and so forth. Cytocompatibility was observed by in vitro experiments with cell proliferation using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the MTT assay by L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The fabricated PVA/Gel membranes were implanted between artificially defected cecum and peritoneal wall in rats and were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks post-operative to compare their tissue adhesion extents with that of control group where the defected surface was not separated by PVA/Gel membrane. The PVA/Gel membrane (10/90) significantly reduced the adhesion extent and showed to be a potential candidate for the anti-adhesion application.

  14. Incorporation of Rutin in Electrospun Pullulan/PVA Nanofibers for Novel UV-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the incorporation of rutin into electrospun pullulan and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibers to obtain ultraviolet (UV-resistant properties. The effect of weight ratios between pullulan and PVA, and the addition of rutin on the nanofibers’ morphology and diameters were studied and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis was utilized to investigate the interaction between pullulan and PVA, as well as with rutin. The results showed that the inclusion of PVA results in the increase in the fiber’s diameter. The addition of rutin had no obvious effect on the fibers’ average diameters when the content of rutin was less than 7.41%. FTIR results indicated that a hydrogen bond formed between pullulan and PVA, also between these polymers and rutin. Moreover, the addition of rutin could enhance the mechanical properties due to its stiff structure and could decrease the transmittance of UVA and UVB to be fewer than 5%; meanwhile, the value of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF reached more than 40 and 50 when the content of rutin was 4.46% and 5.67%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun pullulan/PVA/rutin nanofibrous mats showed excellent UV resistance and have potential applications in anti-ultraviolet packaging and dressing materials.

  15. Wet Oxidation of PVA-Containing Desizing Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷乐成; 汪大翬

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-containing desizing wastewater was treated by various wet oxidation methods.Parameters such as reaction temperature, initial solution pH, and the dosage of H2O2 were investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate. Up to 90% of the initial CODcr was removed by wet air oxidation(WAO) at 270℃ with stoichiometric oxygen supply, while at temperature of 200℃, the CODcr removal rate was found to be 80%. Similar results were obtained by Promoted WAO (PWAO) and wet peroxide oxidation(WPO) at a lower temperature of 150℃. Reaction temperature was found to have a significant effect on the oxidation performance for all the methods. Initial solution pH was observed to play a significant role in PWAO and WPO where H2O2 was employed. Comparison of WAO, CWAO(catalytic wet air oxidation), PWAO and WPO shows that the rate of CODcr removal increases in the order: WAO, CWAO, PWAO and WPO.

  16. Cylindrical diffractive lenses recorded on PVA/AA photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Navarro-Fuster, V.; Francés, J.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2016-04-01

    Photopolymers are optical recording materials appealing for many different applications such as holography, data storage, interconnectors, solar concentrations, or wave-guides fabrication. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been investigated. Different authors have reported proposes to record DOE like fork gratings, photonics structures, lenses, sinusoidal, blazed or fork gratings. In these experiments there are different experimental set-ups and different photopolymers. In this work due to the improvement in the spatial light modulation technology together with the photopolymer science we propose a recording experimental system of DOE using a Liquid Cristal based on Silicon (LCoS) display as a master to store complex DOE like cylindrical lenses. This technology permits us an accurate control of the phase and the amplitude of the recording beam, with a very small pixel size. The main advantage of this display is that permit us to modify the DOE automatically, we use the software of the LCoS to send the voltage to each pixel In this work we use a photopolymer composed by acrylamide (AA) as polymerizable monomer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). We use a coverplated and index matched photopolymer to avoid the influence of the thickness variation on the transmitted light. In order to reproduce the material behaviour during polymerization, we have designed our model to simulate cylindrical lenses and used Fresnel propagation to simulate the light propagation through the DOE and analyze the focal plane and the properties of the recorded lenses.

  17. Effect of PVA on the gel temperature of MC and release kinetics of KT from MC based ophthalmic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Bhowmick, Biplab; Maity, Dipanwita; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mollick, Md Masud Rahaman; Paul, Bijan Kumar; Bhowmik, Manas; Rana, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2012-04-01

    The effect of molecular weight of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and sodium chloride on the gelation temperature of methylcellulose (MC) was studied with the objective to develop a MC based formulation for sustained delivery of ketorolac tromethamine a model ophthalmic drug. Pure MC showed sol-gel transition at 61.2 °C. In order to reduce the gelation temperature of MC and to increase the drug release time, PVA was used. Different techniques such as test tube tilting method, UV-vis spectroscopy, viscometry and rheometry were used to measure gelation temperature of all the binary combinations of MC and PVA. It was observed that the gelation temperature of MC was reduced with the addition of 4% PVA and also the extent of reduction of the gelation temperature of MC was dependent on the molecular weight of PVA. The strong interactions between MC and PVA molecules were established using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. To study the in vitro drug release properties of the MC-PVA binary combinations, 6% sodium chloride was used to reduce the gelation temperature further up to physiological temperature. It was observed that the drug release time increased from 5 to 8h with the increase of molecular weight of PVA from 9×10(3) to 1.3×10(5) and this was due to the higher viscosity, better gel strength and greater interactions between the drug and PVA molecules in case of PVA (1.3×10(5)) compared to PVA (9×10(3)). In order to have an idea about the nature of interactions between the functional moieties of the drug and the polymer unit of PVA, a theoretical study was carried out.

  18. Effects of PVA, agar contents, and irradiation doses on properties of PVA/ws-chitosan/glycerol hydrogels made by γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomin; Zhu, Zhiyong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiliang; Ma, Mingwang

    2008-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/water soluble chitosan (ws-chitosan)/glycerol hydrogels were prepared by γ-irradiation and γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing, respectively. The effects of irradiation dose and the contents of PVA and agar on the swelling, rheological, and thermal properties of these hydrogels were investigated. The swelling capacity decreases while the mechanical strength increases with increasing PVA or agar content. Increasing the irradiation dose leads to an increase in chemical crosslinking density but a decrease in physical crosslinking density. Hydrogels made by irradiation followed by freeze-thawing own smaller swelling capacity but larger mechanical strength than those made by pure irradiation. The storage modulus of the former hydrogels decreases above 50 °C and above 70 °C it comes to the same value as that prepared by irradiation. The ordered association of PVA is influenced by both chemical and physical crosslinkings and by the presence of ws-chitosan and glycerol. These hydrogels are high sensitive to pH and ionic strength, indicating that they may be useful in stimuli-responsive drug release system.

  19. Preparation and properties of hydrogels of PVA/PVP/chitosan by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y. C.; Park, K. R. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The radiation can induce chemical reaction to modify polymer under even the solid condition or in the low temperature. The radiation crosslinking can be easily adjusted and is easily reproducible by controlling the radiation dose. The finished product contains no residuals of substances required to initiate the chemical crosslinking which can restrict the application possibilities. In these studies, hydrogels from a mixture of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)/Poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone(PVP) were made by 'freezing and thawing', or gamma-ray irradiation or two steps of 'freezing and thawing', and gamma-ray irradiation or two steps of 'freezing and thawing' and gamma-ray irradiation for wound dressing. The mechanical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity, and gel strength were examined to evaluate the hydrogels for wound dressing. The composition of PVA:PVP was 60:40, PVA/PVP: chitosan ratio was in the range of 9:1 -7:3, and the solid concentration of PVA/PVP/chitosan solution was 15wt%. Gamma irradiation doses of 25, 35, 50, 60 and 70kGy, respectively were exposed to a mixture of PVA/PVP/chitosan to evaluate the effect of irradiation dose on the mechanical properties of hydrogels. Water-soluble chitosan was used to in this experiment. The mechanical properties of hydrogels such as gelation and gel strength was higher when two steps of 'freezing and thawing' and irradiation were used than only 'freezing and thawing' was utilized. Gel content was influenced slightly by PVA/PVP:chitosan composition and irradiation dose, but swelling was done greatly by them. Swelling percent was much increased as the composition of chitosan in PVA/PVP/chitosan increased.

  20. Covalent incorporation of non-chemically modified gelatin into degradable PVA-tyramine hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khoon S; Alves, Marie H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2013-09-01

    Development of tissue engineering solutions for biomedical applications has driven the need for integration of biological signals into synthetic materials. Approaches to achieve this typically require chemical modification of the biological molecules. Examples include chemical grafting of synthetic polymers onto protein backbones and covalent modification of proteins using crosslinkable functional groups. However, such chemical modification processes can cause protein degradation, denaturation or loss of biological activity due to side chain disruption. This study exploited the observation that native tyrosine rich proteins could be crosslinked via radical initiated bi-phenol bond formation without any chemical modification of the protein. A new, tyramine functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer was synthesised and characterised. The tyramine modified PVA (PVA-Tyr) was fabricated into hydrogels using a visible light initiated crosslinking system. Mass loss studies showed that PVA-Tyr hydrogels were completely degraded within 19 days most likely via degradation of ester linkages in the network. Protein incorporation to form a biosynthetic hydrogel was achieved using unmodified gelatin, a protein derived from collagen and results showed that 75% of gelatin was retained in the gel post-polymerisation. Incorporation of gelatin did not alter the sol fraction, swelling ratio and degradation profile of the hydrogels, but did significantly improve the cellular interactions. Moreover, incorporation of as little as 0.01 wt% gelatin was sufficient to facilitate fibroblast adhesion onto PVA-Tyr/gelatin hydrogels. Overall, this study details the synthesis of a new functionalised PVA macromer and demonstrates that tyrosine containing proteins can be covalently incorporated into synthetic hydrogels using this innovative PVA-Tyr system. The resultant degradable biosynthetic hydrogels hold great promise as matrices for tissue engineering applications.

  1. A simple and green route to transparent boron nitride/PVA nanocomposites with significantly improved mechanical and thermal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Duan; Yi-Tao Liu; Xu-Ming Xie; Xiong-Ying Ye

    2013-01-01

    A simple and green method is developed to prepare hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites by using water as a common solvent of h-BN nanosheets and PVA.The obtained hBN/PVA nanocomposites are highly transparent,and have significantly improved mechanical and thermal properties.They may outperform nano-clay and nano-alumina/PVA nanocomposites as flexible optoelectronic devices,optical windows and heat-releasing materials operated in oxidative or corrosive environment.

  2. One-step synthesis of size-tunable Ag nanoparticles incorporated in electrospun PVA/cyclodextrin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Aytac, Zeynep; Umu, Ozgun C O; Dana, Aykutlu; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    One-step synthesis of size-tunable silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) incorporated into electrospun nanofibers was achieved. Initially, in situ reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) to Ag-NP was carried out in aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Here, PVA was used as reducing agent and stabilizing polymer as well as electrospinning polymeric matrix for the fabrication of PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers. Afterwards, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) was used as an additional reducing and stabilizing agent in order to control size and uniform dispersion of Ag-NP. The size of Ag-NP was ∼8 nm and some Ag-NP aggregates were observed for PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers, conversely, the size of Ag-NP decreased from ∼8 nm down to ∼2 nm within the fiber matrix without aggregation were attained for PVA/HPβCD nanofibers. The PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HPβCD/Ag-NP nanofibers exhibited surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Moreover, antibacterial properties of PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HPβCD/Ag-NP nanofibrous mats were tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria.

  3. Low doping concentration studies of doped PVA-Coumarin nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, J.; Tripathi, S.; Bisen, R.; Sharma, A.; Choudhary, A.; Shripathi, T.

    2016-05-01

    The observations of combination of Poly (vinyl) alcohol and Coumarin properties in nanocmposite films are reported. The X-ray diffraction measurements reveal nanocrystalline nature of PVA film, which remains nanocrystalline after doping Coumarin but along with PVA peaks, additional peak due to dopant crystallinity is seen. The absorption edge shows a double edge feature, where distinct bandgaps for PVA host and dopant Coumarin are obtained. However at a higher doping wt % of 1 and 2, the absorption is mainly dominated by Coumarin and single absorption edge is observed giving a bandgap equal to that of bulk Coumarin (3.3 eV). The composite formation affects the bonding of host drastically and is seen through the bond modification in FTIR spectra. The results suggest that doping below 2 wt% is advantageous as combination of PVA and Coumarin properties are obtained but at 2 wt %, the properties are dominated by mainly Coumarin and the signature of PVA from optical properties is completely lost.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M., E-mail: mzulfe@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics St. Andrews College, Gorakhpur-273001,U.P,-India (India)

    2016-05-23

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Khan, Shamshad A.; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2016-05-01

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  6. Preparation of a Cu(II-PVA/PA6 Composite Nanofibrous Membrane for Enzyme Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayin Hou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers were formed by electrospinning. Cu(II-PVA/PA6 metal chelated nanofibers, prepared by the reaction between PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers and Cu2+ solution, were used as the support for catalase immobilization. The result of the experiments showed that PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers had an excellent chelation capacity for Cu2+ ions, and the structures of nanofibers were stable during the reaction with Cu2+ solution. The adsorption of Cu(II onto PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers was studied by the Langmuir isothermal adsorption model. The maximum amount of coordinated Cu(II (qm was 3.731 mmol/g (dry fiber, and the binding constant (Kl was 0.0593 L/mmol. Kinetic parameters were analyzed for both immobilized and free catalases. The value of Vmax (3774 μmol/mg·min for the immobilized catalases was smaller than that of the free catalases (4878 μmol/mg·min, while the Km for the immobilized catalases was larger. The immobilized catalases showed better resistance to pH and temperature than that of free form, and the storage stabilities, reusability of immobilized catalases were significantly improved. The half-lives of free and immobilized catalases were 8 days and 24 days, respectively.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable starch/PVA composite films reinforced with cellulosic fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bhanu; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Singha, Amar Singh

    2014-08-30

    Cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend films of starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by using citric acid as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend were compared with starch/PVA crossed linked blend films. The increase in the tensile strength, elongation percentage, degree of swelling and biodegradability of blend films was evaluated as compared to starch/PVA crosslinked blend films. The value of different evaluated parameters such as citric acid, glutaraldehyde and reinforced fibre to starch/PVA (5:5) was found to be 25 wt.%, 0.100 wt.% and 20 wt.%, respectively. The blend films were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a good adhesion between starch/PVA blend and fibres. The blend films were also explored for antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results confirmed that the blended films may be used as exceptional material for food packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Luminescence study of ZnSe/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahariya, Vikas [Amity School of Applied Science, Amity University Haryana Panchgaon, Manesar, Haryana 122413 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The ZnSe nanocrystals have been prepared into poly vinyl alcohol(PVA) polymer matrix on glass using ZnCl2 and Na2SeSO3 as zinc and selenium source respectively. Poly vinyl Alcohol (PVA) used as polymer matrix cum capping agent due to their high viscosity and water solubility. It is transparent for visible region and prevents Se- ions to photo oxidation. The ZnSe/PVA composite film was deposited on glass substrate. The film was characterized by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible absorption Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence. The X Ray Diffraction (XRD) study confirms the nanometer size (10 nm) particle formation within PVA matrix with cubic zinc blend crystal structure. The UV-Visible Absorption spectrum of ZnSe/PVA composite film shown blue shift in absorption edge indicating increased band gap due to quantum confinement. The calculated energy band gap from the absorption edge using Tauc relation is 3.4 eV. From the Photoluminescence study a broad peak at 435 nm has been observed in violet blue region due to recombination of surface states.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel PVA/SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sols of poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA/Silicon oxide-titanium oxide (SiO2-TiO2 were prepared with tetraethoxylsilane and tetrabutyl titanate as precursor using Sol-Gel method. PVA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid fibers were prepared by drawing from the hybrid sols using dip-coating method and aging treatment. The spinnability of hybrid sols was investigated. Spinnable time (t and spinnable length (l of hybrid sols increased with either the PVA content or the molar ratio of SiO2 and TiO2. The hybrid fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Ultraviolet Visible Spectrometry (UV-Vis and (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis TGA. FT-IR results suggested that PVA was linked with (SiO2-TiO2 network by chemical bonds. SEM measurements indicated that when the fibers arrives the maximum spinning length, the diameter of the fibers was about 50 μm, and the whole system was homogeneous. XRD results revealed that the crystallinity of hybrid fibers was decreased distinctly. UV-Vis measurements confirmed that the shielding properties to Ultraviolet (UV were greatly improved with titania filled in the hybrid fibers. TG measurements suggested that the hybrid fibers show better resistance to heat than pure PVA fibers.

  10. Rhizobia survival in seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Raquel; Roggia, Isabel; Pereira, Claudio; de Sá, Enilson

    2013-11-01

    The electrospinning technique of rhizobia immobilization in nanofibres is an innovative and promising alternative for reducing the harmful effects of environmental stress on bacteria strains in a possible inoculant nanotechnology product for use in agriculture. The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) shows up as an effective polymer in cell encapsulation because of its physical characteristics, such as viscosity and power of scattering. The aim of these studies has been to evaluate the survival of rhizobia incorporated in PVA nanofibres, which were applied to soybean seed and then subjected to different storage times and exposure to fungicide. The maintenance of the symbiotic characteristics of the incorporated bacterial strains was also evaluated, noting the formation of nodules in the soybean seedlings. No significant differences in the cell survival at 0 h and after 24 h of storage were observed. After 48 h, a significant difference in the bacterial cell concentration of the seeds affixed with PVA nanofibres was observed. Exposure to the fungicide decreased the viability of the bacteria strains even when coated with the nanofibres. A larger number of nodules formed in soybean seedlings from seeds inoculated with rhizobia incorporated in PVA nanofibres than from seeds inoculated with rhizobia without PVA. Thus, the electrospinning technique is a great alternative to the usual protector inoculants because of its unprecedented capacity to control the release of bacteria.

  11. MISCIBILITY, THERMAL STABILITY AND RETENTION OF PVP FOR CROSSLINKED PVA/PVP BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Guomei; ZHANG Kun; FENG Rongyin

    1994-01-01

    The thermal behavior, miscibility, crystallite conformation and thermal stability of crosslinked(CL-) PVA/PVP blends were studied by DSC and TG methods, respectively. DSC results showed that in the blend, the crystallinity,Tm and Tc of PVA were obviously lower than those of pure PVA; the crystal growth changed from three dimensional to two dimensional and only a single Tg was detected . These facts demonstrated that this crystalline and amorphous blend have good miscibility. TG curves showed that providing the quantity of K2S2O8 added is more than 3 wt % ,in the blends PVA will form a stable CL-network, whose thermal degradation temperature was near to that of PVP. But crosslinking reaction will not take place for PVP. The processes of thermal degradation of CL-blends are based on combining both the thermal degradation of PVP and that of PVA crosslinked with corresponding quantity of K2S2O8 CL-agent, respectively.The UV measurements showed that 75 wt% of PVP may be remained in CL-blend hydrogels crosslinked by adding (3- 5 wt % )K2S2O8.This is mainly due to the stable CL-network formed and the good compatibility and proper entanglement between the composites in the CL-blends.

  12. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  13. Effective dispersion and crosslinking in PVA/cellulose fiber biocomposites via solid-state mechanochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang; He, Xu; Zhao, Jiangqi; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-01

    A mechanochemical approach to improve the dispersion and the degree of crosslinking between cellulose fiber and polymer matrix is presented herein to create high performance poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cellulose biocomposites in a solvent-free and catalyst-free system. During a pan-milling process, the hydrogen bonds in both cellulose and PVA were effectively broken up, and the released hydroxyl groups could react with succinic anhydride (SA) to form covalent bonds between the two components. This stress-induced chemical reaction was verified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reaction kinetics was discussed according to the conversion rate of SA during the pan-milling process. Soxhlet extraction with hot water showed that the crosslinked PVA/cellulose retained more PVA in the composites due to the homogeneous and heterogeneous crosslinking. Scanning electron microscope images indicated the dispersion and interfacial interactions between PVA and cellulose were largely improved. The resulting composites exhibited remarkably enhanced mechanical properties. The tensile strength increased from 8.8 MPa (without mechanochemical treatment) to 18.2 MPa, and elongation at break increased from 76.8 to 361.7% after the treatment. Their thermal stability was also significantly improved.

  14. Fiber optic humidity sensor based on the graphene oxide/PVA composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Shen, Changyu; Lou, Weimin; Shentu, Fengying

    2016-08-01

    Fiber optic humidity sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) coated with graphene oxide (GO)/PVA composite film was investigated. The MZI is constructed of two waist-enlarged tapers. The length between two waist-enlarged tapers is 20 mm. By comparing the experiment results of MZI coated with different GO/PVA composite films, composite film formed by the ratio of 0.3 g PVA mixed with 10 ml GO dispersion shows a better performance of relative humidity sensing. By using the molecular structure model of the composited GO/PVA, the operation mechanism between GO/PVA composite film and water molecules was illustrated. The sensitivity of 0.193 dB/%RH with a linear correlation coefficient of 99.1% and good stability under the relative humidity range of 25-80% was obtained. Temperature effect on the proposed fiber optic humidity sensor was also considered and analyzed. According to the repetitive experimental results, the proposed humidity sensor shows a good repeatability.

  15. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/PVA hydrogel for wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Yang, Huan; Yang, Jing; Peng, Min; Hu, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Chitosan (CS)/gelatin (Gel)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels were prepared by the gamma irradiation method for usage in wound dressing applications. Chitosan and gelatin solution was mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution at different weight ratios of CS/Gel of 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The hydrogels irradiated at 40kGy. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by using FT-IR and SEM. The CS/Gel/PVA hydrogels were characterized for physical properties and blood clotting activity. The tensile strength of CS/Gel/PVA hydrogel enhanced than on the basis of the Gel/PVA hydrogel. The highest tensile strength reached the 2.2Mpa. All hydrogels have shown a good coagulation effect. It takes only 5min for the BCI index to reached 0.032 only 5min when the weight ratio of CS/Gel was 1:1. It means that the hemostatic effect of hydrogels were optimal. And the hydrogrls also showed good pH-sensitivity, swelling ability and water evaporation rate. Therefore, this hydrogel showed a promising potential to be applied as wound dressing.

  16. Biosynthesis and Characterization of AgNPs–Silk/PVA Film for Potential Packaging Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Tao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bionanocomposite packaging materials have a bright future for a broad range of applications in the food and biomedical industries. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the bionanocomposite packaging materials. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP is one of the most attractive antimicrobial agents for its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. However, the traditional method of preparing AgNPs-functionalized packaging material is cumbersome and not environmentally friendly. To develop an efficient and convenient biosynthesis method to prepare AgNPs-modified bionanocomposite material for packaging applications, we synthesized AgNPs in situ in a silk fibroin solution via the reduction of Ag+ by the tyrosine residue of fibroin, and then prepared AgNPs–silk/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA composite film by blending with PVA. AgNPs were synthesized evenly on the surface or embedded in the interior of silk/PVA film. The prepared AgNPs–silk/PVA film exhibited excellent mechanical performance and stability, as well as good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AgNPs–silk/PVA film offers more choices to be potentially applied in the active packaging field.

  17. Effects of O2 plasma treatment of PDMS on the deposition of electrospun PVA nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Natsumi; Miki, Norihisa; Hishida, Koichi; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    A new polymeric nanofiber-alignment technique with the selective deposition of the nanofibers using oxygen (O2) plasma treatment on a base material for the electrospinning was introduced. Generally, without any pretreatments, electrospun fibers are deposited randomly on the collector. In this work, we focused on the O2 plasma treatment of the surface of the base material to modify the surface morphology and to add polar groups to the surface. O2 plasma-treated and untreated surface of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was prepared by masking a part of PDMS film by another PDMS film. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were then deposited onto the PDMS film. The surface structure of the PDMS film with PVA nanofibers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, and X-ray photon spectroscopy. Only a few PVA nanofibers were deposited randomly on the untreated area of the PDMS film, while a number of PVA nanofibers were selectively deposited onto the O2 plasma-treated area. Intriguingly, PVA nanofibers were neatly aligned along the border of the untreated and the treated areas. The contact angle of the plasma-treated surface of PDMS decreased from 105 to 22 degree and the atomic ratio of O/Si was 1.7 times higher than that of the untreated PDMS.

  18. Preparation of a Cu(II)-PVA/PA6 composite nanofibrous membrane for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Quan; Tang, Bin; Wei, Qufu; Hou, Dayin; Bi, Songmei; Wei, Anfang

    2012-10-05

    PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers were formed by electrospinning. Cu(II)-PVA/PA6 metal chelated nanofibers, prepared by the reaction between PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers and Cu2+ solution, were used as the support for catalase immobilization. The result of the experiments showed that PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers had an excellent chelation capacity for Cu2+ ions, and the structures of nanofibers were stable during the reaction with Cu2+ solution. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers was studied by the Langmuir isothermal adsorption model. The maximum amount of coordinated Cu(II) (q(m)) was 3.731 mmol/g (dry fiber), and the binding constant (K(l)) was 0.0593 L/mmol. Kinetic parameters were analyzed for both immobilized and free catalases. The value of V(max) (3774 μmol/mg·min) for the immobilized catalases was smaller than that of the free catalases (4878 μmol/mg·min), while the K(m) for the immobilized catalases was larger. The immobilized catalases showed better resistance to pH and temperature than that of free form, and the storage stabilities, reusability of immobilized catalases were significantly improved. The half-lives of free and immobilized catalases were 8 days and 24 days, respectively.

  19. Enhancement of durability of glass fiber-reinforced cement with PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓倩; 詹树林

    2002-01-01

    The main thrust of this research was to determine the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) powder in enhancing the durability of short GFRC materials. Accelerated aging of the materials was achieved through low-pressure steam curing in a moist chamber. The strength and ductility of GFRC were measured by the direct tension test, which showed that incorporation of PVA powder into GFRC could improve its mechanical behaviour and turn it from brittle to ductile. To investigate the mechanism of the tensile strength enhancement, the fiber-matrix interface was examined by polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It was found that PVA powder tended to migrate to the fiber-matrix interfacial zone and thus prevented the accumulation of calcium hydroxide in this area. PVA film around the fiber resulted in a more ductile interfacial microstructure and better bonding between fiber and matrix, which should be responsible for enhancing the tensile property and preventing the aging of GFRC. Furthermore, PVA powder reduced the microhardness and brittleness at the interface.

  20. 5-Fluorouracil Loaded Chitosan-PVA/Na+MMT Nanocomposite Films for Drug Release and Antimicrobial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Babul Reddy; B Manjula; T Jayaramudu; E R Sadiku; P Anand Babu; S Periyar Selvam

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were blended with different concentrations of sodium montmorillonite (Na?MMT) clay solution by a solvent casting method. X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscope results show that the film properties are related to the co-existence of Na?MMT intercalation/exfoliation in the blend and the interaction between chitosan–PVA and Na?MMT. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded with chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT nanocomposite films for in vitro drug delivery study. The antimicrobial activity of the chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT films showed significant effect against Salmonella (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), whereas 5-FU encapsulated chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT bio-nanocomposite films did not show any inhibition against bacteria. Our results indicate that combination of a flexible and soft polymeric material with high drug loading ability of a hard inorganic porous material can produce improved control over degradation and drug release. It will be an economically viable method for preparation of advanced drug delivery vehicles and biodegradable implants or scaffolds.

  1. Natural polysaccharides promote chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on magnetic nanoparticle/PVA composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixia; Nie, Lei; Du, Gaolai; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Fu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the synergistic effects of natural polysaccharides and inorganic nanoparticles on cell adhesion and growth on intrinsically cell non-adhesive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite (nHAP) nanoparticles are effective in increasing osteoblast growth on PVA hydrogels. Herein, we blended hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), two important components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), with Fe2O3/nHAP/PVA hydrogels. The presence of these natural polyelectrolytes dramatically increased the pore size and the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) while maintaining excellent compressive strength of hydrogels. Chondrocytes were seeded and cultured on composite PVA hydrogels containing Fe2O3, nHAP and Fe2O3/nHAP hybrids and Fe2O3/nHAP with HA or CS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay consistently confirmed that the addition of HA or CS promotes chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA and composite hydrogels. Particularly, the combination of HA and CS exhibited further promotion to cell adhesion and proliferation compared with any single polysaccharide. The results demonstrated that the magnetic composite nanoparticles and polysaccharides provided synergistic promotion to cell adhesion and growth. Such polysaccharide-augmented composite hydrogels may have potentials in biomedical applications.

  2. Hydration dynamics of collagen/PVA composites: Thermoporometric and impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanungo, Ivy; Fathima, N. Nishad; Rao, J. Raghava, E-mail: clrichem@mailcity.com; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2013-06-15

    Porous scaffolds like collagen/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) composites have potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. The pore properties and electrical behavior of collagen/PVA composite system were investigated by thermoporometry technique and electrochemical impedance analysis. The porous composites were crosslinked by less cytotoxic genipin due to the versatility in the crosslinking reactivity between the amino groups. Different physicochemical properties like rheological behavior, thermal stability of the protein and morphological changes of the composites were investigated as a function of PVA concentration by viscosity profile, temperature dependant circular dichroic spectroscopic studies, scanning electron microscopy. Bound water constrained within the pores of collagen/PVA composites seems to provide signatures for changes induced by amount of additives on the pore diameter and distribution in composite molecules. Impedance measurements of the composites in the frequency range of 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 5} Hz reveal that concentration of the additive and crosslinking significantly influence the permittivity of the composites. The tunable physicochemical properties help to gain insight for regulating cellular events for tissue and organ regeneration. - Highlights: • Additive and crosslinker influence pore size distribution of biocomposite. • Pore sizes are shifted to the lower nanometer range with increasing PVA concentration. • Additives influence reorientation of water near the peptide group of collagen. • Increase of tan δ values with the decrease of frequency indicates that the resistive component of biocomposites dominates.

  3. Surface morphology and optical properties of PVA/PbS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, Talaat M., E-mail: talaathammad@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, P.O. Box 1277 ,Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown); Salem, Jamil K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, P.O. Box 1277, Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kuhn, S. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrucken (Germany); Abu Shanab, Nadia M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, P.O. Box 1277, Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrucken (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    PVA capped lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the simple wet chemical method. The synthesized product has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron Microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence studies. The size of the PVA capped PbS nanoparticles was determined From XRD and it is found that the size of the particles of the order of 42–5 nm. FTIR and EDX analyses are used to identify the presence of organic molecules and elements in the synthesized PbS nanoparticles. Significant “blue-shift” from bulk material was observed on the PbS nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra. A 10-fold increase in photoluminescence intensity is reached at 4 g PVA addition. - Highlights: • PbS nanoparticles stabilized by PVA were successfully synthesized by the simple wet chemical method. • The particle size observed from XRD analysis is around 5–12 nm. • Significant “blue-shift” from bulk material was observed on the PbS nanoparticles. • A 10-fold increase in photoluminescence intensity is reached at 4 g PVA.

  4. Evaluation of PVA biodegradable electric conductive membranes for nerve regeneration in axonotmesis injuries: the rat sciatic nerve animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jorge; Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo Alexandre; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Amorim, Irina; Leal Reis, Inês; Amado, Sandra; Santos, José Domingos; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Varejão, Artur Severo Proença; Geuna, Stefano; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2017-01-12

    The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that PVA-CNTs group presented higher myelin thickness and lower g-ratio. The tibialis anterior muscle, in the PVA-PPy and PVA-CNTs groups showed a 9% and 19% increase of average fiber size area and a 5% and 10% increase of the "minimal Feret's diameter," respectively. No inflammation, degeneration, fibrosis or necrosis were detected in lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, and regional lymph nodes and absence of carbon deposits was confirmed with Von Kossa and Masson-Fontana stains. In conclusion, the membranes of PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy are biocompatible and have electrical conductivity. The higher electrical conductivity measured in PVA-CNTs membrane might be responsible for the positive results on maturation of myelinated fibers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017.

  5. Interface porcelain tile/PVA modified mortar: a novel nanostructure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander

    2009-02-01

    In ceramic tile systems, the overall result of adherence between porcelain tiles and polymer modified mortars could be explained based on the nano-order structure that is developed at the interface. Based on pull-off tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy images, and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments a nanostructured approach for interface tile/PVA modified mortar was built. The increase of adhesion between tile and mortar due to poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, addition can be explained by the formation of a hybrid ceramic-polymer-ceramic interface by hydrogen bonds between PVA hydroxyl groups and silanol from tile surface and water from nanostructured C-S-H gel interlayer.

  6. Effect of ion and electron beam irradiation on surface morphology and optical properties of PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HM Eyssa; MO sman; SAK andil; MMA bdelrahman

    2015-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a well-known friendly polymer for paper-making, textiles, and a variety of coat-ings, biomedical applications such as artificial pancreas, synthetic vitreous body, wound dressing, artificial skin, and cardiovascular device. In this paper, ion/electron beam is employed to get insight into the irradiation effect on surface morphology and optical properties of PVA polymer. UV-Vis spectra are recorded to investigate the effect of induced defects on the optical band gap and the formed carbon clusters size. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to relate and investigate surface morphology and optical properties of the target poly-mer with different doses (15, 30 and 60 min). Also, PVA polymer is subjected to theoretical studies by using semi-empirical PM7 quantum chemical method.

  7. A novel gellan-PVA nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration: Fabrication and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Priya; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Pruthi, Parul A; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-01-20

    In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration.

  8. Immobilisation of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibres via electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Saallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilisation of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase on nanofibres was demonstrated. CGTase solution (1% v/v and PVA (8 wt% solution were mixed followed by electrospinning (−9 kV, 3 h. CGTase/PVA nanofibres with an average diameter of 176 ± 46 nm were successfully produced. The nanofibres that consist of immobilised CGTase were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapour. A CGTase/PVA film made up from the same mixture and treated the same way was used as a control experiment. The immobilised CGTase on nanofibres showed superior performance with nearly a 2.5 fold higher enzyme loading and 31% higher enzyme activity in comparison with the film.

  9. Study of parallel oriented electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers using modified electrospinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Yusril; Ula, Nur Mufidatul; Jahidah, Khannah; Kusumasari, Ervanggis Minggar; Triyana, Kuwat; Sosiati, Harini; Harsojo

    2016-04-01

    Parallel orientedpolyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibershasbeen successfully prepared by using modified electrospinning method. This method uses two pairs of copper (Cu) electrodes which are set apart at a certain distance and applied voltage of 15 kV. The concentrations of PVA were varied from 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%, and 19%. The width of gap collector were varied from 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. The diameter of nanofibers increase as increasing concentration of PVA. As the width of gap collector increase, first diameter of nanofibers decrease and reach a minimum value at 355 ± 7nm in 15 mm of gap, then the diameters increase again. We also calculated the alignment parameter (S) for given aligned nanofiber. The result showed that alignment parameters (S) were on values around 0,9-1.

  10. A Sustainable Approach to Fabricating Ag Nanoparticles/PVA Hybrid Nanofiber and Its Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Meng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using Ficus altissima Blume leaf extract as a reducing agent at room temperature. The resulting Ag nanoparticles/PVA mixture was employed to create Ag nanoparticles/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers were confirmed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, The X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and then tested to catalyze KBH4 reduction of methylene blue (MB. The catalytic results demonstrate that the MB can be reduced completely within 15 min. In addition, the Ag nanoparticles/PVA hybrid nanofibers show reusability for three cycles with no obvious losses in degradation ratio of the MB.

  11. Radiation preparation of PVA/CMC copolymers and their application in removal of dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleb, Manal F. Abou, E-mail: abutalib_m@yahoo.com [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, P.O. Box 29, Cairo 11371 (Egypt); El-Mohdy, H. L. Abd; El-Rehim, H. A. Abd [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, P.O. Box 29, Cairo 11371 (Egypt)

    2009-08-30

    Copolymer hydrogels composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was prepared by using electron beam irradiation as crosslinking agent. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and the physical properties such as gelation. The thermal behavior and swelling properties of the prepared hydrogels were investigated as a function of PVA/CMC composition. The factors effecting adsorption capacity of acid, reactive and direct dyes onto PVA/CMC hydrogel, such as CMC content, pH value of the dye solution, initial concentration and adsorption temperature for dyes were investigated. Thermodynamic study indicated that the values the negative values of {Delta}H suggested that the adsorption process is exothermic. The value of {Delta}H (38.81 kJ/mol) suggested that the electrostatic interaction is the dominant mechanism for the adsorption of dyes on hydrogel.

  12. Mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of phosphorylated nanocellulose fibrils/PVA nanocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Jahan, Zaib; Berg, Sigrun Sofie; Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby

    2017-12-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have strong reinforcing properties when incorporated in a compatible polymer matrix. This work reports the effect of the addition of phosphorylated nanocellulose (PCNF) on the mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes. The incorporation of nanocellulose in PVA reduced the crystallinity at 0%RH. However, when the films were exposed to higher humidities the crystallinity increased. No apparent trend is observed for mechanical properties for dry membranes (0% RH). However, at 93% RH the elastic modulus increased strongly from 0.12MPa to 0.82MPa when adding 6% PCNF. At higher humidities, the moisture uptake has large influence on storage modulus, tan δ and tensile properties. Membranes containing 1% PCNF absorbed most moisture. Swelling, thermal and mechanical properties indicate a good potential for applying of PVA/phosphorylated nanocellulose composite membranes for CO2 separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of ionizing radiation on the properties of starch-PVA films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cornstarch: poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films characterized by the alternating ratio of starch:PVA (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100 and containing 30% of glycerol were prepared by solution casting. The films were irradiated with an absorbed dose of 25 kGy with gamma rays in a vacuum and with fast electrons in the air. The films characterized by a high content of starch appeared stiff, while the films characterized by a high content of PVA were highly flexible. The tensile strength and flexibility, as well as swelling and hydrophilicity, increased with the increase in the PVA content in the films. However, the tensile strength and wetting angle values achieved a minimum at an intermediate composition. It was found that irradiation enables to reduce hydrophilicity of the films accompanied by a decrease in their flexibility. No general conclusion concerning the effect of irradiation on tensile strength and swelling behavior can be derived. An increase in the homogeneity of the films and an increase in the compatibility of their components was found by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Strong interactions of the starch and the PVA components were discovered by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Degradation was found to be the prevailing process occurring in the films under the influence of irradiation. The possible accompanying crosslinking is discussed in terms of the gel content in the samples. Creation of various oxidation products in the films characterized by the modified composition was observed under the influence of irradiation carried out in the air. Basing on the obtained results it can be supposed that the selected starch-PVA compositions might appear useful as packagings of the products predicted for radiation decontamination.

  14. A novel fixed-bed reactor design incorporating an electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Akbar, E-mail: akbaresmaeili@yahoo.com; Beni, Ali Aghababai

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: PVA/Cs nanofiber membrane was prepared by the electrospinning technique. The membrane was installed in a new fixed-bed reactor. The test results showed heavy metals absorbed by the PVA/Cs nanofiber membrane. - Highlights: • PVA/Cs nano-fiber membrane was produced using electrospinning technique. • The prepared nanofiber membrane was mesoporous. • Thermal crosslinking was successful to improve the stability of PVA/Cs nano-fiber membrane. • Experimental data were studied by adsorption isotherm models and thermodynamic relationships. - Abstract: In this research, a novel fixed-bed reactor was designed with a nanofiber membrane composed of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan nanofiber blend prepared using an electrospinning technique. The applied voltage, tip-collector distance, and solution flow rate of the electrospinning process were 18 kV, 14.5 cm, and 0.5 mL h{sup −1}, respectively. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize and analyze the nanofiber membranes. Homogeneous electrospun nanofibers with an average diameter of 99.47 nm and surface area of 214.12 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} were obtained. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system to investigate the effect of different adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimal pH of 6, were analyzed by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. Three isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) were applied to describe the equilibrium data of the metal ions adsorbed onto the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane.

  15. A novel approach for fabricating highly tunable and fluffy bioinspired 3D poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sunanda; Kuddannaya, Shreyas; Das, Tanya; Lee, Heng Yeong; Lim, Jacob; Hu, Xiao 'Matthew'; Chee Yoon, Yue; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-06-01

    The excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and chemo-thermal stability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been harnessed in diverse practical applications. These properties have motivated the fabrication of high performance PVA based nanofibers with adequate control over the micro and nano-architectures and surface chemical interactions. However, the high water solubility and hydrophilicity of the PVA polymer limits the application of the electrospun PVA nanofibers in aqueous environments owing to instantaneous dissolution. In this work, we report a novel yet facile concept for fabricating extremely light, fluffy, insoluble and stable three dimensional (3D) PVA fibrous scaffolds with/without coating for multifunctional purposes. While the solubility, morphology, fiber density and mechanical properties of nanofibers could be tuned by optimizing the cross-linking conditions, the surface chemical reactivity could be readily enhanced by coating with a polydopamine (pDA) bioinspired polymer without compromising the stability and innate properties of the native PVA fiber. The 3D pDA-PVA scaffolds exhibited super dye adsorption and constructive synergistic cell-material interactions by promoting healthy adhesion and viability of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within 3D micro-niches. We foresee the application of tunable PVA 3D as a highly adsorbent material and a scaffold material for tissue regeneration and drug delivery with close consideration of realistic in vivo parameters.

  16. Preparation of PVA/PEI ultra-fine fibers and their composite membrane with PLA by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cunhai; Yuan, Xiaoyan; He, Mingyu; Yao, Kangde

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-fine fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyethylenimine (PVA/PEI) were prepared by electrospinning of their blend solutions in water. Effects of PVA/PEI mass ratio and the polymer concentration on the fiber morphology were discussed by analysis of scanning electron micrographs. Results showed that uniform ultra-fine fibers could be obtained from an 8% PVA/PEI solution with 75:25 mass ratio. It was supposed that the introduction of PVA could promote electrospinning of PEI by weakening the intermolecular interaction and increasing solution viscosity. A composite membrane of PVA/PEI with poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) was produced by co-electrospinning simultaneously from the aqueous 8% PVA/PEI (75:25) solution and a 20% PLA solution in N,N-dimethylformamide in two separated syringes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy verified the existence of PVA/PEI and PLA in the fibrous membrane. We attempted to incorporate PEI with PLA as ultra-fine fibers to diminish the acidic inflammation caused by biodegradation of PLA. The fibrous composite membrane of PVA/PEI-PLA could provide better biocompatibility and would be used as drug-delivery carriers or tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  17. PVA/NiO复合纳米纤维的制备及光催化性能%Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of PVA/NiO Composite Nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃军; 曹铁平

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylic nitrile (PVA)/nickel nitrate (Ni(NO3)2) composite nanofibers were firstly fabricated through electrospinning a precursor solution of PVA and Ni(Noj)2- After further urea assisted hydrothermal treatment,PVA/NiO composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphology and structure of the product were characterized by XRD,FT-IR,SEM and TEM.The results showed that NiO nanoparticles could be evenly grown on the surface of PVA nanofibers. By employing degradation of rodamine B as model reaction,it was found that as-fabricated PVA/NiO composite nanofibers possessed good photocatalytic activity.%采用静电纺丝法,以聚乙烯醇(PVA)和硝酸镍(Ni(NO3)2)为前驱物,制得PVA/Ni(NO3)2纤维;再以尿素(CO(NH)2)为碱源,通过水热合成法制备了PVA/NiO复合纳米纤维.利用X射线衍射(XRD)、红外光谱(FT-(R)、扫描电镜(SEM)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)等分析测试手段对样品的形貌和结构进行了表征,以罗丹明B为目标降解物,考察了PVA/NiO复合纳米纤维的光催化活性.结果表明:NiO纳米粒子均匀地负载于PVA纳米纤维上,形成了具有良好光催化活性的PVA/NiO复合纳米纤维光催化材料.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assisted by PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hai; Zhang, Maofeng; Zhang, Xianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2009-10-01

    NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assembled of nanoparticles have been prepared via a hydrothermal method in an ethanolamine and water mixed solution assisted by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The prepared tubular crystals with hexagonal structure are composed of nanoparticles with average diameter of 30 nm. It was found that the phase of the products could be adjusted by the molar ratio of the reactants (Ni/Se), and the morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by the quantity of surfactant PVA. Based on the experimental results, the possible formation mechanism of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals is also discussed.

  19. Luminescence properties of Eu3+/CDs/PVA composite applied in light conversion film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangling; He, Youling; Zhuang, Jianle; Zhang, Haoran; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, blue-light-emitting carbon dots (CDs) were composited with red-light-emitting europium ions (Eu3+) solutions under the synergistic reaction of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare the light conversion film. The formation mechanism of Eu3+/CDs/PVA film was detailedly discussed. It is the first report that this composite was synthesized through direct recombination of CDs and Eu3+ solutions instead of traditional methods based on Eu3+ coordination compound. Furthermore, tunable photoluminescence property can be successfully achieved by controlling the ratio of CDs to doped Eu3+, this property can meet the variable light component requirements for different species of plants.

  20. Tribological Properties of PVA-H Composites Reinforced by Nano-HA Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviors of tribological mechanical components were studied on a four-ball tester under dry conditions, and the wear mechanism was analyzed by observed worn surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the friction and wear properties were improved by the addition of nano HA particles. The composite containing 1 wt% nano HA had the optimum friction coefficient. It is also found that the addition of nano HA increases the wear resistance of pure PVA-H and PVA-H composites.

  1. [Study on CTP production from CMP by beer yeast cell immobilized in PVA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yi; Qian, Shi-Jun; Li, Gao-Wo

    2007-03-01

    With PVA as the carrier, the frozen beer yeast cells were immobilized for production of CTP from CMP. we explored the optimal condition of the immobilization from the aspects of the type, concentration of the PVA, and the immobilizing methods of cells In all 8 continuous batch of fermentation under the reactional condition of the immobilized cells, the conversion rate of CTP were maintained about 85% - 95%. Moreever, the storage stability of immobilized cells were investigated, and the products was also isolated and identifided by HPLC.

  2. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP's) and PVA NC's with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np's, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP's Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP's.

  3. Development of PVA-alginate as a matrix for enzymatic decolorization of textile dye in bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Zahara, Syifa; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Anita, Sita Heris; Oktaviani, Maulida; Sari, Fahriya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    An immobilization technique using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) crosslinked with sodium alginate as a matrix has been developed for textile dyes decolorization. Textiles use dye as an addition to the aesthetic value of the product. Dyes are generally used is a textile dye where the waste will be released directly into the waters around 2-20%. Therefore, it is important to develop an enzyme immobilization method using PVA-Alginate as a matrix. Based on the results of the study showed that the PVA-Alginate beads produced high decolorization percent compared to beads which contains only Ca-alginate alone and formula matrix is optimum at PVA 6% and alginate 1.5%. Encapsulation with boric acid at 7% showed optimum decolorization and reduction for enzyme leakage during decolorization. This study suggested that immobilization of enzymes into PVA-alginate matrix might be used as a biodecolorating agent.

  4. Effect of cross linking of PVA/starch and reinforcement of modified barley husk on the properties of composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Aanchal; Garg, Sangeeta; Kohli, Deepak; Maiti, Mithu; Jana, Asim Kumar; Bajpai, Shailendra

    2016-10-20

    Barley husk (BH) was graft copolymerized by palmitic acid. The crystalline behavior of BH decreased after grafting. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch (St) blend film, urea formaldehyde cross linked PVA/St films and composite films containing natural BH, grafted BH were prepared separately. The effect of urea/starch ratio, content of BH and grafted BH on the mechanical properties, water uptake (%), and biodegradability of the composite films was observed. With increase in urea: starch ratio from 0 to 0.5 in the blend, tensile strength of cross linked film increased by 40.23% compared to the PVA/St film. However, in grafted BH composite film, the tensile strength increased by 72.4% than PVA/St film. The degradation rate of natural BH composite film was faster than PVA/St film. Various films were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis.

  5. Experiment on Electrospinning Keratin/PVA Nanofibers%利用羊毛角蛋白/PVA/NaCl混合溶液静电纺纳米纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云波; 钟智丽; 冯文召; 张鹏

    2007-01-01

    本试验通过静电纺丝的方法,对不同浓度的角蛋白/PVA/NaCl混合溶液进行了静电纺丝.由电子扫描电镜(SEM)显示,在浓度为6wt.%~10wt.%,配比为75∶18∶7(PVA/角蛋白/NaCl)的混合溶液体系中,可以纺制平均直径在240 nm左右的,直径最细、条干最好的纳米纤维;另外,纳米纤维的形态、直径受混合溶液的浓度以及外加电压的影响比较大.

  6. Hygroscopicity of a sugarless coating layer formed by the interaction between mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shouko; Tamura, Koichi; Sakata, Yukoh

    2014-11-01

    A sugarless layer that provides protection against moisture is formed on tablets when a coating solution comprising mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is applied. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the formation of such a sugarless layer and the resulting hygroscopic properties in order to derive an appropriate sugarless coating. The hygroscopicity of the sugarless layer is shown to be strongly affected by the addition of PVA, and has the lowest at concentration ratios between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w) of mannitol and PVA. The polymorphic form of mannitol is different in formulations with different mannitol:PVA concentration ratios. Mannitol occurs in the α-form at mannitol:PVA concentration ratios between 15:1 and 15:4 (w/w). Moreover, PVA affects the molecular motions in the region associated with the OH stretch, OH deformation, and CH2 wag of mannitol. In particular, the molecular motions change considerably at mannitol:PVA concentration ratio of 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). In addition, the surface state of the sugarless layer depends on the amount of PVA added, and exhibits the smoothest surface at a mannitol:PVA concentration ratio between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). Thus, the hygroscopicity is related to the surface states of the sugarless layer, which, in turn, is affected by the change in the molecular motions of mannitol due to the interactions between mannitol and PVA.

  7. Preparation of MWNTs/PVA/PEO composite fiber by electrospinning process%静电纺丝制备MWNTs/PVA/PEO复合超细纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彦龙; 王帅; 卫英慧; 郭有军; 张凯丽

    2010-01-01

    采用硝酸对多壁碳纳米管(MwNTs)进行纯化处理,利用表面活性剂十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)或聚乙烯醇(PVA)对纯化后的MWNTs进行了表面修饰,将修饰后的MWNTs添加到PVA和聚氧化乙烯(PEO)共混水溶液中,通过静电纺丝制备了 MWNTs/PVA/PEO复合超细纤维.结果表明:PVA修饰的MWNTs比SDS修饰的MWNTs在PVA/PEO纺丝液中有更好的分散稳定性.随MWNTs添加量的增加,纤维的平均直径减小;当添加PVA修饰的MWNTs质量分数为0.53%时,纤维平均直径达368 nm,且纤维表面光滑、分布均匀.

  8. PVA engineered microcapsules for targeted delivery of camptothecin to HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiati, Alice; Rocca, Blasco Morozzo della; Tabolacci, Claudio; Beninati, Simone; Desideri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Paradossi, Gaio, E-mail: paradossi@stc.uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Capsular microvectors are an important tool in the recent research field of nanomedicine to address a drug cargo for the therapeutic treatment of several pathologies. In this study we describe how the product of the conjugation of the polysaccharide chitosan with folate can be used as a coating of poly (vinyl alcohol), PVA, based microcapsules for an efficient targeting of HeLa cells. The influence of the coating on the bioadhesive properties of the vector and on its cargo capacity was also considered using camptothecin as an anticancer drug model. The coating strategy was finalized to exploit the good chemical versatility of PVA, used to form the shell of the vector. This study is a follow up of an investigation activity aiming to show the potentialities of PVA-shelled microcapsules or microbubbles as injectable microdevices supporting a theranostic approach for different types of tumour. Highlights: {yields}Coating of PVA-shelled microcapsules with chitosan-folate. {yields} Selective bioadhesion of microcapsules to HeLa Cells. {yields} Effective loading and release of camptothecin. {yields} In vitro anti-proliferative action of camptothecin loaded microcapsules.

  9. Preparation of PVA/ H3PW12O40 Fiber Mats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing 20 and 80 wt% H3PW12O40 were prepared by using electrospinning technique. The fiber mats were characterized by IR, XRD spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of the fiber mats is ca. 400 nm.

  10. Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

    2015-01-22

    In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by electrospinning technique, using water as solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operating at 50°C, to avoid agar gelation. Agar pure solution (1 wt%) showed inadequate spinnability regardless of the used electrospinning conditions. The addition of a co-blending polymer such as PVA (10 wt% starting solution) improved the solutions viscoelasticity and hence, the solutions spinnability. Agar/PVA solutions were prepared with different mass ratios (100/0, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 0/100) and electrospun at various sets of electrospinning conditions. Best nanofibers were obtained with 30/70 and 20/80 agar/PVA blends while samples with higher agar contents (50/50 and 40/60 agar/PVA) were harder to process and led to discontinuous fibrous mats. This first set of encouraging results can open a new window of opportunities for agar-based biomaterials in the form of nanofibers.

  11. Effect of zno nanoparticles on diameter of bubbfil PVA/ZnO nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The PVA/ZnO nanofibers are obtained by the bubbfil spinning. Distribution of fiber size is tenable by nano-ZnO concentration. Experiment reveals fiber size distribution changes from Gaussian distribution to Poisson distribution when ZnO concentration varies gradually from 2 wt.% to 15 wt.%.

  12. Production of Conductive PEDOT-Coated PVA-GO Composite Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Nur Afifah; Rahman, Norizah Abdul; Lim, Hong Ngee; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2017-02-01

    Electrically conductive nanofiber is well known as an excellent nanostructured material for its outstanding performances. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated polyvinyl alcohol-graphene oxide (PVA-GO)-conducting nanofibers were fabricated via a combined method using electrospinning and electropolymerization techniques. During electrospinning, the concentration of PVA-GO solution and the applied voltage were deliberately altered in order to determine the optimized electrospinning conditions. The optimized parameters obtained were 0.1 mg/mL of GO concentration with electrospinning voltage of 15 kV, which displayed smooth nanofibrous morphology and smaller diameter distribution. The electrospun PVA-GO nanofiber mats were further modified by coating with the conjugated polymer, PEDOT, using electropolymerization technique which is a facile approach for coating the nanofibers. SEM images of the obtained nanofibers indicated that cauliflower-like structures of PEDOT were successfully grown on the surface of the electrospun nanofibers during the potentiostatic mode of the electropolymerization process. The conductive nature of PEDOT coating strongly depends on the different electropolymerization parameters, resulting in good conductivity of PEDOT-coated nanofibers. The optimum electropolymerization of PEDOT was at a potential of 1.2 V in 5 min. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the fabricated PVA-GO/PEDOT composite nanofiber could enhance the current response and reduce the charge transfer resistance of the nanofiber.

  13. Slow release of two antibiotics of veterinary interest from PVA hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, A; Tesolin, L; Marsilio, F; Schiavon, M; Berna, M; Veronese, F M

    2004-01-01

    Two antibiotics, tylosin tartrate and oxytetracycline hydrochloride, were entrapped in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels (MW 31,000-50,000) by a cryogen procedure obtaining a controlled release system suitable for veterinary application. It was found that at a low drug matrix loading (10 mg/ml), the in vitro release rate of both antibiotics could be reduced by a previous freeze drying of the gel, while no reduction in drug rate took place in heavily loaded matrices (300 mg/ml). When PVA hydrogels containing tylosin were administered to rats per os the drug could not be detected in the blood, but it was found in organs,: liver, kidneys, and muscles, for up to 120 h. On the other hand, when the same amount of drug was administered orally as powder, no appreciable organ accumulation was detected, while the drug was found in faeces and urine. These data show that PVA hydrogels can be a suitable slow release system for tylosin administration. Oxytetracycline could also be quantitatively entrapped and released from PVA hydrogels, but once administered per os to rats, it was not detected in blood or organs.

  14. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA modified, roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Karadelis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  15. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA) modified, roller compacted concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadelis, John N; Lin, Yougui

    2015-09-01

    This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  16. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA) modified, roller compacted concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Karadelis, John N.; Lin, Yougui

    2015-01-01

    This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  17. Unsupported PVA- and PVP-stabilized Pd nanoparticles as catalyst for nitrite hydrogenation in aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Baeza, J.A.; Koteswara Rao, N.; Calvo, L.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Li, Y.D.; Lefferts, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pd colloids stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have been prepared, characterized with TEM, zeta potential measurements, CO chemisorption in aqueous phase, and ATR-IR spectroscopy using CO as a probe molecule, and finally tested for performance in nitrite hydrogena

  18. Synthesis and characterization of crosslinked gellan/PVA nanofibers for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Priya; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-10-01

    Electrospun nanofibers based on gellan are considered as promising biomaterial for tissue engineering and wound healing applications. However, major hurdles in usage of these nanofibers are their poor stability and deprived structural consistency in aqueous medium which is a prerequisite for their application in the biomedical sector. In this investigation, three dimensional nanofibers, consisting of gellan and PVA have been fabricated and then stabilized under various crosslinking conditions in order to improve their physiochemical stability. The impacts of different crosslinking procedures on the gellan/PVA nanofibers were examined in terms of changes in morphological, mechanical, swelling and biological properties. Superior tensile strength and strain was recorded in case of crosslinked nanofibers as compared to non-crosslinked nanofibers. Contact angles and swelling properties of fabricated gellan/PVA nanofibers were found to vary with the crosslinking method. All crosslinking conditions were evaluated with regard to their response towards human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells. Biocompatibility studies suggested that the fabricated crosslinked gellan/PVA nanofibers hold a great prospective in the biomedical engineering arena.

  19. Sizing Research Development without PVA%无PVA上浆研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝志峰; 荣瑞萍

    2011-01-01

    概括当前国内外在取代PVA浆料方面取得的成果.论述了在浆纱生产中取代PVA浆料的必要性和复杂性.总结了国内外在取代PVA方面的主要做法.指出提高变性淀粉浆料的性能、改进浆纱工艺、采用新型浆纱设备、大量混用聚丙烯酸(酯)浆料、研发新型的纺织浆料及开发新型的浆料助刑都是取代PVA浆料的重要举措.%Achievement of current replacing PVA at home and abroad was introduced. Necessity and complexity of replacing PVA in sizing were discussed. Main methods of replacing PVA in warp sizing operation were summarized. It is pointed out that the effective measures of replacing PVA are improving modified starch property,modifying sizing processing,adopting new sizing machine, mixing plenty of polyacrylate size mixture,researching new textile size mixture and new sizing agent.

  20. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Study of the PVA hydrogel behaviour in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at studying the behaviour of the poly(vinyl alcohol [PVA] cryogel in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]+[BF4]– aqueous solutions with various concentrations. The gravimetric method showed that the swollen PVA cryogels exhibit mechanically active behaviour. PVA cryogels showed shrinking in the presence of ionic liquid, (IL, and re-swelling in the presence of distilled water. The re-swelling is not completely reversible, due to the influence of the IL ions on the gel morphology. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra have indicated no chemical interaction between the PVA and the studied IL, but highlighted the gel crystallinity change as a function of IL concentration, as well as changes in the bound water amount. Rheological analyses showed dominating plastifying effect of the cation at a lower IL concentration and dominating kosmotropic effect of the anion at a higher IL concentration. A phenomenological kinetic equation that takes into account both fluxes of matters, in and out of the gel, is proposed, explaining the alteration of the gel properties when it comes in contact with BMIMBF4 solutions.

  2. Mechanical, Thermal and Surface Investigations of Chitosan/Agar/PVA Ternary Blended Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. El-Hefian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan/agar/poly vinyl alcohol (CS/AG/PVA ternary blended films having various proportions considering chitosan as the main component were investigated. The various variables static water contact angle such as contact angle, drop base area, drop volume and drop height was also studied in correlation with the variation of time. Results obtained from mechanical measurements showed a noticeable increase in the tensile strength (TS coincided with a sharp decrease in elongation percent at break (E% of blended films with increasing agar and PVA contents. The DSC results prevailed the development of an interaction between chitosan individual components: agar and PVA. Moreover, an enhancement of the wettability of the blends was obtained with increasing agar and PVA contents. It was also found that the pure CS film and the blended films with 90/05/05 and 80/10/10 compositions were more affected by time than blended films with other compositions when the contact angle, the drop height and the drop length were studied as a function of time. In addition, when the drop is initially placed on the substrate, the drop area and the drop volume of all films remained almost constant up to a certain time after which they showed a slight difference with the elapse of time.

  3. Apatite coating of electrospun PLGA fibers using a PVA vehicle system carrying calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A novel method to coat electrospun poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber surfaces evenly and efficiently with low-crystalline carbonate apatite crystals using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) vehicle system carrying calcium ions was presented. A non-woven PLGA fabric was prepared by electrospinning: a 10 wt% PLGA solution was prepared using 1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol as a solvent and electrospun under a electrical field of 1 kV/cm using a syringe pump with a flowing rate of 3 ml/h. The non-woven PLGA fabric, 12 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness, was cut and then coated with a PVA solution containing calcium chloride dihydrate (specimen PPC). As controls, pure non-woven PLGA fabric (specimen P) and fabric coated with a calcium chloride dihydrate solution without PVA (specimen PC) were also prepared. Three specimens were exposed to simulated body fluid for 1 week and this exposure led to form uniform and complete apatite coating layer on the fiber surfaces of specimen PPC. However, no apatite had formed to the fiber surfaces of specimen P and only inhomogeneous coating occurred on the fiber surfaces of specimen PC. These results were explained in terms of the calcium chelating and adhesive properties of PVA vehicle system. The practical implication of the results is that this method provides a simple but efficient technique for coating the fiber surface of an initially non-bioactive material with low-crystalline carbonate apatite.

  4. Synthesis and morphology of electrospun PVA/PLZT composite and single phase PLZT nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sarabjit, E-mail: sarabjit@dmrl.drdo.in [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, P.O. Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Roy, Subir; Singh, Vajinder; Vijayakumar, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, P.O. Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: > The composite (PVA/PLZT) nanofibrous mats are prepared by electrospinning process. > Morphological changes of nanofibers after calcination are represented by a schematic. > PLZT nanofibers were obtained by calcining PVA/PLZT nanofibrous mat at 650 deg. C/2 h. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol/lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PVA/PLZT) composite nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method. The PLZT sol was prepared by using lead acetate trihydrate, titanium isopropoxide and zirconium propoxide molecular precursors based on sol-gel procedure. The influence of applied voltage, flow rate and needle-to-collector distance on the composite fiber morphology and diameters has been studied. The nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TGA-DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single phase with perovskite structures PLZT nanofibers were also obtained by calcining the PVA/PLZT nanofibrous mat at 650 deg. C for 2 h. A linear correlation was observed between the single perovskite phase evolution and the calcination temperature.

  5. Influence of titanium chloride addition on the optical and dielectric properties of PVA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M., E-mail: mabdelaziz62@yahoo.co [Science Department, Community College of Riyadh, King Saudi University, P.O. Box 28095, Riyadh 11437 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Ghannam, Magdy M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Faculty of Science, King Saudi University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-02-01

    Polymeric films based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with titanium chloride (TiCl{sub 3}) at different weight percent ratios were prepared using the solvent cast technique. The structural properties of these polymeric films are examined by XRD and FTIR studies. The complexation of the dopant with the polymer was confirmed by FTIR studies. The XRD pattern reveals that the amorphous domains of PVA polymer matrix increased with raising the TiCl{sub 3} content. The optical properties of these polymeric films were examined by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity was measured at room temperature of pure PVA and PVA doped with different concentrations of TiCl{sub 3} from 20 Hz to 3 MHz. The conductivity was found to increase with the increase in dopant concentration. The dielectric constant (epsilon') indicates a strong dielectric dispersion in the studied frequency range and increases as dopant content increases. This increase in both sigma and epsilon' is attributed to the increase in the localized charges distribution. Moreover, a loss peak was identified in the dielectric loss spectra and it is attributed to the orientation of polar groups.

  6. Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.

  7. 低温PVA/PAM复合弹性膜的制作及性能研究%Study on the manufacture of subcooled PVA/PAM composite elastic membrane and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓玲; 邹新禧

    2000-01-01

    改性低温PVA/PAM(聚乙烯醇/聚丙烯酰胺)复合膜较低温PVA膜机械强度更好.PAM掺入PVA后并不影响PVA的低温结晶过程,低温PVA/PAM的性能相似于低温PVA膜.由于PVA/PAM复合膜是PVA物理交联与PAM化学交联的互穿网络结构,因此PVA与PAM的交联都可制约小分子透过膜的速度.

  8. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1 were developed by incorporating neem (NO and oregano essential oils (OEO. First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%, while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%. S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  9. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Amalia; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1) were developed by incorporating neem (NO) and oregano essential oils (OEO). First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil) against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger) was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%), while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%). S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  10. Processing and characterization of chitosan/PVA and methylcellulose porous scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanimozhi, K. [Department of Chemistry, Auxilium College, Vellore 632 006 (India); Khaleel Basha, S. [Department of Biochemistry, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Sugantha Kumari, V., E-mail: sheenasahana04@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Auxilium College, Vellore 632 006 (India)

    2016-04-01

    Biomimetic porous scaffold chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) CS/PVA containing various amounts of methylcellulose (MC) (25%, 50% and 75%) incorporated in CS/PVA blend was successfully produced by a freeze drying method in the present study. The composite porous scaffold membranes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, porosity, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the prepared scaffolds was tested, toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). FTIR, XRD and DSC demonstrated that there was strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the molecules of CS/PVA and MC. The crystalline microstructure of the scaffold membranes was not well developed. SEM images showed that the morphology and diameter of the scaffolds were mainly affected by the weight ratio of MC. By increasing the MC content in the hybrid scaffolds, their swelling capacity and porosity increased. The mechanical properties of these scaffolds in dry and swollen state were greatly improved with high swelling ratio. The elasticity of films was also significantly improved by the incorporation of MC, and the scaffolds could also bear a relative high tensile strength. These findings suggested that the developed scaffold possess the prerequisites and can be used as a scaffold for tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The porous scaffolds of CS/PVA containing different MC contents were fabricated. • Addition of MC improved the compatibility between CS and PVA. • The mechanical properties of these scaffolds were greatly improved with high swelling ratio. • Biocompatibility test showed that the different MC content scaffolds had no cytotoxicity.

  11. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@barc.gov.in

    2007-02-15

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm{sup 2} to 411 g/cm{sup 2}, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  12. Studies on PVA pectin cryogels containing crosslinked enzyme aggregates of keratinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yanina N; Cavello, Ivana; Cavalitto, Sebastián; Illanes, Andres; Castro, Guillermo R

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol-pectin (PVA-P) films containing enrofloxacin and keratinase were developed to treat wounds and scars produced by burns and skin injuries. However, in order to prevent enzyme inactivation at the interface between the patch and the scars, crosslinked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) from a crude extract of keratinase produced by Paecilomyces lilacinus (LPSC#876) were synthesized by precipitation with acetone and crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Soluble vs. CLEA keratinase (K-CLEA) activities were tested in 59% (v/v) hydrophobic (isobutanol and n-hexane) and hydrophilic (acetone and dimethylsulfoxide) solvents mixtures. K-CLEA activity was 1.4, 1.7 and 6.6 times higher in acetone, n-hexane and isobutanol than the soluble enzyme at 37 °C after 1 h of incubation, respectively. K-CLEA showed at least 45% of enzyme residual activity in the 40-65 °C range, meanwhile the soluble biocatalyst was fully inactivated at 65 °C after 1h incubation. Also, the soluble enzyme was completely inactivated after 12 h at pH 7.4 and 45 °C, even though K-CLEA retained full activity. The soluble keratinase was completely inactivated at 37 °C after storage in buffer solution (pH 7.4) for 2 months, meanwhile K-CLEAs kept 51% of their activity. K-CLEA loaded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA-P cryogels showed six times lower release rate compared to the soluble keratinase at skin pH (5.5). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis showed that K-CLEA bound to pectin rather than to PVA in the PVA-P matrix.

  13. Osteochondral defect repair using a polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid (PVA-PAAc) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichara, David A; Bodugoz-Sentruk, Hatice; Ling, Doris; Malchau, Erik; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels can be candidates for articular cartilage repair due to their high water content. We synthesized a PVA-poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel formulation and determined its ability to function as a treatment option for condylar osteochondral (OC) defects in a New Zealand white rabbit (NZWR) model for 12 weeks and 24 weeks. In addition to hydrogel OC implants, tensile bar-shaped hydrogels were also implanted subcutaneously to evaluate changes in mechanical properties as a function of in vivo duration. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the water content measured in the OC hydrogel implant that was harvested after 12 weeks and 24 weeks, and non-implanted controls. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the break stress, strain at break or modulus of the tensile bars either between groups. Histological analysis of the OC defect, synovial capsule and fibrous tissue around the tensile bars determined hydrogel biocompatibility. Twelve-week hydrogels were found to be in situ flush with the articular cartilage; meniscal tissue demonstrated an intact surface. Twenty-four week hydrogels protruded from the defect site due to lack of integration with subchondral tissue, causing fibrillation to the meniscal surface. Condylar micro-CT scans ruled out osteolysis and bone cysts of the subchondral bone, and no PVA-PAAc hydrogel contents were found in the synovial fluid. The PVA-PAAc hydrogel was determined to be fully biocompatible, maintained its properties over time, and performed well at the 12 week time point. Physical fixation of the PVA-PAAc hydrogel to the subchondral bone is required to ensure long-term performance of hydrogel plugs for OC defect repair.

  14. Magnetic biodegradable Fe3O4/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Zhang, Xuehui; Song, Yu; Han, Bing; Hu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xinzhi; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. The aim of this study is to develop magnetic biodegradable fibrous materials with potential use in bone regeneration. Magnetic biodegradable Fe(3)O(4)/chitosan (CS)/poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membranes were achieved by electrospinning with average fiber diameters ranging from 230 to 380 nm and porosity of 83.9-85.1%. The influences of polymer concentration, applied voltage and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles loading on the fabrication of nanofibers were investigated. The polymer concentration of 4.5 wt%, applied voltage of 20 kV and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles loading of lower than 5 wt% could produce homogeneous, smooth and continuous Fe(3)O(4)/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that the crystalline structure of the Fe(3)O(4), CS and PVA were maintained during electrospinning process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that the Fe(3)O(4) loading up to 5 wt% did not change the functional groups of CS/PVA greatly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed islets of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles evenly distributed in the fibers. Weak ferrimagnetic behaviors of membranes were revealed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) test. Tensile test exhibited Young's modulus of membranes that were gradually enhanced with the increase of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles loading, while ultimate tensile stress and ultimate strain were slightly reduced by Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles loading of 5%. Additionally, MG63 human osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the magnetic nanofibrous membranes to evaluate their bone biocompatibility. Cell growth dynamics according to MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation exhibited good cell adhesion and proliferation, suggesting that this magnetic biodegradable Fe(3)O(4)/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes can be one of promising biomaterials for facilitation of osteogenesis.

  15. The optical and mechanical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, A.G.; Attia, W.; Abd El-Kader, K.M., E-mail: kamalmarei@yahoo.com

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We prepared PVA -Ag composite films which used in different filed of applications. • The XRD results showed Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix. • Optical band gap as a result of doping has been found to be reduced significantly. • Young's modulus increases while the strain decreases due to increasing Ag content. -- Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by chemical reduction methods. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using UV–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The contents of the inorganic phase in the nanocomposites were determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for silver, and were found to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5 wt.%. Optical absorption studies in the wavelength range 190–900 nm showed additional peak at 420 nm for differently doped films, in addition to the peak at 200 nm for undoped PVA film. There is observable change in the absorbed intensity at 420 nm with filling levels. This is due to the link between the Ag metal ion and the polymer OH- groups. The indirect energy gaps were calculated. It was found that Young’s modulus and the strength at the break increase, while the energy gaps and the strain decrease as the concentration of Ag content is increased. The XRD results showed that the Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix and the crystallinity was strongly influenced by the amount of Ag nanoparticles. The electron diffraction image for the highest concentration sample shows the crystalline nature of the silver metal nanoparticles. TEM of the nanocomposite films revealed the presence of Ag particles with average diameter of 12 nm.

  16. Effect of interfibrillar PVA bridging on water stability and mechanical properties of TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibril films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalahti, Minna; Salminen, Arto; Seppälä, Jukka; Tammelin, Tekla; Hänninen, Tuomas

    2015-08-01

    TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibrils (TCNF) were covalently bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to render water stable films. Pure TCNF films and TCNF-PVA films in dry state showed similar humidity dependent behavior in the elastic region. However, in wet films PVA had a significant effect on stability and mechanical characteristics of the films. When soaked in water, pure TCNF films exhibited strong swelling behavior and poor wet strength, whereas covalently bridged TCNF-PVA composite films remained intact and could easily be handled even after 24h of soaking. Wet tensile strength of the films was considerably enhanced with only 10 wt% PVA addition. At 25% PVA concentration wet tensile strengths were decreased and films were more yielding. This behavior is attributed to the ability of PVA to reinforce and plasticize TCNF-based films. The developed approach is a simple and straightforward method to produce TCNF films that are stable in wet conditions.

  17. Ion Transport and Discharge Characteristics of Polymer Blend (PVP/PVA) Electrolyte Films Doped with Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, C.; Mohan, K. R.; Achari, V. B. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Rao, V. V. R. N.

    2010-12-01

    Solid polymer blend electrolyte films based on PVP/PVA complexed with KI were prepared by the solution cast technique. Various experimental techniques such as electrical conductivity and transport number measurement were used to characterize the polymer electrolyte films. Electrochemical cells with the polymer electrolytes (PVP+PVA+KI) were fabricated in the configuration K/(PVP+PVA+KI)/ (I2+C+electrode). The discharge characteristics of the cells were studied under a constant load of 100 KΩ. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and discharge time for the plateau region are measured. Several other cell parameters were evaluated and are reported.

  18. Optical and Structural Investigation of CdSe Quantum Dots Dispersed in PVA Matrix and Photovoltaic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Phukan; Dulen Saikia

    2013-01-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix with their sizes within the quantum dot regime have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The effect of the concentrations of the cadmium source on the optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin films was investigated through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The structural analysis and particle size determination as well as morphological studies of the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite thin films were done with the h...

  19. 淀粉/PVA生物降解材料的热塑性研究%Study on Thermoplasticity of Starch/PVA Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向阳; 贾德民; 崔跃飞; 严志云

    2011-01-01

    将聚乙烯醇(PVA)、淀粉、增塑剂在Hakke流变仪中共混制备了热塑性淀粉/PvA材料,研究了2种PVA-PVA1799、PVA1788,2种淀粉-玉米淀粉、木薯淀粉的热塑性情况;比较了甘油、乙二醇、乙酰胺3种增塑剂的增塑效果.结果表明:采用合适的增塑剂与适当的PVA、淀粉组合可以使PVA/淀粉共混体系在高温下热塑成型;乙酰胺能跟PVA和淀粉形成很强的氢键,具有明显的增塑作用,使淀粉/PVA充分塑化,并保持较好的力学性能.%PVA, starch and plasticizers were blended in Hake Rheometer to prepare the thermoplastic starch/ PVA blends. Two kinds of PVA (PVA1799 and PVA1788) and two kinds of starch( com starch and cassava starch) were used to plastify the blends. The plasticizing effects of 3 kinds of plasticizers( glycol, glycerol and acetamide) were studied. Results showed that PVA and starch could be thermoplasticly processed with appropriate plasticizer,PVA and starch. Acetamide could form strong hydrogenolysis with PVA and starch, resulting in better plastification on the blends. The PVA/starch blends were well plastified by acetamide and maintained favorable mechanical properties.

  20. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  1. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  2. Molecular characterization of a Chinese isolate of potato virus A (PVA) and evidence of a genome recombination event between PVA variants at the 3'-proximal end of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changzheng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xinxi; Singh, Mathuresh; Xiong, Xingyao; Nie, Xianzhou

    2014-09-01

    Potato plants that exhibited mosaic symptoms were collected in Xiangxi, Hunan province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR screening for common viruses revealed the presence of potato virus A (PVA) in these samples. ELISA with virus-specific antibodies confirmed infection by PVA in the plants. Rod-shaped virions of ~750 nm in length and ~13 nm in width were observed by transmission electron microscopy. One virus isolate (designated PVA-Hunan) was subjected to molecular characterization. The viral genome consisted of 9,567 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encoded a polyprotein of 3,059 amino acids. A second characteristic potyvirus open reading frame (ORF), pretty interesting Potyviridae ORF (pipo), was located at nucleotides 2,834-3,139. The isolate shared 84% to 98% and 93% to 99% sequence identity with other PVA isolates at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that, within the PVA group, PVA-Hunan clustered most closely with the Finnish isolate Her, then with isolates 143, U, Ali, M and B11. The isolate TamMV stood alone at a separate branch. However, scanning of complete genome sequences using SimPlot revealed 99%-sequence identity between PVA-Hunan and TamMV in the 3'-proximal end of the genome (~nt 9,160 to the 3'end) and a 50%-94% (average~83%) identity upstream of nt 9,160. In contrast, 98% identity between PVA-Hunan and isolates M and B11 was detected for nucleotides 1 to ~9,160, but only ~94% for the 3'-proximal region, suggesting a genome recombination event (RE) at nt 9,133. The recombination breakpoint also was identified by the Recombination Detection Program (RDP). The RE was further confirmed by analysis of the CP gene, where the apparent RE was located.

  3. A Facile Preparation Method of ZrO2 Hollow Sphere Using PVA Microcapsule as a Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a simple and facile preparation method of ZrO2 hollow sphere using PVA microcapsule as a template. The prepared hollow sphere was characterized by XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, FT-IR techniques. PVA microcapsule were prepared by polymerization in a water-in-oil emulsion and coated by adding of zirconia sol. Uniform and spherical shaped zirconia hollow sphere with very narrow size distribution was obtained after calcination at 700 °C by removing the PVA microcapsule template. No other carbon residues and carbon-zirconium compounds were observed. These results indicate that the zirconia capsule formed without deformation of the zirconia shell structure, and CO2 and H2O gases by decomposition of the PVA microcapsule during sintering process removed through the zirconia shell.

  4. Optical and Structural Investigation of CdSe Quantum Dots Dispersed in PVA Matrix and Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Phukan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots (QDs dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA matrix with their sizes within the quantum dot regime have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The effect of the concentrations of the cadmium source on the optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin films was investigated through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The structural analysis and particle size determination as well as morphological studies of the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite thin films were done with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD analysis reveals that CdSe/PVA nanocomposite thin film has a hexagonal (wurtzite structure. A prototype thin film solar cell of CdSe/CdTe has been synthesized and its photovoltaic parameters were measured.

  5. Combination of Tung oil and Natural Rubber Latex in PVA as Water Based Coatings for Paperboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianprasert Apichaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the preparation of the PVA/TO/NRL coatings for paperboard by using poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as substance and blending with Tung oil (TO and/or natural rubber latex (NRL in order to enhance water resistance and dynamic mechanical properties. The effects of TO: NRL ratios on the structures were investigated by water resistance property and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA. The results showed that the water resistance property was improved by crosslinking of TO and film forming of NRL. The PVA/TO/NRL coating containing both TO and NRL gave better thermal behavior than those with only TO or NRL. For paperboard application, the PVA/TO/NRL coatings were applied on the paperboard to study water affinity and absorption rate on the coated surface. The rate of contact angle change of water on coated paperboards decreased depending on the ratios of TO and NRL.

  6. Effect of the PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) concentration on the optical properties of Eu-doped YAG phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Daniela A.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Ferreira, Nilson S.; Teixeira, Verônica C.; dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration on the synthesis and structural, morphological and optical properties of Y3Al5O13: Eu (Eu-doped YAG) was systematically investigated in this work. The final concentration of PVA in the preparation step influenced the crystallite size and also the degree of particle agglomeration in Eu-doped YAG phosphors. X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) emission spectra results indicated typical Eu3+ emission lines and an abnormally intense 5D0 → 7F4. The intensity parameters Ω2 and Ω4 were calculated and indicated the PVA concentration affects the ratio Ω2:Ω4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results showed Eu valence did not change and the symmetry around the Eu3+ is influenced by the PVA concentration. XEOL-XAS showed the luminescence increases as a function of energy.

  7. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies of azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore in silica and PVA thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Shah, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    in silica thin films and PVA films were studied by means of steady-state and time resolved fluorescence techniques. We have found that the azadioxatriangulenium entrapped in silica thin film has a wider fluorescence lifetime distribution (Lorentzian distribution), lower fluorescence efficiencies, shorter....... In contrast to the PVA matrices, the porous silica films allow restricted rotations of Azadioxatriangulenium molecules, which result in faster and complex fluorescence anisotropy decays suggesting energy migration among dye molecules....

  8. Degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis applied to the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, S H; Oliveros, E; Göb, S; Kantor, M; Göppert, A; Lei, L; Yue, P L; Braun, A M

    2001-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of the oxidative degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction was studied using a homogeneous (Fe2+(aq) + H2O2) and a heterogeneous reaction system (iron(III)-exchanged zeolite Y+ H2O2). In the homogeneous Fenton system, efficient degradation was observed in a batch reactor, equipped with a medium pressure mercury arc in a Pyrex envelope and employing 80% of the stoichiometric amount of H2O2 required for the total oxidation of PVA and a concentration ratio as low as I mole of iron(II) sulfate per 20 moles of PVA sub-units (C2H40). Model PVA polymers of three different molecular weights (15,000, 49,000 and 100,000 g mol(-1)) were found to follow identical degradation patterns. Strong experimental evidence supports the formation of supermacromolecules (MW: 1-5 x 10(6) g/mol) consisting of oxidized PVA and trapped iron(III) at an early reaction stage. Low molecular weight intermediates, such as oxalic acid, formic acid or formaldehyde were not found during PVA degradation in the homogeneous Fenton system, and we may deduce that the manifold of degradation reactions is mainly taking place within the super-macromolecules from which CO2 is directly released. However, in the heterogeneous Fenton system, the reaction behavior was found to be distinctly different: a decrease of the molecular weights of all three tested monodisperse PVA samples was observed by the broadening of the GPC-traces during irradiation, and oxalic acid was formed. The results lead to the mechanistic hypothesis that during the heterogeneous Fenton process, the cleavage of the PVA-chains may occur at random positions, the reactive centres being located inside the iron(III)-doped zeolite Y photocatalysts.

  9. Electrospun PVA/HAp nanocomposite nanofibers: biomimetics of mineralized hard tissues at a lower level of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong-Man; Asran, Ashraf Sh; Michler, Georg H; Simon, Paul; Kim, Jeong-Sook

    2008-12-01

    Based on the biomimetic approaches the present work describes a straightforward technique to mimic not only the architecture (the morphology) but also the chemistry (the composition) of the lowest level of the hierarchical organization of bone. This technique uses an electrospinning (ES) process with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles. To determine morphology, crystalline structures and thermal properties of the resulting electrospun fibers with the pure PVA and PVA/HAp nanocomposite (NC) before electrospinning various techniques were employed, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the complex structural changes upon undergoing electrospinning as well as interactions between HAp and PVA. The morphological and crystallographic investigations revealed that the rod-like HAp nanoparticles exhibit a nanoporous morphology and are embedded within the electrospun fibers. A large number of HAp nanorods are preferentially oriented parallel to the longitudinal direction of the electrospun PVA fibers, which closely resemble the naturally mineralized hard tissues of bones. Due to abundant OH groups present in PVA and HAp nanorods, they strongly interact via hydrogen bonding within the electrospun PVA/HAp NC fibers, which results in improved thermal properties. The unique physiochemical features of the electrospun PVA/HAp NC nanofibers prepared by the ES process will open up a wide variety of future applications related to hard tissue replacement and regeneration (bone and dentin), not limited to coating implants.

  10. Electrospun PVA/HAp nanocomposite nanofibers: biomimetics of mineralized hard tissues at a lower level of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyeong-Man; Asran, Ashraf Sh; Michler, Georg H [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle/S (Germany); Simon, Paul [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Kim, Jeong-Sook [Department of Dental Technology, Daegu Health College, 702-722 Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gyeong.kim@physik.uni-halle.de

    2008-12-01

    Based on the biomimetic approaches the present work describes a straightforward technique to mimic not only the architecture (the morphology) but also the chemistry (the composition) of the lowest level of the hierarchical organization of bone. This technique uses an electrospinning (ES) process with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles. To determine morphology, crystalline structures and thermal properties of the resulting electrospun fibers with the pure PVA and PVA/HAp nanocomposite (NC) before electrospinning various techniques were employed, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the complex structural changes upon undergoing electrospinning as well as interactions between HAp and PVA. The morphological and crystallographic investigations revealed that the rod-like HAp nanoparticles exhibit a nanoporous morphology and are embedded within the electrospun fibers. A large number of HAp nanorods are preferentially oriented parallel to the longitudinal direction of the electrospun PVA fibers, which closely resemble the naturally mineralized hard tissues of bones. Due to abundant OH groups present in PVA and HAp nanorods, they strongly interact via hydrogen bonding within the electrospun PVA/HAp NC fibers, which results in improved thermal properties. The unique physiochemical features of the electrospun PVA/HAp NC nanofibers prepared by the ES process will open up a wide variety of future applications related to hard tissue replacement and regeneration (bone and dentin), not limited to coating implants.

  11. 耗散粒子动力学模拟Nafion膜和PVA/Nafion共混膜的介观结构%Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations on Mesoscopic Structures of Nafion and PVA/Nafion Blend Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德林; 周健

    2012-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics simulations were performed to study the mesoscopic structures of both humidified Nation and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Nafion blend membranes. Simulation results show that a phase-segregated microstructure is formed in both humidified Nafion and PVA/Nafion blend membranes. In humidified Nafion membrane, water molecules and sulfonate groups form tubular shaped water clusters. As the water content is increased, the size of water cluster is enlarged and water clusters percolate to form a continuous water channel. In the PVA/Nafion blend membrane, PVA, water molecules, and sulfonate groups together form hydrophilic domains. The mesoscopic structure of the PVA/Nafion blend membrane is affected by both the PVA/Nafion blend ratio and the water content in the membrane. When the PVA mass fraction is relatively low, PVA is predominantly distributed along the sulfonate groups of Nafion and as the PVA mass fraction is increased, PVA alone forms a distinct phase in the membrane. When the water content in the membrane is relatively low, water molecules are predominantly dissolved in PVA and as the water content is increased, spherical water clusters emerge in the membrane. This work provides further guidance for the development of PVA modified Nafion membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications.%采用耗散粒子动力学模拟方法研究了水化Nafion膜和水化聚乙烯醇(PVA)/Nafion共混膜的微结构.模拟结果表明水化Nafion膜和水化PVA/Nafion共混膜均能形成相分离的微结构.在水化Nafion膜中,水与磺酸根混合形成管状的水团簇.随着膜内水含量增多,管状水团簇的尺寸逐渐变大并在膜内形成连续的水通道.在水化PVA/Nafion共混膜中,PVA、水、磺酸根混合形成亲水性区域.共混膜中PVA的质量分数和水含量共同影响膜的微结构.当膜中PVA质量分数较低时,PVA主要分布在Nafion的磺酸根基团周围;PVA质量分数升高后,PVA会在膜内单

  12. PVA/AA photopolymers and PA-LCoS devices combined for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Andrés.; Martínez, Francisco J.; Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a polyvinil alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) photopolymer compound in a holographic memory testing platform to provide experimental results for storage and retrieval of information. We also investigate different codification schemes for the data pages addressed onto the parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) device, used as the data pager, such as binary intensity modulation (BIM), and hybrid-ternary modulation (HTM), and we will see that an actual approximation for HTM can be obtained with a PA-LCoS device. We will also evaluate the effect of the time fluctuations in the PA-LCoS microdisplays onto the BIM and HTM regimes. Good results in terms of signal-tonoise ratio and bit-error ratio are provided with the experimental system and using the PVA/AA photopolymer produced in our lab, thus showing its potential and interest for future research focused on this material with highly tunable properties.

  13. Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl2 Doped PVA Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Nanda Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-based polymer electrolytes were prepared with various concentrations of CdCl2 using solvent casting method. Prepared polymer films were investigated using line profile analysis employing X-ray diffraction (XRD data. XRD results show that the crystallite size decreases and then increases with increase in CdCl2. AC conductivity in these polymer increases films first and then decreases. These observations are in agreement with XRD results. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.68E − 08 Scm−1 was observed in 4% of CdCl2 in PVA polymer blend. Crystallite ellipsoids for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using whole pattern powder fitting (WPPF indicating that crystallite area decreases with increase in the ionic conductivity.

  14. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride adhesive tape (F-PVA) in reducing dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Nan-Young; Lee, In-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effectiveness of an experimental 2.26% fluoride polyvinyl alcohol (F-PVA) tape in reducing dentin hypersensitivity. 30 healthy men and women (total of 79 teeth) in their third decade of life with dentin hypersensitivity were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: three experimental groups were treated with fluoride agents (F-PVA tape, Vanish varnish, and ClinPro XT varnish), and a control group was treated with gelatin as a placebo. Each fluoride agent was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. Stimulation was applied to the subjects' teeth using compressed air and ice sticks before applying the agent, as well as at 3 days and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after applying the agent. The degree of pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS scores were significantly (P Vanish varnish and ClinPro XT varnish at 4 and 8 weeks of the examination period.

  15. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, S. A., E-mail: swapnil@barc.gov.in; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 40085 (India); Lawrence, Mathias B. [Department of Physics, St. Xavier’s College, Mapusa, Goa 403507 (India); Desa, J. A. E. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  16. DSC and conductivity studies on PVA based proton conducting gel electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Agrawal; Arvind Awadhia

    2004-12-01

    An attempt has been made in the present work to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based proton conducting gel electrolytes in ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) solution and characterize them. DSC studies affirm the formation of gels along with the presence of partial complexes. The cole–cole plots exhibit maximum ionic conductivity (2.58 × 10-3 S cm-1) for gel samples containing 6 wt% of PVA. The conductivity of gel electrolytes exhibit liquid like nature at low polymer concentrations while the behaviour is seen to be affected by the formation of PVA–NH4SCN complexes upon increase in polymer content beyond 5 wt%. Temperature dependence of ionic conductivity exhibits VTF behaviour.

  17. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results.

  18. Evaluation of third order nonlinear optical parameters of CdS/PVA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Department of Applied Sciences (Physics), UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in, E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    CdS nanoparticles dispersed in PVA are prepared by Chemical method at room temperature. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear absorption (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup 3}) are calculated for this sample by using Z-scan technique. CdS/PVA samples show the two photon absorption mechanism. The third order nonlinear susceptibility is calculated from n{sub 2} and β and is found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} – 10{sup −8} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2}. The larger value of third order nonlinear susceptibility is due to dielectric and quantum confinement effect.

  19. Laser Raman and ac impedance spectroscopic studies of PVA: NH4NO3 polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M; Selvasekarapandian, S; Hirankumar, G; Sakunthala, A; Arunkumar, D; Nithya, H

    2010-01-01

    Ion conducting polymer electrolyte PVA:NH(4)NO(3) has been prepared by solution casting technique and characterized using XRD, Raman and ac impedance spectroscopic analyses. The amorphous nature of the polymer films has been confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. An insight into the deconvoluted Raman peaks of upsilon(1) vibration of NO(3)(-) anion for the polymer electrolyte reveals the dominancy of ion aggregates at higher NH(4)NO(3) concentration. From the ac impedance studies, the highest ion conductivity at 303 K has been found to be 7.5x10(-3)Scm(-1) for 80PVA:20NH(4)NO(3). The conductivity of the polymer electrolytes has been found to depend on the degree of dissociation of the salt in the host polymer matrix. The combination of the above-mentioned analyses has proven worth while and in fact necessary in order to achieve better understanding of these complex systems.

  20. Novel Starch-PVA Polymer for Microparticle Preparation and Optimization Using Factorial Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Helen; De, Amit Kumar; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our present work was to optimize the ratio of a very novel polymer, starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), for controlled delivery of Ornidazole. Polymer-coated drug microparticles were prepared by emulsion method. Microscopic study, scanning electron microscopic study, and atomic force microscopic study revealed that the microparticles were within 10 micrometers of size with smooth spherical shape. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of drug polymer interaction. A statistical 3(2) full factorial design was used to study the effect of different concentration of starch and PVA on the drug release profile. The three-dimensional plots gave us an idea about the contribution of each factor on the release kinetics. Hence this novel polymer of starch and polyvinyl alcohol can be utilized for control release of the drug from a targeted delivery device.

  1. Glutaraldehyde vapor cross-linked nanofibrous PVA mat with in situ formed silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaye, Addisu Getachew; Lin, Cheng-Keng; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2013-06-12

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous mat can be easily prepared via electrospinning its aqueous solution. However, the obtained nanofibrous mat is instantaneously dissolved in water. Therefore, rendering the environmentally friendly nanofibrous mat water insoluble by cross-linking mechanism is of great interest. The electrospun PVA nanofibrous mat with an average fiber diameter of ca. 400 nm could be effectively cross-linked by glutaraldehyde vapor at room temperature. The cross-linking not only resulted in a water-insoluble nanofibrous mat but also generated an excess amount of unreacted aldehyde functional groups that could reduce silver salts into silver nanoparticles. The in situ formed silver nanoparticles along the fibrous surface showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The vapor cross-linked nanofibrous mat shows a high potential to be used for efficiently capturing and killing pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Rheological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) derived composite membranes for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiš, T.

    2017-01-01

    Rheological properties of new anhydrous proton conducting membrane based on PVA, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS),sulfosuccinic acid (SSA), titanium dioxide (TiO2)was examined at various stoichiometric ratios. SSA was used as sulfonating agents to form a crosslinked structure and as proton source, whereas TEO Sand TiO2were utilized to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane. In order to verify that all the substances were immobilized into the matrix, the membranes were analysed by means of FT-IR. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of the membranes were investigated using rheometer ARES G2 and thermogravimetic analyser (TGA).The analysis of mixed PVA solutions exhibited a unique behaviour of viscosity with increased crosslink density. The dynamic storage modulus G´ of dried composite membranes shows better mechanical resistance and increased tolerance to pressure applied during membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  3. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  4. Low temperature superparamagnetic nanocomposites obtained by Fe(acac3-SiO2-PVA hybrid xerogel thermolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ianasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe(acac3/silica/PVA hybrid xerogel nanocomposite was obtained by one pot acid catalysed sol-gel synthesis using the homogeneous mixture of iron(III acetylacetonate (Fe(acac3, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Nominal composition ratio of iron oxide/silica was 15/85 (weight percent. Nitric acid was used as catalyst. Another sample of Fe(acac3/silica xerogel without PVA addition was prepared in the similar processing conditions. Based on thermal analysis studies, the thermal behaviour of both xerogel samples was unveiled and it allowed choosing the optimal calcination temperatures in order to obtain iron oxide silica magnetic nanocomposite samples. The two xerogel (with and without PVA samples were thermally treated, in air, at 220, 260 and 300 °C and characterized by different techniques. XRD investigations revealed phase composition evolution with calcination temperature, from cubic spinel phase (maghemite to hexagonal stable hematite containing nanocomposite of 10–20 nm average crystallite size. These findings were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Up to 300 °C, the surface area and total pores volume increased with temperature for all samples. By calcination at the same temperature, the hybrid xerogel containing PVA resulted in significantly higher magnetization and free volume values in comparison with the sample without PVA.

  5. Development of Eco-friendly Soy Protein Isolate Films with High Mechanical Properties through HNTs, PVA, and PTGE Synergism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials. PMID:28281634

  6. Biomaterial characteristics and application of silicone rubber and PVA hydrogels mimicked in organ groups for prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Yan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    It is definite that transparent material with similar structural characteristics and mechanical properties to human tissue is favorable for experimental study of prostate brachytherapy. In this paper, a kind of transparent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and silicone rubber are developed as suitable substitutions for human soft tissue. Segmentation and 3D reconstruction of medical image are performed to manufacture the mould of organ groups through rapid prototyping technology. Micro-structure observation, force test and CCD deformation test have been conducted to investigate the structure and mechanical properties of PVA hydrogel used in organ group mockup. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image comparison results show that PVA hydrogel consisting of 3 g PVA, 17 g de-ionized water, 80 g dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), 4 g NaCl, 1.5 g NaOH, 3 g epichlorohydrin (ECH) and 7 freeze/thaw cycles reveals similar micro-structure to human prostate tissue. Through the insertion force comparison between organ group mockup and clinical prostate brachytherapy, PVA hydrogel and silicone rubber are found to have the same mechanical properties as prostate tissue and muscle. CCD deformation test results show that insertion force suffers a sharp decrease and a relaxation of tissue deformation appears when needle punctures the capsule of prostate model. The results exhibit that organ group mockup consisting of PVA hydrogel, silicone rubber, membrane and agarose satisfies the needs of prostate brachytherapy simulation in general and can be used to mimic the soft tissues in pelvic structure.

  7. Comparative bio-safety and in vivo evaluation of native or modified locust bean gum-PVA IPN microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaity, Santanu; Ghosh, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Strategically developed natural polymer-based controlled release multiparticulate drug delivery systems have gained special interest for “spatial placement” and “temporal delivery” of drug molecules. In our earlier study, locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (LBG-PVA IPN), carboxymethylated locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (CMLBG-PVA IPN) and acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN) were prepared and characterized. The present study deals with accelerating stability testing, comparative bio-safety and single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study of all three IPN microspheres for controlled oral delivery of buflomedil hydrochloride (BH). From the stability study, it was observed that the particles were stable throughout the study period. From toxicity and biodegradability study it was proved that the microspheres were safe for internal use and complied with bio-safety criterion. From the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits, it was observed that the CMLBG-PVA IPN microspheres possessed almost similar Tmax value with BH oral suspension. However, in comparison between the LBG-PVA and Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN microspheres, the later showed well controlled release property than the first in biological condition. Thus, this type of delivery system might be useful to achieve the lofty goals of the controlled release drug delivery.

  8. Engineering a Highly Hydrophilic PVDF Membrane via Binding TiO₂Nanoparticles and a PVA Layer onto a Membrane Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Aiwen; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Xinzhen; Liu, Dapeng; He, Chunju

    2015-04-29

    A highly hydrophilic PVDF membrane was fabricated through chemically binding TiO2 nanoparticles and a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layer onto a membrane surface simultaneously. The chemical composition of the modified membrane surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the binding performance of TiO2 nanoparticles and the PVA layer was investigated by a rinsing test. The results indicated that the TiO2 nanoparticles were uniformly and strongly tailored onto the membrane surface, while the PVA layer was firmly attached onto the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles and the membrane by adsorption-cross-linking. The possible mechanisms during the modification process and filtration performance, i.e., water permeability and bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection, were investigated as well. Furthermore, antifouling property was discussed through multicycles of BSA solution filtration tests, where the flux recovery ratio was significantly increased from 20.0% for pristine PVDF membrane to 80.5% for PVDF/TiO2/PVA-modified membrane. This remarkable promotion is mainly ascribed to the improvement of surface hydrophilicity, where the water contact angle of the membrane surface was decreased from 84° for pristine membrane to 24° for PVDF/TiO2/PVA membrane. This study presents a novel and varied strategy for immobilization of nanoparticles and PVA layer on substrate surface, which could be easily adapted for a variety of materials for surface modification.

  9. PVA类高吸水性树脂的制备%Preparation of PVA super absorbent resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝华

    2009-01-01

    以PVA为原料,用顺丁烯二酸酐作交联剂制得了PVA类高吸水性树脂.研究了交联剂用量、反应温度、PVA聚合度以及处理产物的溶液pH值对树脂吸水率的影响.得到的最佳制备条件为:ω(顺丁烯二酸酐/PVA)为30%,反应温度在98~105℃,所用PVA的聚合度为1700,处理产物的溶液pH值为10左右.%PVA super absorbent resin was prepared by PVA using maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent. The influences of amount of crosslinking agent, reaction temperature, PVA polymerization degree, pH of solution on water absorbency were in-vestigated. The optimum reaction conditions were that the ration between rnaleie anhydride and PVA was 30% the reaction tem-perature was 98~105℃, the polymerization degree of PVA was 1700, the pH of solution was about 10.

  10. Development of Eco-friendly Soy Protein Isolate Films with High Mechanical Properties through HNTs, PVA, and PTGE Synergism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaorong; Song, Ruyuan; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2017-03-01

    This study was to develop novel soy protein isolate-based films for packaging using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE). The structural, crystallinity, opacity, micromorphology, and thermal stability of the resultant SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film were analyzed by the Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film illustrated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix and the thermal stability of the film was enhanced. Furthermore, the tensile strength (TS) of the SPI/HNTs/PVA/PTGE film was increased by 329.3% and the elongation at the break (EB) remained unchanged. The water absorption (WA) and the moisture content (MC) were decreased by 5.1% and 10.4%, respectively, compared to the unmodified film. The results highlighted the synergistic effects of SPI, HNTs, PVA, and PTGE on the mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of SPI films, which showed excellent strength and flexibility. In short, SPI films prepared from HNTs, PVA, and PTGE showed considerable potential as packaging materials.

  11. Multilayer PVA adsorption onto hydrophobic drug substrates to engineer drug-rich microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, F; Soltani, A; Colombo, P; Marriott, C; Jones, S A

    2008-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous crystal engineering techniques, generating drug-rich microparticles with a predetermined size, morphology and crystallinity still represents a significant challenge. A microparticle manufacturing method has recently been developed that attempts to 'shield' the physicochemical properties of micronised drugs by the application of a microfine polymer coating. The aims of this study were to investigate the nature of the drug-polymer interactions and determine the effects of this manufacturing strategy upon release of the drug from the microparticles. The adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the micronised hydrophobic drug surface was found to reach equilibrium between 23 and 27 h. The Freundlich isotherm model was shown to give the most accurate fit to the experimental data and thus multilayer adsorption was assumed. The adsorptive capacity (1/n) was specific to the substrate and PVA grade. An increase in the PVA (%) hydrolysis value caused 1/n to increase from 0.76 to 1.05 using budesonide and from 0.31 to 0.79 when betamethasone valerate (BMV) was used. Increasing the molecular weight of the adsorbing polymer caused a reduction in the strength of PVA-adsorbate interaction when budesonide was used as the substrate (from 0.76 to 0.59), whereas a three-fold increase (from 0.31 to 0.86) was achieved when the BMV substrate was employed. A proportion of the adsorbed polymer was shown to remain associated with the substrate during the spray-drying process and the polymer coating resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.05, ANOVA) amount of drug release in 60 min (ca. 100%) compared to budesonide alone.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanoparticle/PVA/ chitosan for security ink applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin, B. W.; Nurjanah, R.; Mahen, E. C. S.; Nuryantini, A. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Security ink using a carbon nanoparticle (C-dot)/PVA/chitosan-composite-based material has been successfully synthesized. The C-dot powder was prepared using a urea pyrolysis method. The precursors were synthesized using urea ((NH2)2CO, Mw  =  60.07 g mol-1) and citric acid (C6H8O7•H2O, Mw  =  210.14 g mol-1) as the fuel and carbon sources, respectively. The C-dots were prepared by heating the precursor solution at 250 °C for 90 min. The security ink was fabricated using C-dots, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, (CH2CH(OH)) n , with Mw  =  ~20 000 g mol-1) and chitosan as the dyes, resins and binders, respectively. The morphology and optical properties of the security ink were measured using SEM and EDX, a PL spectrometer and UV-vis spectroscopy. The viscosity properties of the security ink were measured using a viscometer. The characterization showed that the C-dots have a monodisperse particle size, a tetragonal structure and absorption spectra in the UV light region. It is shown that the PVA:chitosan concentration has a significant effect on the viscosity properties, so the viscosity is optimized for the security ink. In addition, the security ink was studied using a commercial printer, and the results show a good quality blue emission (450 nm) appearing under UV light exposure at 365 nm. The security ink C-dot/PVA/chitosan composite has potential applications in security, panel display, optoelectronic and optical devices on an industrial scale.

  13. 曲げ試験によるPVA-ECCの引張性能評価

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 克将; 金久保, 利之; 閑田, 徹志; 永井, 覚

    2006-01-01

    ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites), which is grouped in one of the fiber reinforced cementitious composites, shows pseudostiain hardening behavior with several percent tensile strain and multiple cracks. Evaluation method for tensile properties (tensile strength and ultimate strain) of ECC is proposed by using bending test results. In this research, uniaxial tension test and bending test of PVA-ECC (ECC with Polyvinyl alcohol fiber) is conducted to obtain correlation between tensile pro...

  14. Observation of negative persistent photoconductivity in ZnS/PVA nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahi, A.K., E-mail: akshahi.au@gmail.com; Pandey, B.K.; Singh, S.C.; Gopal, R., E-mail: r.gopalprof@gmail.com

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • ZnS QDs in PVA with very small size 2–5 nm have been successfully synthesized with wet chemical precipitation method. • All the vibrational and PL emission bands, respectively, exhibit due to defect and surface states. • Negative persistent photoconductivity (NPC) has been observed under illumination with sub-band gap energy. -- Abstract: From point of view of device fabrication, nanostructured ZnS functional materials have gained immense importance due to its primary band gap of 3.68 eV (345 nm) and high sensitivity for ultraviolet and violet radiations. Structural parameter and grain sizes for ZnS nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix are studied using synchrotron radiation. X-ray diffraction studies exhibit cubic structure of the ZnS samples having crystallite sizes in 3–6 nm and their preferred orientation along the [1 1 1] plane while TEM reveals particle sizes in 2–5 nm. Raman spectrum reveals that the observed bands are due to the combined features of surface optical phonon (SO) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode. Blue shift in the optical band gap of ZnS nanoparticles with increasing PVA concentration confirms the effect of quantum confinement of electrons. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit five emission bands having peak positions at ∼385, 416, 443, 464 and ∼485 nm. Dark and photocurrent decreases with increasing PVA concentration, shows nonlinear behavior for I–V plots. Time resolved persistent photocurrent measurement demonstrates initial very fast decay with time constant 5 s followed by faster and slower decay of current with time constants ∼90 s and ∼863 s, respectively.

  15. Dielectric dispersion and relaxations in (PVA-PEO)-ZnO polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shobhna

    2017-10-01

    The organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials consisted of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blend matrix (50/50 wt%) dispersed with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been prepared by the aqueous solution-cast method. The dielectric dispersion and relaxation processes in these polymer nanocomposite (PNC) films (i.e., (PVA-PEO)-x wt% ZnO; x = 0, 1, 3 or 5) have been investigated over the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz by employing the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). Influence of ZnO contents on the complex dielectric permittivity, electrical conductivity, electric modulus and impedance properties of these PNC materials has been explored. The dielectric permittivity and the relaxation time values corresponding to polymers cooperative chain segmental motion significantly change with the variation of ZnO contents in the PVA-PEO blend matrix at ambient temperature. The temperature dependent relaxation times and dc conductivity values of (PVA-PEO)-3 wt% ZnO film have been investigated which obey the Arrhenius behaviour. The dielectric permittivity of the film as a function of temperature exhibits linear behaviour at radio frequencies and non-linear variation at lower audio frequencies. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm a huge decrease in crystalline phase of the polymer blend matrix on the addition of 1 wt% ZnO nanoparticles. These PNC materials have low values of dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity which confirm their suitability as novel flexible-type polymer nanodielectric for the insulation in microelectronic devices, whereas the fast chain segmental dynamics and high amorphous phase reveal these materials as a potential candidate for the preparation of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes.

  16. Research on the Modification of PVA Coatings%PVA涂布液的改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向贤伟; 赵文迪

    2011-01-01

    PVA涂布液主要经历了耐水改性研究和纳米改性研究2个阶段。PVA耐水改性主要包括缩醛化改性、氨基树脂改性、尿素改性、硼酸改性、硅烷偶联剂改性、阳离子化改性等,纳米改性主要包括纳米SiO2改性、纳米CaCO3改性、纳米TiO2改性、层状硅酸盐改性等。改性PVA涂布膜具有较好的耐水性能、黏结性能、阻隔性能,价格相对便宜,且在加工和消费过程中,不会释放有毒有害物质,绿色环保,具有较好的市场发展前景。%The most common methods which have been used to modify the PVA coatings can be mainly divided into two phases- hydrophobically modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solutions and nano modified-PVA coatings. Hydrophobically modified methods are comprised of acetal, amino resins, urea, boric acid, silane coupling agents and cationic. On the other hand, nano- SiO2, CaCO3, TiO2 particles and layered silicates are widely used to modify the PVA coatings. They offer an opportunity to explore new behaviors and functionalities beyond that of conventional materials such as water resistance, adhesive properties and barrier properties. Meanwhile, in the producing and consuming processes, modified PVA coatings will not release any toxic substances which show good marketing prospects.

  17. Preparation and performance study of cross-linked Zein/PVA-SbQ composite nanofibers spun by electrospinning%光交联Zein/PVA-SbQ复合纳米纤维的制备及表征∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静; 董建成; 赵明明; 王清清; 陈晓东; 魏取福

    2015-01-01

    采用静电纺制备了不同质量比的玉米醇溶蛋白(Zein)/聚乙烯醇-苯乙烯吡啶盐(PVA-SbQ)复合纳米纤维,在紫外光照射下得到光交联 Zein/PVA-SbQ复合纳米纤维。利用扫描电镜(SEM)对复合纳米纤维的形貌和直径分布进行了分析;傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)曲线表明,Zein/PVA-SbQ 复合纳米纤维保持了两组分原有的化学功能基团;通过差示扫描量热仪(DSC)研究了复合纳米纤维的热学性能,结果表明其具有较高的热稳定性;静态接触角(CA)测试说明,随着 PVA-SbQ 比例增大复合纳米纤维疏水性降低;强力测试表明,PVA-SbQ的加入增大了 Zein 纳米纤维的强度。%Zein/PVA-SbQ composite nanofibers blend with different mass ratios were fabricated by electrospin-ning.Then the nanofibers were irradiated under UV light to get the cross-linked ones.The morphologies and di-ameter distributions of Zein/PVA-SbQ composite nanofibers were observed by SEM.The spectra of FT-IR indi-cated that two compositions of composite nanofibers maintained their own original functional groups.The ther-mal properties of composite nanofibers were studied by DSC,the results from characterizations revealed that the composite nanofibers still maintained superior thermal stability with the addition of PVA-SbQ.The results of CA elucidated the hydrophobicity decreased for composite nanofibers with increasing PVA-SbQ composition. The strength test showed that the addition of PVA-SbQ increased the tensile strength of composite nanofibers.

  18. Characterization of a silica-PVA hybrid for high density and stable silver dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorin, Bryce, E-mail: bryce.dorin@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhu, Guangyu, E-mail: g.zhu@liverpool.ac.uk [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Parkinson, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.parkinson@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Perrie, Walter, E-mail: wpfemto1@liverpool.ac.uk [Lairdside Laser Engineering Centre, The University of Liverpool, Campbeltown Road, Merseyside, CH41 9HP (United Kingdom); Benyezzar, Med, E-mail: med.benyezzar@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Scully, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.scully@manchester.ac.uk [The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    A silica and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid material mixed with a high density of silver ions is synthesised and characterized in this work. The hybrid material can be cast into thick films, which we determined to be homogeneous using Raman spectroscopy. We observed that the silver ions remain stable in the material over time and at temperatures of 100 °C, which represents a marked improvement over previous solid solutions of silver. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis indicate the rapid activation of silver at 173 °C, resulting in a dense formation of silver nanoparticles within the hybrid. The activation of silver was also demonstrated in 3-dimensional geometries using femtosecond duration laser pulses. These results illustrate the silica-PVA hybrid is an attractive material for developing silver-insulator composites. - Highlights: • A novel PVA-silica hybrid is developed for silver ion dissolution. • The hybrid exhibits a high silver saturation point and good silver stability. • Heating and laser irradiation are capable of converting the silver ions to metal. • The hybrid material enables the fabrication of 3D metal-insulator composites.

  19. Structural and luminescent properties of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh K.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.

  20. Polysiloxane/PVA-glutaraldehyde hybrid composite as solid phase for immunodetections by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Lima Barros

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed an efficient method to prepare a hybrid inorganic-organic composite based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polysiloxane using the sol-gel disc technique. Antigen obtained from Yersinia pestis was covalently immobilized onto these discs with glutaraldehyde and used as solid phase in ELISA for antibody detection in serum of rabbits experimentally immunized with plague. Using 1.25 µg antigen per disc, a peroxidase conjugate dilution of 1:4,000 and a serum dilution of 1:200 were adequate for the establishment of the procedure. These values are similar to those used for PVA-glutaraldehyde discs, plasticized filter paper discs and the polyaniline-Dacron composite discs. This procedure is comparable to that which utilizes the adsorption of the antigen to conventional PVC plates, with the amount of antigen being one fourth that employed in conventional PVC plates (5 µg/well. In addition to the performance of the polysiloxane/PVA-glutaraldehyde disc as a matrix for immunodetection, its easy synthesis and low cost are additional advantages for commercial application.

  1. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PVA/PANI/Nickel Nanocomposites Synthesized by Gamma Radiolytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Mohd Meftah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a simultaneous synthesis of polyaniline (PANI and nickel (Ni nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA film matrix by gamma radiolytic method. The mechanism of formation of PANI and Ni nanoparticles were proposed via oxidation of aniline and reduction of Ni ions, respectively. The effects of dose and Ni ions concentration on structural, optical, and electrical properties of the final PVA/PANI/Ni nanocomposites film were carefully examined. The structural and morphological studies show the presence of PANI with irregular granular microstructure and Ni nanoparticles with spherical shape and diameter less than 60 nm. The average particle size of Ni nanoparticles decreased with increasing dose and decreasing of precursor concentration due to increase of nucleation process over aggregation process during gamma irradiation. The optical absorption spectra showed that the absorption peak of Ni nanoparticles at about 390 nm shifted to lower wavelength and the absorbance increased with increasing dose. The formation of PANI was also revealed at 730 nm absorption peak with the absorbance increasing by the increase of dose. The electrical conductivity increased with increasing of dose and chlorine concentration due to number of polarons formation increases in the PVA/PANI/Ni nanocomposites.

  2. TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated polyester filter in bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifen; Zhao, Chuanqi; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-04-15

    Prepared by coating TiO(2)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on a low cost polyester filter cloth (22 μm), a composite membrane (10 μm pore size) was successfully used in an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) for treating a simulate wastewater in removing nitrate/ammonium for water reuse in a polyester fiber production plant. Its permeate flux and the anti-fouling properties against extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied. Comparing with a commercial (0.1 μm) PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membrane, similar effluent qualities were achieved, meeting the basic COD requirements for reuse. Anti-EPS accumulation, the TiO(2)/PVA Polyester composite membrane had higher sustained permeability and required less frequent cleaning. Its filtration time was 4 times longer when operated at a higher flux than the PVDF membrane. The nano-TiO(2) enhances the interaction between PVA and polyester, forms a more hydrophilic surface, drastically reduces the contact angle with water and reduces EPS fouling. The slow (trans-membrane pressure) TMP rise, loose cake layer, the low filtration resistances, and the EPS, SEM analysis confirmed the advantage of the composite membrane. Potential in lowering the membrane cost, the operation and maintenance cost, and in enhancing MBR waste water treatment efficiency is expected by the use of this new composite membrane.

  3. Preparation and characterization of gamma irradiated Starch/PVA/ZnO nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Azam; Khoylou, Farah; Ataeivarjovi, Ebrahim

    2017-09-01

    In this study starch/PVA/ZnO nanocomposite films with antibacterial activity were prepared and modified using gamma irradiation for packaging applications. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from Zn(OH)2 using hydrothermal process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared ZnO NPs were incorporated into blend films of starch and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations from 0.1 to 1 wt% using solution casting method. The results of SEM confirmed good dispersion of ZnO NPs into the films while FTIR spectroscopy showed interactions between ZnO particles and starch/PVA blend. The nanocomposite films were irradiated at the dose range of 1-5 kGy. It was found that gamma irradiation induces a significant reduction in water absorptions of the films at the dose of 3 kGy. Different trends were observed for the tensile and elongation properties of the irradiated films. Based on the results, the bacterial growth on the films was effectively inhibited when the dosage of ZnO NPs was only 0.5 wt%.

  4. Structural and optical characterization of PVA:KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Omed Gh.; Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.

    Solid polymer electrolyte films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with a different weight percent of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were prepared by standard solution cast method. XRD and FTIR techniques were performed for structural study. Complex formation between the PVA polymer and KMnO4 salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The description of crystalline nature of the solid polymer electrolyte films has been confirmed by XRD analysis. The UV-Visible absorption spectra were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The fundamental optical parameters such as optical band gap energy, refractive index, optical conductivity, and dielectric constants have been investigated and showed a clear dependence on the KMnO4 concentration. The observed value of optical band gap energy for pure PVA is about 6.27 eV and decreases to a value 3.12 eV for the film sample formed with 4 wt% KMnO4 salt. The calculated values of refractive index and the dielectric constants of the polymer electrolyte films increase with increasing KMnO4 content.

  5. Click chemistry approach for fabricating PVA/gelatin nanofibers for the differentiation of ADSCs to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Forsythe, John; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-12-01

    Every year, millions of people suffer from dermal wounds caused by heat, fire, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet radiation or disease. Tissue engineering and nanotechnology have enabled the engineering of nanostructured materials to meet the current challenges in skin treatments owing to such rising occurrences of accidental damages, skin diseases and defects. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for skin regeneration. The nanofibrous PVA/gelatin/azide scaffolds were then fabricated by electrospinning using water as solvent and allowed to undergo click reaction. The scaffolds were characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and the results observed that the rate of cell proliferation was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) on PVA/gelatin/azide scaffolds compared to PVA/gelatin nanofibers. In the present study, manipulating the biochemical cues by the addition of an induction medium, in combination with environmental and physical factors of the culture substrate by functionalizing with click moieties, we were able to drive ADSCs into epidermal lineage with the development of epidermis-like structures, was further confirmed by the expression of early and intermediate epidermal differentiation markers like keratin and filaggrin. This study not only provides an insight into the design of a site-specific niche-like microenvironment for stem cell lineage commitment, but also sheds light on the therapeutic application of an alternative cell source-ADSCs, for wound healing and skin tissue reconstitution.

  6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVA NANOFIBER TEXTILES WITH INCORPORATED NANODIAMONDS, COPPER AND SILVER IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Indrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of nanotextiles based on poly(vinyl-alcohol (PVA manufactured using electrospinning method have been known and exploited for many years. Recently, the enrichment of nanofiber textiles with nanoparticles, such as ions or nanodiamond particles (NDP, has become a popular way to modify the textile mechanical, chemical and physical properties. The aim of our study is to investigate the macromechanical properties of PVA nanotextiles enriched with NDP, silver (Ag and copper (Cu ions. The nanofiber textiles of a various surface weight were prepared from 16% PVA solution, while glyoxal and phosphoric acid were used as cross-linking agents. The copper and silver ions were diluted in aqueous solution and NDP were dispersed into the fibers by ultrasound homogenization. All but one set of samples were exposed to the temperature of 140 °C for 10 minutes. The samples without thermal stabilization exhibited significantly lower elastic stiffness and tensile strength. Moreover, the results of tensile testing indicate that the addition of dispersed nanoparticles has a minor effect on the mechanical properties of textiles and contributes rather to their reinforcement. On the other hand, the lack of thermal stabilization results in a poor interconnection of individual nanofiber layers and the non-stabilized textiles exhibit a lower elastic stiffness and reduced tensile strength.

  7. Preparation of antibacterial PVA and PEO nanofibers containing Lawsonia Inermis (henna) leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, H; Monticello, R; Kotek, R

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about health issues and environmental pollution stimulate research to find new health and hygiene related products with healing properties and minimum negative effect on the environment. Development of new, natural antibacterial agents has become one of the most important research areas to combat some pathogens such as Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and some microorganisms which cause serious human infections. Lawsonia Inermis (henna) leaf extracts for preparation of antibacterial poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers via electrospinning technique were investigated. PEO and PVA based electrospun fibers containing henna extract were verified by the appearance of FTIR peaks corresponding to the pure extract. Our study demonstrates that 2.793 wt.% Li in PVA and PEO based solutions showed bactericidal effects against Staphylococcus aureus and bacteriostatic action to Escherichia coli. Concentrations of henna leaf extract strongly impacted antibacterial activities against both bacteria. Henna leaves have a great potential to be used as a source of a potent eco-friendly antimicrobial agent.

  8. Degradation of electrospun PLGA-chitosan/PVA membranes and their cytocompatibility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Wu, Lili; Li, Xiaoran; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiulan; Zhang, Yang; Yao, Kangde

    2007-01-01

    Nanofibrious composite poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were prepared by simultaneously electrospinning PLGA and chitosan/PVA from two different syringes. The in vitro degradation of PLGA and cross-linked composite membranes was examined for up to 10 weeks in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The pH of PBS, the weight average molecular weight of PLGA, fiber morphology and mechanical properties, including tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation-at-break, were measured as a function of degradation time. The fibrous composite membranes were further investigated as a promising scaffold for human embryo skin fibroblasts (hESFs) culture. The cell adhesion and morphology of hESFs seeded on each electrospun membrane was observed using scanning electron microscope and inverted phase contrast microscopy after Wright-Giemsa staining. The introduction of chitosan/PVA component changed the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and, thus, influenced degradation behavior and mechanical properties of the composite membranes during degradation. The cells could not only favorably attach and grow well on the composite membranes, but were also able to migrate and infiltrate the membranes. Therefore, the results suggest that the composite membranes can positively mimic the structure of natural extracellular matrices and have the potential for application as three-dimensional tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PVA BASED SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anji Reddy Polu; Ranveer Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2) were prepared by solution casting technique and characterized by using XRD,FT1R,DSC and AC impedance spectroscopic analysis.The amorphous nature of the polymer electrolyte films has been confirmed by XRD.The complex formation between PVA and Mg salt has been confirmed by FTIR.The glass transition temperature decreases with increasing the Mg salt concentration.The AC impedance studies are performed to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte films in the range of 303-383 K,and the temperature dependence seems to obey the Arrhenius behavior.Transport number measurements show that the charge transport is mainly due to ions.Electrochemical cell of configuration Mg/(PVA + Mg(NO3)2) (70:30)/(I2 + C + electrolyte) has been fabricated.The discharge characteristics of the cell were studied for a constant load of 100 kΩ.

  10. Microstructural and Mechanical Studies of PVA Doped with ZnO and WO3 Composites Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Rithin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites of ZnO and WO3 nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA matrix have been prepared using solvent casting method. The microstructural properties of prepared films were studied using FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDAX techniques. In the doped PVA, many irregular shifts in the FTIR spectra have been observed and these shifts in bands can be understood on the basis of intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the adjacent OH group of PVA. The chemical composition, phase homogeneity, and morphology of the polymer composites of the polymer film were studied using EDAX and SEM. These data indicate that the distribution of nanosized ZnO and WO3 dopants is uniform and confirm the presence of ZnO and WO3 in the film. The crystal structure and crystallinity of polymer composites were studied by XRD. It was found that the change in structural repositioning and crystallinity of the composites takes place due to the interaction of dopants and also due to complex formation. The mechanical studies of doped polymer films were carried out using universal testing machine (UTM at room temperature, indicating that the addition of the ZnO and WO3 with weight percentage concentration equal to 14% increases the tensile strength and Young’s modulus.

  11. PVA-Sago starch hydrogel and the preliminary clinical animal study of the hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Kamaruddin; Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Md Nor, Mohd Tarmizi [Sciences University of Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Sago starch granule dissolves in hot water to form physically crosslink semi-gel structure. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in aqueous solution is chemically crosslink and form hydrogel after expose to gamma or electron beam irradiation. Combination of sago starch and PVA give tremendous improvement on strength and elasticity of the gel. Adding additive such as carboxymethyl cellulose enhance the swelling or absorption property of the gel. These properties of hydrogel are important for wound dressing application. The preliminary clinical animal study on the PVA Sago hydrogel dressing shows promising results of healing process in comparison with the conventional dressing using vaseline impregnated gauze acting as control dressing. This re-confirmed by biopsy tests on the wound tissue taking during the healing process. The tests show the increasing amount of fibroblast and endothelial cells on both wounds using hydrogel and jalonet during the healing process. Also, the rate of epitheliazation is almost completed for both wounds after 10 days of dressing and the lymphocytes cell increase tremendously for the first 14 days with hydrogel dressing. (author)

  12. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL CELLULOSE REINFORCED PVA/PVP HYDROGELS%细菌纤维素(BC)增强PVA/PVP复合水凝胶的制备及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文迪; 容建华; 林志丹; 张秀菊

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose reinforced PVA/PVP double-network hydrogels with different PVA/PVP content were prepared via repeated freezing and thawing method. The structure and properties of the composite hydrogels were studied through X-ray diffraction( XRD) , infrared spectrum (IR) , scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical test. SEM results showed that PVP and PVA adsorbed evenly around the BC fiber filaments in BC/PVA/PVP hydrogels,which resulted in the fully rehydration of the composite xerogels in hot water. XRD results showed that there were significant differences between the crystallization of heat-dried and freeze-dried xerogel samples. The crystallization of both BC and PVA were better in heat-dried samples. In addition,the crystallization of BC was inhibited obviously by PVP and PVA. The effect of PVP on the crystallization of PVA in BC/PVA/PVP was similar to that in PVA/PVP hydrolgels. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the PVP/PVA hydrogels were strongly enhanced after being reinforced with the net of BC nanofibers. Furthermore, the content of PVP and PVA had an obvious effect on the mechanical properties of the composites. The dynamic viscoelasticity results also showed the strengthen effect of BC,while the elasticity of BC reinforced hydrogels decreased.%通过冷冻-熔融法制备了细菌纤维素/聚乙烯醇/聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(BC/PVA/PVP)双网络复合水凝胶,并采用X射线衍射,红外光谱,扫描电镜,力学性能测试等手段对凝胶的结构和性能进行表征.研究发现PVA、PVP通过氢键作用均匀地吸附于纤维微丝周围,将BC纤维有效地分开,因而干燥后的复合凝胶在热水中浸泡后仍可恢复原状;X射线衍射结果显示,直接干燥成膜样品和冻干样品的结晶性能差别明显,且PVA/PVP对BC的结晶有抑制作用,而BC增强复合凝胶中PVP对PVA结晶的影响作用与纯PVA/PVP体系类似,即少量PVP的存在对PVA的结

  13. Performance comparison of cashmere/PVA and wool/PVA blended yarn and fabric%山羊绒/PVA及羊毛/PVA混纺纱线与织物性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月玲

    2014-01-01

    比较10 tex×2山羊绒/PVA (50/50)纱线及10 tex×2羊毛/PVA(50/50)纱线的主要性能,测试2种纱线的强力、断裂伸长、条干均匀度、粗节、细节、棉结数以及捻度并进行对比.目的在于研究纤维原料对于纱线质量和性能的影响,全面掌握这2种纱线的综合性能,以便赋予其更合适和恰当的用途,并给予消费者一定指导作用.将2种纱线分别织成相同规格的平纹织物,探讨2种织物的透气性、透湿性、美观性、舒适度等一系列主要性能,通过比较数据得出结论.山羊绒/PVA(50/50)平纹织物透气性优于羊毛/PVA(50/50)平纹织物,山羊绒/PVA(50/50)平纹织物透湿性略低,山羊绒/PVA (50/50)平纹织物比羊毛/PVA(50/50)平纹织物的手感更丰满,更富弹性,柔软度、舒适程度更好.

  14. Formation mechanism of a silane-PVA/PVAc complex film on a glass fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovsky, Daniel; Jane, Eduard; Palszegi, Tibor; Slobodnik, Marek; Velic, Dusan

    2013-10-21

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced composite materials are affected by fiber sizing. A complex film formation, based on a silane film and PVA/PVAc (polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate) microspheres on a glass fiber surface is determined at 1) the nanoscale by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and 2) the macroscale by using the zeta potential. Silane groups strongly bind through the Si-O-Si bond to the glass surface, which provides the attachment mechanism as a coupling agent. The silane groups form islands, a homogeneous film, as well as empty sites. The average roughness of the silanized surface is 6.5 nm, whereas it is only 0.6 nm for the non-silanized surface. The silane film vertically penetrates in a honeycomb fashion from the glass surface through the deposited PVA/PVAc microspheres to form a hexagonal close pack structure. The silane film not only penetrates, but also deforms the PVA/PVAc microspheres from the spherical shape in a dispersion to a ellipsoidal shape on the surface with average dimensions of 300/600 nm. The surface area value Sa represents an area of PVA/PVAc microspheres that are not affected by the silane penetration. The areas are found to be 0.2, 0.08, and 0.03 μm(2) if the ellipsoid sizes are 320/570, 300/610, and 270/620 nm for silane concentrations of 0, 3.8, and 7.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The silane film also moves PVA/PVAc microspheres in the process of complex film formation, from the low silane concentration areas to the complex film area providing enough silane groups to stabilize the structure. The values for the residual silane honeycomb structure heights (Ha ) are 6.5, 7, and 12 nm for silane concentrations of 3.8, 7.2, and 14.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The pH-dependent zeta-potential results suggest a specific role of the silane groups with effects on the glass fiber surface and also on the PVA/PVAc microspheres. The non-silanized glass fiber surface and the silane film have similar zeta potentials ranging

  15. 耐盐型 AA/AMPS/PVA 吸水树脂研究%STUDY ON SALT-RESISTANT AA/AMPS/PVA POLYMER HYDROGEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽梅; 康雪

    2012-01-01

    针对高盐地层条件下的油井出水问题,以丙烯酸(AA),2-丙烯酰胺-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)为聚合单体,聚乙烯醇(PVA)为互穿剂,采用网络互穿技术合成耐盐型AA/AMPS/PVA吸水树脂.以吸水率为评价指标考察合成条件对树脂性能的影响.最佳工艺条件:w(单体)=25%,丙烯酸中和度85%,w(交联剂)=0.175%,w(引发剂)=0.15%,树脂在80℃时,2×104 mg/L NaCl溶液中膨胀倍率为21.77 g/g,在5×10 4mg/L CaCl2溶液中膨胀倍率为12.46 g/g.研究表明,树脂平衡溶胀时间为120 min,树脂形成了适度有效的交联网状结构,在过硫酸钾溶液中能够完全降解.%The AA/AMPS/PVA polymer hydrogel was synthesized by interpenetrating PVA into the polymer through solution polymerization. The reaction parameters were investigated using water ab-sorbency as the target. The optimal reaction conditions were found as follows: monomer concentration 25%, AA neutralization 85%, concentration of crosslinker 0. 175%, concentration of initiator 0. 15%. At 80 ℃ , the water absorbency of the hydrogel was 21. 77g/g in 2X 104 mg/L NaCl salt solution and 12. 46 g/g in 5×104 mg/L CaCl2 salt solution. The time of the gel need to reach equilibrium swelling was 120 min. SEM micrographs show that the gel formed an effective network. The degradation of the gel can proceed to completeness in KPS solution.

  16. Prrparation of PVA/PAA/GO trrnary compositr fibrr matrrials by rlrctrospinning%静电纺丝制备PVA/PAA/GO三元复合纤维材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮; 焦体峰; 侯彩丽; 赵欣娜; 赵瑞祥; 周靖欣

    2015-01-01

    采用静电纺丝技术成功制备聚乙烯醇( PVA)/聚丙烯酸( PAA)/氧化石墨烯( GO)三元复合纤维材料,分别采用扫描电子显微镜( SEM)、傅立叶转换红外光谱( FT-IR)等技术对复合纤维材料的形貌及组分进行了表征. 同时详细研究了制备过程中组分浓度、针头尺寸与加入量的最优条件. 结果表明,PVA的浓度在8%~9%范围内能够单独纺丝形成均匀的纤维结构,加入PAA/GO混合溶液后,控制适当粘度即可电纺成丝且热处理后形成的纤维由水溶性转变为非水溶. 本研究工作为静电纺丝复合纤维材料的设计与制备提供了有益的探索.%The ternary composite fiber materials using poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA),polyacrylic acid (PAA) and graphene oxide ( GO) have been prepared successfully by the electrospinning technique. The morphologies and components of the composite fiber materials have been characterized by scanning electron microscope ( SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FT-IR) , respectively.The preparation process is optimized including composition,needle size and addition amount.The results show that PVA with concentration of 8~9 wt.% range can be independently electrospun to yield uniform fiber structure.When mixed with the PAA/GO solution,the modest controls of viscosity favors to electrospin.The heat treatment made the fiber structures to change from water-soluble to insoluble structures.The present work would provide beneficial exploration for the design and preparation of composite fi-ber materials by the electrospinning technique.

  17. Fouling Resistant CA/PVA/TiO2 Imprinted Membranes for Selective Recognition and Separation Salicylic Acid from Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaopeng; Mi, Xueyang; He, Zhihui; Meng, Minjia; Li, Hongji; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highly selective cellulose acetate (CA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) imprinted membranes were synthesized by phase inversion and dip coating technique. The CA blend imprinted membrane was synthesized by phase inversion technique with CA as membrane matrix, polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the functional polymer, and the salicylic acid (SA) as the template molecule. The CA/PVA/TiO2 imprinted membranes were synthesized by dip coating of CA blend imprinted membrane in PVA and different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 wt %) of TiO2 nanoparticles aqueous solution. The SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of membrane was strongly influenced by the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Compared with CA/PVA-TiO2(0.05, 0.1, 0.2%)-MIM, the CA/PVA-TiO2(0.4%)-MIM possessed higher membrane flux, kinetic equilibrium adsorption amount, binding capacity and better selectivity for SA. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was studied to describe the kinetic of CA/PVA-TiO2(0.2%)-MIM judging by multiple regression analysis. Adsorption isotherm analysis indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity for SA were 24.43 mg g−1. Moreover, the selectivity coefficients of CA/PVA-TiO2 (0.2%)-MIM for SA relative to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB) and methyl salicylate (MS) were 3.87 and 3.55, respectively. PMID:28184369

  18. 同轴静电纺丝法制备PVA-胶原微纳米纤维%Preparation of PVA-collagen micro-nano fibers by coaxial electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓莉; 汤克勇; 郑学晶

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the PVA-collagen micro-nano fibers were prepared by coaxial electrospinning technique. The effects of collagen concentration and parameters of the coaxial electrospinning process on the morphology of PVA-collagen were investigated. Results show that the greater shell collagen concentration is, the more easily obtained beaded PVA-collagen micro-nano fibers;when the spinning voltage is 15~20 kV, the spinning distance is 15~20 cm, and the flow rate of shell collagen solution is 0. 1 mL/h, micro-nano fibers with relatively smooth surface can be obtained.%通过同轴静电纺丝技术,制备以胶原为壳层而PVA为核层的微纳米纤维,研究壳层胶原溶液的浓度和同轴静电纺丝工艺参数对PVA-胶原微纳米纤维形貌的影响.研究结果表明:壳层胶原溶液浓度越大,越容易获得串珠状PVA-胶原微纳米纤维;当纺丝电压为15~20 kV,纺丝距离为15~20 cm,壳层胶原溶液流速为0.1 mL/h时,可以获得表面相对光滑的微纳米纤维.

  19. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-07-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO.

  1. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Chetna, E-mail: ctyagi05@gmail.com; Sharma, Ambika, E-mail: ambikasharma2004@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Sciences ITM University, HUDA Sector-23 A, Gurgaon, 122017 (Haryana) INDIA (India)

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP’s) and PVA NC’s with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np’s, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP’s Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP’s.

  2. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. In-line measurement of water content in ethanol using a PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-16

    An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy.

  4. Fabrication of transparent quaternized PVA/silver nanocomposite hydrogel and its evaluation as an antimicrobial patch for wound care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Mohanty, Sujata; Koul, Veena

    2016-11-01

    Grafting of quaternary nitrogen atoms into the backbone of polymer is an efficient way of developing new generation antimicrobial polymeric wound dressing. In this study, an elastic, non-adhesive and antimicrobial transparent hydrogel based dressing has been designed, which might be helpful for routine observation of wound area without removing the dressing material along with maintaining a sterile environment for a longer period of time. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles have been loaded into the quaternized PVA hydrogel matrix to improve its antimicrobial property. Silver nanoparticles loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel showed enhanced mechanical and swelling properties compared to native quaternized PVA hydrogel. Release kinetics evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the release mechanism of silver nanoparticles from the hydrogel follows Fickian diffusion. Antimicrobial efficacy of the hydrogels was evaluated by disk diffusion test on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After 96 h of release in phosphate buffer, the growth inhibition zone created by silver nanoparticless loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel is comparable to that created by ampicillin. These observations assert that the silver nanoparticles loaded quaternized PVA hydrogel acts as a reservoir of silver nanoparticles, which helps in maintaining a sterile environment for longer time duration by releasing Ag nanocrystallite in sustained manner.

  5. Effect of gelatinization and additives on morphology and thermal behavior of corn starch/PVA blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuegang; Li, Jiwei; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-06

    The blend films of ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared with a solution casting method by the introduction of additives (glycerol/urea) or not. The phase morphologies and thermal behaviors of the blends were carefully analyzed. A droplet phase was observed in the blends containing ungelatinized starch and a laminated phase was observed in the blends containing gelatinized starch. For both ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/PVA blends, the melting temperature (T(m)) (210-230 °C) of PVA was detected, and the T(m) of gelatinized starch/PVA blends was higher than that of the ungelatinized starch/PVA blends. Blend films containing 16.8 wt% of glycerol or urea exhibited a decreased T(m). The introduction of additives (glycerol or urea) reduced the decomposition onset temperature of the blend films. These various morphologies and thermal behaviors could be attributed to the different hydrogen bonding interaction characteristics between starch and polyvinyl alcohol at different conditions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical Conductivity Study of Polymer Electrolyte Magnetic Nanocomposite Based Poly(Vinyl) Alcohol (PVA) Doping Lithium and Nickel Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Rahmawati, Silvia, Bijaksana, Satria; Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2010-10-01

    Composite polymer electrolyte magnetic systems composed of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as the host polymer, lithium and nickel salt as dopant were studied. The effect upon addition of lithium ions in polimer PVA had been enhanced conductivity with the increase of lithium concentration. The conductivity values were 1.19x10-6, 1.25x10-5, 4.89x-5, 1.88x10-4, and 1.33x10-3 Sṡcm-1 for pure PVA and 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% LiOH complexed PVA, respectively. Meanwhile, the addition nickel salt into polymer electrolyte PVA-LiOH does not significantly change of conductivity value, on order 10-3 Sṡcm-1. The ionic transport is dominantly regarded by Li+ ions present in polymer electrolyte magnetic because the atomic mass Li+ is smaller than Ni2+. The absence of external magnetic field in polimer electrolyte magnetic causes the existence Ni2+ ions not significantly affected of conductivity.

  7. Advancement in Microstructural, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of PVA (Mowiol 10-98 Doped by ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Rithin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the preparation of PVA nanocomposites by doping with zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles using the method of coagulation and solvent casting technique. The dopant zinc oxide nanoparticle is prepared by simple precipitation method and is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD studies. The XRD studies explore that the average particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles is 55 nm and show that the crystallinity factor of PVA nanocomposites is influenced by the interaction occurring between the PVA main chain and the ZnO nanoparticle. The FTIR spectroscopy suggests that the formulation of complexes occurring between the dopants and the PVA main chain is due to inter or intra molecular hydrogen bonding. UV-vis spectra explore the dramatic decrease in the optical energy gap of nanoparticles doped polymer composites and the variations of Urbach energy (Eu related to crystallinity for various dopant concentrations. The mechanical properties of the PVA nanocomposites were explored using universal testing machine (UTM that reflects that, for x=15% doping concentration, there is an increase in the tensile strength, stiffness, and Young’s modulus, whereas, for x=7.5% concentration, the percentage total elongation at fracture is found to be the maximum. The morphological behavior and homogenous nanoparticle distribution in the composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX.

  8. PVA-Fe(Ⅲ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Cd(Ⅱ)、Hg(Ⅱ)配合物的合成、表征及抗菌性能%Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-bacterial Activity of PVA-Fe(Ⅲ), Zn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), Hg(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴之传; 张宇东; 陈培根; 周凯; 陶庭先

    2008-01-01

    以聚乙烯醇(PVA)为高分子配体,与金属离子在溶液中进行配位反应,合成了PVA-Fe(Ⅲ)、PVA-Zn(Ⅱ)、PVA-Cd(Ⅱ)、PVA-Hg(Ⅱ)配合物.通过IR、Raman和XPS测试技术对配合物进行表征.IR结果显示,各配合物νc-o从纯PVA的1094cm-1向低波数方向移动8~11cm-1,νc-c由纯PVA的1430cm-1向低波数方向移动3~8cm-1;Raman显示,PVA-re(Ⅲ)、PVA-Zn(Ⅱ)、PVA-Cd(Ⅱ)、PVA-Hg(Ⅱ)配合物均在200~400cm-1处出现金属-氧键新峰;PVA-Fe(Ⅲ)的XPS显示O1s(533.0ev)、C1s(285.0eV)、Fe2p(712.0eV)的结合能与PVA[O1s(532.5eV)、C1s(284.6eV)]及FeCl3[Fe2p(711.2eV)]比较,发生了显著变化.以上结果表明,PVA分子侧链上的羟基氧提供孤对电子对与金属离子的空轨道形成配位键.配合物的抗菌实验结果显示,PVA-Hg(Ⅱ)对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌具有很强的灭菌效果,PVA-Zn(Ⅱ)的灭菌效果较弱.

  9. Electrophoretic co-deposition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced alginate–Bioglass® composite coating on stainless steel: Mechanical properties and in-vitro bioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-07-01

    PVA reinforced alginate–bioactive glass (BG) composite coatings were produced on stainless steel by a single step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The present paper discusses the co-deposition mechanism of the three components and presents a summary of the relevant properties of the composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different PVA concentrations. Homogeneous composite coatings with compact microstructure and increased thickness, i.e. as high as 10 μm, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface roughness of coatings with different PVA contents was slightly increased, while a significant increase of water contact angles due to PVA addition was detected and discussed. Improved adhesion strength of coatings containing different amounts of PVA was quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed by pull-off adhesion and cycled bending tests, respectively. In-vitro bioactivity tests were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. The decomposition rate of the coatings was reduced with PVA content, and rapid hydroxyapatite forming ability of the composite coatings in SBF was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. According to the results of this study, composite alginate–Bioglass® bioactive coatings combined with PVA are proposed as promising candidates for dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • PVA reinforced alginate–bioactive glass composite coating on stainless steel produced by EPD • The co-deposition mechanism was experimentally confirmed. • Homogeneous and compact coating microstructure obtained by the addition of PVA • Improved adhesion strength of PVA reinforced coatings confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively • Controlled degradation rate and rapid HA forming ability of PVA-containing coatings in SBF.

  10. 聚乙烯醇降解菌剂的制备及处理废水研究%THE CONSTRUCTION OF PVA -DEGRADING MICROORGANISM AGENT AND THE TREATMENT OF PVA WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝琼

    2012-01-01

    High-efficiency microbes which can degrade intermediate products of PVA were screened and mixed with high-efficiency PVA-degrading strains according to a fixed ratio to construct PVA-degrading microorganism agent. Aid agent was added based on nutritional requirements. Orthogonal experiment was used to optimize treatment conditions of the microorganism agent. The start-up time, stability of operation, the influence of PVA concentration on the PVA removing rates, hydraulic retention time (HRT) were discussed. The results reveal that the proper ratios of the microorganism agent are as follows: V(P-2):V{B}+B2}:V(S-1):V(T-4)=3.0:1.0:2.0:1.0; the proper ratios of the aid agents are that m(yeast water):m(NH4NO3):m(PQQ)=l.0:0.4:0.01. Compared with activated sludge, it is featured by a short start-up time (3 d), higher PVA removal rate (40%). Constantly operating 6 months, PVA removal rates keep above 80%, PVA ase activity keep above 2 U/mL. The PVA permissible load was 2 000 mg/L, 1 200 mg/L higher that of activated sludge system. The proper treat conditions are that temperature (35℃), the concentration of aid agent (1 g/L), pH(7), dissolved oxygen (3 mg/L). When the PVA concentration is lower than 1 000 mg/L, the proper HRT is 18 h, while when the PVA concentration is 1 000~2 000 mg/L, the proper HRT is 36 h.%筛选聚乙烯醇( PVA)降解中间产物的高效降解菌,与PVA降解菌制成复合微生物菌制,根据营养需求加入助剂,用正交试验法优化菌剂的处理条件,并对菌剂系统的启动情况、运行稳定性、PVA含量对系统处理效率的影响、适宜的HRT进行探讨.结果表明,优化的菌剂中红球菌P-2、共生菌B1+B2,羟基酮降解菌S-1和β-双酮降解菌T-4的体积比为3∶1∶2 ∶1、助剂配比为m(酵母汁)∶m(NH4NO3)∶m(吡咯喹啉醌)=1.0∶0.4∶0.01;菌剂系统与活性污泥相比,启动时间少3d,PVA降解率高约40个百分点;系统更稳定,连续运行6月,PVA降解率

  11. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  12. Magnetic properties study of iron-oxide nanoparticles/PVA ferrogels with potential biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zelis, P., E-mail: pmendoza@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CONICET and Departamento de Fisica (Argentina); Muraca, D., E-mail: dmuraca@ifi.unicamp.br [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda (Brazil); Gonzalez, J. S. [CoMP-INTEMA-CONICET and Universidad de Mar del Plata (Argentina); Pasquevich, G. A. [IFLP-CONICET and Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Alvarez, V. A. [CoMP-INTEMA-CONICET and Universidad de Mar del Plata (Argentina); Pirota, K. R. [Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda (Brazil); Sanchez, F. H. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CONICET and Departamento de Fisica (Argentina)

    2013-05-15

    A study of the magnetic behavior of maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer matrices prepared by physical cross-linking is reported. The magnetic nanocomposites (ferrogels) were obtained by the in situ co-precipitation of iron salts in the presence of PVA polymer, and subsequently subjected to freezing-thawing cycles. The magnetic behavior of these ferrogels was compared with that of similar systems synthesized using the glutaraldehyde. This type of chemical cross-linking agents presents several disadvantages due to the presence of residual toxic molecules in the gel, which are undesirable for biological applications. Characteristic particle size determined by several techniques are in the range 7.9-9.3 nm. The iron oxidation state in the NPs was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Moessbauer measurements showed that the NP magnetic moments present collective magnetic excitations and superparamagnetic relaxations. The blocking and irreversibility temperatures of the NPs in the ferrogels, and the magnetic anisotropy constant, were obtained from magnetic measurements. An empirical model including two magnetic contributions (large NPs slightly departed from thermodynamic equilibrium below 200 K, and small NPs at thermodynamic equilibrium) was used to fit the experimental magnetization curves. A deviation from the superparamagnetic regime was observed. This deviation was explained on the basis of an interacting superparamagnetic model. From this model, relevant magnetic and structural properties were obtained, such as the magnitude order of the dipolar interaction energy, the NPs magnetic moment, and the number of NPs per ferrogel mass unit. This study contributes to the understanding of the basic physics of a new class of materials that could emerge from the PVA-based magnetic ferrogels.

  13. Studies on Mechanical Properties of Full-Biodegradable Starch-PVA-Polyester Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A kind of full-biodegradable film material is discussed in this article. The film material is composed of starch, PVA, degradable polyesters(PHB, PHB-V, PCL) with built plasticizer, a cross-linking reinforcing agent and a wet strengthening agent. It contains a high percentage of starch, costs cheap and is excellent in weather fastness, temperature resistance and waterproof and it could be completely biodegraded. The present paper deals mainly with a new technical route using a new type of electromagnetic dynamic blow molding extruder and some effects on mechanical properties of the system.

  14. PVA浆料的退除工艺%Desizing process of PVA size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友波

    2006-01-01

    分析PVA(聚乙烯醇)的结构和主要性能,织造厂常用的PVA浆料的规格,以及常用涤棉织物的退浆工艺.基于生产实践,针对涤棉织物退浆时难以去除PVA浆料的问题,提出了清水退浆工艺,以利于PVA的回收利用和印染厂的清洁生产.

  15. Radiolytic synthesis and characterization of PVA and chitosan based conductive polymer membranes for alkaline fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoševski Ivan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and chitosan (CS based polymer membranes for alkaline fuel cells were synthesized by gamma irradiation method. They were swollen with 6 M KOH solution and their ionic conductivity and gas permeance were investigated as a function of temperature. They show high ionic conductivities at room temperature, which wasn't reduced over a period of few months. No gas flow through membranes was detected at any temperature and pressure. These properties show that the membranes could be potentially applied in alkaline fuel cells.

  16. Morphological and photocatalytic properties of PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite fibers produced by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rodrigo G F; Ribeiro, Caue; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2010-08-01

    In this study, PVA/TiO2 anatase nanocomposite fibers were prepared successfully by electrospinning. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, EDS, TEM and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The characterization showed that the average diameters obtained are dependent of the total loading used. The TiO2 loading showed to be effective in the nanocomposite, changing the UV absorbance but significantly accelerating the degradation of the polymer. This aspect may be useful in order to improve the biodegradability of this polymer by reducing chain lengths.

  17. PVA-Based Proton Conductors and Zn+ZnSO_4· 7H_2O/PVA-NH_4NO_3-H_3PO_4/MnO_2 Electrochemical Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Z.Kufian; S.R.Majid; A.K.Arof

    2007-01-01

    1 Results PVA - based proton conductors were prepared by the solution cast technique.The system 80 wt.% PVA - 20 wt.% NH4NO3 exhibited a maximum room temperature conductivity of 8.29×10-7 S·cm-1.The addition of 40 wt.% propylene carbonate (PC) increased the conductivity to 6.83×10-5 S·cm-1.With addition of 50 wt.% EC the conductivity was observed to increase to 1.19×10-5 S·cm-1.These results infer that PC and EC are equally strong in enhancing the conductivity.The maximum room temperature conductivity ...

  18. CS/PVA-GA渗透蒸发膜分离偏二甲肼/水体系的实验研究%The experimental study of the CS/PVA-GA pervaporation membrane in UDMH/H2O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有智; 朱建伟; 曹佳玉; 王煊军

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) was blended with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) by a certain percentage, and then was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (GA). The CS/PVA-GA mixed associated membrane was prepared. Mixed associated membrane structure,mechanical properties as well as pervaporation performance in UD- MH/H20 system were studied. The results showed that the blending of CS and PVA and GA cross-linked form a dense spatial network structure. With the PVA content increasing, the tensile strength of the membrane was decreased,while the rupturing and extending rate was increased. The feed concentration,temperature , film thickness and other factors have great impact on the membrane pervaporation performance. When UDMH of the feed solution mass fraction reaches 50% , temperature is 20℃, the permeate side pressure is 100 Pa and film thickness is about 25 μm,the CS/PVA-GA membrane separation factor reaches 243,the permeate flux, can be of 167 g/(m2 · h).%将壳聚糖(CS)和聚乙烯醇(PVA)按一定比例共混,再以戊二醛(GA)交联,制备CS/PVA-GA共混交联膜,研究了共混交联膜的结构、力学性能以及在偏二甲肼/水体系中的渗透蒸发脱水性能.结果表明,CS与PVA共混、GA交联,形成了致密的空间网状结构,随PVA含量增加,膜的抗张强度降低,而断裂伸长率增加.料液浓度、温度、膜厚度等因素对膜的渗透蒸发性能有较大影响,当料液中偏二甲肼的质量分数为50%,温度为20℃,渗透侧压力为100 Pa,膜厚约为25μm时,CS/PVA-GA共混交联膜的分离因子达到243,渗透通量可达167g/(m2·h).

  19. Characterization and DC Conductivity of Novel CuO doped Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA Nano-composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula Srikanth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DC conductivity of PVA-CuO nano-composite films have been studied in the present work. The composites were prepared by solution-casting technique. The prepared PVA-CuO composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS; which confirmed the presence of CuO in polyvinyl alcohol and the formation of the composite. DC conductivity studies show thermally activated behavior of all the composites. The conductivity was found to increase with the increase in temperature indicating the semiconducting behavior of all the compositions. The activation energy increases as the content of CuO nanoparticles increases from 1 to 4 in wt% in the PVA- CuO nano-composites. Maximum conductivity was observed in 4 wt% of CuO in polyvinyl alcohol.

  20. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PVA + ionic liquid [BDMIM][BF4]-based polymeric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, A. L.; Chaurasia, S. K.; Kataria, Shalu; Singh, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM][BF4], on crystallization behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been studied by isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The PVA + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared using solution casting technique. To describe the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, several kinetic equations have been employed on PVA + IL based films. There is strong dependence of the peak crystallization temperature (Tc), relative degree of crystallity (Xt), half-time of crystallization (t1/2), crystallization rate constants (Avrami Kt and Tobin AT), and Avrami (n) and Tobin (nT) exponents on the cooling rate and IL loading.

  1. Preparation and photochromic properties of ultra-fine H3PW11MoO40/PVA fibre mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Cheng; Gong, Jian; Pan, Yan; Cui, Xiu-Jun; Shao, Chang-Lu; Guo, Yi-Hang; Wen, Shang-Bin; Qu, Lun-Yu

    2004-07-01

    Novel photochromic materials, H3PW11MoO40/Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) ultra-fine fibre mats containing different weight percentages of H3PW11MoO40, have been prepared from different H3PW11MoO40/PVA solutions by an electrospinning technique. IR spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope spectroscopy are used to characterize the fibre mats. Results of viscosity and conductivity measurements of the solutions indicate that lower viscosity and higher conductivity favour the formation of thin fibres without beads. When irradiated with ultraviolet light (313.2 nm), the colour of the fibre mats changes from white to blue, and the mats show reversible photochromism. IR and ESR spectra of the irradiated fibre mats indicate a conceivable photochromic mechanism, i.e. MoVI is reduced under ultraviolet irradiation. Meanwhile, PVA is oxidized to unsaturated ketone or aldehyde.

  2. Uniaxial Drawing of Graphene-PVA Nanocomposites: Improvement in Mechanical Characteristics via Strain-Induced Exfoliation of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Akram, Muhammad Aftab; Zia, Tanveer-ul-Haq; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNS) of lateral dimension ( L) ~1 μm are obtained via liquid phase exfoliation technique to prepare its composites in the PVA matrix. These composites show low levels of reinforcements due to poor alignment of GNS within the matrix as predicted by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Drawing these composites up to 200 % strain, a significant improvement in mechanical properties is observed. Maximum values for Young's modulus and strength are ~×4 and ~×2 higher respectively than that of neat PVA. Moreover, the rate of increase of the modulus with GNS volume fraction is up to 700 GPa, higher than the values predicted using the Halpin-Tsai theory. However, alignment along with strain-induced de-aggregation of GNS within composites accounts well for the obtained results as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization.

  3. Analysis of spatial diffusion of ferric ions in PVA-GTA gel dosimeters through magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrale, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Gruppo V Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); ATeN Center, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collura, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Gruppo V Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gallo, Salvatore, E-mail: salvatore.gallo05@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Gruppo V Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Milano, Via Giovanni Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nici, Stefania [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Tranchina, Luigi [ATeN Center, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Abbate, Boris Federico [U.O.C. Fisica Sanitaria, A.R.N.A.S., Ospedale Civico Palermo, Piazza Nicola Leotta 4, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Marineo, Sandra; Caracappa, Santo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZS), Via Gino Marinuzzi, 3, 90129 Palermo (Italy); and others

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of ferric ions diffusion throughout the gel matrix in PVA-GTA samples. • Measurements with preclinical 7T MRI scanner with spatial resolution of 200 μm. • Diffusion process is much slower for PVA-GTA gels than for agarose ones. - Abstract: This work focused on the analysis of the temporal diffusion of ferric ions through PVA-GTA gel dosimeters. PVA-GTA gel samples, partly exposed with 6 MV X-rays in order to create an initial steep gradient, were mapped using magnetic resonance imaging on a 7T MRI scanner for small animals. Multiple images of the gels were acquired over several hours after irradiation and were analyzed to quantitatively extract the signal profile. The spatial resolution achieved is 200 μm and this makes this technique particularly suitable for the analysis of steep gradients of ferric ion concentration. The results obtained with PVA-GTA gels were compared with those achieved with agarose gels, which is a standard dosimetric gel formulation. The analysis showed that the diffusion process is much slower (more than five times) for PVA-GTA gels than for agarose ones. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the diffusion coefficient value obtained through MRI analysis is significantly consistent with that obtained in separate study Marini et al. (Submitted for publication) using a totally independent method such as spectrophotometry. This is a valuable result highlighting that the good dosimetric features of this gel matrix not only can be reproduced but also can be measured through independent experimental techniques based on different physical principles.

  4. Development of a complex hydrogel of hyaluronan and PVA embedded with silver nanoparticles and its facile studies on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Juan; Kang, Ding; Zhang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogels composed of hyaluronan (HA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silver nanoparticles were prepared by several cycles of freezing and thawing. The nanocomposite was then characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The complex hydrogels consisted of semi-interpenetrating network structures, with PVA microcrystallines as junction zones. By increasing the HA content, the crystallinity and melting temperature of the complex hydrogels decreased, whereas the glass transition temperatures of these materials increased because of the steric hindrance of HA and the occurrence of intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonding between HA and PVA in the complex hydrogels. Swelling studies showed that in comparison with the swelling properties of the cryogels from PVA alone, those of the complex hydrogels can be significantly improved and presented in a pH-sensitive manner. In addition, silver nanoparticles were synthesised through UV-initiated photoreduction with HA functioning as a reducing agent and stabiliser. The silver nanoparticles were then incorporated in situ into the HA/PVA complex hydrogel matrix. The size and morphology of the as-prepared Ag nanoparticles were investigated through ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results indicated that silver nanoparticles 20-50 nm in size were uniformly dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The antibacterial effects of the HA/PVA/Ag nanocomposite hydrogel against Escherichia coli were evaluated. The results show that this nanocomposite hydrogel possesses high antibacterial property and has a potential application as a wound dressing material.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PVA.cl.CITRIC ACID/CHITOSAN MEMBRANE HYDROPHICILITY ON THE TRANSPORT OF CREATININE AND UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Ariadi Lusiana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cross-linking and membrane hydrophilicity on the transport rate had been studied using a membrane prepared from a mixture of chitosan/PVA cross-linked citric acid (PVA.cl.CA for creatinine and urea transport. The optimum mole ratio of PVA:citric acid as well as the best composition of chitosan:PVA.cl.CA were determined using creatinine transport study. Using the optimum compositions, further study was done using different thickness of the membrane in transporting creatinine, urea and a mixture of 3 species (creatinine, urea and vitamin B12. Membrane characterization was done using FT-IR spectrophotometer, water absorption test, TG/DTG and SEM. The results showed that the optimum composition PVA:citric acid was obtained to be 90:1, having % WU of 113.74% and creatinine transport percentage of 18.16%. Meanwhile, the optimum composition of chitosan:PVA.cl.CA was found at 4:6 ratio having % WU and % transport of 136.67% and 24.26%, respectively. The optimum transport capacity was found for membrane thickness of 50 µm with WU% at 139.61% and the percent transport of creatinine and urea each was 38.93% and 60.36%. The presence vitamin B12 in the solution of is proved to disturb the transport of creatinine and urea through the membrane. Finally, hydrophilicity seemed to give substantial contribution in the transport process as well as the mechanical strength of the membrane.

  6. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules.

  7. Characterization and DC Conductivity of Novel CuO doped Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Nano-composite Films

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    DC conductivity of PVA-CuO nano-composite films have been studied in the present work. The composites were prepared by solution-casting technique. The prepared PVA-CuO composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS); which confirmed the presence of CuO in polyvinyl alcohol and the formation of the composite. DC conductivity studies show th...

  8. Biomimetic apatite-coated porous PVA scaffolds promote the growth of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Mao; Mohanty, Pravansu; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

    2014-11-01

    Recapitulating the native environment of bone tissue is essential to develop in vitro models of breast cancer bone metastasis. The bone is a composite material consisting of organic matrix and inorganic mineral phase, primarily hydroxyapatite. In this study, we report the mineralization of porous poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds upon incubation in modified Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) for 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the deposited minerals have composition similar to hydroxyapatite. The study demonstrated that the rate of nucleation and growth of minerals was faster on surfaces of less porous scaffolds. However, upon prolonged incubation, formation of mineral layer was observed on the surface of all the scaffolds. In addition, the study also demonstrated that 3D mineralization only occurred for scaffolds with highly interconnected porous networks. The mineralization of the scaffolds promoted the adsorption of serum proteins and consequently, the adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Porous PVA scaffolds fabricated via mechanical agitation followed by freeze-drying. • Mineralization of the scaffold was carried out by utilizing biomimetic approach. • Mineralization resulted in increased protein adsorption on the scaffold. • Increased breast cancer cell growth was observed on mineralized scaffolds.

  9. Preparation, Structural and Dielectric Properties of Solution Grown Polyvinyl Alcohol(PVA) Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Rakhi; Shukla, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Ambika

    2017-08-01

    Flexible dielectrics with high permittivity have been investigated extensively due to their applications in electronic industry. In this work, structural and electrical characteristics of polymer based film have been analysed. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) film was prepared by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization technique is used to investigate the structural properties. The semi-crystalline nature has been determined by the analysis of the obtained XRD pattern. Electrical properties of the synthesized film have been analysed from the C-V and I-V curves obtained at various frequencies and temperatures. Low conductivity values confirm the insulating behaviour of the film. However, it is found that conductivity increases with temperature. Also, the dielectric permittivity is found to be higher at lower frequencies and higher temperatures, that proves PVA to be an excellent dielectric material which can be used in interface electronics. Dielectric behaviour of the film has been explained based on dipole orientations to slow and fast varying electric field. However further engineering can be done to modulate the structural, electrical properties of the film.

  10. Thiazole yellow G dyed PVA films for optoelectronics: microstructrural, thermal and photophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Vidyashree; Bhajantri, R. F.; Naik, Jagadish; Rathod, Sunil G.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the microstructural, optical and fluorescence properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Thiazole Yellow G (TY) dye composite prepared by solvent casting. The formation of change-transfer complex as a result of the interaction between the dye molecules and polymer chain is confirmed in FTIR, FT-Raman, XRD and DSC studies. SEM studies present the morphology of the samples. The UV-visible absorption spectra possess characteristic peaks of the TY dye corresponding to n-π* transition along with a characteristic peak of PVA. The composites exhibit the decreasing energy gap and increasing refractive index with an increase in wt.% of the TY dye. The fluorescence-quenching phenomena are observed in emission wavelength range of 391-406 nm upon excitation in the vicinity of absorption maxima (335 nm) with the quantum yield of 0.72 for lowest concentration of dye. The prepared composites bear high brightness, and improved thermal stability, which make them a promising material for sensors and optoelectronic applications.

  11. Preparation of silver-hydroyapatite/PVA nanocomposites: Giant dielectric material for industrial and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Middya, T. R.; Chaudhuri, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    Pure hydroxyappatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (or HAP) was prepared from eggshell and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) by a simple self-chemical reaction method. The clean eggshell was heated at 800 °C in air giving the source of CaO. Appropriate amount of CaO was dissolved in KH2PO4 solution at 37°C for few days. The PH value decreases with increasing the duration of preparation of HAP. Silver nanoparticles derived from silver nitrate solution using black tea leaf extract had been introduced to hydroxyapatite due to its biocompatibility. The unique size- dependent properties of nanomaterials make them superior and indispensable. In this work, hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites with 4 different concentrations of hydroxyapatite (1-4 wt %) were prepared by bio-reduction method. Several techniques like XRD and SEM were used to characterize the prepared samples. Frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of the samples were measured using an impedance analyzer. The results showed a remarkable increase in dielectric permittivity (~5117) with low loss (~0.23) at1000 HZ and room temperature (300K) for 4wt% Hydroxapatie-Silver/PVA nanocomposite. Such nanocomposite might be directly applied in manufacturing clinical devices and also for embedding capacitor applications.

  12. Improvement of a Si solar cell efficiency using pure and Fe3+ doped PVA films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, N.; Kaouach, H.; Chtourou, R.

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important key driving the economic viability of solar cells is the high efficiency. This research focuses on the enhancement of commercial Si solar cell performance by deposing a pure and Fe3+ doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer on the top of the Si wafer of the considered cells. The use of such polymer to improve solar cells efficiency is actually a first. The authors will rely on the optical characteristics of the pure and doped PVA films including absorption and emission properties to justify the effect on Si cells. Commercial monocrystalline silicon solar cells of 15 cm2 (0.49 V/460 mA) are used in this work. Films of almost 80 μm of the ferric polymer are deposed on the cells. Films with the same thickness are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescent emission of the films is then investigated. The electrical properties of the cells with and without the organometallic layer are evaluated. It will be deduced an important improvement of all electrical parameters, including short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and spatially the conversion efficiency by almost 3%.

  13. Water-dispersible PVA-based dry microballoons with potential for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetkov, George, E-mail: nhgtz@wmail.chem.uni-sofia.bg [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Paradossi, Gaio; Tortora, Mariarosaria [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica and CNR-INFM-SOFT, 00133 Roma (Italy); Fernandes, Paulo [Physikalische Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam (Germany); Fery, Andreas [Physikalische Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Graf-Zeiler, Birgit [Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Fink, Rainer H. [Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-04-06

    This paper reports on the preparation and characterization of stable poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based dry hollow microparticles, readily convertible to gas-filled microballoons (MBs) in water suspension. The rehydrated MBs can be used as ultrasound contrast agents and for targeted drug delivery, while the dry MBs are suitable for encapsulation of biologically active gases. The MBs powder material is obtained by freeze-drying the as-prepared telechelic PVA-shelled MBs aqueous dispersion. The microstructure of the lyophilized MBs as well as of the starting and the reconstituted MBs in water suspension was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). STXM observations below and above the oxygen K-edge reveal that 80% of the MBs originating from the lyophilized particles are gas-filled. Moreover, local carbon K near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measurements evidenced that the chemical composition of the polymeric shell is preserved during the freeze-drying process and subsequent shelf storage for at least more than one year.

  14. A study on Fricke-PVA-xylenol orange hydrogel dosimeter for E-beam radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Fangqi; YANG Liming; CHEN Jie; LIN Han; FAN Jinchen; RONG Liang; LUO Wenyun; ZHA Yuanzi; WU Guohua

    2009-01-01

    A Fricke-PVA-xylenol orange (FPX) hydrogel dosimeter, in good transparency, was prepared by physical crosslinking for three-dimensional dose measurements. The process of mixing the chemical dosimeter with the PVA solution was carried out at room temperature, which reduced the influence of auto-oxidation rate. Gradation in color was obviously observed with different distance from the radiation source after 6 MeV electron beam irradiation for radiotherapy. The effects of irradiation dose and three components of the FPX gel dosimeter, i.e. ferrous ions, xylenol orange (XO) and sulphuric acid on sensitivity and stability of dose response were investigated by UV-vis spectropho-tometric measurement. The dose response of the FPX gel dosimeter was linear in the range 0~2.0 Gy. The orthogonal test was employed to find the optimal composition of the gel dosimeter with a sensitivity of about 0.095 cm-1·Gy-1. It was found that XO concentration greatly affected the sensitivity of dose response and lower concentrations of the fer-rous ion and XO gave higher sensitivity within the range 0~2.0 Gy.

  15. Morphological comparison of PVA scaffolds obtained by gas foaming and microfluidic foaming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, Cristina; Costantini, Marco; Barbetta, Andrea; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella; Dentini, Mariella

    2013-01-08

    In this article, we have exploited a microfluidic foaming technique for the generation of highly monodisperse gas-in-liquid bubbles as a templating system for scaffolds characterized by an ordered and homogeneous porous texture. An aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution (containing a surfactant) and a gas (argon) are injected simultaneously at constant flow rates in a flow-focusing device (FFD), in which the gas thread breaks up to form monodisperse bubbles. Immediately after its formation, the foam is collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In order to highlight the superior morphological quality of the obtained porous material, a comparison between this scaffold and another one, also constituted of PVA but obtained with a traditional gas foaming technique, was carried out. Such a comparison has been conducted by analyzing electron microscopy and X-ray microtomographic images of the two samples. It turned out that the microfluidic produced scaffold was characterized by much more uniform porous texture than the gas-foaming one as witnessed by narrower pore size, interconnection, and wall thickness distributions. On the other side, scarce pore interconnectivity, relatively low pore volume, and limited production rate represent, by now, the principal disadvantages of microfluidic foaming as scaffold fabrication method, emphasizing the kind of improvement that this technique needs to undergo.

  16. A novel fixed-bed reactor design incorporating an electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Beni, Ali Aghababai

    2014-09-15

    In this research, a novel fixed-bed reactor was designed with a nanofiber membrane composed of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan nanofiber blend prepared using an electrospinning technique. The applied voltage, tip-collector distance, and solution flow rate of the electrospinning process were 18 kV, 14.5 cm, and 0.5 mL h(-1), respectively. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize and analyze the nanofiber membranes. Homogeneous electrospun nanofibers with an average diameter of 99.47 nm and surface area of 214.12 m(2)g(-1) were obtained. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system to investigate the effect of different adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimal pH of 6, were analyzed by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. Three isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) were applied to describe the equilibrium data of the metal ions adsorbed onto the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical and structural changes of TiO2/PVA nanocomposite induced laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehap, A. M.; Elsayed, Khaled. A.; Akil, Dana S.

    2017-02-01

    The laser irradiation effect of on the structural and optical properties of TiO2/PVA nanocomposite at different loading of TiO2 nanoparticles as (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% TiO2 /PVA) was investigated. Two different types of laser sources were used Nd: YAG laser (at 266 nm) and Nitrogen laser at (337 nm). The XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible are used to reveal the structural changes and the optical parameters of the composites due to the laser irradiation. Changes of the crystalinity of the composites films were observed by XRD, where the Nd: YAG laser developed a decrease in the crystalinity of all the investigated samples, while the Nitrogen laser developed an increase of the crystalinity. IR spectroscopy showed strong reduction of -OH group as a result of both lasers. It also shows an increase in the intensity of the vibration modes at 1720 cm-1 corresponding to carbonyl formation due to the effect of Nd: YAG laser irradiation only. The intensity of the C-C bond increases after Nitrogen laser irradiation indicating the increase of crystalinity of the composites films. UV-Vis spectra indicates the photothermal effect of Nitrogen laser and the photochemical effect of Nd: YAG laser. The optical constant of the all composites samples have been calculated before and after irradiation with both two types of laser sources which coincide with the results obtained from XRD and IR studies.

  18. Ibuprofen loaded PVA/chitosan membranes: A highly efficient strategy towards an improved skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Patrícia I; Miguel, Sónia P; Correia, Ilídio J; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana

    2017-03-01

    During wound healing, an early inflammation can cause an increase of the wound size and the healing process can be considerably belated if a disproportionate inflammatory response occurs. (S)-ibuprofen (IBP), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been used for muscle healing and to treat venous leg ulcers, but its effect in skin wound healing has not been thoroughly studied thus far. Herein, IBP-β-cyclodextrins carriers were designed to customise the release profile of IBP from poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/CS) dressings in order to promote a faster skin regeneration. The dressings were produced using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)-assisted technique. In vitro IBP release studies showed that β-cyclodextrins allowed a controlled drug release from the hydrogels which is crucial for their application in wound management. Moreover, the in vivo assays revealed that the presence of PVA/CS membranes containing IBP-β-cyclodextrins carriers avoided scab formation and an excessive inflammation, enabling an earlier skin healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical, electrical, thermal properties of cadmium chloride doped PVA – PVP blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraker, Basavarajeshwari M.; Hammannavar, Preeti B.; Lobo, Blaise, E-mail: blaise.lobo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Karnatak Science College, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Films of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) – polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend doped with Cadmium Chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) in the doping range 1 wt% to 40 wt% were prepared by solution casting technique. These films were characterized using optical/UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC electrical measurements. The UV-Visible spectra were quantitatively analyzed to yield the optical parameters. The UV-Visible Spectra show intermediate absorption bands (before the final absorption edge) due to formation of energy bands in the forbidden gap of PVA-PVP. There is a prominent absorption band at 2.9 eV, from 0.5 wt% up to 1.8 wt% doping level (DL) caused by the dopant (CdCl{sub 2}). The DC electrical studies showed an increase in activation energy from 2.8 eV at 0.5 wt% DL up to 3.5 eV at 4.4 wt% DL, reaching a low of 2.4 eV at 11.2 wt% DL. DSC scans show evidence of formation of chain fragments, at doping levels beyond 8 wt%.

  20. Facile synthesis of boehmite/PVA composite membrane with enhanced adsorption performance towards Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jiabin; Li, Yuanzhi

    2016-11-15

    A novel boehmite/PVA composite membrane (BPCM) with remarkably enhanced adsorption performance towards Cr(VI) was successfully synthesized from Al(NO3)3·9H2O using HAc as the peptizing agent via a facile sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the BPCM, the boehmite powder (BP) without PVA and a commercial boehmite powder (CBP) were comparatively characterized by XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and XPS. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption performance of the BPCM is much better than those of BP and CBP. Its adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and its equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherm well with a maximum adsorption capacity of 36.41mgg(-1). Its interference adsorption experiment in presence of coexisting anions showed that SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-) have greater effect than those of the Cl(-), F(-), C2O4(2-) and HCO3(-). A three step action mechanism including adsorption of Cr(VI) anions, complexation between Cr(VI) anions and the functional groups on the surface of BPCM, and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was proposed to illustrate the adsorption process. This efficient film could be easily separated after adsorption, exhibiting great potential for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution, and other fields of environmental remediation.

  1. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Nader; Gaballah, Soha; Samir, Effat; Hamed, Aya; Saad, Marwa

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  2. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation in p-type PVA/CuI polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Makled

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available PVA/CuI polymer composite samples have been prepared and subjected to characterizations using FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC analysis, ac spectroscopy and dc conduction. The FT-IR spectral analysis shows remarkable variation of the absorption peak positions whereas DSC illustrates a little decrease of both glass transition temperature, Tg, and crystallization fraction, χ, with increasing CuI concentration. An increase of dc conductivity for PVA/CuI nano composite by increasing CuI concentration is recoded up to 15 wt%, besides it obeys Arhenuis plot with an activation energy in the range 0.54–1.32 eV. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity showed power law with an exponent 0.33 < s < 0.69 which predicts hopping conduction mechanism. The frequency dependence of both dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss obeys Debye dispersion relations in wide range of temperatures and frequency. Significant values of dipole relaxation time obtained which are thermally activated with activation energies in the range 0.33–0.87 eV. A significant value of hopping distance in the range 3.4–1.2 nm is estimated in agreement with the value of Bohr radius of the exciton.

  3. Electrical properties of irradiated PVA film by using ion/electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Osman, M.; Hashhash, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ion/electron beam bombardment has shown great potential for improving the surface properties of polymers. Low-energy charged (ion/electron) beam irradiation of polymers is a good technique to modify properties such as electrical conductivity, structural behavior, and their mechanical properties. This paper reports on the effect of nitrogen and electron beam irradiation on the electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. PVA films of 4 mm were exposed to a charged (ion/electron) beam for different treatment times (15, 30, and 60 minutes); the beam was produced from a dual beam source using nitrogen gas with the other ion/electron source parameters optimized. The dielectric loss tangent tan δ , electrical conductivity σ , and dielectric constant ɛ ^' } in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 kHz were measured at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant and loss tangent as a function of frequency was also studied at room temperature. The dielectric constant was found to be strongly dependent on frequency for both ion and electron beam irradiation doses. The real (ɛ ^' }) and imaginary (ɛ ^' ' }) parts of the dielectric constant decreased with frequency for all irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The AC conductivity showed an increase with frequency for all samples under the influence of both ion and electron irradiation for different times. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral changes were also studied. The formation of clusters and defects (which serve as non-radiative centers on the polymer surface) is confirmed by the decrease in the PL intensity.

  4. Tuning the luminescence and optical properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide functionnalized with PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumri, Meryem; Venturini, Jany Wéry; Bakour, Anass; Khenfouch, Mohammed; Baitoul, Mimouna

    2016-03-01

    The attractive optoelectronic properties of graphene are universally known. Also, their combination with polymer matrix added an exciting physical investigation. In the present work, nanocomposites based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with low graphene oxide (GO) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) loadings (0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) were successfully prepared by a simple and environmentally friendly process using aqueous solution in both acidic (pH 4) and neutral media (pH 7)and optimized sonication time, in order to tailor the optical/electronic properties of the GO/PRGO nanosheets. FT-IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal a strong interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonding between the two components. Steady-state photoluminescence results showed a pH-dependent fluorescence of these nanocomposites, and a significant luminescence over a wide range of the visible wavelengths was achieved at a concentration of 1 wt% GO and PRGO loading. A quenching of the PL started at 2 wt% suggesting the possibility of tuning the luminescence properties of GO/PRGO-based composites with PVA.

  5. Use of Chitosan-PVA Hydrogels with Copper Nanoparticles to Improve the Growth of Grafted Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero González Gómez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture requires alternative practices that improve crop growth without negatively affecting the environment, as resources such as water and arable land grow scarcer while the human population continues to increase. Grafting is a cultivation technique that allows the plant to be more efficient in its utilization of water and nutrients, while nanoscale material engineering provides the opportunity to use much smaller quantities of consumables compared to conventional systems but with similar or superior effects. On those grounds, we evaluated the effects of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with absorbed copper nanoparticles (Cs-PVA-nCu on leaf morphology and plant growth when applied to grafted watermelon cultivar ‘Jubilee’ plants. Stomatal density (SD, stomatal index (SI, stoma length (SL, and width (SW were evaluated. The primary stem and root length, the stem diameter, specific leaf area, and fresh and dry weights were also recorded. Our results demonstrate that grafting induces modifications to leaf micromorphology that favorably affect plant growth, with grafted plants showing better vegetative growth in spite of their lower SD and SI values. Application of Cs-PVA-nCu was found to increase stoma width, primary stem length, and root length by 7%, 8% and 14%, respectively. These techniques modestly improve plant development and growth.

  6. Fluorescent Nanocomposite of Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Shehata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new fluorescent nanocomposite of electrospun biodegradable nanofibers embedded with optical nanoparticles. In detail, this work introduces the fluorescence properties of PVA nanofibers generated by the electrospinning technique with embedded cerium oxide (ceria nanoparticles. Under near-ultra violet excitation, the synthesized nanocomposite generates a visible fluorescent emission at 520 nm, varying its intensity peak according to the concentration of in situ embedded ceria nanoparticles. This is due to the fact that the embedded ceria nanoparticles have optical tri-valiant cerium ions, associated with formed oxygen vacancies, with a direct allowed bandgap around 3.5 eV. In addition, the impact of chemical crosslinking of the PVA on the fluorescence emission is studied in both cases of adding ceria nanoparticles in situ or of a post-synthesis addition via a spin-coating mechanism. Other optical and structural characteristics such as absorbance dispersion, direct bandgap, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis are presented. The synthesized optical nanocomposite could be helpful in different applications such as environmental monitoring and bioimaging.

  7. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Shehata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce3+ ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications.

  8. Electrospinning of PVA/chitosan nanocomposite nanofibers containing gelatin nanoparticles as a dual drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahipour, Shahrzad; Abouei Mehrizi, Ali; Ghaee, Azadeh; Koosha, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    Nanofibrous core-sheath nanocomposite dual drug delivery system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan/lidocaine hydrochloride loaded with gelatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospinning method. Gelatin nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and were then loaded with erythromycin antibiotic agent with the average particle size of ∼175 nm. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was shown to be optimal at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 µL of glutaraldehyde 5% as the crosslinking agent. The nanoparticles were also characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The best bead free morphology for the PVA/chitosan nanofibrous mats were obtained at the solution weight ratio of 96/4. The nanofibrous mats were analyzed by swelling studies, FTIR and antibacterial tests. In vitro dual release profile of the core-sheath nanofibers was also studied within 72 h and showed the release efficiency equal to 84.69 and 75.13% for lidocaine hydrochloride and erythromycin, respectively. According to release exponent n, the release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the sheath part of the matrix is quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the release of erythromycin is based on anomalous or non-Fickian mechanisms.

  9. Embedded Ceria Nanoparticles in Crosslinked PVA Electrospun Nanofibers as Optical Sensors for Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Hamed, Aya; Elrasheedy, Asmaa

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new nanocomposite of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles embedded in electrospun PVA nanofibers for optical sensing of radicals in solutions. Our ceria nanoparticles are synthesized to have O-vacancies which are the receptors for the radicals extracted from peroxide in water solution. Ceria nanoparticles are embedded insitu in PVA solution and then formed as nanofibers using an electrospinning technique. The formed nanocomposite emits visible fluorescent emissions under 430 nm excitation, due to the active ceria nanoparticles with fluorescent Ce(3+) ionization states. When the formed nanocomposite is in contact with peroxide solution, the fluorescence emission intensity peak has been found to be reduced with increasing concentration of peroxide or the corresponding radicals through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The fluorescence intensity peak is found to be reduced to more than 30% of its original value at a peroxide weight concentration up to 27%. This work could be helpful in further applications of radicals sensing using a solid mat through biomedical and environmental monitoring applications.

  10. Preparation and Thermal Analysis of Ferric Doped PVA-PVP-PPy Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Ranganath, M. R.; Lobo, Blaise

    2011-12-01

    The preparation and thermal analysis of flexible blend films of pyrrole (Py) polymerized in aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) is described. In-situ polymerization of pyrrole in aqueous solution of PVA and PVP containing ferric chloride (FeCl3) was achieved through vapor sorption, and the films obtained were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). No melting endotherm is seen in the DSC and DTA scans of the composite films, indicating that the sample is amorphous. Degradation of the sample is found to occur at lower temperatures, with increase in doping level (wt% of FeCl3). DSC study was performed between 40 °C and 400 °C. Below 1.2 wt % DL, degradation of the sample occurs in two stages, the first at 310 °C and the second at 440 °C, as seen from DTA and TGA scans. The broad endotherm between 80 °C and 120 °C is due to volatization of moisture (water) absorbed by the sample. Multiple endotherms are observed in DSC and DTA scans of the composite films, for FeCl3 doping levels above 3.8 wt %, and the sample degrades in many different stages at lower temperature, with increase in doping level, as revealed by weight losses in the TGA curve.

  11. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  12. Relationships between Different Preparations of Cotton Hollow Yarn and Water Soluble PVA Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hui-ying; XIA Zhao-peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper cotton hollow yarns were obtained from the core spun yarns which were produced on a little modified conventional experiment ring frame with water soluble staple PVA yarn as the core. For comparison, yarns with same linear densities, same twists of the sheath, different linear densities, different twist directions of the core were prepared. The results show that the tensile strengths of the hollow yarns decrease first, then increase and decrease again, at last the tensile strength trends to reach a steady state with the soluble PVA core extraction proceeding. And when the sheath linear densities of the core spun yarns are constant, their twist and twist direction are same as that of the core it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a higher core size. When the linear densities of the sheath and the core are all constant, the twists of them are same,it will be easier to remove the core of the yarn with a different twist direction of core to the sheath.

  13. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation in p-type PVA/CuI polymer composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makled, M H; Sheha, E; Shanap, T S; El-Mansy, M K

    2013-11-01

    PVA/CuI polymer composite samples have been prepared and subjected to characterizations using FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC analysis, ac spectroscopy and dc conduction. The FT-IR spectral analysis shows remarkable variation of the absorption peak positions whereas DSC illustrates a little decrease of both glass transition temperature, Tg , and crystallization fraction, χ, with increasing CuI concentration. An increase of dc conductivity for PVA/CuI nano composite by increasing CuI concentration is recoded up to 15 wt%, besides it obeys Arhenuis plot with an activation energy in the range 0.54-1.32 eV. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity showed power law with an exponent 0.33 < s < 0.69 which predicts hopping conduction mechanism. The frequency dependence of both dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss obeys Debye dispersion relations in wide range of temperatures and frequency. Significant values of dipole relaxation time obtained which are thermally activated with activation energies in the range 0.33-0.87 eV. A significant value of hopping distance in the range 3.4-1.2 nm is estimated in agreement with the value of Bohr radius of the exciton.

  14. Preparation and Properties of PVA/PEO/MWCNTs Ultra-fine Fiber by Electrospinning%静电纺PVA/PEO/多壁碳纳米管超细纤维的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯莉; 戴晋明; 侯文生; 范海宾; 相增辉; 罗秋兰

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the polyvinyl alcohol/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PVA/MWCNTs) complex solution was prepared by ultrasonic solution mixing methods, then this solution was mixed with polyethylene oxide (PEO), and the PVA/PEO/MWCNTs/ultra-fine composite fiber was obtained through electrospinning technique. The microstructure and heat properties of samples with different contents of MWCNTs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results indicated that the diameter of fiber got markedly thinner with increase of MWCNTs, the crystallinity of fiber reduced because of addition of MWCNTs. Furthermore, the thermal stability of composite fiber had improved some.%采用超声波辅助溶液共混的方式制备聚乙烯醇/多壁碳纳米管(PVA/MWCNT)复合溶液,并将该溶液与聚氧化乙烯(PEO)溶液共混,利用静电纺丝技术制备PVA/PEO/MWCNTs复合超细纤维.运用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X-射线衍射仪(XRD)、示差扫描量热仪(DSC)方法对不同MWCNTs含量的PVA/PEO/MWCNTs复合纤维的微观形貌、结构和热性能进行了观察分析.结果表明:随着MWCNTs含量的增加,纤维直径显著变细,MWCNTs的加入降低了纤维的结晶性,纤维的热稳定性有所提高.

  15. Enhancement of photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin by multilayered WO3 x H2O nanocrystals/PVA membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Hu, Fengping; Bao, Qiaoliang; Bao, Shujuan; Qiao, Yan; Yu, Shucong; Guo, Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-02-01

    For the first time, a multilayered WO(3) x H(2)O/PVA membrane on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is constructed to significantly enhance the photoelectric response of bR by the spillover effect of WO(3) x H(2)O nanocrystals, providing great potential in its important applications in bioelectronics and proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  16. Analysis of spatial diffusion of ferric ions in PVA-GTA gel dosimeters through magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Collura, Giorgio; Gallo, Salvatore; Nici, Stefania; Tranchina, Luigi; Abbate, Boris Federico; Marineo, Sandra; Caracappa, Santo; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    This work focused on the analysis of the temporal diffusion of ferric ions through PVA-GTA gel dosimeters. PVA-GTA gel samples, partly exposed with 6 MV X-rays in order to create an initial steep gradient, were mapped using magnetic resonance imaging on a 7T MRI scanner for small animals. Multiple images of the gels were acquired over several hours after irradiation and were analyzed to quantitatively extract the signal profile. The spatial resolution achieved is 200 μm and this makes this technique particularly suitable for the analysis of steep gradients of ferric ion concentration. The results obtained with PVA-GTA gels were compared with those achieved with agarose gels, which is a standard dosimetric gel formulation. The analysis showed that the diffusion process is much slower (more than five times) for PVA-GTA gels than for agarose ones. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the diffusion coefficient value obtained through MRI analysis is significantly consistent with that obtained in separate study Marini et al. (Submitted for publication) using a totally independent method such as spectrophotometry. This is a valuable result highlighting that the good dosimetric features of this gel matrix not only can be reproduced but also can be measured through independent experimental techniques based on different physical principles.

  17. Anomalous dielectric behaviour of poly(vinyl alcohol)-silicon dioxide (PVA-SiO2) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shobhna; Sengwa, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Complex dielectric function, electric modulus, ac conductivity and impedance spectra of PVA-SiO2 nanocomposite films have been investigated in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature range from 30 °C to 60 °C. Real part of dielectric function of the nanocomposites slowly decreases with increase of frequency and it shows a non-linear increase with the increase of temperature. An anomalous variation is observed in dielectric and electrical functions with increase of SiO2 concentrations in the PVA matrix. The ac conductivity of these materials increases whereas impedance values decrease linearly by five orders of magnitude with increase of frequency from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. Dielectric loss values of these films are found minimum at intermediate frequency region, and it increases at low and high frequency regions confirming the presence of multiple relaxation processes. The contributions of interfacial polarization effect and dipolar ordering in dielectric properties of these materials have been explored, and their technological applications as nanodielectrics have been discussed. The XRD patterns reveal that the interactions between PVA and SiO2 disturb the dipolar ordering resulting decrease of crystallinity of the PVA in the nanocomposites.

  18. Drug release from core-shell PVA/silk fibroin nanoparticles fabricated by one-step electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Liu, Fengqiu; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Tao; Lou, Deshuai; Guo, Yuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Zhigang; Ran, Haitao

    2017-09-20

    Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up. The model drug, doxorubicin, was encapsulated in the core with a greater than 90% drug encapsulation efficiency. Controllable drug release profiles were achieved by alternating the PVA/SF ratio. Although the initial burst release of the drug was minimized by the SF coating, a large number of drug molecules remained entrapped by the carrier polymers. To promote and trigger drug release on demand, low intensity focused ultrasound (US) was applied. The US was especially advantageous for accelerating the drug diffusion and release. The apoptotic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was found to increase with time. In addition, we also observed PVA/SF nanoparticles that could elicit a drug release in response to pH.

  19. Enhancement of micro structural properties of PVA doped with MWCNT’s and metal oxide nanocomposites films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar N B, Rithin [Dept of Physics, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore, Karnataka (India); Crasta, Vincent, E-mail: vcrasta@yahoo.com [Dept of Physics, St. Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangalore, Karnataka (India); Praveen, B. M. [Dept of Chemistry, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore, Karnataka (India); B, Shreeprakash [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by using precipitation method and the multiwall Carbon nanotubes (MWCNT’s) were functionalized to make Carboxylated MWCNTs. Further, prepared WO{sub 3} and carboxylated MWCNT were doped into PVA matrix by coagulation technique and PVA nanocomposites were prepared by simple solvent casting technique. The films were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the intensity of absorption of radiation at 3624.55 cm{sup −1} corresponds to the OH group of PVA. It changes in accordance with dopant concentration causing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonding between the dopants and PVA back bone which leads to the complex formation. XRD data explores the crystalline nature of the film. It is found that for doping concentration x= 7.5 wt% the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size increases whereas micro structural strain and dislocation density decreases. An atomic force microscopy topographic analysis proves that the doped particles have an average size less than 15 nm, as confirmed by XRD data. It was found that roughness of the sample varies with dopant concentration causing variation in crystallinity.

  20. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant on phase formation and magnetic properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalian, M.; Mirkazemi, S. M.; Alamolhoda, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 190 °C with and without poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) addition using treatment durations of 1.5-6 h. The synthesized powders were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD results show presence of CoFe2O4 as the main phase and Co3O4 as the lateral phase in some samples. The results show that in the samples synthesized without PVA addition considerable amount of lateral phase is present after 3 h of hydrothermal treatment while with PVA addition this phase is undetectable in the XRD patterns of the sample synthesized at the same conditions. Microstructural studies represent increasing of particle size with increasing of hydrothermal duration and formation of coarser particles with PVA addition. The highest maximum magnetization (Mmax) values in both of the samples that were synthesized with and without PVA addition are about 59 emu/g that were obtained after 4.5 h of hydrothermal treatment. Intrinsic coercive field (iHc) value of the sample without PVA addition increases from 210 to 430 Oe. While with PVA addition the iHc value changes from 83 Oe to 493 Oe. The mechanism of changes in Mmax and iHc values has been explained.

  1. Effect of Bi2O3 particle sizes and addition of starch into Bi2O3-PVA composites for X-ray shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Azman, Nurul Z.; Musa, Nur F. L.; Nik Ab Razak, Nik N. A.; Ramli, Ramzun M.; Mustafa, Iskandar S.; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Yahaya, Nor Z.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of Bi2O3 particle sizes filled PVA composites on X-ray transmission for X-ray shielding purpose had been successfully fabricated and analyzed by using X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF) and mammography units with various low X-ray energy ranges. Besides, a preliminary investigation was carried out by using XRF unit to obtain the effect of starch addition into the composite on the X-ray transmissions by both particle sizes of Bi2O3-PVA composites. The results showed that the ability of the composite to attenuate the initial X-ray beam was augmented with the increased Bi2O3 weight percentage (wt%). The density of both particle sizes of Bi2O3-PVA composites was compared with the addition of 1 and 3 wt% starch, while a fluctuation of density occurred for the composites without starch. Moreover, the nano-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite without starch did not exemplify better X-ray attenuation capability compared to its micro-sized counterpart even though their density was higher than the micro-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite. However, the nano-sized Bi2O3-PVA composite with starch offered better particle size effect for X-ray shielding ability than its micro-sized counterpart compared to the Bi2O3-PVA composites without starch.

  2. Rheological and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites film-forming solutions and resulting films as affected by UV irradiation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huiyu; Sun, Yunlong; Xu, Jing; Dong, Weifu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-22

    Hyaluronan (HA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) bearing styrylpyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ) composites film-forming solutions were prepared by a negatively charged HA and an oppositely charged PVA-SbQ. The rheological properties and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites in aqueous solution were investigated. Zeta potential measurements and TEM were utilized to explore the formation of HA/PVA-SbQ complex micelles in aqueous solution. UV spectra and DLS experiments confirmed that the micelles are photo-crosslinkable. HA/PVA-SbQ composites films were prepared by a casting method. The microstructure and properties of the film were analyzed by SEM, optical transmittance, DSC, XRD and tensile testing. The crosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films exhibited higher UV light shielding and visible light transparency and better mechanical and water vapor barrier properties as well as thermal stability than the uncrosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films, indicating the formation of three-dimensional network structure. This work provided a good way for increasing the mechanical, thermal, water vapor barrier, and optical properties of HA materials for the packaging material.

  3. Electrophoretic co-deposition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced alginate-Bioglass® composite coating on stainless steel: mechanical properties and in-vitro bioactivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-07-01

    PVA reinforced alginate-bioactive glass (BG) composite coatings were produced on stainless steel by a single step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The present paper discusses the co-deposition mechanism of the three components and presents a summary of the relevant properties of the composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different PVA concentrations. Homogeneous composite coatings with compact microstructure and increased thickness, i.e. as high as 10 μm, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface roughness of coatings with different PVA contents was slightly increased, while a significant increase of water contact angles due to PVA addition was detected and discussed. Improved adhesion strength of coatings containing different amounts of PVA was quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed by pull-off adhesion and cycled bending tests, respectively. In-vitro bioactivity tests were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. The decomposition rate of the coatings was reduced with PVA content, and rapid hydroxyapatite forming ability of the composite coatings in SBF was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. According to the results of this study, composite alginate-Bioglass® bioactive coatings combined with PVA are proposed as promising candidates for dental and orthopedic applications.

  4. Coaxial Electrospinning Method for the Preparation of TiO2 @CdS/PVA Composite Nanofiber Mat and Investigation on its Photodegradation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanmei; Jia, Yiru; Zhang, Dexian; Cheng, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    TiO2 /PVA composite nanofiber mat was prepared via an electrospinning technology. SH-TiO2 -SiO2 hybrid particles and PVA solution were injected through a coaxial syringe, yielding a composite nanofiber mat. The as-prepared SH-TiO2 -SiO2 /PVA composite nanofiber mat was immersed in Cd(2+) cation solution and S(2-) anion solution in turn. Thus, yellow TiO2 @CdS/PVA composite nanofiber mats were prepared. By adjusting the number of times a mat was immersed in the Cd(2+) and S(2-) solutions, different amounts of CdS particles attaching to the mats were obtained. Both SH-TiO2 -SiO2 /PVA and TiO2 @CdS/PVA composite nanofiber mats were employed to catalyze the photodegradation of a model dye, methylene blue. The photodegradation performance could be greatly enhanced by the introduction of CdS particles anchoring onto TiO2 particles. The photodegradation efficiency reached 99.2% within 180 min. Also, the nanofiber mat could be recycled and reused at least 10 times. The photodegradation efficiency of TiO2 @CdS/PVA composite nanofiber mats remained 68.8% for 10 cycles.

  5. Computational molecular modeling and structural rationalization for the design of a drug-loaded PLLA/PVA biopolymeric membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibeko, B; Pillay, V; Choonara, Y E; Khan, R A; Danckwerts, M P [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193 Johannesburg (South Africa); Modi, G [Division of Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Iyuke, S E [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Naidoo, D, E-mail: viness.pillay@wits.ac.z [Division of Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to design, characterize and assess the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) on the physicomechanical properties and release of methotrexate (MTX) from a composite biopolymeric membrane. Conjugated poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation with and without the addition of TEA. Drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) and release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 37 deg. C). Scanning electron microscopy elucidated the membrane surface morphology. Computational and structural molecular modeling rationalized the potential mechanisms of membrane formation and MTX release. Bi-axial force-distance (F-D) extensibility profiles were generated to determine the membrane toughness, elasticity and fracturability. Membranes were significantly toughened by the addition of TEA as a discrete rubbery phase within the co-polymer matrix. MTX-TEA-PLLA-PVA membranes were tougher (F = 89 N) and more extensible (D = 8.79 mm) compared to MTX-PLLA-PVA (F = 35 N, D = 3.7 mm) membranes as a greater force of extension and fracture distance were required (N = 10). DEE values were relatively high (>80%, N = 5) for both formulations. Photomicrographs revealed distinct crystalline layered morphologies with macro-pores. MTX was released by tri-phasic kinetics with a lower fractional release of MTX from MTX-TEA-PLLA-PVA membranes compared to MTX-PLLA-PVA. TEA provided a synergistic approach to improving the membrane physicomechanical properties and modulation of MTX release. The composite biopolymeric membrane may therefore be suitable for the novel delivery of MTX in the treatment of chronic primary central nervous system lymphoma.

  6. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Marziyeh; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Akbar Entezami, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 1-20 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H2O2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and crosslinking density (ρx) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H2O2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial.

  7. Investigations of spherical Cu NPs in sodium lauryl sulphate with Tb{sup 3+} ions dispersed in PVA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gagandeep_bhu@yahoo.com; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cu NPs were prepared in SDS using 1064 nm laser radiation at fluence 37, 64 and 88 J/cm{sup 2}. • Spherical Cu NPs with average diameter varying between 10 and 50 nm atdifferent fluence. • PL of Tb3+ ions in PVA polymer film is maximum with Cu NPS at fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}. • PVA films of Cu NPs displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity. • These copper NPs embedded PVA films can be used as novel, low-cost sensor materials. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in SDS solution using 1064 nm laser radiation at different fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}, 64 J/cm{sup 2} and 88 J/cm{sup 2} and structurally characterized. The TEM measurements reveal the presence of nanoparticles of spherical shape with different size. The size of the nanoparticles and their concentration increases with the increase of fluence.The effect of these Cu nanoparticles on the emissive properties of Tb{sup 3+} ion in polymer films has been studied. It is found that emission intensity of Tb{sup 3+} first increases and then deceases both with concentration of Cu NPs as well as with sizes. The PL intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ions is minimum for Cu NPs prepared with highest fluence. It has been explained in term of local field effect. This was also verified by life time measurements. These thin PVA films of copper nanoparticles displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity with sensitivity at least comparable to commercial materials which suggest the use of these copper NPs embedded PVA films as novel, low-cost sensor materials.

  8. Covalently-layers of PVA and PAA and in situ formed Ag nanoparticles as versatile antimicrobial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma S P; Pereira, Guilherme M; Fragal, Elizângela H; Costa, Marco Antonio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    The in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within covalently-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films possessing ultra-thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is successfully demonstrated. The resulting polymeric films are shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities toward Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungus (Candida albicans). To make the films, first PET surfaces were subject to photo-oxidation and subsequent solid-state grafting to attach a PVA layer, followed by a PAA layer. To synthesize the AgNPs inside the films, the PVA and PAA-modified PET was soaked in AgNO3 solution and the polymeric film was modified with the Ag(+) ions via Ag(+)-carboxylate interaction, and then the Ag(+) ions-containing polymer film was subject to either photo-reduction or thermal reduction processes. The PVA and PAA thin layers attached by covalent bonds to the PET surface uniquely promoted not only the in situ synthesis but also the stabilization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy or by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak associated with AgNPs. The resulting PVA and PAA ultrathin layers modified and AgNPs containing PET served as bactericide and fungicide, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi on the surfaces. Given PET's versatility and common use in many commercial processes, the method can be used for producing plastic surfaces with versatile antimicrobial and antibacterial properties.

  9. CMC-PVA/CS-PVA Bipolar Membrane Modified by PAN-CuTsPc Nanofibers Prepared Using Electrospinning Technique%静电纺丝法制备PAN-CuTsPc纳米纤维改性CMC-PVA/CS-PVA双极膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻雅萍; 周挺进; 兰瑞芳; 陈日耀; 陈震

    2014-01-01

    分别用Fe3+和戊二醛作为交联剂对羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)-聚乙烯醇(PVA)阳膜层和壳聚糖(CS)-聚乙烯醇阴膜层进行改性,在中间界面层引入以静电纺丝技术制备的聚丙烯腈(PAN)-四磺酸基铜酞菁(CuTsPc)纳米纤维纺丝,制备了CMC-PVA/PAN-CuTsPc/CS-PVA双极膜(BPM).并用扫描电镜、接触角测定仪,电流密度-槽电压关系曲线、交流阻抗谱等对制备的双极膜进行了表征.结果表明,CMC-PVA阳膜周PAN-CuTsPc纳米纤维纺丝改性后,表面亲水性增强,中间界面层水解离效率提高,致使双极膜的膜阻抗和IR降显著降低.CMC-PVA/PAN-CuTsPc/CS-PVA(w(CuTsPc):3.0%)双极膜在90 mA·cm-2电流密度时的电阻压降(即膜IR降)仅为0.9V.

  10. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in PVA matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Devi; P Purkayastha; P K Kalita; B K Sarma

    2007-04-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of CdS are deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix solution. Crystallite sizes of the nanocrystalline films are determined from broadening of X-ray diffraction lines and are found to vary from 5.4–10.2 nm. The band gap of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the UV spectrograph. The absorption edge is shifted towards the lower wave length side (i.e. blue shift) and are found to be within the range from 2.48–2.8 eV as grain sizes decrease from 10.2–5.4 nm. This is also supported by the spectral response curves. An increase of molarity decreases the grain size which in turn increases the band gap.

  11. Radiation crosslinking polymerization of sterculia polysaccharide-PVA-PVP for making hydrogel wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Pal, Lok

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the modification of sterculia gum by PVA-PVP through radiation crosslinking, to develop the hydrogels meant for the delivery of antimicrobial agent to the wounds. The hydrogels were characterized by SEM, FTIR, TGA and swelling studies. For the evaluation of swelling and drug release mechanism, the swelling kinetics and in vitro release dynamics of model drug from this matrix have been studied respectively in the solution of different pHs and simulated wound fluid. After 24h swelling per gram of the hydrogel has taken (17.03±0.19)g of simulated wound fluid and has released (0.230±0.01)mg of drug in the simulated fluid. The release of drug in simulated fluids occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.

  12. Characterization of polylactic co-glycolic acid nanospheres modified with PVA and DDAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Satyapertiwi, Dwiantari; Devina, Ranee; Krisanti, Elsa

    2017-02-01

    The common treatment for diabetic retinopathy is corticosteroids intravitreal injection that sometimes lead to complications. Dexamethasone-loaded polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanospheres, modified with dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as the cationic surfactant, is expected to prolong drug retention time. Zeta potential of the PLGA nanospheres prepared using non-ionic surfactant PVA and DDAB confirmed the cationic surfactant increase the surface charge of the PLGA nanospheres. The optimal formulation based on the particle size and high positive surface charge was the PLGA-DDAB nanospheres. SEM analysis showed spherical morphology of the nanospheres having diameter 626.9 ± 98.01 nm positive zeta potential of +22.5 mV.

  13. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Optical Properties of Partially Phosphorylated PVA Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmalina Mohamed Saat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA films were prepared at five mole ratios of phosphoric acid (PA using solution casting technique. The optical properties of the PPVA films were examined using UV-visible (UV and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The UV absorption spectra reveal that the absorption peaks are blue-shifted with an increase in PA concentration added to the pure PVA. The PL spectra show the presence of peaks which are characteristic of isotactic (389–398, 460–462 nm, syndiotactic (418–420 nm, and atactic (440–446 nm configurations of the PPVA. The results also show the peak of O–P–O bonding at a wavelength range of 481–489 nm.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of (PVA+ZnO):Mn{sup 2+} polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Ch.; Raju, D. Siva; Bindu, S. Hima; Krishna, J. Suresh; Raju, Ch. Linga [Dept. of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, N. Nagar-522510, A.P (India)

    2015-05-15

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), optical absorption and infrared spectral studies have been carried out on Mn{sup 2+} ions doped in poly(vinyl alcohol) complexed with zinc oxide polymer films prepared by solution cast technique. The EPR spectra of 1 mol% Mn{sup 2+} ions doped polymer complex (PVA+ZnO) at room temperature exhibit sextet hyperfine structure (hfs), centered at 2.01. The spin-Hamiltonian parameter values indicate that the ground state of Mn{sup 2+} ion in d{sup 5} and the site symmetry around Mn{sup 2+} ions in tetragonally distorted octa hedral site. The optical absorption spectra exhibits two bands centered at 275nm at 437nm. The FTIR spectrum exhibits bands characteristic of stretching and banding vibrations of O-H, C-H and C=C groups.

  15. Synthesizing the Y-123/Y-211 composite by the PVA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serradilla, I.G; Capdevila, X.G.; Espiell, F. [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Calleja, A; Segarra, M. [DIOPMA, S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Mendoza, E.; Teva, J.; Granados, X.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A polymerized organic-inorganic synthesis of a mixture containing 69% Y-123, 30% Y-211, 1% CeO{sub 2} in weight has been studied with the aid of polyvinylic alcohol (PVA). The advantages of this method are (a) avoidance of extensive and repetitive firing steps and (b) no need for mechanical mixing of components. By heating the solution of stoichiometric quantities of the nitrate salts, a viscous gel is obtained which turns into an aerogel by subsequent heating. The resulting aerogel was calcined in a single step and the powder was used to prepare Y-123/Y-211 composite monodomain rods by the vertical Bridgman solidification technique. Characterization of both powders and grown monodomains have been performed. Fine and dispersed Y-211 phase distribution was successfully achieved. Finally, magnetic measurements were performed by SQUID magnetometry. (author)

  16. Alkali recovery using PVA/SiO2 cation exchange membranes with different -COOH contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianwen; Gong, Ming; Wu, Yonghui; Wu, Cuiming; Luo, Jingyi; Xu, Tongwen

    2013-01-15

    By changing -COOH content in poly(acrylic acid-co-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (poly(AA-co-γ-MPS)), a series of PVA/SiO(2) cation exchange membranes are prepared from sol-gel process of poly(AA-co-γ-MPS) in presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The membranes have the initial decomposition temperature (IDT) values of 236-274 °C. The tensile strength (TS) ranges from 17.4 MPa to 44.4 MPa. The dimensional stability in length (DS-length) is in the range of 10%-25%, and the DS-area is in the range of 21%-56% in 65 °C water. The water content (W(R)) ranges from 61.2% to 81.7%, the ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranges from 1.69 mmol/g to 1.90 mmol/g. Effects of -COOH content on diffusion dialysis (DD) performance also are investigated for their potential applications. The membranes are tested for recovering NaOH from the mixture of NaOH/Na(2)WO(4) at 25 - 45 °C. The dialysis coefficients of NaOH (U(OH)) are in the range of 0.006-0.032 m/h, which are higher than those of the previous membranes (U(OH): 0.0015 m/h, at 25 °C). The selectivity (S) can reach up to 36.2. The DD performances have been correlated with the membrane structure, especially the continuous arrangement of -COOH in poly(AA-co-γ-MPS) chain.

  17. Photoluminescence properties of PZT 52/48 synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method using PVA with template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.F., E-mail: guilmina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gasparotto, G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Paris, E.C. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Embrapa Instrumentacao, Rua XV de novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.569-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaghete, M.A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Lead Titanate Zirconate (PZT) perovskite powders were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method (M-H) at 180 {sup o}C for different time periods (2, 4, 8 and 12 h) with the presence of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution 0.36 g L{sup -1}. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD), SE-FEG as well as the measurements of photoluminescence (PL) emission were used for monitoring the formation of a perovskite phase with random polycrystalline distortion in the structure. Emission spectra with fixed excitation wavelength of 350 nm showed higher value for the powder obtained after undergoing 8 h of treatment. A theoretical model derived from previous calculations allows us to discuss the origin of photoluminescence emission in the powders, which can be further related to the local disorder in the network of both ZrO{sub 6} and TiO{sub 6} octahedral, and dodecahedral PbO{sub 12}. The new morphology initially observed from the PZT perovskite crystal growth bearing the shape of fine plates is found to be directly related to photoluminescence emission with energy lower than that present in the PZT with cube-like morphology that emits in 560 nm. - Highlights: > This work details the efficiency of microwave hydrothermal synthesis in obtaining PZT powders. > PVA is used as a crystallization agent of PZT particles. > PZT particles presented photoluminescent (PL) behavior. > There aren't previous reports of photoluminescent PZT obtained by microwave hydrothermal synthesis. > Photoluminescence is one more interesting property for technological applications this material.

  18. Adsorption equilibrium of uranium on iron oxyhydroxide-PVA hydrogel spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Armindo; Campos, Victor B.; Ribeiro, Luciana S.; Escanio, Camila A.; Silva, Edilaine F.; Oliveira, Felipe W., E-mail: santosa@cdtn.br, E-mail: vbc@cdtn.br, E-mail: lsr@cdtn.br, E-mail: cae@cdtn.br, E-mail: efd@cdtn.br, E-mail: fwfo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium and its compounds are considered strategic mineral resources due to its usage as an energy source and war material. They are harmful to human health. Thus, liquid waste containing low uranium content (≤100 mgU/L), from the mining and/or uranium reprocessing plants or even of the research center activities require the development of methods for their treatment, in a way to reduce its content to 15 μgU/L. Adsorption is one of these methods; it requires the synthesis of preferably spherical adsorbents, chemically and physically stable and with high adsorptive capacity. The sol-gel process can synthesize adsorbents having such characteristics, prioritizing the nanostructuring of iron oxyhydroxide in a hydrophilic PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) polymer network, which had an accessible pore structure (micro-, meso- and macropores + macroholes). We successfully obtained iron-PVA hydrogel spheres with (3433 ± 63 μm) and without (2833 ± 69 μm) macroholes. Both types of spheres have good mechanical strength and chemical stability in the 2-9 pH range. Adsorptive capacity: 413.22 mgU/g (with macroholes; Freundlich model) and 249.38 mgU/g (without macroholes; Langmuir and Freundlich models), at pH 5-6, 30 °C, and 6 h. With 280 mL of with-macrohole hydrogel spheres, we can treat 1 L of liquid waste (100 mgU/L) and reduce uranium content to 20 μgU/L. (author)

  19. The effect of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant on phase formation and magnetic properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalian, M.; Mirkazemi, S.M., E-mail: mirkazemi@iust.ac.ir; Alamolhoda, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 190 °C with and without poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) addition using treatment durations of 1.5–6 h. The synthesized powders were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. XRD results show presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the main phase and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the lateral phase in some samples. The results show that in the samples synthesized without PVA addition considerable amount of lateral phase is present after 3 h of hydrothermal treatment while with PVA addition this phase is undetectable in the XRD patterns of the sample synthesized at the same conditions. Microstructural studies represent increasing of particle size with increasing of hydrothermal duration and formation of coarser particles with PVA addition. The highest maximum magnetization (M{sub max}) values in both of the samples that were synthesized with and without PVA addition are about 59 emu/g that were obtained after 4.5 h of hydrothermal treatment. Intrinsic coercive field ({sub i}H{sub c}) value of the sample without PVA addition increases from 210 to 430 Oe. While with PVA addition the {sub i}H{sub c} value changes from 83 Oe to 493 Oe. The mechanism of changes in M{sub max} and {sub i}H{sub c} values has been explained. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hydrothermally synthesized with and without PVA addition. • PVA addition facilitates formation of single phase cobalt ferrite. • Coarser particles would be obtained with PVA addition. • The highest M{sub max} values in the samples with and without PVA are equal to 59 emu/g. • The highest {sub i}H{sub c} values are equalt to 320 and 493 Oe without and with PVA respectively.

  20. PVA/SiO2/HMDS 薄膜的制备及性能研究%Studying on the Preparation and Properties of PVA/SiO2/HMDS Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章富; 耿蒙蒙; 沈伟良; 鲍晓冰; 刘浏; 王翠平; 谢安建; 沈玉华

    2013-01-01

    Here, the poly -vinyl -alcohol(PVA) nanofibers omentum are prepared on the surface of the glass substrate via electrospinning, then terabutyl orthosilicate is used as a precursor to induce silica particles to the omentum , and lastly bis(trime-thylsilyl)amine is coated on PVA /SiO2 omentum for reducing the surface energy.The prepared PVA /SiO2 /HMDS film on glass substrate is characterized by SEM images, water contact angle (WCA) and so on.The results show that the surface of the treated glass possesses higher roughness, WCA of the thin film reaches 135.7°, indicating the prepared film has good hydrophobic per-formance.Also the film presents excellent transparency and wear -stability, which may be widely applied in high -grade outdoor wall body, windscreen and spectacle lens, etc.%  采用静电纺丝技术在玻璃基片表面构筑聚乙烯醇( PVA)纳米纤维网膜,以正硅酸丁酯( TEOS)为硅源,通过气相沉积法向 PVA 纳米纤维网膜间隙中引入 SiO2纳米粒子。然后以六甲基二硅氮烷( HMDS)为修饰剂,对玻璃基片表面 PVA /SiO2膜进行疏水改性,从而降低其表面能。利用扫描电镜(SEM),静态水接触角(WCA)等测试手段对在玻璃表面制备的 PVA /SiO2/HMDS 薄膜进行了表征。结果显示,处理过的玻璃基片具有较高的粗糙度,表面水接触角( WCA)达135.7°,表明其具有很好的疏水性能。而且制备的薄膜疏水性能稳定,耐磨性能好,能够保持较好的透明性。因此在高档室外墙体、汽车挡风玻璃、眼镜片等领域具有潜在的应用前景。

  1. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization;Sintese e caracterizacao de particulas derivadas de poli(alcool vinilico) (PVA) para embolizacao e quimioembolizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M., E-mail: nery@ibilce.unesp.b [Braile Biomedica Industria e Comercio Representacoes S.A., Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  2. Analysis and Strategy on China’s PVA Market Competition%国内PVA市场竞争分析及营销对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平; 王跃坤; 刘健华

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of China’s PVA market and major PVA manufacturers and an overview of SINOPEC’s PVA production, the paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of SINOPEC’s PVA marketing management and proposes some measures for strengthening the company’s overall marketing strategy.%基于对国内PVA产品市场情况及主要厂商的分析,结合中国石化PVA生产现状,研究了中国石化PVA产品市场营销的优势和劣势,提出了强化PVA整体营销的策略。

  3. Sizing Practice of Using DH-PVA on Pure Cotton Superfine High Density Fabric%DH-PVA用于纯棉特细号高密织物的上浆实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 余爱琴; 杨建强

    2009-01-01

    Feasibility of using DH-PVA to size pure cotton superfine high density fabric was discussed. Three pure cotton superfine high density fabrics were sized by DH-PVA. The sizing effects and weaving effects of applying DH-PVA new formula and PVA-1799,PVA-0588 raw formulas were contrasted. The result shows when DH-PVA was used loom ef-ficiency could be improved while PVA-1799 could be used less or be avoided. Sizing cost could be reduced by reducing acrylic size mixture and oil smoothing agent properly.%探讨DH-PVA用于纯棉特细号高密织物上浆的可行性.应用DH-PVA对三种纯棉特细号高密织物进行了浆纱实践,对应用DH-PVA的新配方与应用PVA-1799、PVA-0588的原配方的浆纱效果及织造效果进行了对比,结果表明:应用DH-PVA可以在保证织机效率有所提高的前提下少用或不用PVA-1799,适当降低丙烯酸类浆料、油脂类平滑剂用量,从而降低浆纱成本.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Crosslink-Esterified Membranes with Sodium Hydroxide Catalyst%碱催化PVA酯化交联膜的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保军; 贺高红; 白凤武; 刘元法

    2007-01-01

      The preparation and characterization of PVA-OA membranes by crosslink-esterification are investigated PVA-OA membranes were prepared by PVA(poly(vinyl alchohol)) crosslink-esterified with OA(oxalic acid) as cross-linking agent and NaOH as catalyzer. The chemical structure of PVA-OA membranes were characterized by infrared spectrometry. The water resistance and mechanical property of homogeneous membrane were measured. With the degree of cross linking increase, the water resistance and tensile-strength were enhanced, but the extensibility at break descended. The PVA/PVDF(polyvinylidene fluoride) composite membranes were used in vapor permeation for the separation of water-ethanol. The performances of vapor permeation of the composite membranes were better when the degree of cross linking is among 6%~7%.%  在氢氧化钠催化条件下,将聚乙烯醇(PVA)与草酸(OA)酯化交联,制得了一种新的PVA-OA均质膜,利用红外光谱表征了交联膜的化学结构;考察了均质膜的耐水性能和机械性能,发现随着交联度的增加,其耐水性和拉伸强度增强,而断裂伸长率下降;将PVA与聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)制成PVA/PVDF蒸汽渗透膜复合膜,利用乙醇-水混合物考察了其分离性能,结果表明PVA理论交联度在6%~7%之间时,其综合性能较优。

  5. Preparation and property study of PHBV/PVA composite membrances%PHBV/PVA复合膜的制备及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓燕; 赵晓画; 周大成; 纪俊玲

    2013-01-01

    Poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) fibrous membrances were prepared by electrospinning.The uniform PHBV fibers could be achieved through adding proper content ethanol.Used casting the PVA solution on PHBV membranes,the PHBV/PVA composite membrances were prepared.The effect of PVA concentration and volume on the performance of PHBV/PVA composite membrances were investigated.The results show that when PHBV/PVA (2/3) at 8% PVA,the permeate flux and rejection of PHBV/PVA composite membrances could reach 996 L/(m2 · h) and 86%,respectively.%采用静电纺方法制备聚羟基丁酸/戊酸酯共聚物(PHBV)纤维膜材料,通过调节纺丝液中无水乙醇的含量制备出形态均匀的PHBV静电纺纤维膜.用浇铸法将聚乙烯醇(PVA)涂敷在PHBV静电纺纤维膜上,制备PHBV/PVA复合膜,通过调节PVA的浓度及涂覆量,研究复合膜配比对其力学性能及过滤性能的影响.结果表明,当PVA浓度为8%,PHBV/PVA体积比为2/3时,得到最佳性能的PHBV/PVA复合膜,水通量达到996 L/(m2·h),截留率为86%.

  6. IPN hydrogels based on PNIPAAm and PVA-Ma networks: characterization through measure of LCST, swelling ratio and mechanical properties - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.15019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Wenceslau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available IPN hydrogels based on chemically modified poly(vinyl alcohol (or PVA-Ma, with different degrees of substitution (DS, and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (or PNIPAAm were obtained and characterized through measures of LCST, swelling ratio and mechanical properties. Linear PVA-Ma with several DS were obtained through the chemical reaction of PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA. The DS of various PVA-Ma were determined through 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two steps were used for preparation the PVA-Ma/PNIPAAm membrane hydrogels. In the first step the PVA-Ma hydrogels (using PVA-Ma with different DS were prepared by reaction of double bonds on PVA-Ma, using the persulfate/TEMED system. Using a photoreaction pathway in the second step, PNIPAAm network was prepared within the parent PVA-Ma network at different PVA-Ma/NIPAAm ratios. The studies show that degree of swelling ratio (SR of PVA-Ma/PNIPAAm IPN hydrogels is dependent of temperature. The LCST for each IPN-hydrogel was determined by measuring the intensity of light transmitted through the hydrogel. The LCST of the IPN hydrogels ranged from 34.6 to 38.1oC. The elastic modules of swollen IPN hydrogels increased from 25 to 35oC but decreased by further warming to 45oC. The LCST, swelling ratio and mechanical properties of PVA-Ma/PNIPAAm IPN hydrogels can be tailored by tuning the PVA-Ma/NIPAAm ratio.

  7. Characterization of proton conducting blend polymer electrolyte using PVA-PAN doped with NH{sub 4}SCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premalatha, M. [PG & Research Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.Vellaichamy Nadar College, Madurai-625 019 (India); Materials Research Center, Coimbatore-641 045 (India); Mathavan, T., E-mail: tjmathavan@gmail.com, E-mail: kingslin.genova20@gmail.com [PG & Research Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.Vellaichamy Nadar College, Madurai-625 019 (India); Selvasekarapandian, S. [Materials Research Center, Coimbatore-641 045 (India); Genova, F. Kingslin Mary, E-mail: tjmathavan@gmail.com, E-mail: kingslin.genova20@gmail.com; Umamaheswari, R. [Department of physics, S.F.R College for Women, Sivakasi-626 128 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polymer electrolytes with proton conductivity based on blend polymer using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly acrylo nitrile (PAN) doped with ammonium thiocyanate have been prepared by solution casting method using DMF as solvent. The complex formation between the blend polymer and the salt has been confirmed by FTIR Spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the blend polymer electrolytes have been confirmed by XRD analysis. The highest conductivity at 303 K has been found to be 3.25 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} for 20 mol % NH{sub 4}SCN doped 92.5PVA:7.5PAN system. The increase in conductivity of the doped blend polymer electrolytes with increasing temperature suggests the Arrhenius type thermally activated process. The activation energy is found to be low (0.066 eV) for the highest conductivity sample.

  8. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles using PVA-boric acid reaction for solid breeding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2014-12-01

    Lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) is a candidate breeding material of the Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM). The breeding material is used in pebble-bed form to reduce the uncertainty of the interface thermal conductance. In this study, Li2TiO3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by the slurry droplet wetting method using the cross-linking reaction between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and boric acid. The effects of fabrication parameters on the shaping of Li2TiO3 green body were investigated. In addition, the basic characteristics of the sintered pebble were also evaluated. The shape of Li2TiO3 green bodies was affected by slurry viscosity, PVA content and boric acid content. The grain size and average crush load of sintered Li2TiO3 pebble were controlled by the sintering time. The boron was completely removed during the final sintering process.

  9. Morphological and mechanical response characterization of nanofiber aggregates of PVA produced by electrospinning sol-gel process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Franco Medina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se prepararon soluciones de Polivinil alcohol (PVA dopadas con un agente surfactante, un ácido y agua. Con estas soluciones se electrohilaron en primer lugar, esteras de nanofibras y luego nanofibras agregadas a través del proceso de sol-gel electrohilado. Las muestras obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM y microscopia de fuerza atómica (AFM, calculando valores de rugosidad superficial en las fibras, su distribución y diámetro promedio antes y después del proceso de solgel electrohilado. Finalmente, se encontró que las nanofibras agregadas de PVA, alcanzaron una resistencia máxima y módulo de 90 MPa y 2,55 GPa, respectivamente. Los resultados experimentales muestran que estas fibras tienen un uso potencial como refuerzo secundario en materiales compuestos cementicios.

  10. Effects of PVA and PEG on pH Dependent Shear Yield Stress of Concentrated Alumina Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGRenjie; B.RAND

    2002-01-01

    The pH dependence of the extrapolated shear yield stress for Alcoa A16 α-Al2O3 suspensions at the powder volume fraction of 0.27 with and without addition of both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) each at fixed 0.18% of the powder mass was studied. Whith the polymer added, the full deflocculation of the suspension shifts from about pH=4 to around pH=1.5, at which the minimum value of shear yied stress is higher than that at pH=4. The addition of both PVA and PEG was found to prevent the filter cake from cracking.

  11. Fabrication of Gd2O3 nanofibers by electrospinning technique using PVA as a structure directing template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangappan, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.; Elayaperumal, A.; Jayavel, R.

    2012-11-01

    Gd2O3 fibers from nano to submicron diameter were prepared by electrospinning technique. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a structure directing template for the synthesis of Gd2O3 fibers. The crystal structure and morphology of Gd2O3 fiber were studied by XRD and SEM analyses. The presence of functional groups was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of PVA/Gd2(NO3)2 hybrid fibers were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Gd2O3 nanofibers exhibit bright down and upconversion luminescence under ultraviolet light excitation, with potential applications as of light-emitting phosphors, advanced flat panel displays and biological labeling.

  12. A green salt-leaching technique to produce sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds with distinguished characteristics for wound-dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong; Tongsakul, Duangta; Bang, Nipaporn

    2015-05-01

    Sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds could be fabricated using the freeze-drying technique; they showed good physical and biological properties and can be applied as wound dressings. However, freeze-drying is an energy- and time-consuming process with a high associated cost. In this study, an alternative, solvent-free, energy- and time-saving, low-cost salt-leaching technique is introduced as a green technology to produce sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds. We found that sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds were successfully fabricated without any crosslinking using a salt-leaching technique. The salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds had a porous structure with pore interconnectivity. The sericin in the salt-leached scaffolds had a crystallinity that was as high as that of the freeze-dried scaffolds. Compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds with the same composition, the salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds has larger pores, a lower Young's modulus, and faster rates of biodegradation and sericin release. When cultured with L929 mouse fibroblast cells, a higher number of cells were found in the salt-leached scaffolds. Furthermore, the salt-leached scaffolds were less adhesive to the wound, which would reduce pain upon removal. Therefore, salt-leached sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffolds with distinguished characteristics were introduced as another choice of wound dressing, and their production process was simpler, more energy efficient, and saved time and money compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds.

  13. Aqueous Boron Removal by Using Electrospun Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) Mats: A Combined Study of IR/Raman Spectroscopy and Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Sik; Eom, Ki Heon; Lim, Jun-Heok; Ryu, Hyunwook; Kim, Suhan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Won, Yong Sun

    2017-03-23

    We report the use of a novel and efficient method to remove aqueous boron by using electrospun, water-resistant poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mats stabilized in methanol. The removal of the primary aqueous boron species as (B(OH)3), was accomplished by chemical adsorption in reactions with -OH (hydroxyl) groups on the PVA mat surface. The chemical adsorption of B(OH)3 was qualitatively confirmed by the analysis of IR and Raman spectra. The bands, corresponding to the molecular vibration modes of chemically bonded boron in PVA, were identified by using the frequency calculation from the computational chemistry for the first time. The adsorption capacities of PVA mats for aqueous boron were then quantitated at a low boron concentration (range: 0.0010 to 0.0025 g of aqueous boron per g of PVA mats) by the Carmine method. The PVA mats were prepared by a well-established electrospinning technique, which make these substrates promising potential candidates for use as boron-selective sorbent media in applications such as reverse osmosis desalination processes.

  14. Production of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers with encapsulated natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) using electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized electrospun fibers are of great interest for biomedical applications such as in the design of drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, in some cases the molecules of interest have poor solubility in water or have high melting temperatures. These drawbacks can be overcome using deep eutectic solvents. In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a common biodegradable biopolymer, was used to produce new functionalized fibers with the eutectic mixture choline chloride:citric acid in a mo...

  15. The effect of (He–Ne laser irradiation on the optical properties of methyl orange doped PVA films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi Al-kadhemy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of (He–Ne laser irradiation for different irradiant times on optical properties of (10 ml methyl orange doped PVA films were investigated. The films were prepared by casting method. Absorption and transmission spectra for all samples were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. All optical constants affected by laser irradiation such as refraction index, extinction coefficient, complex dielectric constants, and optical energy gap which decreased with increasing irradiation times.

  16. Future trends on the development of PVA fibers%浅析PVA纤维未来发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶应杨

    2014-01-01

    回顾了聚乙烯醇(PVA)纤维的发展,简述了PVA纤维及其衍生物的主要性能及生产应用.阐述目前亟待解决的PVA纤维产业化的难题,分析了PVA纤维市场潜力和应用方向,并对PVA纤维的发展做了展望.

  17. Controlled assemblies of gold nanorods in PVA nanofiber matrix as flexible free-standing SERS substrates by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Lv, Kong-Peng; Cong, Huai-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-03-12

    Under control: Controlled assemblies of gold nanorods in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber matrix with tunable optical properties can be achieved by using electrospinning. The resultant assemblies can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This work provides a facile way to control alignment of anisotropic nanostructures in a polymer nanofiber matrix and generates new assemblies with interesting properties.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of CdS/PVA nanocomposite thin films from a complexing agent free system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, D., E-mail: dulen.s@rediffmail.com [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sibsagar College, Joysagar 785665 (India); Saikia, P.K. [Department of Physics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786004 (India); Gogoi, P.K. [Center for Nanoscience and Composite Materials, Department of Chemistry, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786004 (India); Das, M.R.; Sengupta, P. [Materials Science Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, CSIR, Jorhat 785006 (India); Shelke, M.V. [Materials Chemistry Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, CSIR, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer-CdS nanocomposite thin films have been synthesized by in situ thermolysis of the precursors confined in polymer matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thesynthetic method is free from complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film was prepared within a short period (10-60 min) compared to conventionalCBD method, which takes longer time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method can yield pinhole free, homogeneous and transparent films very well adhered to thesubstrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film is suitable for application as a window layer in solar cell. - Abstract: CdS/PVA nanocomposite thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by in situ thermolysis of precursors dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The synthetic technique reported in this study is free from complexing agent and hence no need to control the pH of the solution as in the case of conventional CBD. The as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The XRD and SAED results indicated the formation of CdS nanoparticles with hexagonal phase in the PVA matrix. The photoluminescence and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that CdS/PVA films showed quantum confinement effect. From the shift in optical band gap, particle sizes were calculated using effective mass approximation (EMA) method and it was found to be in agreement with the results obtained from TEM observations. The SEM results indicated that as grown films were homogeneous with no visible pinholes and cracks. The film prepared at100 Degree-Sign C was found to be suitable for application as a window layer in solar cell.

  19. Study of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CNT reinforced PZT-PVA 0-3 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Prince; Prajapat, Rampratap; Manmeeta, Saxena, Dhiraj

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composites have the compliance of polymers which overcome the problems of brittleness in ceramics. By imbedding piezoelectric ceramic powder into a polymer matrix, 0-3 composites with good mechanical properties and high dielectric breakdown strength can be developed. The obtained composites of 0-3 connectivity exhibit the piezoelectric properties of ceramics and flexibility, strength and lightness of polymer. These composites can be used in vibration sensing and transducer applications specially as piezoelectric sensors. A potential way to improve piezoelectric& dielectric properties of theses composites is by inclusion of another conductive phase in these composites as reported in the literature. In present work, we prepared PZT-PVA 0-3 composites with 60% ceramic volume fraction reinforced with CNTs with volume ranging from 0 to 1.5 vol%. These CNT reinforced composites were obtained using hot press method with thickness of 200 µm having 0-3 conductivity. These composites were poled applying DC voltage. Dielectric properties of these samples were obtained in a wide frequency range (100 Hz to 1 Mhz) at room temperature. The piezoelectric properties of these composites were analyzed by measuring piezoelectric charge constants (d33). The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of these composites were studied as a function of CNT volume content. In these reinforced composites, CNTs act as a conductive filler dispersed in the matrix which in turn facilitates poling and results in an increase of the piezoelectric properties of the composite due to formation of percolation path through the composites. With a CNT content of 0.3 vol.% in PZT/PVA/CNTs, an increase of 61.3 % was observed in piezoelectric strain factors (d33). In these CNT reinforced composites, a substantial increase (approx. 67%) was also observed in dielectric constant and approximately 89% increase was observed in dielectric loss factor. Results so obtained are in the good

  20. 卡拉胶、膨润土改性PVA包埋小球%PVA-immobilized beads modified by carrageenan and bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成华; 刘鹏; 张文东; 刘洁; 曾雪梅

    2013-01-01

    PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球和PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球的性能进行比较,并首次使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土混合包埋材料制作包埋小球.结果表明,PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球在制作过程中有一定的拖尾现象,红墨水到达小球中心的时间为80 min,6d可去除50%的COD;PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球更容易成球,而且红墨水到达小球中心的时间为50 min,6d可去除56%的COD.此外,在PVA+卡拉胶包埋材料中添加适量的膨润土可以将红墨水到达小球中心的时间由50 min缩短到30 min.因此,使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土的混合材料制作包埋小球是可行的.最后,通过包埋小球处理抗生素废水的正交实验,得出包埋材料中各组分的最佳配比:PVA浓度11%、卡拉胶浓度0.5%、膨润土浓度2.5%.在这种配比下,包埋小球对抗生素废水中COD的去除率可以达到65%左右.%The performance of PVA-carrageenan immobilized beads and PVA-sodium alginate immobilized beads were compared,and PVA-carrageenan-bentonite was used as immobilized material for the first time.The results showed that PVA-sodium alginate beads were tailing during production,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 80 mins,and after 6 days' treatment,50% of COD was removed ; while PVA-carrageenan beads had better sphericity,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 50 mins and after 6 days' treatment,56% of COD was removed.Moreover,addition of bentonite into PVA-carrageenan could reduce the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads from 50 mins to 30 mins.Therefrore,PVA-arrageenan-bentonite was feasible as embedded material.Finally,the orthogonal experiment results indicated that the best concentrations of PVA,carrageenan and bentonite in immobilized beads were 11%,0.5% and 2.5%,respectively,and under this condition,the COD removal efficiency was about 65%.

  1. Photo-induced anisotropy in ZnO/PVA nanocomposites prepared by modified electrochemical method in PMA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchuk, O. M.; Ebothé, J.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A.; Tsurkova, L. V.; Marchuk, O. V.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Tkaczyk, S.; Kityk, I. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Vykhryst, O. M.; Urubkov, I. V.

    2017-02-01

    Substantial photo-induced optical anisotropy was discovered in ZnO/PVA nanocomposites under the influence of external bicolor laser illumination. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by electrolysis of a sodium chloride aqueous medium including poly-methacrylic acid (PMA) in a cell system having a soluble zinc anode. The structural analysis of the ZnO powder samples has been carried out by X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embedded ZnO films obtained from the powder samples possess larger grain sizes than those in powder form. The films were prepared from the same polymer matrix but elaborated with two different PVA contents which are respectively 15% and 30%. The photoinduced anisotropy was identified by using two bicolor Er: glass laser beams incident at different angles. Substantial influence of the technological processes on the embedded nanoparticle sizes and related birefringence was explored. The process of laser induced anisotropy shows an occurrence of birefringence saturation.

  2. Thermal Degradation of PVA Films in Soils%PVA膜在土壤中之热降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 郑皆达

    2009-01-01

    高分子材料时常被用在提高农业生产力,最近亦有许多研究将其应用在喷植植生工程的土壤改良上,使土壤团粒化及进而降低土壤侵蚀,在草种未发芽时达到水土保持的功效.聚乙烯醇(PVA)是广泛使用的高分子土壤改良剂之一,本研究使用扫描式电子显微镜(SEM)、红外线光谱仪(FT-IR)来分析土壤中PVA薄膜的受热降解的变化,研究结果显示PVA受热会产生降解,未来可视环境的差异选用不同的植生草种.%Polymers have been used as soil conditioners to enhance the productivity of agriculture for a long time. They were also used in water and soil conservation engineering for protection against erosion of soil recently. Polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the ag-gregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is one of the most impor-tant polymers that have been used for preventing from erosion of soil in the hillside. With its biodegradable property, PVA was widely

  3. Layer-by-layer assembled PVA/Laponite multilayer free-standing films and their mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar Patro, T.; Wagner, H. Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Structural arrangements of nanoplatelets in a polymer matrix play an important role in determining their properties. In the present study, multilayered composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with Laponite clay are assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition. The LBL films are found to be hydrated, flexible and transparent. A facile and solvent-free method—by depositing self-assembled monolayers (SMA) of a functional silane on substrates—is demonstrated for preparing free-standing LBL films. Evolution of nanostructures in LBL films is correlated with thermal and mechanical properties. A well-dispersed solvent-cast PVA/Laponite composite film is also studied for comparison. We found that structurally ordered LBL films with an intercalated nanoclay system exhibits tensile strength, modulus and toughness, which are significantly higher than that of the conventional nanocomposites with well-dispersed clay particles and that of pure PVA. This indicates that clay platelets are oriented in the applied stress direction, leading to efficient interfacial stress transfer. In addition, various grades of composite LBL films are prepared by chemical crosslinking and their mechanical properties are assessed. On account of these excellent properties, the LBL films may find potential use as optical and structural elements, and as humidity sensors.

  4. Diffusion coefficient, porosity measurement, dynamic and equilibrium swelling studies of Acrylic acid/Polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Mohammad Ranjha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present work was to synthesize hydrogels of acrylic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA by free radical polymerization by using glutaradehyde (GA as crosslinkers. The hydrogels were evaluated for swelling, diffusion coefficient and network parameters like the average molecular weight between crosslink’s, polymer volume fraction in swollen state, number of repeating units between crosslinks and crosslinking density by using Flory-Huggins theory. It was found that the degree of swelling of AA/PVA hydrogels increases greatly within the pH range 5-7. The gel fraction and porosity increased by increasing the concentration of AA or PVA. Increase in degree of crosslinking, decreased the porosity and inverse was observed in gel fraction. Selected samples were loaded with metoprolol tartrate. Drug release was studied in USP hydrochloric acid solution of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer solutions of pH 5.5 and 7.5. Various kinetics models like zero order, first order, Higuchi and Peppas model were used for in vitro kinetic studies. The results showed that the drug release followed concentration dependent effect (First order kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion. FTIR and SEM used to study the structure, crystallinity, compatibility, thermal stability and morphology of prepared and drug loaded hydrogels respectively.

  5. Assessment of PVA/silver nanocomposite hydrogel patch as antimicrobial dressing scaffold: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Koul, Veena, E-mail: veenak@iitd.ac.in

    2016-02-01

    A novel, elastic, non-adhesive and antimicrobial hydrogel PVA scaffold (loaded with AgNPs) synthesized using freeze-thaw method has been characterized in this study. The direct visualization of the as synthesized (one-pot green synthesis methodology) AgNPs using TEM shows particle size in the range of 7 ± 3 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was estimated to be 7.81 μg/mL, whereas for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative) it was around 3.90 μg/mL. The antimicrobial efficacy of AgNPs was further studied by protein leakage, ROS and LDH activity assay. The quantitative elemental analysis of silver was calculated before and after release in phosphate buffer (pH-7.4) by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The antimicrobial efficacy of the scaffold was retained even after 96 h of release of AgNPs which suggests that the scaffold can be used as a reservoir for AgNPs to maintain a moist and sterile environment for a long period of time. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of AgNPs and evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy • Synthesis of PVA hydrogel by freeze thaw technique • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs loaded PVA hydrogel by zone of inhibition • Release kinetics of AgNPs from hydrogel by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  6. PVA-PEG physically cross-linked hydrogel film as a wound dressing: experimental design and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Taher, Muhammad; Susanti, Deny; Jaffri, Juliana Md

    2017-04-05

    The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.

  7. Encapsulation and immobilization of papain in electrospun nanofibrous membranes of PVA cross-linked with glutaraldehyde vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Cortez, Iván E; Romero-García, Jorge; González-González, Virgilio; García-Gutierrez, Domingo I; Garza-Navarro, Marco A; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, papain enzyme (E.C. 3.4.22.2, 1.6 U/mg) was successfully immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. The morphology of the electrospun nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the diameter distribution was in the range of 80 to 170 nm. The presence of the enzyme within the PVA nanofibers was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analyses. The maximum catalytic activity was reached when the enzyme loading was 13%. The immobilization of papain in the nanofiber membrane was achieved by chemical crosslinking with a glutaraldehyde vapor treatment (GAvt). The catalytic activity of the immobilized papain was 88% with respect to the free enzyme. The crosslinking time by GAvt to immobilize the enzyme onto the nanofiber mat was 24h, and the enzyme retained its catalytic activity after six cycles. The crosslinked samples maintained 40% of their initial activity after being stored for 14 days. PVA electrospun nanofibers are excellent matrices for the immobilization of enzymes due to their high surface area and their nanoporous structure.

  8. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  9. Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dot-PVA hydrogel: a colorimetric sensor for Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Upama; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs)-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hybrid hydrogels were prepared using a simple, facile and cost-effective strategy. GOQDs bearing different surface functional groups were introduced as the cross-linking agent into the PVA matrix thereby resulting in gelation. The four different types of hybrid hydrogels were prepared using graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, ester functionalized graphene oxide and amine functionalized GOQDs as cross-linking agents. It was observed that the hybrid hydrogel prepared with amine functionalized GOQDs was the most stable. The potential applicability of using this solid sensing platform has been subsequently explored in an easy, simple, effective and sensitive method for optical detection of M2+ (Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+) in aqueous media involving colorimetric detection. Amine functionalized GOQDs-PVA hybrid hydrogel when put into the corresponding solution of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ renders brown, orange and blue coloration respectively of the solution detecting the presence of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions in the solution. The minimum detection limit observed was 1 × 10-7 M using UV-visible spectroscopy. Further, the applicability of the sensing material was also tested for a mixture of co-existing ions in solution to demonstrate the practical applicability of the system. Insight into the probable mechanistic pathway involved in the detection process is also being discussed.

  10. CdSe quantum dots stabilized by carboxylic-functionalized PVA: Synthesis and UV-vis spectroscopy characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, Alexandra A.P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) have drawn the attention of the research community in the last decade due to their potential use in the fast developing area of nanotechnology. In this study, it is reported the synthesis and characterization CdSe nanoparticles using acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-COOH) polymer as capping ligands via aqueous route at room temperature by methods of colloidal chemistry. Different molar concentrations of PVA-COOH were investigated aiming at producing stable nanoparticles using cadmium perchlorate and synthesized sodium selenosulfate. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to evaluate the kinetics and the relative stability of CdSe nanocrystals considering their size as-prepared and subsequent growth. The QDs sizes were estimated by the 'absorbance onset' from UV-vis spectroscopy spectra, considering theoretical and empirical methods. The results have indicated that precursor solution of PVA-COOH at concentration of 1.0 mol L{sup -1} was effective on stabilizing colloidal CdSe QDs in aqueous suspension. Moreover, ultra-small CdSe nanocrystals were produced with calculated average particles size under 2.0 nm, indicating they were in the so-called 'quantum-size confinement range'. Hence, it was developed a relatively simple colloidal route using a single-step method to produce CdSe QDs water soluble and commercially available polymers that offers a window of opportunities to explore these novel nanohybrid materials.

  11. Effect of PVA-co-MMA Copolymer on the Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Tropical Wood Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the effect of copolymer on the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of tropical wood and wood polymer composites (WPCs. Mixed monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were effectively impregnated into the cellular structure of several types of tropical wood, which then underwent a catalyst-thermal process to polymerize and form WPC. The manufacturing of WPC was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis. The SEM observation showed that polymer converted from monomers filled up wood cell cavities and tightly interacted with wood matrix. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that the degree of crystallinity was significantly improved upon impregnation with PVA-co-MMA copolymer. The modulus of elasticity (MOE and compressive modulus were found to be significantly higher after treatment with MMA/PVA indicating improvement of mechanical properties of the wood samples. In addition, the modified WPC had lower water absorption compared to their corresponding raw samples. It is interesting to note that thermogravimetric (TGA analysis shows an extensive improvement in thermal properties of WPC.

  12. 胶原蛋白/PVA/碳纳米管复合纤维的结构与性能%Structure and properties of collagen/PVA/carbon nanotubes composite fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓; 吴炜誉; 唐诗俊; 徐建军; 叶光斗

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/collagen/carbon nanotubes composite fiber was prepared from the composite solution of collagen and PVA incorporated with 0.05% -0.25% carbon nanotubes by mass fraction via wet spinning process.The structure and properties of the composite fiber were studied.The results showed that the carbon nanotubes had a fairly good compatibility with PVA and collagen and a uniform dispersion in the composite fiber.The crystallinity of the composite fiber was increased by 37.62% and the softening point in water by 5℃ and the moisture regain was decreased from 11.50% to 10.83% as the carbon nanotubes content was 0.25% by mass fraction.The breaking strength was increased by 57.07% as the carbon nanotubes content was 0.05% by mass fraction.%在胶原蛋白与聚乙烯醇(PVA)复合后的溶液中加入少量质量分数为0.05%~0.25%的碳纳米管,通过湿法纺丝制得PVA/胶原蛋白/碳纳米管复合纤维,研究了复合纤维的结构和性能.结果表明:碳纳米管与PVA和胶原蛋白有较好的相容性,在复合纤维中分散比较均匀.添加质量分数为0.25%碳纳米管时,复合纤维结晶度提高了37.62%,水中软化点提高了5℃,回潮率从11.50%下降到10.83%;加入质域分数为0.05%的碳纳米管时,复合纤维的断裂强度提高57.07%.

  13. 静电纺PVA/PEO共混纳米纤维膜的制备与性能表征%Preparation and characterization of PVA/PEO blended nanofiber films prepared by electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 刘胜凯; 贺文婷; 王莹

    2015-01-01

    The poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-poly ethylene oxide (PEO) blend nanofiber films was produced with electrospin-ning technology. The mechanical properties of blend films were tested, fiber microstructure was investigated by SEM, and thermal properties of films were investigated with TGA and DSC. The effects of mass ratio of PVA to PEO on the properties of blend films were analyzed. The results indicate that too much or too little PEO have no obvious improvement on the ability of forming wires of blend films, and when the mass ratio of PVA to PEO is 5∶5, the blend film has good ability of forming wires, the fiber is fine and uniform. Compared with pure films, the mechanical properties of blend films are improved in different degrees, when the mass ratio of PVA to PEO is 7∶3, the elongation and strength of blend films increase by 1 545.71%!and 66%, respectively. The thermal stability of PVA/PEO blend films are better than those of pure films, but the amount of PEO has little effect on the thermal properties of blend films.%采用静电纺丝技术制备聚乙烯醇(PVA)/聚氧化乙烯(PEO)共混纳米纤维膜,测试共混纤维膜的拉伸力学性能,采用SEM观察其微观形貌和结构,利用TGA和DSC分析共混纤维膜的热学性能,考察PEO与PVA共混比例对纤维膜性能的影响.结果表明:PEO加入过多或过少对共混纤维膜结构均无明显改善,当PVA∶PEO质量比为5∶5时,所得纤维膜成丝性和成膜性最佳,膜中纤维线密度最小且粗细均匀;与纯纺纤维膜相比,不同共混比例PVA/PEO纤维膜的力学性能均有不同程度提升,当PVA与PEO质量比为7∶3时其断裂强度和断裂伸长率较纯PVA分别提高了66%和1545.71%;PVA/PEO共混纤维膜的热稳定性优于纯PVA纤维膜,但PEO加入量的变化对共混纤维膜热学性能的影响较小.

  14. HYDROGEN-BOND DEFECT OF WATER IN PVA HYDROGELS BY RAMAN SPECTRAL ANALYSIS%不同结晶度聚乙烯醇水凝胶中水氢键缺损的拉曼光谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴林; 李福绵; 张树霖

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen-bond defect of water in PVA hydrogels was studied by Raman spectral analysis. The PVA hydrogels were prepared from PVA of different DP in different concentrations via freeze/thawed method.It was found that the hydrogen bond defect of water in PVA hydrogels is affected by their crystallinity which was depended on the molecular weight and concentration of PVA and also the number of freeze/thawed cycles.After swelling in water for 24?h,partial VA units were released from the crystalline regions,this means that more `free' VA units could bond with water in PVA hydrogels,causing the decrease of C value and the increase of N value.

  15. Radiological decontamination strippable coatings using PVA and PVP based core-shell polymeric scintillation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Sang; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Strippable coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination. These coatings are polymer mixtures, such as water-based organic polymers that are applied to a surface by paintbrush, roller or spray applicator. In this study, the core-shell composite polymer for decontamination from the surface contamination was synthesized by the method of emulsion polymerization and blends of polymers. The strippable polymer emulsion is composed of the poly(styrene-ethyl acrylate) [poly(St-EA)] composite polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The morphology of the composite emulsion particle was core-shell structure, with polystyrene (PS) as the core and poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) as the shell. Core-shell polymers of styrene (St)/ethyl acrylate (EA) pair were prepared by sequential emulsion polymerization in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an emulsifier using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Related tests and analysis confirmed the success in synthesis of composite polymer. The products are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA that were used, respectively, to show the structure, the thermal stability of the prepared polymer. Two-phase particles with a core-shell structure were obtained in experiments where the estimated glass transition temperature and the morphologies of emulsion particles. Decontamination factors (DF) of the strippable polymeric emulsion were evaluated with the polymer blend contents

  16. Preparation of Sulfonated PVA-TMSP Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel preparation and characterization of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA–trimethoxysilyl propanethiol (TMSP membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC application have been investigated. Preparation of sulfonated PVA-TMSP membrane was conducted by crosslinking steps using sol-gel method and a catalyst of concentrated HCl. TMSP concentrations were varied from 1% to 3%. The gel solution was cast on to the membrane metal plate to obtain membrane sheets. The membrane was then oxidized in H2O2 concentrations of (10-30% to convert the mercapto groups into sulfonate group. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the existence of sulfonate group were conducted by infrared spectroscopy as shown for frequencies at 1140–1200/cm and 1200–1145/cm respectively. The scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-rays (SEM–EDX of the membranes indicated that the distribution of silica particles from sol–gel reaction products was uneven due to the fast exchange rate of condensation. The degree of swelling decreased as methanol concentrations increase for sulfonated PVA–TMSP membrane which opposed toward the value of commercial Nafion membrane. The maximum value of ion exchange capacity of the membrane was 1.82 mmol/g whereas the highest proton conductivity was 3.9 x 10-4 S/cm. Therefore it can be concluded that the membrane was a potential candidate for application in DMFC.

  17. Comparison of a new photosensitizer with erythrosine B in an AA/PVA-based photopolymer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Li, Haoyu; Fouassier, Jean Pierre; Lalevée, Jacques; Sheridan, John T

    2014-02-20

    Dyes often act as the photoinitiator PI/photosensitizer PS in photopolymer materials and are therefore of significant interest. The properties of the PI/PS used strongly influences grating formation when the material layer is exposed holographically. In this paper, the ability of a recently synthesized dye, D_1, to sensitize an acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA) based photopolymer is examined, and the material performance is characterized using an extended nonlocal photopolymerization-driven diffusion model. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping (ESR-ST) experiments are also carried out to characterize the generation of the initiator/primary radical, R(•), during exposure. The results obtained are then compared with those for the corresponding situation when using a xanthene dye, i.e., erythrosine B, under the same experiment conditions. The results indicate that the nonlocal effect is greater when this new photosensitizer is used in the material. Analysis indicates that this is the case because of the dye's (D_1) weak absorptivity and the resulting slow rate of primary radical production.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Ion Conducting Solid Polymer Electrolytes from Biodegradable Polymers Starch And PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chatterjee,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Polymer electrolyte films have been prepared from Starch-Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA blend a well acknowledged biodegradable material. Solution cast technique was employed for the preparation of solid polymer electrolyte films added with Lithium Bromide (LiBr salt. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies of the prepared films portrayed the evolution of an amorphous structure with increasing content of salt which is an important factor that leads to the augmentation of conductivity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis revealed noticeable ionic conductivity ~ 5x 10-3 S/cm for 20 wt% of salt at ambient conditions. Ionic conductivity showed an increasing trend with salt content at ambient conditions. Transference number measurements confirmed the ionic nature of the prepared solid polymer electrolyte films. Dielectric studies revealed a sharp increase in the number of charge carriers which contributed to enhancement in conductivity. Low values of activation energy extracted from temperature dependent conductivity measurements could be favorable for device applications. For the composition with highest conductivity a temperature independent relaxation mechanism was confirmed by electric modulus scaling.

  19. Experimental study of primary radical generation in polyvinylalcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shui; Gleeson, Michael R.; Guo, Jinxin; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-05-01

    In the literature, several studies of the time varying photon absorption effects, which occur during the photo-initiation process in photopolymer materials, have been presented. Three primary mechanisms have been identified: (i) The photon absorption, (ii) the regeneration or recovery of the photosensitizer, and (iii) the photosensitizer bleaching. Based on the analysis of these mechanisms, the production of primary radicals can be physically described and modelled. In free radical photo-polymerization systems, the excited dye molecules induce the production of the primary radical, R•, which is a key factor that in determining how much monomer is polymerized. This in turn is closely related to the refractive index modulation, Δn, formed during holographic recording. In this article, by modifying the composition of a Polyvinylalcohol/Acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer material, i.e., excluding any co-initiator, the photo-kinetic behaviour of the material is greatly simplified, an experimental study is performed, which makes possible development and verification of a new model capable of accurately predicting the time varying concentration of primary radicals.

  20. Antimicrobial chitosan-PVA hydrogel as a nanoreactor and immobilizing matrix for silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Mukherji, Soumyo; Mukherji, Suparna

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogels are water-insoluble crosslinked hydrophilic networks capable of retaining a large amount of water. The present work aimed to develop a novel chitosan-PVA-based hydrogel which could behave both as a nanoreactor and an immobilizing matrix for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with promising antibacterial applications. The hydrogel containing AgNPs were prepared by repeated freeze-thaw treatment using varying amounts of the crosslinker, followed by in situ reduction with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Characterization studies established that the hydrogel provides a controlled and uniform distribution of nanoparticles within the polymeric network without addition of any further stabilizer. The average particle size was found to be 13 nm with size distribution from 8 to 21 nm as per HR-TEM studies. Swelling studies confirmed that higher amount of crosslinker and silver incorporation inside the gel matrices significantly enhanced the porosity and chain entanglement of the polymeric species of the hydrogel, respectively. The AgNP-hydrogel exhibited good antibacterial activity and was found to cause significant reduction in microbial growth ( Escherichia coli) in 12 h while such activity was not observed for the hydrogel without AgNPs.

  1. Experimental and numerical tribological studies of a boundary lubricant functionalized poro-viscoelastic PVA hydrogel in normal contact and sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michelle M; Ovaert, Timothy C

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogels are a cross-linked network of polymers swollen with liquid and have the potential to be used as a synthetic replacement for local defects in load bearing tissues such as articular cartilage. Hydrogels display viscoelastic time dependent behavior, therefore experimental analysis of stresses at the surface and within the gel is difficult to perform. A three-dimensional model of a hydrogel was developed in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS™, implementing a poro-viscoelastic constitutive model along with a contact-dependent flow state and friction conditions. Water content measurements, sliding, and indentation experiments were performed on neat polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and on low friction boundary lubricant functionalized (BLF-PVA) hydrogels, both manufactured by freeze-thaw processes. Modulus results from the indentation experiments and coefficient of friction values from the sliding experiments were used as material property inputs to the model, while water content was used to calculate initial flow conditions. Tangential force and normal displacement data from a three-dimensional simulation of sliding were compared with the experiments. The tangential force patterns indicated important similarities with the fabricated hydrogels that included an initially high force value due to time dependent deformation followed by a decrease in a stabile value. A similar trend was observed with the normal displacement. These comparisons rendered the model suitable as a representation and were used to analyze the development and propagation of stresses in the immediate surface region. The results showed that in a three-dimensional stress field during sliding, the maximum stress shifted to the surface and rotated closer to the leading edge of contact. This occurred because the stress field becomes dominated by an amplified compressive stress at the leading edge due to the biphasic viscoelastic response of the material during sliding. Also, the complex multi

  2. Magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yan; Zhang Xuehui; Hu Xiaoyang; Deng Xuliang [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China); Song Yu; Lin Yuanhua [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Han Bing [Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China); Wang Xinzhi, E-mail: kqdengxuliang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Prosthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2011-10-15

    In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. The aim of this study is to develop magnetic biodegradable fibrous materials with potential use in bone regeneration. Magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan (CS)/poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membranes were achieved by electrospinning with average fiber diameters ranging from 230 to 380 nm and porosity of 83.9-85.1%. The influences of polymer concentration, applied voltage and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading on the fabrication of nanofibers were investigated. The polymer concentration of 4.5 wt%, applied voltage of 20 kV and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading of lower than 5 wt% could produce homogeneous, smooth and continuous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that the crystalline structure of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CS and PVA were maintained during electrospinning process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} loading up to 5 wt% did not change the functional groups of CS/PVA greatly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed islets of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evenly distributed in the fibers. Weak ferrimagnetic behaviors of membranes were revealed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) test. Tensile test exhibited Young's modulus of membranes that were gradually enhanced with the increase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading, while ultimate tensile stress and ultimate strain were slightly reduced by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading of 5%. Additionally, MG63 human osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the magnetic nanofibrous membranes to evaluate their bone biocompatibility. Cell growth dynamics according to MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation exhibited good cell adhesion and proliferation, suggesting that this magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous

  3. PVA and PEG functionalised LSMO nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, S.V.; Nikam, D.S.; Khot, V.M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS India (India); Mali, S.S.; Hong, C.K. [Polymer Energy Materials Laboratory, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, S.H., E-mail: pawar_s_h@yahoo.com [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS India (India)

    2015-04-15

    La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized by a solution combustion method and functionalised with polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol. The induction heating characteristics of coated magnetic nanoparticles (42 °C) were observed at a reasonably low concentration (5 mg/mL). Remarkably, coated magnetic nanoparticles exhibited a promisingly high specific absorption rate with varying magnetic field and constant frequency. The surface analysis is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A reduction in the agglomeration of the particles was observed when the magnetic nanoparticles were functionalised with polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylene glycol and can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicate superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature before and after coating. Colloidal stability revealed a considerably higher zeta potential value for coated system. In vitro cytotoxicity test of the magnetic nanoparticles indicates that coated nanoparticles have no significant effect on cell viability within the tested concentrations (1–5 mg mL{sup -1}) as compared to uncoated La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. All these findings explore the potentiality of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of LSMO nanoparticles — first time with PVA • Surface functionalization of LSMO nanoparticles — first time with PEG • BSA protein — first time used as dispersion medium for stability of LSMO nanoparticles • The heating ability observed at low concentration • Improved efficiency of magnetic fluid hyperthermia treatment with surfactants.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of new nanocomposites films using alanine-Cu-functionalized graphene oxide as nanofiller and PVA as polymeric matrix for improving of their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Karshenas, Azam

    2017-09-01

    In the synthesis of polymer-graphene nanocomposites, for improving properties of nanocomposites, two factors dispersion and strong interfacial interactions between graphene and the polymer, are essential. In the present work, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were manufactured using concentrations 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of GO-Cu-alanine in water solution. For this purpose, L-alanine amino acid was located on the surface and edges of GO through copper(II) ion as a coordinating function. Then, flexible PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were fabricated using GO-Cu-alanine as filler and PVA as matrix. Due to the existence of affective interaction between GO-Cu-alanine and PVA matrix, the acquired PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposites demonstrated great thermal and mechanical properties. Properties of manufactured materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

  5. 抗氧剂在PVA熔融加工过程中的作用%Effect of Antioxidant on the Melting Process of PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丙祥; 王超; 陈弦; 何波兵

    2013-01-01

    选用了一种芳香胺类抗氧剂,并研究了此抗氧剂对聚乙烯醇(PVA)热稳定性的影响.通过用哈克密炼机、熔体流动速率仪、热重分析仪和双光束紫外可见光分光光度计对PVA的加工扭矩、熔体质量流动速率、热失重率以及PVA薄膜的透光率进行测试表征,证明了此抗氧剂对提高PVA的热稳定性效果明显.%In this paper, an arylamine antioxidant was chosen to improve thermo stability of PVA. The processing torque, melt index, thermal properties of PVA and the transmittance of PVA film were tested by torque rheometer, melt flow indexer and spectrophotometer. The results showed that the antioxidant was positive on improving the thermostability of PVA.

  6. Controllable promotion of chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels by controlled release of TGF-β1 from porous PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lei; Zhang, Guohua; Hou, Ruixia; Xu, Haiping; Li, Yaping; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels have been candidate materials for cartilage tissue engineering. However, the cell non-adhesive nature of PVA hydrogels has been a limit. In this paper, the cell adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels were promoted by compositing with transform growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) loaded porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. The porous microspheres were fabricated by a modified double emulsion method with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as porogen. The average pore size of microspheres was manipulated by changing the BSA/PLGA ratio. Such controllable porous structures effectively influenced the encapsulation efficiency (Eencaps) and release profile of TGF-β1. By compositing PVA hydrogels with such TGF-β1-loaded PLGA microspheres, chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted in a controllable manner, as confirmed by fluorescent imaging and quantitative CCK-8 assay. That is, the chondrocyte proliferation was favored by using PLGA microspheres with high Eencaps of TGF-β1 or by increasing the PLGA microsphere content in the hydrogels. These results demonstrated a facile method to improve the cell adhesion and growth on the intrinsically cell non-adhesive PVA hydrogels, which may find applications in cartilage substitution.

  7. Modeling of Ionic Conductivity Enhancement of LiClO4-PVA-C System by TiO2 Addition Using Complex Numerical Model of PDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Mahvash; Semnani, Dariush; Morshed, Mohammad; Rezaei, Behzad; Mirsoofian, Mehdi

    2013-12-01

    PVA-TiO2 nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (PEs) were produced with different amounts of TiO2 (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) using the electrospinning process. Morphological studies of PVA-TiO2 nanofibers were accomplished with SEM. PVA-TiO2 membranes exhibited a high porosity of 79-91%. The impedance results showed that incorporation of TiO2 into the nanofiber membrane improved its ionic conductivity from 0.7 × 10-5 to 2.5 × 10-5 S/cm at room temperature. Nanofiber PEs showed very good reversibility and electrochemical stability up to 4.7 V. Diffusion coefficient of Li ion into PVA-TiO2 nanocomposite PEs was estimated by using a complex numerical model of partial differential equation for evaluation of ion transmission. Diffusion coefficient of PVA-TiO2 PEs containing different amounts of TiO2 (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) increased with increasing the nanoparticles content.

  8. Preparation and properties of polyacrylate hydrophilic coating modified with PVA fiber%PVA 纤维改性聚丙烯酸酯亲水涂层的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海花; 徐文会; 郭丽媛; 费贵强

    2015-01-01

    In order to further improve the mechanical properties as well as continuous hydro‐philicity of polyacrylate ,water‐based PVA fibers were used to crosslinkedly modify polyacry‐late .Through the experiments ,blending method to use the aqueous PVA fibers was ex‐plored ,which should be used without heating and coat immediately when mixing .After the selecting of PVA fibers among the three aqueous PVA fibers ,sy‐6 was selected to modify the polyacrylate ,the effect of amount of sy‐6 on hydrophilic properties ,water resistance ,alkali resistance ,salt spray resistance ,tensile strength ,elongation at break and impact of flexibility were explored .The test results showed that when the amount of sy‐6 is added to 1 .5% ,the continuous contact angle reduces to 30 ° ,and the tensile strength increases to 5 .98 M Pa and elongation at break to 234 .55% .What′s more , the coating of modified polyacrylate per‐formes good flexibility ,and there was no exception in 1 mm shaft rod test .%为改善聚丙烯酸酯的力学性能和亲水性能,利用水溶性聚乙烯醇PV A 改性聚丙烯酸酯,研究并确定了水性PV A纤维使用方式为室温共混法,现混现涂.经过对水性PV A纤维的筛选,选择了sy‐6作为改性聚丙烯酸酯的纤维,并探讨了sy‐6的添加量对涂层亲水性、耐水性、耐碱性、耐盐雾性、拉伸强度、断裂伸长率以及柔韧性等的影响.结果表明,当sy‐6的添加量为1.5%时,涂层持续接触角可降至30°以下,拉伸强度为5.98 MPa,断裂伸长率为234.55%;且经过水性PV A纤维改性,聚丙烯酸酯涂层柔韧性很好,1 m m轴棒测试无异常.

  9. Sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol/polysulfone (SA-PVA/PSF) hollow fiber composite pervaporation membrane for dehydration of ethanol-water solution%用于乙醇-水分离的SA-PVA/PSF中空纤维渗透汽化复合膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凯; 许振良; 魏永明

    2008-01-01

    Using polysulfone (PSF) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes as the substrate, sodium alginate (SA) and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) blend solutions as the coating solution, and maleic anhydride (MAC) as the cross-linked agent, SA-PVA/PSF hollow fiber composite membranes were prepared for the dehydration of ethanol-water. The effects of differentsodium alginate concentration in the coating solutions and different operating temperatures on pervaporation performance wereinvestigated. The experimental results showed that pervaporation performance of the SA-PVA/PSF composite membranesfor ethanol-water solution exhibited a high separation factor although they had a relatively low permeation flux. As SAconcentration in SA-PVA coating solution was 66.7% and the operating temperature was 40 C, SA-PVA/PSF hollow fibercomposite membrane (PS4) had a separation factor of 886 and flux of 12.6 g/(m2.h). Besides, SA-PVA/PSF hollow fibercomposite membranes (PS3 and PS4) were used for the investigation of the effect of ethanol concentration in the feed solutionon pervaporation performance.

  10. Whole-Pattern Fitting and Positron Annihilation Studies of Magnetic PVA/α-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, K. S.; Mahesh, S. S.; Prakash, M. B. Nanda; Ningaraju, S.; Ravikumar, H. B.; Somashekar, R.; Nagabhushana, B. M.

    2016-06-01

    A low-temperature solution combustion method was used to synthesize α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/α-Fe2O3/NaCl nanocomposites were prepared by solvent cast method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results are in confirmation with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicating the formation of nanocomposites. The microcrystalline parameters, crystallite size ( ), lattice strain ( g in %), stacking faults ( α d ), and twin faults ( β) of prepared polymer nanocomposites were evaluated by whole-pattern fitting technique. The refinement was carried out using the computed microstructural parameters in which the twin faults and stacking faults did not vary much and statistical deviation was less than 5 %. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used for microstructural characterization. PALS results show that the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime (τ3) increases gradually as a function of nanoparticle concentration and about 219 ps increase observed from1.50 to1.71 ns at 3 wt%. This indicates the increase of free volume hole size ( V f ) from 54.47 to 72.18 Å3. The o-Ps intensities ( I 3) decrease indicating the inhibition of o-Ps formation upon incorporation of nanoparticles into PVA. The increase in I 2 values suggests the increased annihilation at the interface region. Positron lifetime parameters, viz., o-Ps lifetime, and its intensities indicate the effect of quenching and inhibition upon incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles and inorganic salt into PVA.

  11. Encapsulation and immobilization of papain in electrospun nanofibrous membranes of PVA cross-linked with glutaraldehyde vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Cortez, Iván E. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna # 140, San José de los Cerritos, Saltillo, Coahuila 25100, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (FIME), Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Apodaca, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Romero-García, Jorge, E-mail: jromero@ciqa.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna # 140, San José de los Cerritos, Saltillo, Coahuila 25100, México (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, papain enzyme (E.C. 3.4.22.2, 1.6 U/mg) was successfully immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. The morphology of the electrospun nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the diameter distribution was in the range of 80 to 170 nm. The presence of the enzyme within the PVA nanofibers was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analyses. The maximum catalytic activity was reached when the enzyme loading was 13%. The immobilization of papain in the nanofiber membrane was achieved by chemical crosslinking with a glutaraldehyde vapor treatment (GAvt). The catalytic activity of the immobilized papain was 88% with respect to the free enzyme. The crosslinking time by GAvt to immobilize the enzyme onto the nanofiber mat was 24 h, and the enzyme retained its catalytic activity after six cycles. The crosslinked samples maintained 40% of their initial activity after being stored for 14 days. PVA electrospun nanofibers are excellent matrices for the immobilization of enzymes due to their high surface area and their nanoporous structure. - Highlights: • Successfully attempt to immobilize the papain enzyme in electrospun nanofibers • The morphology of nanofibers did not change at moderate enzyme concentrations. • The retained activity of the immobilized enzyme was 88% relative to the free enzyme. • The immobilized enzyme retains 40% of the initial activity after 14 days of storage. • Potential application of this work in the fabrication of biosensors specialized in the detection of metal ions.

  12. Effects of molecular weight of PVA on formation, stability and deformation of compound droplets for ICF polymer shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meifang; Zheng, Yueqing; Li, Jie; Chen, Sufen; Liu, Yiyang; Li, Jing; Li, Bo; Zhang, Zhanwen

    2017-01-01

    Sphericity and wall thickness uniformity are some of the hardest specifications to fulfill, as required by inertial confined fusion (ICF) research for polymer shells prepared by the microencapsulation technique. Driven by the need to control the deformation of compound droplets, the effects of the molecular weight of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the formation and stability of the droplets, as well as the sphericity and wall thickness uniformity of the resulting shells, were investigated. On increasing the molecular weight of the PVA, the densities of the external water phases (W2) are almost the same, but the viscosity of the W2 phase increases more quickly than the interfacial tension. This makes the detaching force increase more quickly than the upward one, causing the formation of compound droplets and detachment from the oil tube. On the other hand, the increase in interfacial tension makes the maximum pressures ( P max) in the O phase (O) of the compound droplets increase, causing them to rupture easily and decreasing their stability. However, for PVA with the same molecular weight, the viscous shear force in the flowing field reduces the role of gravity and makes the inner water droplet move towards the center of the compound droplet, decreasing its P max in the flowing field and improving its stability. Moreover, during the solidifying process, the viscous shear force increases more quickly than the interfacial tension force due to the quicker increase in viscosity with an increase in the molecular weight of the PVA. The increase in the viscous shear force can make the droplets deform, resulting in a decrease in their sphericity. However, the appropriate viscous shear force can also center the compound droplet—although they become decentered when the viscous shear force is too large, leading to the wall thickness uniformity increasing at first before decreasing quickly. The results presented in this work provide a more in-depth understanding of the

  13. Synthesis of Azoxy Dyes and Their Copper Complexes and Their Application on Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Polarizing Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-bin; HE Jin-xin

    2008-01-01

    Azoxy dyes and their copper complexes with maximum dichroism in the spectrum range from 550 nm to 700 nm were synthesized and used to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polarizing films.These films showed excellent polarizing ability.In addition, a neutral gray polarizing film was prepared by mixing synthesized dichromatic dyes with other dyes.The obtained polarizable film for gray shade was little pervious to light over the visible radiation wavelength region, ranging from 400 nm to 700 nm at cross state, and excellent in the polarizing activities and stable to moisture and heat.

  14. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 1. Review and Agglomeration Regime Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    This paper, and two associated papers [Hede, P. D.; Jensen, A. D.; Bach, P. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1905 and 1914], address the fluid-bed coating of placebo enzyme granules (i.e., sodium sulfate cores, with a size range of 400-500 mu m) using two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO......2. The coating experiments were conducted in a medium-scale top-spray MP-1 fluid bed, and many rheological experiments were performed on the coating formulations to support the interpretation of the fluid-bed coating results. In this first part of the study, a thorough introduction to the inorganic...

  15. OligoPrep PVA support for oligonucleotide synthesis in columns on a scale up to 10 micromol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sheena; Anderson, Emma

    2007-01-01

    OligoPrep is a macroporous polyvinylacetate (PVA) biodegradable support that has been designed for cost-effective automated synthesis of oligonucleotides using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Originally developed for large-scale oligonucleotide synthesis in beds and reactors, we present here its utility for medium-scale work of 1-10 micromol in column syntheses on standard DNA synthesizers. We show how an increase in scale, and, therefore, yield, can be achieved without significant increase in reagent quantity. Additional deblock and oxidation cycles can provide high coupling yields, and the use of concentrated ammonia in aqueous methylamine (AMA) for oligonucleotide cleavage and deprotection results in excellent recovery.

  16. Sulfated chitosan/PVA absorbent membrane for removal of copper and nickel ions from aqueous solutions-Fabrication and sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saied, M A; Wycisk, Ryszard; Abbassy, Moustafa M; El-Naim, G Abd; El-Demerdash, F; Youssef, M E; Bassuony, H; Pintauro, Peter N

    2017-06-01

    Novel absorbents for the removal of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) ions from aqueous solutions were prepared from solution cast sulfated chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol membranes (SCS/PVA) and their properties were investigated. FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA analyses were used to determine membrane structure. The effect of environmental parameters on absorption was studied, including pH, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Freundlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms were fitted to experimental data and a pseudo-second order rate equation was employed to model the kinetics of uptake for several copper and nickel ion concentrations. The results indicate that the affinity of an SCS/PVA membrane for Cu(2+) ions was higher than that for Ni(2+) ions. The study demonstrated that the SCS/PVA system can be utilized as highly efficient sorbents, to extract Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) from aqueous feed solutions.

  17. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles-modified PVA/H4SiW12O40 nanofibers-based electrospinning to enhance photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chunhong; Li, Chao; Guo, Xiaohong; Cheng, Tiexin; Gao, Yukun; Zhou, Guangdong; Gong, Jian; Du, Jianshi

    2012-07-01

    Regarding poly(vinyl alcohol)/silicotungstic acid (PVA/H4SiW12O40) gel as precursor, the silver nanoparticles (NPs) were selectively deposited on the surface of the PVA/H4SiW12O40 nanofibers by using electrospinning and photoreduction methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to affirm the structure and formation of tri-component nanohybrids. Field environmental scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy indicate that the average diameter of silver NPs was changed from 25 nm to 50 nm, with decreasing the relative concentration of SiW12 in the as-electrospun nanofibers. The nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine B. This result arises from the synergistic effects and the large specific surface areas of Ag/PVA/H4SiW12O40 tri-component nanohybrids.

  18. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 3. The Role of Tackiness and the Tack Stokes Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first and second parts of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1893 and 1905], agglomeration tendencies were studied for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. Results showed that the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt...... coating process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions, because of differences in stickiness, not because of differences in bulk viscosities. It was further shown that it is possible to optimize the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency...... of agglomeration, similar to the salt coating process. With the PVA-TiO2, coating liquid layer thicknesses encountered during these fluid-bed coating processes, agglomeration seems to be governed primarily by liquid surface phenomena. A modification to the original viscous Stokes number is suggested in the present...

  19. PVA/Nano-SiO2杂化膜的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Properties of PVA/Nano-SiO2 Hybrid Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟长龙; 王延伟; 王玉周; 高元元; 于翔

    2014-01-01

    以聚乙烯醇(PVA)和正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)为原料,通过溶胶-凝胶(Sol-Gel)技术,制备出不同nano-SiO2含量的PVA/nano-SiO2杂化膜,并采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)等仪器测试和分析了杂化膜的结构和性能.结果表明:随着nano-SiO2含量的增加,PVA杂化膜的耐水性能增强,结晶能力下降,而力学性能呈现先增大后减小的趋势.当nano-SiO2的加入量在10%左右时,断裂伸长率由纯PVA膜的34.74%提高到55.52%,拉伸强度从33.08 MPa增加到49.98 MPa;而当nano-SiO2含量增加到20%以上时,nano-SiO2粒子会发生团聚,使得杂化膜的力学性能变差.

  20. Preparation and Properties of High Barrier Coating Liquid of PVA%高阻隔PVA涂布液的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐龙祥; 王安锋; 刘春华; 方华高; 方治齐

    2011-01-01

    The high barrier coating liquid of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared with the self-restraint agent via solution blending method. The viscosity and water absorption of coating liquid, the adhesion between coating liquid and substrate, the barrier properties of the composite films were studied. The results show that in comparison with unmodified coating liquid of PVA, the shortcoming of increasing viscosity with changes of time and temperature is weaken by modification. The modified coating liquid of PVA can be coated onto the surfaces of polyethylene (PE), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) directly due to the well adhesion between coating liquid and substrate. Moreover, the water uptake of modified coating liquid is smaller than that of pure PVA, and the modified PVA films possess an excellent performance in barrier.%用自制改性剂通过溶液共混法制得高阻隔聚乙烯醇(PVA)涂布液,对涂布液黏度、吸水性、与基材的附着力及复合薄膜的阻隔性能进行了测试.结果表明,与未改性PVA涂布液相比,通过改性能有效减小PVA涂布液随时间和温度变化黏度增大的弊端;改性PVA涂布液与基材具有良好的附着力,可直接在聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)、双向拉伸聚丙烯(BOPP)、聚乙烯(PE)等薄膜表面涂覆;改性涂布液的吸湿率比纯PVA的小;改性PVA复合薄膜阻隔性能优良.

  1. Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeev Kumar, S.; Kumar, M. Santosh [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Siddavattam, D. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Karegoudar, T.B., E-mail: goudartbk@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF was compared by free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells entrapped in PVA-alginate have shown more tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVA-alginate beads removed DMF even in the presence of other organic solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF from industrial effluents by PVA-alginate blended batch operations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of industrially feasible remediation strategy for DMF removal. - Abstract: Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF.

  2. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Polivinil Alkohol (PVA Terhadap Performa Elektrokimia LiTi2(PO43 Hasil Proses Sol-Gel Sebagai Anoda Untuk Baterai Ion Lithium Tipe Aqueous Elektrolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Azmy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang baterai ion lithium sebagai sistem penyimpanan energi berkembang begitu pesat. Pada baterai ion lithium, salah satu bagian utama adalah anoda yang terdiri atas material LiTi2(PO43. Maka, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentarsi polivinil alkohol (PVA terhadap performa elektrokimia LiTi2(PO43 sebagai anoda baterai ion lithium. Proses sintesis material LiTi2(PO43 dilakukan dengan proses sol-gel menggunakan Li2CO3, TiO2, NH4H2PO4, dan variasi penambahan konsentrasi 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt% polivinil alkohol (PVA. Pada pengujian XRD dari ketiga sampel, teridentifikasi LiTi2(PO43 sesuai dengan JCPDS 35-074 meskipun masih ada fasa lain dalam intensitas yang kecil. Pengujian SEM menunjukkan bahwa material LiTi2(PO43 5wt% PVA memiliki ukuran partikel yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan lainnya. Namun demikian, ukuran partikel tidak merata dan masih ada sedikit aglomerasi karena proses kalsinasi pada temperatur tinggi. Pengujian performa elektrokimia Cyclic Voltammetry (CV menunjukkan bahwa anoda LiTi2(PO43 5wt% PVA menunjukkan nilai kinetik ion yang tinggi, karena pada anoda tersebut memiliki ukuran partikel yang paling kecil dibandingkan yang lainnya sehingga meningkatkan difusivitas ion Li+. Adapun pengujian Galvanostat Charge-Discharge menunjukkan bahwa anoda LiTi2(PO43 5wt% PVA memiliki stabilitas yang lebih baik karena pada anoda LiTi2(PO43 5wt% PVA memiliki sebaran ukuran partikel yang lebih kecil sehingga transfer ion saat proses interkalasi/de-interkalasi dapat berlangsung secara stabil.

  3. 水溶性维纶(PVA)纤维及其与羊毛混纺物的水溶解性能研究%Investigation on the water soluble property of PVA fiber and the yarn and fabric of wool/PVA fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙

    2003-01-01

    通过研究PVA纤维、羊毛/维纶(PVA)混纺纱线和羊毛/PVA混纺织物中的PVA溶解特性,得出PVA纤维的状态、处理温度和时间对PVA完全溶解有明显影响.同时分析了PVA溶解程度对混纺纱线的纱支、强力以及织物的强力、经纬密度的影响.

  4. 涤棉品种应用部分醇解PVA的浆纱实践%Sizing Practice of Using Partial Alcoholysis PVA in Polyester Cotton Variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新乾; 朱亚慧

    2007-01-01

    为了减少涤棉混纺产品浆料配方中PVA的用量,降低上浆成本,应用PVA-217SB低醇解度PVA、润力浆料进行了上浆实践.结果表明:应用PVA-217SB低醇解度PVA、润力浆料上浆后,减少了PVA用量,提高了浆纱质量,减少了经向断头,提高了织机效率,并且降低了用浆成本.

  5. 国内PVA薄膜材料改性研究进展%Domestic Research Development of Modified PVA in Thin Film Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉彬; 刘全校; 许文才; 李金丽

    2011-01-01

    聚乙烯醇(PVA)是一种性能优异、用途广泛的薄膜材料,在水溶性及可降解性等方面具有独特优点。文章对PVA的优点、特性作了简要介绍。PVA分子链上含有大量羟基,亲水性较高,在湿度较大的情况下,其阻隔性会急剧下降;PVA熔融温度和分解温度十分相近,给热塑加工带来了困难;PVA是一种可完全降解的高分子聚合物,但其薄膜生物降解周期较长;PVA用作制备亲水膜的材料,但PVA膜纯水渗透量高,其在湿态的稳定性和力学性能不佳。因此,需要对PVA进行不同的改性才能使其达到优良的性能。从PVA的耐水性和水溶性改性、热塑性加工的改性、生物降解性的改性和PVA膜渗透和稳定性改性等4方面对PVA薄膜用材料改性研究方面的进展进行了综述。%Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a thin film material with excellent properties and wide applications. Because of the unique advantages of PVA in water solubility, degradability as well as other aspects, it becomes the one of hot spots of current researches. PVA molecular chains contain a large number of hydroxyl groups and have high hydrophilic properties. In the case of high humidity, barrier property of PVA reduces sharply; the melting temperature of PVA is very similar to de- composition temperature, it makes the thermoplastic processing difficuh; PVA is a fully degradable polymers, but it has long biodegradable cycle; PVA is used to prepare hydrophilic membrane materials, but it has high level of waterpermeability, leading to the properties in the wet, so PVA poor stability and mechanical need to be modified in different aspects to achieve excellent performance. In this paper the ad- vantages and characteristics of PVA are described, some modified methods and applications in water resistance and water solubility, biodegradability, thermoplastic processing, membrane permeability and stability are reviewed.

  6. Compatibility in Gelatin/PVA Composite Films%明胶/聚乙烯醇共混复合膜的相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高喜平; 刘捷; 汤克勇; 张玉清

    2013-01-01

    以明胶(Gel)和聚乙烯醇(PVA)为基体,通过溶液共混、浇铸成膜的方法制备了一系列明胶/聚乙烯醇共混复合膜.采用分光光度法、红外光谱(IR)、扫描电镜(SEM)、热重(TG)和差示扫描量热法(DSC)初步表征了复合膜的结构,研究了两组分间的相容性.结果表明,在Gel和PVA质量比为1∶5时,Gel/PVA复合膜的透光性最好;SEM结果显示,复合膜中明胶与聚乙烯醇之间没有发生相分离;DSC测试显示,复合膜的玻璃化转变温度(Tg)并不明显;TG测试结果显示,在失重20%、40%、50%时,Gel/PVA复合膜比纯PVA膜的热失重温度提高了很多.%In this paper,hydrophilic polymer such as gelatin (Gel) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) used as materials,a series of composite films with various mass ratio of Gel/PVA were obtained by solution blending.The measurements of absorbency,infrared spectroscopy (IR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thermogravimetry analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to characterize the compatibility between Gel and PVA in the blending systems.The results show that the transparency of blending film is the highest with the mass ratio of Gel/PVA of 1∶5.There is no phase separation observed by SEM.The glass transition temperature(Tg) of the Gel/PVA composite film was not observed in the DSC curves.The mass loss temperature of Gel/PVA film were higher than that of pure PVA film when the mass loss is 20 %,40 %,50 %,respectively in the TG curves.

  7. Effect of Polymerization Degree and Alcoholization Degree of PVA to Sizing Polyester Cotton Blended Yarn%PVA聚合度和醇解度对涤棉混纺纱上浆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世洪

    2008-01-01

    研究PVA的聚合度和醇解度对涤棉混纺纱浆纱质量的影响.应用PVA-0588、PVA-0599、PVA-1788、PVA-1799等不同醇解度、不同聚合度的PVA对纯棉纱和涤棉混纺纱进行了浆纱试验.结果表明:聚合度和醇解度不同,PVA的成膜性、水溶性及对纤维的粘附力会有很大差异;部分醇解PVA具有较好的吸湿性和水溶性;PVA-1788对于涤棉混纺纱上浆具有更好的浆纱性能.

  8. Structural, optical, opto-thermal and thermal properties of ZnS–PVA nanofluids synthesized through a radiolytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kharazmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a fast, clean and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnS–PVA nanofluids consisting of ZnS nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in a PVA solution. The ZnS nanoparticles were formed by the electrostatic force between zinc and sulfur ions induced by gamma irradiation at a dose range from 10 to 50 kGy. Several experimental characterizations were conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was used to determine the chemical structure and bonding conditions of the final products, transmission electron microscopy (TEM for determining the shape morphology and average particle size, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD for confirming the formation and crystalline structure of ZnS nanoparticles, UV–visible spectroscopy for measuring the electronic absorption characteristics, transient hot wire (THW and photoacoustic measurements for measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity of the samples, from which, for the first time, the values of specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the samples were then calculated.

  9. Structural, optical, opto-thermal and thermal properties of ZnS-PVA nanofluids synthesized through a radiolytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Alireza; Faraji, Nastaran; Mat Hussin, Roslina; Saion, Elias; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Behzad, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a fast, clean and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnS-PVA nanofluids consisting of ZnS nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in a PVA solution. The ZnS nanoparticles were formed by the electrostatic force between zinc and sulfur ions induced by gamma irradiation at a dose range from 10 to 50 kGy. Several experimental characterizations were conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical structure and bonding conditions of the final products, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for determining the shape morphology and average particle size, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for confirming the formation and crystalline structure of ZnS nanoparticles, UV-visible spectroscopy for measuring the electronic absorption characteristics, transient hot wire (THW) and photoacoustic measurements for measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity of the samples, from which, for the first time, the values of specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the samples were then calculated.

  10. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity and transport properties of LiClO4-doped PVA/modified cellulose composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil G Rathod; R F Bhajantri; V Ravindrachary; P K Pujari; G K Nagaraja; Jagadish Naik; Vidyashree Hebbar; H Chandrappa

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation on physicochemical properties and ionic conductivity of LiClO4-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/modified cellulose composites. The percolative behaviour of LiClO4 with dc conductivity (dc) for different LiClO4 weight fractions (p) related to transport dimensionality was also focused. The highest ionic conductivity of 9.79 × 10–6 S cm–1 was observed for 20 wt% LiClO4 doping level at room temperature. The activation energies (g) were estimated using temperature-dependent conductivity, which follows the Arrhenius and Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher (VTF) relation. The dynamic fragility () and activation energy (g) vs. g of polymer composites using equivalence of the both Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) and VTF equations were also correlated. Transport properties such as travel time of ions between sites (o), mobility (), diffusion coefficient () and number of transitions per unit time () for normal cationic (Li+) hopping process of LiClO4-doped PVA/mCellulose composites have been investigated using the Rice and Roth model.

  11. Magnetic hydrogel beads based on PVA/sodium alginate/laponite RD and studying their BSA adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Mousanezhad, Sedigheh; Hosseinzadeh, Hamed; Darvishi, Farshad; Sabzi, Mohammad

    2016-08-20

    In this study double physically crosslinked magnetic hydrogel beads were developed by a simple method including solution mixing of sodium alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing magnetic laponite RD (Rapid Dispersion). Sodium alginate and PVA were physically crosslinked by Ca(2+) and freezing-thawing cycles, respectively. Magnetic laponite RD nanoparticles were incorporated into the system to create magnetic response and strengthen the hydrogels. All hybrids double physically crosslinked hydrogel beads were stable under different pH values without any disintegration. Furthermore, adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the hydrogel beads was investigated on the subject of pH, ion strength, initial BSA concentration, and temperature. Nanocomposite beads exhibited maximum adsorption capacity for BSA at pH=4.5. The experimental adsorption isotherm data were well followed Langmuir model and based on this model the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 127.3mgg(-1) at 308K. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and monolayer adsorption of BSA on magnetic nanocomposites beads.

  12. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal.

  13. Studies on photo- and thermal stability of PVA-encapsulated Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, Savadana; Ramanaiah, K.; Sarcar, M. M. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an aqueous-based synthesis route has been developed to prepare highly luminescent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-capped manganese-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The QDs showed markedly blue shift in their optical absorbance, indicating strong quantum size effect and the average diameter of the QDs calculated ~3 nm. The QDs showed high-intensity Mn2+-related orange luminescence at 585 nm with a very low-intensity peak at 430 nm for the surface defect states. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry have been used to characterize the doped QDs. Studies on the thermal and photochemical stability of the photoluminescence properties are carried out, which showed that after 5 h of photoexcitation and 30 min of 70 °C treatments, the nanoparticles retain almost 40 % of their initial quantum yield. Our systematic investigation shows that these PVA-capped Mn:ZnS QDs may be used as fluorescent labels in biological applications.

  14. PVA/CM-chitosan/honey hydrogels prepared by using the combined technique of irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, M. J.; Sheikh, N.; Afarideh, H.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogels with three components, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), carboxymethylate chitosan (CM-chitosan) and honey have been prepared by using radiation method and radiation followed by freeze-thawing cycles technique (combinational method). The solid concentration of the polymer solution is 15 wt% and the ratios of PVA/CM-chitosan/honey are 10/1.5/3.5, 10/2/3, 10/3/2, and 10/3.5/1.5. The applied irradiation doses are 25, 30 and 40 kGy. Various tests have been done to evaluate the hydrogel properties to produce materials to be used as wound dressing. The results show that combinational method improves the mechanical strength of hydrogels while it has no significant effect on the water evaporation rate of gels. The combinational method decreases the swelling of hydrogels significantly, albeit this parameter is still acceptable for wound dressing. Microbiological analyses show that the hydrogel prepared by both methods can protect the wound from Escherichia coli bacterial infection. The wound healing test shows the good performance of the gels in mice.

  15. Characterization of Microcystis Aeruginosa immobilized in complex of PVA and sodium alginate and its application on phosphorous removal in wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 毛文娟; 李雪; 王晓钰; 肖智华; 周耀渝; 曾光明

    2015-01-01

    Based on ecological niche theory, Microcystis Aeruginosa (MA) immobilized in the complex of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (SA) crosslinked by CaCl2, was treated as a new kind of special species, and its properties were investigated. Chlorophyll a was used to characterize the bioactivity of the immobilized MA. Results reveal that the gel beads have mechanical strength and chemical stability even under non-sterile harsh conditions, which may be attributed to the rarely seen structure (including three different layers: dense surface, tubular-shaped divergent structure and honeycomb crystal lattice layer) of the immobilized MA determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM also displays that more quantity of MA is attached to the inwall after cultivation, which demonstrates that the MA within beads maintains high bioactivity. Removal capacities on phosphorous (P) removal in wastewater in the presence and absence of the BG-11 medium were examined, and the removal ratios are 80.3%and 76.7%, respectively, which indicates that the beads without providing ample nutrients still have high capacity of P removal. In addition, control experiment, utilizing polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate (PVA-SA) beads without immobilized MA, demonstrates that MA within beads plays the key role in absorbing P.

  16. Crack Healing Performance of PVA-Coated Granules Made of Cement, CSA, and Na₂CO₃ in the Cement Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Soo; Ryou, Jae-Suk

    2016-07-09

    Various self-healing methods for concrete, such as the use of supplementary cementitious materials, adhesive agents, mineral admixtures, and bacteria, have been suggested to date, and each of these has merits and demerits. Among these, however, the use of cementitious materials may be appropriate due to their good healing efficiency, low cost, and compatibility with the cement matrix. In this study, granulation and coating methods were applied to a new cementitious composite material. The self-healing property of these materials was controlled by the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating until cracks were created. Water dissolved the PVA coating after entering through the cracks, and reacted with the healing materials to generate healing products. The self-healing performance was evaluated at various elapsed times through the measurement of the crack widths, visual observation, and examination of the microscopic images. Simultaneously, a water permeability test was performed and the dynamic modulus of elasticity was measured to verify the recovery of the cracks. In addition, the healing products that had been formed in the cracks were analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Soft X-ray induced modifications of PVA-based microbubbles in aqueous environment: a microspectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Fernandes, Paulo; Wenzel, Stephan; Fery, Andreas; Paradossi, Gaio; Fink, Rainer H

    2009-02-21

    We use scanning-transmission X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) for in situ characterization of the physicochemical changes in air-filled poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based microbubbles upon soft X-ray irradiation. The microbubbles were illuminated directly in aqueous suspension with 520 eV X-rays and a continuous shrinkage of the particles with an illumination time/radiation dose was observed. Utilizing the intrinsic absorption properties of the species and the high spatial resolution of the STXM, the modifications of the particles' structure were simultaneously recognized. A thorough characterization of the microbubble volume, membrane thickness and absorption coefficient was performed by quantitative fitting of the radial transmittance profiles of the targeted microbubbles. Apart from the observed volume contraction, there was no significant change in the shell thickness. The chemical changes in the membranes were clarified via C K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It was revealed that the observed structural alterations go along with a continuous degradation of the PVA network associated with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing species as well as an increased content of unsaturated bonds.

  18. Cola à base de PVA e argamassa de solo-cimento como alternativas para o assentamento de alvenaria de tijolos maciços de solo-cimento PVA glue and cement soil mortars as alternatives for laying cement soil blocks masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisleiva C. dos S. Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi analisada a viabilidade de emprego de cola à base de PVA e argamassa de solo-cimento no assentamento de paredes de alvenaria de tijolos maciços de solo-cimento, em substituição à argamassa usual (cimento, cal e areia. Pequenos prismas, executados com quatro tijolos maciços de solo-cimento e assentados com as argamassas e a cola de PVA, foram ensaiados à compressão e à flexão. Os resultados dos ensaios dos prismas executados com a argamassa de assentamento usual foram tomados como padrão esperado de comportamento para os outros prismas executados com argamassa de solo-cimento e com cola de PVA. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios dos prismas indicaram que tanto cola à base de PVA quanto argamassa de solo-cimento podem ser empregadas, satisfatoriamente, no assentamento de painéis de alvenaria de tijolos maciços de solo-cimento.This study presents the results of an experimental investigation in characterizing the properties of cement soil block masonry using cement-soil mortars and PVA glue. The study deals with the scantily explored area of tensile bond strength of soil-cement block masonry using cement-soil mortars and PVA glue. Flexural bond strength of masonry has been determined by testing stack-bonded prisms using a bond wrench test set-up. The study clearly demonstrates the superiority of cement-soil mortar over other conventional mortar such as cement mortar. The results of this study can be conveniently used to select a proportion for cement-soil mortar or PVA glue proportion for cement soil block masonry structures.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of An Alkaline Solid PVA-PC-KOH-H20 Electrolyte%PVA-PC-KOH-H20碱性固体聚合物电解质的制备和表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月丽; 刘建; 王松林; 张金标

    2012-01-01

    以PVA—KOH—H20体系碱性固体聚合物电解质为基质,添加适量碳酸丙烯酯(PC)做增塑剂来提高性能。利用X一射线衍射分析、红外光谱技术分析、交流阻抗谱和循环伏安法等对样品进行了表征。研究结果表明,聚合物电解质以无定形态为主,含极少量晶相,PC的适量添加可以降低电解质膜的结晶度增大无定形区域,从而提高室温离子电导率,当PVA:PC=3:I(质量比)复合电解质膜的室温电导率最高可达4.41x10-2S/cm,同时电化学稳定窗口也满足使用要求(相对于不锈钢电极,其电压稳定窗口为3.5v)。%A composite alkaline solid polymer electrolyte(ASPE) based on PVA-KOH-H20 were prepared using polyearbonate (PC) as plasficizem. The properties of PVA based composite alkaline polymer electrolytes were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy analysis (IR),cyelie voltammetry and AC impedanee methods. The experimental results indicated that ASPE films showed anamorphous phase with farthing crystal phase, the addition of PC redueed the crystallinity of ASPE to make amorphous region augmented. The ionic eonductivity of the electrolyte was improved with the content of PC inereased appropriately, the electrolyte's ionic conductivity is up to a maximum(4.41xl0-2 S/em)when the weight ratio PVA/PC is equal to 3, and the electrochemical potential stability window was 3.5V for SS/ASPE/SS ( SS for stainless steel) that can meet the ecmioment' demands for their electrolytes.

  20. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...... process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions. This is investigated further in this second part and concluded to be due to differences in coating solution stickiness, rather than differences in bulk viscosities. Furthermore, results show that it is possible to optimize...... the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating...

  1. Structural and magnetic characteristics of PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-composites prepared via mechanical alloying method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, S.; Ataie, A., E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles synthesized in one step by mechanical alloying. • PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nano-composites were fabricated via mechanical milling. • FTIR confirmed the interaction between PVA and magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. • Increasing in milling time and PVA amount led to well dispersion of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: In this research, polyvinyl alcohol/cobalt ferrite nano-composites were successfully synthesized employing a two-step procedure: the spherical single-phase cobalt ferrite of 20 ± 4 nm mean particle size was synthesized via mechanical alloying method and then embedded into polymer matrix by intensive milling. The results revealed that increase in polyvinyl alcohol content and milling time causes cobalt ferrite particles disperse more homogeneously in polymer matrix, while the mean particle size and shape of cobalt ferrite have not been significantly affected. Transmission electron microscope images indicated that polyvinyl alcohol chains have surrounded the cobalt ferrite nano-particles; also, the interaction between polymer and cobalt ferrite particles in nano-composite samples was confirmed. Magnetic properties evaluation showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and anisotropy constant values decreased in nano-composite samples compared to pure cobalt ferrite. However, the coercivity values of related nano-composite samples enhanced by increasing PVA amount due to domain wall mechanism.

  2. PVA-Silicasol Waterborne Architectural Coatings%聚乙烯醇硅溶胶系水性建筑涂料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金贞玉; 邹国华

    2013-01-01

    采用一种无机改性交联剂可以有效屏蔽聚乙烯醇(PVA)上部分羟基,改性后的PVA与硅溶胶产生半互穿网络(Semi-IPN)连接,形成复合胶.所得的复合胶既有聚乙烯醇的优良成膜性,又有硅溶胶的耐水性和硬度,再加入优质廉价的颜填料,适当调节体系性能,便可生产出性价比高的环保水溶性建筑涂料.%The use of an inorganic modified - crosslinker could effectively shield off part of the hydroxyl group in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) , and the modified PVA and silicasol formed a semi -interpenetrating network (semi -IPN) connection, resulting a compound adhesive. The compound adhesive could provide good film forming ability of PVA, as well as the water resistance and film hardness of the siliconsol. Adding quality cheap pigments and fillers in the compound adhesive and properly adjusting system performance, a cost -effective, environmental friendly watersoluble architectural coatings could be formulated.

  3. pH-responsive, dynamically restructuring hydrogels formed by reversible crosslinking of PVA with phenylboronic acid functionalised PPO–PEO–PPO spacers (Jeffamines®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piest, Martin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Trinidad, Jeffrey; Engbersen, Johan F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamically restructuring (“self-healing”) hydrogels were prepared by reversible formation of boronic-ester crosslinks between α,ω-phenylboronic acid terminated PPO–PEO–PPO spacers and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For this purpose two different bis-(phenylboronic acid) functionalised crosslinkers with

  4. Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Hu, Bo; Yao, Qiao-Feng; Wang, Kan; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2009-12-22

    A new and facile way to synthesize a free-standing and flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been successfully developed, where high SERS-active Ag dimers or aligned aggregates are assembled within poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers with chain-like arrays via electrospinning technique. The aggregation state of the obtained Ag nanoparticle dimers or larger, which are formed in a concentrated PVA solution, makes a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(9). The superiority of enhancement ability of this Ag/PVA nanofiber mat is also shown in the comparison to other substrates. Furthermore, the Ag/PVA nanofiber mat would keep a good reproducibility under a low concentration of 4-MBA molecule (10(-6) M) detection with the average RSD values of the major Raman peak less than 0.07. The temporal stability of the substrate has also been demonstrated. This disposable, easy handled, flexible free-standing substrate integrated the advantages including the superiority of high sensitivity, reproducibility, stability, large-scale, and low-cost production compared with other conventional SERS substrates, implying that it is a perfect choice for practical SERS detection application.

  5. Orthogonal optimization of electrospinning processing parameters of PVA fibres%PVA纤维静电纺丝工艺参数研究及正交设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭方; 司军辉; 崔志香

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)ultrafine fibre was prepared by electrospinning.The influences of the preparation solution concentration,electrospinning voltage and electrospinning(collected)dis-tance on the micro morphology of PVA fibre were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The orthogonal testing analytical method was applied to optimize the processing parameters of electro-spinning.The results show that the electrospinning voltage is the main impact factor of the average diameter of PVA fibres.Through optimization,the PVA ultrafine fibre with a minimum average di-ameter of 0.27 um was fabricated.%采用静电纺丝法制备聚乙烯醇(PVA)超细纤维膜,利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察溶液浓度、纺丝电压、纺丝距离对纤维微观形貌的影响,并采用正交设计对纺丝工艺参数进行优化。实验结果表明:纺丝电压是影响纤维平均直径的最重要的参数。经过优化,纺制出最小直径为0.27μm的PVA超细纤维。

  6. Electrospun tungsten oxide NPs/PVA nanofibers: A study on the morphology and Kramers-Kronig analysis of infrared reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi; Kangarlou, Haleh

    2016-10-01

    The major objective of this work is focused on the preparation and characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) embedding tungsten oxide nanoparticles based on electrospinning technique. A surfactant (CTAB) was introduced to incorporate tungsten oxide nanoparticles into the PVA nanofibers homogeneously. To prepare a viscous solution of PVA nanofiber containing tungsten oxide nanoparticles, the distance between the tip of the needle and the surface of the foil was chosen as 10 and 15 cm. The tungsten oxide NPs/PVA composite nanofibers have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and reflectance spectrum in the wave length range of 200-1200 nm. Fiber diameters decrease with increasing of tip-to-collector distance from 10 to 15 cm. The average diameters were estimated about 165±30 nm and 145±30 nm from scanning electron microscopy at 10 and 15 cm, respectively. The optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers were examined by the Kramers-Kronig model. The optical results show that tungsten oxide nanopowder show almost five times higher conductivity, lower absorbance and zero band gap energy.

  7. Effect of rose water on structural, optical and electrical properties of composites of reduced graphene oxide–poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) grafted with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devender; Wadhwa, Heena; Mahendia, Suman; Chand, Fakir; Kumar, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide–poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) grafted with silver nanoparticles (rGO-PVA-Ag) were prepared in the absence and presence of rose water. The optical characterizations of prepared nanocomposites were done through UV–visible spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy was employed for the surface characterization. The grafted silver (Ag) nanoparticles are found to be almost spherical in shape with reduction in their mean diameter from 47 nm to 26 nm after addition of rose water. The UV–visible absorption spectra of as-prepared rGO-PVA-Ag nanocomposites without and with rose water depicted surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at around 448 nm which coincides with the predicted spectra from simulation based on the Mie Theory. The electrical dc conductivity measurements as the function of temperature from room temperature to 55 °C were investigated. It has been found that use of rose water in synthesis process increases the electrical conductivity of the rGO-PVA-Ag. The mode of the electrical conduction in the composites can be explained using Efros–Shklovskii Variable Range Hopping mechanism (ES VRH).

  8. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA Blending and Gamma Irradiation on Compressive Strength of FHAp/FGel Composite as Candidate of Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Composite as candidate of scaffold have been synthesized from fish hydroxyapatite (FHAp and fish gelatin (FGel of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Bloch scale that aqua-cultured in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA blending was investigated for improvement of compressive strength of composites. Composites were synthesized by wet method at FGel/PVA percent mass ratio of 10/0, 7.5/2.5, 5.0/5.0, and 7.5/2.5 (w/w, respectively. Sodium citrate was used as dispersant to forming a paste-like suspension condition. Porous composites were obtained after freeze-drying of suspensions. Compressive strength and Young’s modulus of scaffold were increased as increasing PVA content. FTIR spectra confirmed the molecular interaction among components of composite. SEM micrograph showed fibrous and ribbon structure over surface of FHAp/FGel composite that blended with PVA. Gamma irradiation lead to formation of micro- and mesopores in the wall surface of composite.

  9. Experimental Research on Love Wave Humidity Sensor Based on PVA/ST-90°X Quartz Structure%基于PVA/ST-90°X石英的Love波湿度传感器的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立君; 刘建生; 何世堂

    2015-01-01

    报道了覆盖聚合物敏感膜的Love波传感器的湿度检测性能.该传感器采用在ST-90°X石英基底上旋涂聚乙烯醇(PVA)膜作为波导层兼吸湿层,测量了密闭空间中相对湿度从9%增加到88 %时器件的工作频率及损耗.实验表明,频率偏移和损耗增量均由吸附后质量负载所产生,其变化规律遵循第Ⅲ类等温吸附曲线.

  10. Environmentally friendly Zn0.75Cd0.25S/PVA heterosystem nanocomposite: UV-stimulated emission and absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, N. G.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr

    2016-02-01

    Zn0.75Cd0.25S nanoparticles prepared at different temperatures were composited with polyvinyl alcohol for functionalization it in wide spectrum of applications such as in photocatalysis. The nanostructure of the Zn0.75Cd0.25S mother phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction in addition to absorption and fluorescence spectra. UV/VIS. measurements show that, the transmittance coefficient of Zn0.75Cd0.25S/PVA nanocomposite is lesser than that of pure PVA by 0.33% and varies upon increasing the preparation temperature; reaching a maximum value for the sample prepared at 300 °C. It was found that the optical band gap tunes with annealing temperature which, in turns, with particle size. The refractive index of the Zn0.75Cd0.25S/PVA nanocomposite films decrease with increasing wavelength and saturates at high wavelengths. The optical conductivity increases with increasing photon energy which may be due to the excitation of electrons by photon energy. The optical conductivity of Zn0.75Cd0.25S/PVA nanocomposite is lesser than that of pure PVA and it decreases as the preparation temperature of Zn0.75Cd0.25S nanoparticles in PVA matrix increases which could be related to the decrease in the extinction coefficient and the density of localized states in the gap. Abroad peak deconvoluted, by Gaussian fitting function, into two violet and blue colors was observed in the fluorescence spectra under UV light irradiation. The two emission bands are attributed to band edge emission and neutral oxygen vacancies respectively. Analysis of fluorescence (FL) spectra reveals quenching in FL intensity and a peak shifting towards the lower wavelength side with increasing the preparation temperature of the mother phase. The results suggest that the 200 °C Zn0.75Cd0.25S/PVA nanocomposites have been regarded as a promising candidate in many technical fields, such as photocatalytic hydrogen production and/or photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under UV irradiation due to its high optical

  11. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC)%细菌纤维素基聚乙烯醇(BC/PVA)复合膜的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪玉; 杨亮; 陆大年

    2012-01-01

    以细菌纤维素为增强体,聚乙烯醇为基体,甲醛为交联剂,在过饱和盐溶液中利用湿化学法制备BC/PVA复合膜.通过对复合膜溶胀性能、红外光谱分析、扫描电镜、热性能以及力学性能的测试分析,研究化学交联对复合膜性能的影响.结果表明:使用甲醛对复合膜进行交联处理后,在BC/PVA复合膜内形成了化学键结合,从而降低了复合膜的溶胀性能,增强了复合膜的力学性能以及热稳定性能.%Bacterial cellulose (BO/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites membrane was prepared using BC as the reinforcement and PVA as the matrix materials in saturated salt solution with formaldehyde as cross-linking agent by wet chemical method. The effect of chemical cross-linking on the properties of composite membrane was investigated through the analysis of swelling property of composite membrane, infrared spectroscopic (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal and mechanical properties tests. The results showed that the use of formaldehyde formed chemical bonds between the composite membranes, which led to the reduction of swelling property and the enhancement of the mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  12. CS-PVA-NH_4Cl共混固态聚合物电解质膜的制备与性能%Synthesis and Properties of CS-PVA-NH_4Cl Blend Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丞; 闫康平

    2012-01-01

    以壳聚糖(CS),聚乙烯醇(PVA)为基体掺杂不同比例NH4Cl进行共混,使用溶液浇铸法制备了CS-PVA-NH4Cl共混固态聚合物电解质膜,溶胀度均在1 000%左右。使用交流阻抗,直流极化,循环伏安对其电导率、离子迁移率及电化学稳定窗口进行测量,使用Zview软件对交流阻抗谱进行拟合。结果表明在40%NH4Cl掺杂时电导率为1.4×10-3S.cm-1,离子迁移率为0.93,电化学稳定窗口为2.0V。%In this paper,CS-PVA-NH4Cl blend solid polymer electrolyte membrane is prepared via solution casting method by using chitosan(CS) and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as matrix blended with different amount of NH4Cl,the swelling rates of every sample are all around 1 000%.The conductivity,ion mobility and electrochemical stability of the SPE membranes are investigated by using AC impedance and DC polarization,cyclic voltammetry,and Zview software is used to fit the AC impedance spectroscopy.The results show that with 40% NH4Cl blending,the conductivity was 1.4 × 10-3S·cm-1,the ion mobility was 0.93,the electrochemical stability window is 2.0 V.

  13. 静电场中PVA/PA6复合纳米纤维的成型性研究%Study on formability of the composite PVA/PA6 nanofibers in the electrostatic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏安方; 王生明

    2012-01-01

    为制备一种在包装和过滤领域有着良好应用前景的先进复合材料,采用静电纺丝的方法制备出PVA/PA6复合纳米纤维,对其在静电场中的成型性进行了系统的分析与研究.研究结果表明,随着溶液质量分数的增加,纤维的形貌变好,直径变粗;随着纺丝电压与喷丝流量的增加,纤维的平均直径变细,珠状物逐渐减少;随着接收距离的增加,纤维的平均直径变粗,珠状物增多.%PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning in order to process one kind of advanced composite material which has a good application prospect in packaging, filtrating and other fields. The formability of the composite in the electro- static field was analyzed and researched. The result showed that the prepared nanofibers morphology are very good and their average di- ameters were increased with the increase of the mass fraction of the solution, their diameters and the beads amount were decreased with the increase of spinning voltages and flow rates, the average diameter of the nanofibers were increased and the beads amount were in- creased with the increase of the receiving distances.

  14. Investigation of nanolevel molecular packing and its role in thermo-mechanical properties of PVA-fMWCNT composites: positron annihilation and small angle X-ray scattering studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Prakash, J; Bahadur, J; Sudarshan, K; Maheshwari, P; Mazumder, S; Pujari, P K

    2014-01-28

    Carbon based nanofillers have shown phenomenal improvements in thermo-mechanical properties of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposites depending on their interaction with PVA molecules and dispersion in the polymer matrix. In the present study, PVA based nanocomposites with amino-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.0 wt%) were prepared by a simple casting method from aqueous solution. The relative increase in Young's modulus with 0.4% fMWCNTs was observed to be comparable with that for PVA-nanodiamond composite films which have been shown to have higher strength compared to nanotube and graphene oxide based nanocomposites. In order to investigate the nanolevel molecular packing (sub-nano level free volumes and nano level lamellar structure) and its role in thermal and mechanical properties, positron annihilation spectroscopy and small angle scattering have been used. The crystallinity and morphology of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The studies showed that interfacial interaction between PVA molecules and functionalities on the surface of fMWCNTs results in the formation of an ordered structure of PVA molecules which enhances load transfer between the PVA matrix and fMWCNTs leading to improved mechanical properties. The thermal properties of the composites were observed to be unaffected at the studied filler concentration.

  15. Ca3(PO4)2 precipitated layering of an in situ hybridized PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; van Vuuren, Sandy; Pillay, Viness

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to develop an in situ hybridized poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium silicate (PVA/Ca2OSi) nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing with calcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] surface precipitation for enhanced bioactivity. This was achieved by hybridizing the antibacterial ions Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) in a Ca2O4Si composite. The hybridization effect on the thermal behavior, physicochemical, morphological, and physicomechanical properties of the nanofibers was studied using Differential Scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Textural Analysis, respectively. In vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations of the nanofiber composite were evaluated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hybridization of Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) into the PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite was confirmed by DSC, XRD and FTIR. The thickness of the nanofibers was dependent on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ag(+) as confirmed by SEM. The nanofibers displayed enhanced tensile strength (19-115.73MPa) compared to native PVA. Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) hybridized nanofibers showed relatively enhanced in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation (90%) and antibacterial activity compared with the native PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite. Results of this study has shown that the PVA/Ca2O4Si composite hybridized with both Zn(2+) and Ag(+) may be promising as an antibacterial wound dressing with a nanofibrous archetype with enhanced bioactivity.

  16. IN SITU PREPARED TiO2 NANOPARTICLES CROSS-LINKED SULFONATED PVA MEMBRANES WITH HIGH PROTON CONDUCTIVITY FOR DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa N. Solanki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic membranes based on sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol (SPVA and in situ prepared TiO2 nanoparticles nanocomposite membranes with various compositions were prepared to use as proton exchange membranes in direct membrane fuel cells. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was sulfonated and cross-linked separately by 4-formylbenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate and glutaraldehyde. The ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the membranes increased with increasing amount of TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite membranes with 15 wt% TiO2 exhibited excellent proton conductivity of 0.0822 S cm-1, as well as remarkably low methanol permeability of 1.11×10-9 cm2 s-1. The thermal stability and durability were also superior and performance in methanol fuel cell was also reasonably good

  17. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam M. Sheha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2 salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2 at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties.

  18. HIGHLY DISPERSED MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES IN WATER/ETHANOL AND ITS APPLICATION FOR PVA COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Li; X.B. Zhang; X.Y. Tao; J.M. Xu; F. Liu; G.L. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Two carboxylation processes were carried out to modify multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles (m-MWNTs). The results showed that both of the m-MWNTs could be highly dispersed in water with the concentration up to 25 and 15mg/mL in ethanol without obvious deposition or conglomeration over 6 months. FTIR, Raman, TGA and TEM characterizations of the mMWNTs showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups have been attached with MWNTs, and that the nanotube structure was only damaged a little after modification treatments in mixed acids over 24h. Above prepared nanotube suspensions in water were successfully used as a filler of thermoplastic PVA composite to enhance its electrical conductivity. The results showed that the addition of m-MWNTs greatly improved the conductivity and the threshold of mass fraction was about 5wt%. The results also proved that purification process was not needed because of high purity of the raw MWNTs prepared in our group.

  19. Synthesis and performance of carbon-modified LiFePO4 using an in situ PVA pyrolysis procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    LiFePO4/carbon composite cathode material was prepared by granulating and subsequent pyrolysis processing in N2 atmosphere with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the carbon source. The influences of carbon content on the microstructure and battery performance were investigated. Single LiFePO4 phase and amorphous carbon can be found in the products. A special micro-morphology perature dependence of its electrochemical characteristic was evaluated by using AC impedance spectroscopy. A new equivalent circuit based on the charge and mass transfer control process in an electrode was proposed to fit the obtained AC impedance spectra.The tendency of every element in the equivalent circuit was used to interpret the temperature dependence of the capacity of the optimum cathode.

  20. Functionalized antibiofilm thin coatings based on PLA–PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid natural compounds fabricated by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumezescu, Valentina [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Polizu Street no 1-7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Polizu Street no 1-7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalelor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Ficai, Anton [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxidic Materials and Nanomaterials, Polizu Street no 1-7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Truşcǎ, Roxana [S.C. Metav-CD S.A., 31Rosetti Str., 020015 Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S Nicolau Institute of Virology, Bucharest (Romania); Balaure, Paul Cǎtǎlin [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica Universitiy of Bucharest, Polizu Street no 1-7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Cristescu, Rodica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalelor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-05-01

    We report the fabrication of thin coatings of PLA–PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto Ti substrate. The obtained coatings have been physico-chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared microscopy (IRM). In vitro biological assays have been performed in order to evaluate the influence of fabricated microsphere thin coatings on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development as well as their biocompatibility. SEM micrographs have revealed a uniform morphology of thin coatings, while IRM investigations have proved both the homogeneity and functional groups integrity of prepared thin coatings. The obtained microsphere-based thin coatings have proved to be efficient vehicles for usnic acid natural compound with antibiofilm activity, as demonstrated by the inhibitory activity on S. aureus mature biofilm development, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy associated to biofilm related infections.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Electromagnetic Response of PVA/MWCNT and Styrene-Acrylic Copolymer/MWCNT Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushch, A. O.; Paddubskaya, A. G.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs-Meri, R.; Bitenieks, J.; Zicans, J.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Pletnev, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper focuses on electromagnetic response of polymeric composites with different concentrations of multiwall carbon nanotubes in the radio (20 Hz - 1 MHz) and microwave (26-36 GHz) frequency ranges. Widely available polymeric materials, such as PVA latex (polyvinyl acetate) and styrene-acrylic copolymer, were used as a matrix. Analysis of the experimental data demonstrated that in electromagnetic shielding applications one should give preference to the styrene-acrylic copolymer, as far as application of this matrix type allows reducing the percolation threshold in such composites. As a result, it allows reaching the necessary level of shielding at a lower filler concentration, while unique properties of the chosen polymer allow expanding the range of applications for the new materials.

  2. PPV/PVA复合纳米纤维的制备%Preparation of PPV/PVA blend nanofiber by electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 黄宗浩; 汪成; 闫尔云; 孙海珠; 陈莉; 李永舫; 杨春和

    2006-01-01

    用静电纺丝法制备电子聚合物聚对苯乙炔(PPV)与非共轭聚合物聚乙烯醇(PVA)的复合纳米纤维.对复合纳米纤维的发光性质和形态进行了表征.与PPV薄膜相比,复合纳米纤维的发射光谱在PPV含量较高时(如1:1(质量比)时)变化不明显;而含量较低时(如1:4(质量比)时)有明显的蓝移现象;当PPV的含量非常低时(如1:99(质量比)时),光谱的蓝移值趋于确定.

  3. Fabrication of tungsten oxide microfibers with photocatalytic activity by electrospunning from PVA/H 3PW 12O 40 gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chunhong; Gong, Jian; Cheng, Tiexin; Zhou, Guangdong; Dong, Shunfu

    2011-08-01

    Regarding gel poly (vinyl alcohol)/H 3PW 12O 40 as precursor, the ultra-fine fibers tungsten oxide (WO 3) was prepared by using electrospinning and calcinating techniques. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the average diameter of fibrous WO 3 were changed from 200 nm to 600 nm after calcined PVA/H 3PW 12O 40 fibers at 600 and 800 °C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscope revealed that the fibrous WO 3 was monoclinic phase, and the band-gap energies were observed by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The small size WO 3 exhibits excellent photocatalytcic activity in degradation of Rhodamine B at 365 nm wavelength.

  4. Fabrication of Amino Acid Based Silver Nanocomposite Hydrogels from PVA-Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acryloyl phenylalanine) and Their Antimicrobial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyeongrae; Babu, V. Ramesh; Rao, K. S. V. Krishna; Kim, Yonghyun; Mei, Surong; Lee, Yongill; Joo, Woo Hong [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    New silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-loaded amino acid based hydrogels were synthesized successfully from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acryl amide-co-acryloyl phenyl alanine) (PAA) by redox polymerization. The formation of AgNP in hydrogels was confirmed by using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and XRD. The structure and morphology of silver nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which demonstrated scattered nanoparticles, ca. 10-20 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed large differences of weight loss (i. e., 48%) between the prestine hydrogel and silver nanocomposite. The antibacterial studies of AgNP-loaded PAA (Ag-PAA) hydrogels was evaluated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. These Ag-PAA hydrogels showed significant activities against all the test bacteria. Newly developed hydrogels could be used for medical applications, such as artificial burn dressings.

  5. Functionalized antibiofilm thin coatings based on PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid natural compounds fabricated by MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Truşcǎ, Roxana; Bleotu, Coralia; Balaure, Paul Cǎtǎlin; Cristescu, Rodica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-05-01

    We report the fabrication of thin coatings of PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto Ti substrate. The obtained coatings have been physico-chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared microscopy (IRM). In vitro biological assays have been performed in order to evaluate the influence of fabricated microsphere thin coatings on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development as well as their biocompatibility. SEM micrographs have revealed a uniform morphology of thin coatings, while IRM investigations have proved both the homogeneity and functional groups integrity of prepared thin coatings. The obtained microsphere-based thin coatings have proved to be efficient vehicles for usnic acid natural compound with antibiofilm activity, as demonstrated by the inhibitory activity on S. aureus mature biofilm development, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy associated to biofilm related infections.

  6. Synthesis of nanosilica from silica fume using an acid-base precipitation technique and PVA as a nonionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to synthesize and characterize nanosilica from alkali-extraction of silica fume under controlled conditions using poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA as a dispersing agent. The dissolution efficiency of silica fume was affected by various factors such as concentration of the reagent, reaction time and temperature. A maximum dissolution efficiency of 91% was achieved at the sodium hydroxide solution concentration of 2.5 M, after areaction time of 30 minutes and at areaction temperature of 80°C. The microstructure and morphology of the obtained nanosilica powder at the optimum conditions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM images confirmed the formation of smaller and less agglomerated nanosilica particles due to the existence of the surfactant. Further, the synthesized nanosilica was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRF and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results show that the synthesized nanosilica consisted of pure silica particles.

  7. DMA and Conductivity Studies in PVA:NH4SCN:DMSO:MWNT Nanocomposite Polymer Dried Gel Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with findings on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and ion-conduction behavior of MWNTs (multiwall carbon nanotubes doped PVA:NH4SCN:DMSO dried gel electrolyte system prepared for four filler concentrations (2, 4, 6 & 8 wt% by solution cast technique. XRD measurements reveal enhancement in amorphous behavior of composite gel electrolyte upon incorporation of filler particles. Better mechanical stability is noticed in the composite system upon dispersal of MWNT along with presence of dynamic Tg during DMA measurements. Enhancement in ionic conductivity has been noticed with an optimum value of 4.5 × 10−3 Scm−1 for 6 wt% MWNTs filled composite electrolyte. Composite system exhibits combination of Arrhenius and Vogel-Tammam-Fulcher (VTF behavior in temperature dependent conductivity study. The a.c. conductivity response seems to follow universal power law.

  8. Photorefractive Effect of a Liquid Crystal Cell with a ZnO Nanorod Doped in Only One PVA Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yu-Bing; CHEN Yong-Hai; XIANG Ying; QU Sheng-Chun; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2011-01-01

    We observe obviously different diffraction efficiencies with forward and reverse dc voltages in a forced-light-scattering (FLS) experiment for a cell with ZnO nanorod doped in only one poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layer. When a dc voltage with a positive pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied, the excited charge carriers primarily move along the transverse direction, which results in a higher diffraction efficiency. Conversely, when the dc voltage with a negative pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied, the excited charge carriers primarily move along the longitudinal direction, which leads to a lower diffraction efficiency. A largest diffraction efficiency of about 9% is achieved in the ZnO nanorod doped liquid crystal cell.%@@ We observe obviously different diffraction efficiencies with forward and reverse do voltages in a forced-light-scattering(FLS)experiment for a cell with ZnO nanorod doped in only one poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)layer.When a do voltage with a positive pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied,the excited charge carriers primarily move along the transverse direction,which results in a higher diffraction efficiency.Conversely,when the do voltage with a negative pole on the ZnO nanorod doped side is applied,the excited charge carriers primarily move along the longitudinal direction,which leads to a lower diffraction efficiency.A largest diffraction efficiency of about 9%is achieved in the ZnO nanorod doped liquid crystal cell.

  9. Preparation of Cd2+-PVA/PA6 metal chelated nanofibers and analysis of reaction kinetics%Cd2+-PVA/PA6金属配合纳米纤维的制备及反应动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤权; 王清清; 魏取福; 汪学骞; 侯大寅

    2012-01-01

    PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers were formed by electrospinning and then reacted with Cd2+ solution to prepare Cd2+ -PVA/PA6 metal chelated nanofibers. The metal ions ( Cd2+ ) concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry ( AAS ) ; the morphologies were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy ( SEM) ; and the major absorption peaks were assigned by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrography. The result shows that PVA/PA6 composite nanofibers have excellent adsorption capacity for metals ions such as Cd2+ and good shape stability. The absorption process and kinetics parameters of metal ions were also studied in this work. The saturated amount of coordinated Cd2+ ( Qm ) was 4. 464 3 mmol/g ( dry fiber ) , the adsorption constant ( K1 ) was 0. 025 7 L/mmol, and the correlation coefficient R2 = 0. 997. The process of reaction was corresponding with Langmuir model.%利用静电纺丝技术得到PVA/PA6复合纳米纤维,并将其与镉离子(Cd2+)溶液反应,制备Cd2+ -PVA/PA6金属配合纳米纤维.采用原子吸收光谱( AAS)测定金属离子浓度,用傅里叶红外光谱(FT-IR)对PVA/PA6复合纳米纤维和Cd2+-PVA/PA6金属配合纳米纤维的相应吸收峰进行分析,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对其形貌进行表征.结果表明,PVA/PA6纳米纤维具有优异的金属离子配合性能和良好的形态稳定性.同时研究了金属离子吸附过程及动力学参数,得出吸附常数Kl=0.025 7 L/mmol、饱和离子配合量Qm=4.464 3 mmol/g、相关系数R2=0.997,该反应过程符合兰格缪尔吸附模型.

  10. Preparation and characterization of sodium lignosulfonate/PVA blend films%木质素磺酸钠与PVA共混薄膜的制备与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎先发; 罗学刚

    2011-01-01

    以木质素磺酸钠(LS)和聚乙烯醇(PVA)为主要原料,添加适量硼砂、明胶在水溶液中溶解共混,流延成膜.通过单因素和正交实验优选了LS/PVA共混膜制备的条件,对共混膜进行了耐水性、形貌、红外、热重、X射线衍射及差示扫描量热分析.结果表明:影响共混膜性能的主要因素有LS含量、硼砂含量以及反应时间,当硼砂含量为2.0%时,共混膜的拉伸强度最大达到43.98 MPa,比纯PVA膜的拉伸强度提高了189;形貌分析表明LS含量影响共混膜两相分散性,适量的明胶能改善LS与PVA的相容性.热重分析表明共混膜具有比LS和PVA更高的热稳定性;红外光谱、DSC分析及X射线衍射分析表明LS的加人减小了PVA膜的结晶性.%With reproducible sodium lignosulfonate (LS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as primary materials, as well as borax and gelatin, a series of blend films were prepared by the film casting method. The process conditions for preparing the blend films with good water-resistance and mechanical properties were determined by single-factor and orthogonal experiments. Water resistance, SEM, FT-IR,TGA, DSC and XRD analysis of blend films were performed to examine the contribution of LS, gelatin and borax to the properties of the blend films. The results indicated that the properties mainly were affected by the mass ratio of LS to borax and reaction time. By adding 2.0% borax, tensile strength was highly improved compared with pure PVA film (43.98 MPa vs 15. 2 MPa). SEM studies showed that LS content affected the dispersion of LS/PVA films, while a proper amount of gelatin improved the compatibility between LS and PVA matrix. FT-IR analysis revealed the formation of a strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between LS carbonyl and PVA hydroxyl. According to TGA analysis, the LS/PVA blend films were more thermally stable than single component films. Compared to pure PVA films, the apparent decrease in crystallinity caused by

  11. Novel PVA/SiO2 Alkaline Micro-porous Polymer Electrolytes for Polymer Ni-MH Batteries%用于聚合物镍氢电池的新型PVA/SiO2碱性微孔聚合物电解质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆霞; 吴仁香; 李波波; 朱云峰; 李李泉

    2013-01-01

    New po1y(vinyl alcohol)/silica (designated as PVA/SiO2) alkaline micro-porous polymer electrolytes (AMPEs)were prepared by soaking PVA/SiO2 micro-porous composite membranes,obtained by solution casting of PVA/PEG/SiO2 membrane in acetone solution,into an electrolyte solution of 6 mol/L KOH aqueous solution.The morphology and structure of PVA/SiO2 composite polymer membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD).The SEM photographs showed that the nano-SiO2 filler content was a crucial issue for the well-dispersed and optimal-sized pores which could storage charge carrier durably.Meanwhile,the crystalline of PVA decreased effectively for a large number of crystal defects and free volume appeared in the interface of inorganic particles and polymer for the addition of nann-SiO2 filler.The electrochemical properties of the AMPEs were measured by the alternating current impedance (AC impedance) and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques.The results indicated that the PVA/SiO2 AMPEs containing 5 ωnano-SiO2 filler exhibited good performances at room temperature,such as 1.62 × 10-2 S·cm-1 for ionic conductivity and 2.20 V for electrochemical stability window.What's more,we used the gravimetric method to obtain the electrolyte uptake of various PVA/SiO2 composite micro-porous polymer membranes.From the data,we learned that the maximum electrolyte uptake could reach to 102.7% and it had very relevance to the size of pores in PVA/SiO2 composite polymer membranes,andthen influenced the ionic conductivity.Each polymer Ni-MH battery was assembled by three parts:the new AMPE,Mg-based hydrogen storage alloy and the commercial sintered Ni(OH)2/NiOOH electrode,in which each part did for electrolyte and diaphragm,negative electrode and positive electrode,respectively.The cycle experiments of the batteries exhibited a high first-cycle discharge capacity of 613 mAh·g-1 and stable discharge capacities about 330 mAh·g-1 for the

  12. PVA-PAMPS-PAA三元互穿网络型水凝胶的合成及其性能研究%SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF PVA-PAMPS-PAA T-IPN HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丛辉; 余娜; 林松柏; 柯爱茹; 全志龙

    2009-01-01

    以2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)、丙烯酸(AA)以及聚乙烯醇(PVA)为原料,制备了PVA-PAMPS-PAA三元互穿网络型(T-IPN)水凝胶.红外分析表明,PVA与PAA以及PAMPS之间形成了较强的氢键,使得PVA分子上的C-O伸缩震动吸收峰移向了低波数处.X射线衍射以及电镜分析表明,当PVA用量较低时,PVA能均匀的穿插于凝胶网络中,形成完善的互穿网络结构,当PVA用量过高时,部分的PVA结晶而使得凝胶出现相分离.研究了该三元互穿网络型水凝胶的溶胀性能,结果表明,该水凝胶的平衡溶胀比在200至340之间,并且随着AA以及AMPS用量的增加,凝胶的溶胀速率以及平衡溶胀比均升高.该三元互穿网络型水凝胶在酸性溶液中和在碱性溶液中表现出截然不同的消溶胀性能;并且随着溶液pH的升高,凝胶在pH=9.0附近出现体积突变,表现出pH敏感性.通过研究T-IPN水凝胶的抗压缩性能发现,利用线型高分子、柔性高分子网络以及刚性高分子网络制备的三元互穿网络型水凝胶能在高溶胀比下保持较高的强度.溶胀比为180的T-IPN水凝胶,其最大抗压缩强度可达12.1 MPa.进一步研究发现,凝胶的组成以及溶胀比均对凝胶的抗压缩强度和压缩应变均存在较大的影响.

  13. The effects of addition of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as a green corrosion inhibitor to the phosphate conversion coating on the anticorrosion and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir; Vakili, H.; Amini, R.

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature zinc phosphate coating was applied on the surface of steel sample. • Poly(vinyl) alcohol was added to the phosphating bath as a green corrosion inhibitor. • The adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating were investigated. • PVA decreased the phosphate crystal size and porosity. • PVA enhanced the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Steel substrates were chemically treated by room temperature zinc phosphate conversion coating. Poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) was added to the phosphate solution as a green corrosion inhibitor. Finally, the epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and surface treated steel samples. The effects of PVA on the morphological properties of the phosphate coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring device. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coatings applied on the surface treated samples were investigated by pull-off and cathodic delamination tests. Also, the anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coatings were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that addition of PVA to the phosphate coating increased the population density of the phosphate crystals and decreased the phosphate grain size. The contact angle of the steel surface treated by Zn-PVA was lower than Zn treated one. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was considerably increased on the steel substrate treated by zinc phosphate conversion coating containing PVA. PVA also enhanced the adhesion properties of the epoxy coating to the steel surface and decreased the cathodic delamination significantly.

  14. 聚丙烯醇做土壤改良剂研究:老化与作用力分析%PVA Used as a Soil Conditioner: Aging and Interaction Forces with Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 周良勋; 李茂田

    2007-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the capability for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. In this work polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used. Its degradation in soils and its intermolecular interaction force with soils were studied. Pure PVA film、PVA with silica and PVA with alumina oxide were heated or treated with ultra-visible light. FTIR was used to observe the aging of PVA. The surfaces of the specimens were observed with SEM and AFM (atomic force microscope). Interaction force between PVA and the tip was measured with AFM. The effects of soils on the aging of PVA were discussed according to the experimental results. Effects of treating methods on the interaction force between soils and PVA were also discussed in this study.%聚烯醇可生物分解且无毒性,可做为土壤改良剂.其在土壤中受温度、紫外线影响而老化的问题为本研究的一部份.以加热及UV处理PVA膜与PVA与SiO2混合物.样品以FT-IR光谱了解其劣化情况.PVA膜与土壤之作用力则以原子力显微镜量测其力曲线与观察表面变化.此外PVA与SiO2混合物则以SEM观察其受热与受UV处理的结果.

  15. Soft X-ray induced damage in PVA-based membranes in water environment monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of synchrotron X-ray flux in a soft X-ray scanning-transmission microspectroscope (STXM) instrument on the chemical structure of air-filled poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based microbubbles and their stabilizing shell has been examined. Prolonged soft X-ray illumination of the particles in aqueous suspension leads to the breaking of the microbubbles' protective polymer shell and substantial chemical changes. The latter were clarified via a micro-spot C K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy with further respect to the absorbed X-ray doses. Our results revealed a continuous degradation of the PVA network associated with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing species as well as an increased content of unsaturated bonds. The observed effects must be taken into account in studies of micro- and nanostructured polymer materials utilizing X-rays.

  16. The effects of addition of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as a green corrosion inhibitor to the phosphate conversion coating on the anticorrosion and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanzadeh, B.; Vakili, H.; Amini, R.

    2015-02-01

    Steel substrates were chemically treated by room temperature zinc phosphate conversion coating. Poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) was added to the phosphate solution as a green corrosion inhibitor. Finally, the epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and surface treated steel samples. The effects of PVA on the morphological properties of the phosphate coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring device. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coatings applied on the surface treated samples were investigated by pull-off and cathodic delamination tests. Also, the anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coatings were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that addition of PVA to the phosphate coating increased the population density of the phosphate crystals and decreased the phosphate grain size. The contact angle of the steel surface treated by Zn-PVA was lower than Zn treated one. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was considerably increased on the steel substrate treated by zinc phosphate conversion coating containing PVA. PVA also enhanced the adhesion properties of the epoxy coating to the steel surface and decreased the cathodic delamination significantly.

  17. Investigation of Morphological and Mechanical Properties of PVA/ Aloe barbadensis and PEO/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Structures Fabricated by Dual Electrospinning System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan (CS)/Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/ Aloe vera (AVG) based electrospun nanofibers were gathered together by dual electrospinning system. Properties of blended solutions for electrospinning were investigated by measuring viscosity, conductivity and pH values. Morphological characteristics of the nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Beadless and uniform nanofibers were obtained through the electrospinning process and the diameters of the...

  18. The effect of adding SiO2 on the pore structure and the color fastness to washing of PVA sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. I.; Lin, T. Y.; Cheng, W. Y.; Jang, L.

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the role of pore-forming SiO2 particles on the pore structure, and color fastness following washing of a porous PVA sponge. We found that the SiO2 micron particle consideration plays a decisive role on the pore-structural type and the color fastness. Moreover, the particles also influence the mechanical modulus and the water adsorption capacity.

  19. Immobilization of catalase on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane for the development of efficient and reusable enzyme membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Quan; Zhao, Yong; Wei, Anfang; Li, Changlong; Wei, Qufu; Fong, Hao

    2014-09-02

    In this study, a mat/membrane consisting of overlaid PVA/PA6-Cu(II) composite nanofibers was prepared via the electrospinning technique followed by coordination/chelation with Cu(II) ions; an enzyme of catalase (CAT) was then immobilized onto the PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane. The amount of immobilized catalase reached a high value of 64 ± 4.6 mg/g, while the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of enzyme were 3774 μmol/mg·min and 41.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability and storage stability of immobilized catalase were improved significantly. Thereafter, a plug-flow type of immobilized enzyme membrane reactor (IEMR) was assembled from the PVA/PA6-Cu(II)-CAT membrane. With the increase of operational pressure from 0.02 to 0.2 MPa, the flux value of IEMR increased from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.76 ± 0.04 L/m(2)·min, whereas the conversion ratio of H2O2 decreased slightly from 92 ± 2.5% to 87 ± 2.1%. After 5 repeating cycles, the production capacity of IEMR was merely decreased from 0.144 ± 0.006 to 0.102 ± 0.004 mol/m(2)·min. These results indicated that the assembled IEMR possessed high productivity and excellent reusability, suggesting that the IEMR based on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane might have great potential for various applications, particularly those related to environmental protection.

  20. An ultrasound tomography system with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) moldings for coupling: in vivo results for 3-D pulse-echo imaging of the female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Stiller, Florian; Lerch, Reinhard; Ermert, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    Full-angle spatial compounding (FASC) is a concept for pulse-echo imaging using an ultrasound tomography (UST) system. With FASC, resolution is increased and speckles are suppressed by averaging pulse-echo data from 360°. In vivo investigations have already shown a great potential for 2-D FASC in the female breast as well as for finger-joint imaging. However, providing a small number of images of parallel cross-sectional planes with enhanced image quality is not sufficient for diagnosis. Therefore, volume data (3-D) is needed. For this purpose, we further developed our UST add-on system to automatically rotate a motorized array (3-D probe) around the object of investigation. Full integration of external motor and ultrasound electronics control in a custom-made program allows acquisition of 3-D pulse-echo RF datasets within 10 min. In case of breast cancer imaging, this concept also enables imaging of near-thorax tissue regions which cannot be achieved by 2-D FASC. Furthermore, moldings made of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) have been developed as a new acoustic coupling concept. It has a great potential to replace the water bath technique in UST, which is a critical concept with respect to clinical investigations. In this contribution, we present in vivo results for 3-D FASC applied to imaging a female breast which has been placed in a PVA-H molding during data acquisition. An algorithm is described to compensate time-of-flight and consider refraction at the water-PVA-H molding and molding-tissue interfaces. Therefore, the mean speed of sound (SOS) for the breast tissue is estimated with an image-based method. Our results show that the PVA-H molding concept is applicable and feasible and delivers good results. 3-D FASC is superior to 2-D FASC and provides 3-D volume data at increased image quality.

  1. Effect of Membrane Fouling by PVA Addition in Simulated EPS Solution on Cross-flow Filtration%聚乙烯醇(PVA)对模拟胞外聚合物(EPS)在错流超滤中膜污染的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王歌; 李方; 吴亮; 付乐乐

    2012-01-01

    研究了在模拟胞外聚合物(EPS)溶液中添加聚乙烯醇(PVA)对错流超滤膜过滤过程的影响.对有无添加PVA的模拟EPS溶液分别用错流平板膜进行超滤实验,用Hermia修正模型对实验数据进行拟合,分析验证膜污染机理.结果表明,无论是否添加PVA,模拟溶液的通量-时间实验数据对滤饼堵塞模型的拟合度都最高,为0.891~0.994;添加PVA的模拟EPS溶液形成的吸附阻力和膜污染阻力均比无添加的溶液高约0.5倍,滤饼比阻比无添加的溶液高约4倍,分别为2.29×1014和9.57×1014 m-1;模拟EPS溶液添加PVA后,通量对操作压力的敏感度增加,对膜面流速的敏感度却降低.%The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) addition on the performance of cross-flow membrane filtration of model extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solution was studied. Filtrations of model EPS solution with and without PVA were conducted in a cross-flow filtration cell through ultrafiltration (UF) membranes respectively. Hermia modified model was used to check the fouling mechanism by fitting of the experimental data. The results show that the cake filtration model fits to the experimental data the best in UF experiments regardless of addition of PVA, the degree of fitting ranges from 0.891 to 0.994, the adsorption resistance and membrane pollution resistance of the model EPS solution with addition of PVA is higher by half than that of model EPS solution, the specific cake resistance is four times higher, 2.29×1014 and 9.57×1014 m-1 respectively, the sensitivity of flux to the operating pressure is increased with addition of PVA, but the sensitivity to the velocity of the membrane surface reduced.

  2. Efficiency of barium removal from radioactive waste water using the combination of maghemite and titania nanoparticles in PVA and alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidnia, Zohreh; Idris, Ani; Majid, MuhdZaimiAbd; Zin, RosliMohamad; Ponraj, Mohanadoss

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, both maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized and mixed in various ratios and embedded in PVA and alginate beads. Batch sorption experiments were applied for removal of barium ions from aqueous solution under sunlight using the beads. The process has been investigated as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, initial barium ion concentration and TiO2:γ-Fe2O3 ratios (1:10, 1:60 and 1). The recycling attributes of these beads were also considered. Furthermore, the results revealed that 99% of the Ba(II) was eliminated in 150min at pH 8 under sunlight. Also, the maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads can be readily isolated from the aqueous solution after the process and reused for at least 7 times without significant losses of their initial properties. The reduction of Ba(II) with maghemite and titania PVA-alginate beads fitted the pseudo first order and second order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of The Addition of PEG and PVA Polymer for Gel Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with Chlorophyll as Dye Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seni, Ramadhanti S.; Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a third-generation solar cell that consists of a working electrode, electrolyte and counter electrode. One of the most important parts of DSSC is an electrolyte that roles as a medium and regenerates the electron transport of electrons in the dye. However, the liquid electrolyte has a lack of stability in long-term use and easily evaporate or leak in DSSC. Therefore, this study aims to investigate an effect of the addition of polymer material such as PEG 1000, 4000 and PVA 60000 for fabricating a gel electrolyte to solve the problems of liquid electrolyte. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles used in this study was prepared using co-precipitation (CPT) method which produces TiO2 anatase phase with a crystal size of 11.1 nm. DSSC has been successfully conducted and analyzed to evaluate its performance. The results showed that the efficiency of DSSC cells using gel electrolyte prepared with PVA 60000 was better than a liquid electrolyte, PEG 1000, 4000, with the efficiency could be obtained at 0.083, 0.018, 0.033, and 0.054%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the addition PEG and/or PVA could be enhanced the performance of DSSC due to gel electrolyte produced current and voltage more stable compared to the liquid electrolyte.

  4. All-photonic switching based on selective input pump polarization states in Fe-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahma, M. A.; Saadon, H. L.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical pump-probe technique for all-optical switching is proposed based on three-selective input pump polarization states to pump material simultaneously. The new technique makes it possible to obtain efficient all-optical switching of nonlinear optical materials with very low signal background and increased stability of switching signals. Undoped and Fe-doped PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films are prepared by a simple chemical method at different doping concentrations. The x-ray diffraction patterns and optical absorption spectra of the prepared films are examined. The crystallinity and optical band gap of the prepared Fe-PbS/PVA are found to be affected by Fe doping concentration. The all-optical switching effect of Fe-PbS/PVA freestanding nanocomposite films with various Fe concentrations was investigated. The proposed technique that demonstrates all-optical switching with three-input polarization states can lead to the realization of all-photonic switching at a threshold optical pump power of 19 mW with maximum modulation depth (ON/OFF) of 86% and switching contrast (ON/OFF) of 8.6 dB for a minimum switching time of 43 ms.

  5. Neomycin-loaded poly(styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSSA-MA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ion exchange nanofibers for wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitanan, Todsapon; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-05-01

    In this study, poly(styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSSA-MA) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was electrospun and then subjected to thermal crosslinking to produce PSSA-MA/PVA ion exchange nanofiber mats. The cationic drug neomycin (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1%, w/v) was loaded onto the cationic exchange fibers. The amount of neomycin loaded and released and the cytotoxicity of the fiber mats were analyzed. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale (250 ± 21 nm). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) value and the percentage of water uptake were 2.19 ± 0.1 mequiv./g-dry fibers and 268 ± 15%, respectively. The loading capacity was increased upon increasing the neomycin concentration. An initial concentration of 0.1% (w/v) neomycin (F3) showed the highest loading capacity (65.7 mg/g-dry fibers). The neomycin-loaded nanofiber mats demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and an in vivo wound healing test revealed that these mats performed better than gauze and blank nanofiber mats in decreasing acute wound size during the first week after tissue damage. In conclusion, the antibacterial neomycin-loaded PSSA-MA/PVA cationic exchange nanofiber mats have the potential for use as wound dressing materials.

  6. Fiber introduction mass spectrometry: determination of pesticides in herbal infusions using a novel sol-gel PDMS/PVA fiber for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Cesar; Zuin, Vânia Gomes; Yariwake, Janete Harumi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Augusto, Fabio

    2007-10-01

    An application of the direct coupling of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with mass spectrometry (MS), a technique known as fiber introduction mass spectrometry (FIMS), is described to determine organochlorine (OCP) and organophosphorus (OPP) pesticides in herbal infusions of Passiflora L. A new fiber coated with a composite of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PDMS/PVA) was used. Sensitive, selective, simple and simultaneous quantification of several OCP and OPP was achieved by monitoring diagnostic fragment ions of m/z 266 (chlorothalonil), m/z 195 (alpha-endosulfan), m/z 278 (fenthion), m/z 263 (methyl parathion) and m/z 173 (malathion). Simple headspace SPME extraction (25 min) and fast FIMS detection (less than 40 s) of OCP and OPP from a highly complex herbal matrix provided good linearity with correlation coefficients of 0.991-0.999 for concentrations ranging from 10 to 140 ng ml(-1) of each compound. Good accuracy (80 to 110%), precision (0.6-14.9%) and low limits of detection (0.3-3.9 ng ml(-1)) were also obtained. Even after 400 desorption cycles inside the ionization source of the mass spectrometer, no visible degradation of the novel PDMS/PVA fiber was detected, confirming its suitability for FIMS. Fast (ca 20 s) pesticide desorption occurs for the PDMS/PVA fiber owing to the small thickness of the film and its reduced water sorption.

  7. Characterization and optical studies of 90/10 (wt/wt%) PVA/β-chitin blend irradiated with γ-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, F H; Gaafer, S A; Abd El-Kader, M F H

    2014-10-15

    X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and UV/visible spectra were studied as a function of gamma irradiation doses (5-100kGy) for 90/10 (wt/wt%) PVA/β-chitin. A new intense reflection peak at 2θ=21.5° appeared in the X-ray spectrum of the sample irradiated at 50kGy γ-dose. Besides, the band centered at 2931cm(-1) in IR spectrum splits into two clearly separated bands around 2919 and 2941cm(-1) for the sample irradiated at 10kGy γ-dose. The disappearance of the absorption band at 280nm of PVA in the blend sample indicates that the ligand PVA becomes opaque in the UV region and provides evidence for the miscibility between homopolymers. The value of absorbance, in UV/visible range, at 10kGy γ-dose was the highest one compared to the other γ-doses. The location of the γ-doses on the chromaticity diagram was different, indicating the change in the spectral colors of the investigated blend. In addition, the absorption edge, band tail and color parameters values were determined as a function of γ-doses.

  8. Resistive Switching in All-Printed, Flexible and Hybrid MoS2-PVA Nanocomposite based Memristive Device Fabricated by Reverse Offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Gul, Jahan Zeb; Kim, Soo-Wan; Lim, Jong Hwan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28 × 102, 105 sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2 mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device.

  9. Preparation and photochromic properties of ultra-fine H{sub 3}PW{sub 11}MoO{sub 40}/PVA fibre mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guocheng; Gong Jian; Pan Yan; Cui Xiujun; Shao Changlu; Guo Yihang; Wen Shangbin; Qu Lunyu [Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2004-07-21

    Novel photochromic materials, H{sub 3}PW{sub 11}MoO{sub 40}/Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) ultra-fine fibre mats containing different weight percentages of H{sub 3}PW{sub 11}MoO{sub 40}, have been prepared from different H{sub 3}PW{sub 11}MoO{sub 40}/PVA solutions by an electrospinning technique. IR spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope spectroscopy are used to characterize the fibre mats. Results of viscosity and conductivity measurements of the solutions indicate that lower viscosity and higher conductivity favour the formation of thin fibres without beads. When irradiated with ultraviolet light (313.2 nm), the colour of the fibre mats changes from white to blue, and the mats show reversible photochromism. IR and ESR spectra of the irradiated fibre mats indicate a conceivable photochromic mechanism, i.e. Mo{sup VI} is reduced under ultraviolet irradiation. Meanwhile, PVA is oxidized to unsaturated ketone or aldehyde.

  10. Evaluating Complex Magma Mixing via Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA in the Papagayo Tuff, Northern Costa Rica: Processes that Form Continental Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Alvarado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, research has revealed the importance of magma mixing as a trigger for volcanic eruptions, as well as its role in creating the diversity of magma compositions in arcs. Sensitive isotopic and microchemical techniques can reveal subtle evidence of magma mixing in igneous rocks, but more robust statistical techniques for bulk chemical data can help evaluate complex mixing relationships. Polytopic vector analysis (PVA is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing of two or more magma batches. The Papagayo Tuff of the Miocene-Pleistocene Bagaces Formation in northern Costa Rica is associated with a segment of the Central American Volcanic Arc. While this segment of the arc is located on oceanic plateau, recent (<8 Ma ignimbrites bear the chemical signatures of upper continental crust, marking the transition from oceanic to continental crust. The Papagayo Tuff contains banded pumice fragments consistent with one or more episodes of mixing/mingling to produce a single volcanic deposit. The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible.

  11. Study on the Reaction of Proteins with 5′-Nitrosalicylfluorone-molybdenum(Ⅵ) Complex by Spectrophotometry in PVA 124 Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI,Qin(魏琴); WU,Dana(吴丹); DU,Bina(杜斌); ZHANG,Hui(张慧); OU,Qing-Yu(欧庆瑜)

    2004-01-01

    The application of 5'-nitrosalicylfluorone (5'-NSF)-molybdenum(Ⅵ) complex as a spectroscopic probe was studied. In the buffer medium of HOAc-NaOAc at 3.45 and in the presence of PVA 124 microemulsion,5'-NSF-Mo(Ⅵ) complex combines protein rapidly to form a stable compound, leading to an absorbance decrease at 525 nm of 5'-NSF-Mo(Ⅵ) complex. According to this change, microdetermination of protein has been described.Bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be determined in the linear range of 0-16 μg·mL-1 with the detection limit of 11 ng·mL-1. Many amino acid and metal ions studied do not interfere with the assay. The method possesses high sensitivity as well as high selectivity. It can be used to determine protein in human urine and milk powder successfully. The relative standard deviations are in all instances less than 4.7%, and the recoveries are between 97.6% and 106.0%. Moreover, the binding number of BSA with the complex, which is determined by using molar ratio,Rosenthanl graphic and slope ratio methods, is in good agreement with each other.

  12. The Controllable PVA-Chitosan Fiber Prepared by the Near-field Electro Spinning for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cells in natural tissues and organs have diverse shapes and arrangements in structure. The tissue engineering scaffolds which have a specific extracellular matrix structure can be prepared by electro spun fibers having a diverse arrangement in structure and thus guide adherent cells grow, proliferate and divide into the regenerative tissue or organs which have specific cell morphology and orientation structure. This study is based on a Near-Field Electros Pinning (NFES process and uses Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA mixed chitosan, a non-toxic, good hydrophobic and biocompatible mixed materials, to prepare a micro/nano-fiber with controllable arrangement used in tissue engineering. The purpose of this research is the realization of getting the fiber with controllable arrangement. In this study, laboratory equipment will be built which integrates a feeding system, a high voltage electric field control system, a on-line image acquisition system and a motion control system of the collection platform. It focuses on the process parameters of the micro/nano direct writing of this material. Meanwhile, verifying the controllability of the implementation of the near-field electrospinning process for preparing composite fiber using this experiment platform.

  13. Assessment of PVA/silver nanocomposite hydrogel patch as antimicrobial dressing scaffold: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Koul, Veena

    2016-02-01

    A novel, elastic, non-adhesive and antimicrobial hydrogel PVA scaffold (loaded with AgNPs) synthesized using freeze-thaw method has been characterized in this study. The direct visualization of the as synthesized (one-pot green synthesis methodology) AgNPs using TEM shows particle size in the range of 7±3nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was estimated to be 7.81μg/mL, whereas for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative) it was around 3.90μg/mL. The antimicrobial efficacy of AgNPs was further studied by protein leakage, ROS and LDH activity assay. The quantitative elemental analysis of silver was calculated before and after release in phosphate buffer (pH-7.4) by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The antimicrobial efficacy of the scaffold was retained even after 96h of release of AgNPs which suggests that the scaffold can be used as a reservoir for AgNPs to maintain a moist and sterile environment for a long period of time.

  14. Photoluminescence characteristics of sintered silica glass doped with Cu ions using mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-PVA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Murata, Takahiro [Faculty of Education and Master' s Course in Education, Kumamoto University, 2-40-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Fujino, Shigeru, E-mail: fujino@astec.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Monolithic silica glasses doped with Cu ions were prepared by immersing a mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite in a copper nitrate solution followed by sintering at 1100 °C for 12 h in air. The Cu ions were reduced from divalent to monovalent during the sintering process and consequently Cu{sup +} was doped into the silica glass matrix. The sintered glass possessed blue or yellow photoluminescence (PL) under UV irradiation, depending on the total concentration of Cu ions in the sintered silica glass. At a lower concentration below 30 ppm, the isolated Cu{sup +} existed in the glass matrix resulting in the blue PL. However, above 70 ppm, the Cu{sup +}–Cu{sup +} pairs were present, exhibiting the yellow PL. It was demonstrated that the PL characteristics of the sintered silica glasses doped with monovalent copper ions were affected by the total concentration of Cu ions in the glass, which can be adjusted as a function of the immersion conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass doped with Cu{sup +} was fabricated by sintering the nanocomposite. • The Cu ions were reduced from divalent to monovalent during the sintering process. • The sintered glass possessed blue or yellow PL under UV irradiation. • The blue and yellow PL are due to isolated Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup +}–Cu{sup +} pairs, respectively. • The PL characteristics depended on the total concentration of Cu ions in the glass.

  15. On Stabilization of PVPA/PVA Electrospun Nanofiber Membrane and Its Effect on Material Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ann Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanofiber membrane was fabricated by electrospinning composed of polyvinyl phosphonic acid (PVPA and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Stabilization was done due to the high dissolvability of the membrane when in contact with water. Physical treatment was done by exposure to heat at 150°C in a vacuum environment at different periods of time. Chemical crosslinking was done by immersion in methanol and methanol/ glutaraldehyde. A heat-exposed membrane was also further crosslinked chemically. All conditions were compared with regards to its effect on the material properties of the membranes and its biological response in vitro with MG-63 osteoblast-like cell line. Visual examination and dimensional analyses showed that heat treatment produced discoloration on the membrane surface and chemical crosslinking reduced membrane dimensions. Tensile strength and strain improved in crosslinked membranes compared to noncrosslinked counterpart. Swelling and degradation was also investigated and was seen to vary depending on the crosslinking condition. Biocompatibility was observed to be more favorable in heat-treated membranes.

  16. Fused-filament 3D printing of drug products: Microstructure analysis and drug release characteristics of PVA-based caplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-11-30

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-Dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly important technology in the pharmaceutical sciences, since it allows the manufacture of personalized oral dosage forms by deposition of thin layers of material. Here, a filament extruder was used to obtain filaments of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing paracetamol or caffeine appropriate for 3D printing. The filaments were used to manufacture caplets for oral administration by FDM 3D printing, with the aim of evaluating the effect of the internal structure (micropore volume), drug loading and composition on drug dissolution behaviour. Micropore volume of the caplets was primarily determined by the presence of large pores due to gaps in the printed layers/net while printing, and the porosity of the caplets was 10 fold higher than the porosity of the extruded filament. Dynamic dissolution drug release tests on the caplets in biorelevant bicarbonate media revealed distinctive release profiles, which were dependent on drug solubility and drug loading. Porosity of the caplets did not help to predict the different drug release profiles. This study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate caplets and helps to elucidate which factors influence drug release from this type of new dosage form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visible-light photocatalytic performances of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by trace derivatives of PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le SHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the visible-light photocatalytic activity and catalysis stability of nanocomposites, a TiO2-based visible-light photocatalyst is prepared by surface-modification of TiO2 nanoparticles using trace conjugated derivatives from polyvinyl alcohol (DPVA via a facile method. The obtained DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared Spectra (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. With Rhodamine B (RhB as a model pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability of DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are investigated by evaluating the RhB decomposition under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the trace conjugated polymers on the TiO2 surface doesn’t change the crystalline and crystal size of TiO2 nanoparticles, but significantly enhances their visible-light absorbance and visible-light photocatalytic activity. The nanocomposite with the PVA and TiO2 mass ratio of 1∶200 exhibits the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity. The investigated nanocomposites exhibit well visible-light photoctatalytic stability. The photogenerated holes are thought as the main active species for the RhB photodegradation in the presence of the DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of NCC/Modified Nano-silica/PVA Blend Membrane%NCC/改性纳米SiO2/PVA共混膜的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose(NCC)/modified nano-silica(SiO2)/polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) blend membrane was prepared by blending method. The results of fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy analysis showed that blending