WorldWideScience

Sample records for pv rural electrification

  1. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1992-01-01

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  2. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  3. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E; Aguilera, J [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  4. Pv rural electrification in Kiribati: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, Suresh [Energy and Atmosphere Programme, SEED/BPPS UNDP, New York (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) participated in the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification project in Kiribati. Under this project, assistance was provided to the Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) in order to enable it to provide electricity service as a micro utility in a effective manner. The assistance provided included installation of 55 PV-based solar home systems and one community system. In addition, the assistance focussed on technical training of SEC personnel on PV systems and management training on accounting, billing, spare parts inventory, etcetera. [Espanol] En colaboracion con la Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) participo en la puesta en practica de un proyecto de electrificacion rural fotovoltaico en Kiribati. Dentro de este proyecto, se proporciono ayuda a la Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) para ponerla en condicion de suministrar el servicio electrico, en una forma efectiva, como una micro empresa electrica. La ayuda proporcionada incluyo la instalacion de 55 sistemas domesticos solares fotovoltaicos y un sistema comunitario. Adicionalmente, la ayuda se enfoco al entrenamiento tecnico del personal de SEC en sistemas fotovoltaicos y en el entrenamiento administrativo en contabilidad, facturacion, inventariado de partes de repuesto, etc.

  5. Pv rural electrification in Kiribati: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, Suresh [Energy and Atmosphere Programme, SEED/BPPS UNDP, New York (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) participated in the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification project in Kiribati. Under this project, assistance was provided to the Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) in order to enable it to provide electricity service as a micro utility in a effective manner. The assistance provided included installation of 55 PV-based solar home systems and one community system. In addition, the assistance focussed on technical training of SEC personnel on PV systems and management training on accounting, billing, spare parts inventory, etcetera. [Espanol] En colaboracion con la Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) participo en la puesta en practica de un proyecto de electrificacion rural fotovoltaico en Kiribati. Dentro de este proyecto, se proporciono ayuda a la Kiribati Solar Energy Company (SEC) para ponerla en condicion de suministrar el servicio electrico, en una forma efectiva, como una micro empresa electrica. La ayuda proporcionada incluyo la instalacion de 55 sistemas domesticos solares fotovoltaicos y un sistema comunitario. Adicionalmente, la ayuda se enfoco al entrenamiento tecnico del personal de SEC en sistemas fotovoltaicos y en el entrenamiento administrativo en contabilidad, facturacion, inventariado de partes de repuesto, etc.

  6. Assessment and evaluation of PV based decentralized rural electrification: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha; Kandpal, Tara Chandra

    2010-01-01

    The challenges of providing electricity to rural households are manifold. Ever increasing demand-supply gap, crumbling electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure, high cost of delivered electricity are a few of these. Use of renewable energy technologies for meeting basic energy needs of rural communities has been promoted by the Governments world over for many decades. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the first among several renewable energy technologies that was adopted globally as well as in India for meeting basic electricity needs of rural areas that are not connected to the grid. This paper attempts at reviewing and analyzing PV literature pertaining to decentralized rural electrification into two main categories - (1) experiences from rural electrification and technology demonstration programmes covering barriers and challenges in marketing and dissemination; institutional and financing approaches; and productive and economic applications, (2) techno-economic aspects including system design methodologies and approaches; performance evaluation and monitoring; techno-economic comparison of various systems; and environmental implications and life cycle analysis. The paper discusses the emerging trends in its concluding remarks. (author)

  7. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  8. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society.

  9. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  10. A survey informed PV-based cost-effective electrification options for rural sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is carried out in Kendu Bay area of Kenya to determine electrification patterns of a typical rural sub-Saharan Africa community and to determine the reasons behind such energy choices. The data from the survey is used to build a transition probability matrix (TPM) for different electrification states for Kendu Bay households. The TPM and the survey data are used to model temporal diffusion of PV systems and PV-based communal (mini/micro) grids in the area. Survey data show that majority of Kendu Bay residents shun the national grid due to high connection fees, unreliability of the system, and corruption; people who can afford-to choose small solar home systems for their basic electricity needs. Without any government policy intervention or help, simulation results show that once 100% electrification status has been achieved in Kendu Bay, only 26% of the residents will be found to be electrified through the national grid alone; the majority (38%) will be electrified through PV-based communal grids while the remaining 36% will be electrified through grid connected PV home systems (26%) or grid connected communal grids (10%). - Highlights: • A survey on sources of electricity in Kendu Bay area of Kenya is carried out. • Survey results are used to determine choices and sources of household electricity. • Factors affecting electrification are highlighted. • Survey data are used to build a transition probability matrix (TPM). • The TPM and data from the survey are used to model temporal PV diffusion.

  11. A comparison study of performance for three stand-alone PV systems used in rural electrification in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya is a national program to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program 250 systems with a total peak power of about 300 K Wp has been put into work starting the beginning of the year 2003, the sizes of the systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, the systems was designed to supply different family needs. All systems are equipped by a data logger to collect the system parameters. In this paper we will compare the performance of three different PV sizes through two year of work. The results showed that the systems are performing incomparable to the deigned parameters, very little power failure was reported, and there are technical and social issues has to be addressed before the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  12. Libyan intuitive for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  13. Plan of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation shows the policies of the Government of Guatemala on renewable energy for the rural population, the current demand of energy and trends for 2004. Also presents the budget for financing electrification projects with solar energy and hydro energy and the number of users to be included by geographical zone

  14. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  15. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  16. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  17. Develop of the rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredi, R.

    1994-01-01

    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power

  18. El Salvador - Rural Electrification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation seeks to determine the impact of electrification on the cost of energy, energy consumption, time allocation, and household income. Because the...

  19. Rural electrification or village energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D V

    1980-03-01

    Decentralized power generation using renewable energy resources is more appropriate to the energy needs of the rural Third World. These countries often look to the rural electrification programs of the US and Soviet Union as the answer to their problem even though studies consistently show this to be inefficient and frequently ineffective, often reinforcing existing social and economic inequities. When the uses of energy in rural villages are examined in detail, the only approach which will supply energy to the rural poor must be based on a local and regional match of need to indigenous energy sources and to the development of local talent and enthusiasm. 29 references. (DCK)

  20. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  1. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  2. Rural electrification in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Otto

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the plan of the rural electrification in Guatemala considering the factors that affect costs of installation of power systems such as topography, energy consumption and homes density. Also advantages and limitations of hydro power, solar energy and wind energy are discussed with analyses of costs of production of wind energy. The geothermal energy in Guatemala is also described with analyses of feasibility

  3. The rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tugjarov, Gjorgji

    2002-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel genset. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  4. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  5. Rural electrification strategies for distributed generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale Distributed Generation (DG), which run off diesel generators, could provide electricity to rural communities without an electricity grid. Rural Electrification compares around 20 DG enterprises and projects in Brazil, Cambodia and China, and each is a possible model for distributed rural electrification.

  6. Success factors for sustainable private business operation of decentralised rural electrification with PV - Results from the project "DELTA PRO RES" in the lower Delta Mekong countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gölz, S.; Vogt, G.; Maigne, Y.; Mozas, K.

    2006-01-01

    The project Delta PRO RES is the response to the wave of electricity sector reform in developing countries in South East Asia which provides opportunities for a new approach: bankable rural electrification. The project prepares the ground for this future track by developing a methodology and markets to increase rural access to energy with decentralized renewable energy systems in the Lower Delta Mekong countries Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. Private entrepreneurship and venture capital inves...

  7. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and solar PV has in many camps been labelled as donor driven, expensive and fragile technology mainly serving the richest......Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically...... grid rural electrification schemes based on hybrid solar PVdiesel generators. This may bring PV systems in line with fossil fuel based systems in terms of consumer cost and options for productive use and it changes the market for PV from mainly donor supported schemes into mainstream rural...

  8. Is Peru Prepared for Large-Scale Sustainable Rural Electrification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Peru has historically been among the Latin-American countries with a low rural electrification rate. Aiming to improve this situation, the country conducted several electrification efforts in the last few decades that included off-grid photovoltaic (PV solutions for remote areas (where the grid expansion was unviable. More recently, the government has also sponsored a ‘massive program’ that aims to deploy a minimum of 150,000 off-grid PV solutions in the upcoming years. In this paper, we assess the sustainability of rural electrification programs in Peru, paying special attention to the ongoing “massive program”. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural and is based on an exhaustive qualitative document analysis complemented by semi-structured expert interviews. We found that the lack of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure seriously compromises the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in Peru. Staff rotation and overlapping competences have caused disturbing changes and inhibited following a strategic line, while widespread outsourcing combined with weak controls have often affected the reliability of the deployed systems. Although cross subsidies have made off-grid PV systems affordable for users, systems often fell short of energy demand. Notably, we found that Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation, and there is a significant mistrust between the government and the rural population (especially in areas where mining is extensive. As a consequence, most of the projects are still designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has frequently led to project failures, payment defaults, and inhibited seizing opportunities regarding productive uses of off-grid PV systems. We expect that our findings may help Peruvian institutions to address the most

  9. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alem Deaces, J.

    1994-01-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary

  10. The developing rural electrification plan continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    The article overviews the current situation of the rural electrification in Guatemala, including demand and supply of energy and the plans of the government in covering the rural areas through the promotion of renewable energy sources

  11. PV power and profit? Electrifying rural South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karottki, R.; Banks, D.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the background to the implementation of a programme of sustainable off-grid energy services delivered to rural areas through private-public partnership. The implementation of the school photovoltaic (PV) electrification programme, electrification of rural clinics, the solar electrification of rural households on a large scale through a joint venture between Shell Renewables and the national utility ESKOM, and the electrification of widely scattered homesteads are discussed. Details are given of the financial support from the government and the National Electricity Regulator, the development of a national standard for Solar Home Systems, identification of target regions, the regulatory framework, and the opportunities for business and for real improvement. (UK)

  12. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomers, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  13. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles Moonga

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas

  14. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas. (author)

  15. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2012-01-01

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  16. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  17. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  18. The value of cooperatives in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Cruickshank, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The electricity sectors of many developing countries underwent substantial reforms during the 1980s and 1990s, driven by global agendas of privatization and liberalization. However, rural electrification offered little by way of market incentives for profit-seeking private companies and was often neglected. As a consequence, delivery models for rural electrification need to change. This paper will review the experiences of various rural electrification delivery models that have been established in developing countries, including concessionary models, dealership approaches and the strengthening of small and medium-sized energy businesses. It will use examples from the USA, Bangladesh and Nepal, together with a detailed case study of a Nepali rural electric cooperative, to explore the role that local cooperatives can play in extending electricity access. It is shown that although there is no magic bullet solution to deliver rural electrification, if offered appropriate financial and institutional support, socially orientated cooperative businesses can be a willing, efficient and effective means of extending and managing rural electricity services. It is expected that this paper will be of particular value to policy-makers, donors, project planners and implementers currently working in the field of rural electrification.

  19. Solar base rural electrification in Balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    2001-01-01

    In Balochistan province, most of the population is living in rural areas and devoid of life's basic facilities. In rural areas of Balochistan where most of the population up to 85% is located, more than four million people lack the essential energy services needed to satisfy the most basic needs and to improve living standards. In this paper, author has suggested some technique which will reduce the load and make solar photovoltaic system quite viable for rural electrification in Balochistan. (author)

  20. Rural electrification: utilities' chafe or challenge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, A.N.; Zomers, Adriaan N.

    2001-01-01

    The earlier research on electricity supply to rural areas has tended to address the technical and financial performance of both grid connected and decentralised power systems and the socio-economic impact of electrification. However, this study has chosen to examine the impact of the developments

  1. Develop of the rural electrification; Desarrollo de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tancredi, R [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas, UTE, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power.

  2. Incubating Innovation for Rural Electrification. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In June, the team held a workshop on ''Low Carbon Sustainable Rural Electrification'' in Salima, Malawi. Co-organized with the Government of Malawi's Department of Energy, this event gathered participants from the energy, telecom, non-profit, banking sectors as well as from governmental and international agencies to discuss the potential development of private led off-grid electrification in Malawi where only 9% of the population has currently access to electricity. A very active participation provided us with insightful feedback and valuable recommendations.

  3. Generator Requirements For Rural Electrification From Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzune Mipoung, Olivare; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the issue of rural electrification from renewable energy. A brief introduction on biomass and wind electrical systems is given. The aim of this research is to propose optimal electrification system design for rural areas. This requires suitable generators selection as a starting point. Some generator types for rural electrification systems are introduced, followed by a discussion on the selection criteria. Simulation results of a typical electrification system for remote areas are obtained to support the safety aspect related to the individual generator types, in the event of accidental rotor motion. All simulations are done in Matlab-Simulink.

  4. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigne, Y.; Molli, L.

    1998-01-01

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  5. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the

  6. Rural electrification in Zimbabwe reduces poverty by targeting income-generating activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapako, M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available National electrification programmes are given priority in many developing countries and the level of electrification is generally seen as one of the key indicators of development. Utilities find rural electrification programmes a challenge because...

  7. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  8. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  9. Options for rural electrification in Arua District, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onzia, Joseph; Núñez Bosch, Osvaldo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed a power generation system suitable for rural area application. The electrification options were proposed for secondary schools, health centres, households and trading centre loads using solar PV system, diesel fired generators, biogas co-fired diesel generators and grid extension. The study is based on simulation, modeling and optimization of renewable energy system. Designs for the options considered were based on the electricity demand and environmental conditions of Arua district. From the designs, capital costs for each option were determined. This was used in carrying out simulations in HOMER computer program to come up with the most cost effective options. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the effects of variation in costs such as diesel price and capital cost of solar PV system.Based on simulation results, it has been found that the trading centre, with 500 kW of electrical demand, must be electrified using the grid extension. The breakeven grid distance is 75.1 km. Grid extension become cost effective compared to diesel generators and solar PV system within this distance. The load at household level ranges from as low as 16 W to 5 kW. For 103 W peak load, the most cost effective option was solar PV system. The second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator. For schools and health centres with load of up to 15 kW, biogas co-fired generator is the best compared to the total cost of 18 kW diesel fired generator which is higher. Therefore, where biogas cannot be generated, diesel generators should be used. Based on the amount of pollutants produced, a biogas co-fired diesel generator is the best option. (full text)

  10. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  11. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  12. Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos; da Silva, Neilton Fidelis [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); International Virtual Institute of Global Change- IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. (author)

  13. Renewable energy for rural electrification in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaer, R.; Zeballos, R.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the possibility of application of the eolic technologies is presented and for the electrification of small rural consumers in the Uruguay, comparing them with the alternative of being connected to the National electric net using the but economic of the systems with return for earth. It was carried out to summary of the existent alternatives in both technologies and it builds to shammer to evaluates it the generation cost and with to classification, for consumption level, of the potential users, it can make to Map of the Uruguay that allows to guide on the solution to adopt according to the consumption level, the distance to the National electric net and according to the characteristics of the wind in the geographical location of the location. All the systems were evaluated on a base of 20 year-old operation keeping in mind the replacements of the materials whose useful life is inferior. In this work, the results of the studies are presented and the followed methodology is shown on a concrete example

  14. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  15. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification; Aspectos juridicos y empresariales de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alem Deaces, J [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y trasmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary.

  16. A new systems paradigm for the rural electrification program, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas, Fernando; Santiago, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    The Philippines has pushed rural electrification for two decades. Recently, the government achieved 100% electrification at the village level. Despite the significant recent economic growth, poverty has increased in some areas. These are usually agricultural and have many un-electrified areas. The multilaterals have launched programs that couple electricity with livelihood projects. The authors argue this is insufficient to guarantee sustainability. A systems view of rural poverty suggests that several components must be designed to work together. In addition to the electricity and livelihood, skills, attitudes, management and markets must be incorporated to make a lasting impact on poverty.

  17. Rural Electrification Program in Indonesia: Comparing SEHEN and SHS Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxensius Tri Sambodo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Indonesian government has targets to obtain 80% of electrification ratio and 98.9% of rural electrification ratio. Extending the grid and off-grid connection has been done to obtain the targets. This paper aims to compare two main programs on rural electrification namely Super Extra Energy Saving (Super Ekstra Hemat Energi, SEHEN that is belong to PLN (state owned company in electricity and the Solar Home System (SHS that is financed by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR. Indonesia has started the rural electrification program in the late 1950s, but how to provide electricity in a sustainable ways both organizationally and institutionally still become a big challenge. The experiences from East Nusa Tenggara provinces showed that both SEHEN and SHS can instantly improve electrification ratio, but government needs to synchronize the technical, administrative, and financial aspect from the two programs. Without any improvements in designing the program, we argue that the existing program is not sustainable.

  18. Electrification for “Under Grid” households in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, 600 million people live without electricity. Despite ambitions of governments and donors to invest in rural electrification, decisions about how to extend electricity access are being made in the absence of rigorous evidence. In this paper, we present high-resolution spatial data on electrification rates in rural Kenya in order to quantify and visualize energy poverty in a novel way. Using our dataset of 20,000 geo-tagged structures in Western Kenya, we provide descriptive evidence that electrification rates remain very low despite significant investments in nearby grid infrastructure. This pattern holds across time and for both poor and relatively well-off households and businesses. We argue that if governments wish to leverage existing infrastructure and economies of scale, subsidies and new approaches to financing connections are necessary.

  19. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  20. DC micro-grid with distributed generation for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.J.; Asare-Bediako, B.; Alipuria, B.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of low voltage DC distribution network for rural electrification within an intelligent grid concept. The goal is to provide local communities in sparsely populated areas with electricity supply generated from renewable energy sources. Since these communities subsist

  1. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  2. Development of thermoelectric generators for electrification of isolated rural homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinalde, G.F.; Taglialavore, E.; Gortari, S. [CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission), Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Juanico, L.E. [Conicet (National Scientific and Technologic Research Council), Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Molina, M.G. [CONICET and Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste, 1109, 5400, San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This work presents the experimental development of the first two prototypes of thermoelectric generators intended for initial electrification of rural isolated homes. The microcontroller system designed for these devices is oriented to develop a ''plug and play'' generator that is able to work on firewood home stoves without specialized supervision. (author)

  3. Rural electrification in Bangladesh: management, engineering, and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverick, B.; Gellerson, M.; Stovall, J.; Shelton, R.

    1986-07-01

    This report represents the partial findings of a five-member, multidisciplinary team requested by USAID to assess the progress of the Rural Electrification Program in Bangladesh. Four areas are assessed in this report: the effectiveness of the management system; the system planning and engineering capabilities; RE tariffs and energy sector pricing policies; and the effectiveness of technical assistance.

  4. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  5. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  6. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  7. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J A [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R; Moreira, J; Batista, I; Garcia, R; Rodriguez, M [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  8. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  9. Proposal for the creation of an autonomous recurrent fund for the development of decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    1998-01-01

    The socio-economic implications regarding the establishment of a recurrent fund for the rural electrification of developing countries are discussed in conjunction with an evaluation of the current status of rural electrification. The technological developments in off-grid power production has made rural electrification feasible but several important issues need to be addressed. This paper emphasizes the need for consideration of the scale of the problem. Results of the assessment show that the involvement of the private sector in rural electrification is still minimal. Moreover, in many countries off-grid power production is either impossible or illegal

  10. Analysis of rural electrification in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Neto, J.F. dos

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of rural electrification in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil as the main factor for increasing the rural production, generating new jobs and collecting tributes is studied. An analysis of rural electrification in producer, state government and electric power concessionary are also presented. (author)

  11. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  12. Sino/American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. There is a very large need for new sources of energy for rural electrification in China as represented by 120 million people in remote regions who do not have access to an electric grid and by over 300 coastal islands in China that are unelectrified. In heavily populated regions in China where there is an electric grid, there are still severe shortages of electric power and limited access to the grid by village populations. In order to meet energy demands in rural China, renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, and biomass resources are being utilized as a cost effective alternative to grid extension and use of diesel and gasoline generators. An Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing in February, 1995. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. The Impact of Rural Electrification. Challenges and Ways Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torero, Maximo; Vincent, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Rigorous impact evaluation that includes appropriately selected control groups must be a part of rural electrification program designs. Budgeting evaluation activities and engaging with evaluators at an early stage improves to likelihood of having a high quality evaluation design; plus, if deviations occur after the design stage, the evaluators are better prepared to adjust the design so that the impact results remain informative to policy makers and future program designers. Another take-away is to use unified framework to specify the expected outcomes and the plausible sizes of impacts. If done at the beginning of the program, this will provide context to the kind of discussion that policy makers should engage in (e.g. if they should focus on health benefits or the potential to diffuse information campaigns to rural households). These points focus mostly on internal validity, but we also need to focus on external validity as well. Large scale rural electrification programs will provide an opportunity to test if the results from small scale impact evaluations translate to other settings. Something we have not stressed so far but that is important to keep in mind are the complementarities in the provision of different type of infrastructure. Large projects can provide an opportunity to explore complementarities with other infrastructure programs, such as mobile telephony, road access, and improved water and sanitation access. They can shed light on what are the most welfare-enhancing policy options when deciding what types of infrastructure to provide in rural areas, and especially to poor rural households. Finally, we reiterate the need to use an objective function that casts a wider net when deciding where to place electrification programs. Focusing solely on cost minimization can result in missed opportunities. When deciding where to deploy the electric grid in rural areas it is imperative to take into account the potential profits, specifically the agricultural

  14. User-owned utility models for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the history of rural electric cooperatives (REC) in the United States, and the broader question of whether such organizations can serve as a model for rural electrification in other countries. The author points out the features of such cooperatives which have given them stability and strength, and emphasizes that for success of such programs, many of these same features must be present. He definitely feels the cooperative models are not outdated, but they need strong local support, and a governmental structure which is supportive, and in particular not negative.

  15. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  16. Evaluation of choices for sustainable rural electrification in developing countries: A multicriteria approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Lahdelma, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Rural electrification (RE) can be modelled as a multifactorial task connected to a large number of variables: decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering not only the techno-economic competitiveness but also socio-cultural dynamics and environmental consequences, making the task intricate. Many rural electrification projects have failed due to lack of attention to the issues beyond financial and technical dimensions. This paper presents a standardized approach for decision making concerning the extension of electricity services to rural areas. This approach first determines whether the supply provision should be grid expansion or off-grid on the basis of levelized cost of delivered electricity. If the grid expansion is found nonviable over off-grid options then a multicriteria decision aiding tool, SMAA-2 (Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis), will evaluate off-grid technologies by aggregating 24 criteria values. While applying this approach, the delivered costs of electricity by the grid in remote areas within the 1–25 km distances vary in a range of 0.10–7.85 US$/kW h depending on the line lengths and load conditions. In the off-grid evaluation, the solar PV (photovoltaic) and biogas plants are found as the most preferable alternatives with 59% and 41% acceptability in their first rank, respectively. - Highlights: • Rural electrification involves a large number of socio-cultural issues in addition to technical and environmental considerations. • Decision makers need to choose the appropriate options by considering many criteria. • Many off-grid projects failed due to noncomplying of societal issues. • Multicriteria based decision choice can safeguard the projects from these issues. • SMAA analysis can select the alternatives based on merits

  17. Effectiveness of Botswana's policy on rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketlogetswe, C.; Mothudi, T.H.; Mothibi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rural areas, the world over, are characterised by low levels of connectivity to electrical energy, despite the fact that electricity has been universally acknowledged as one of the most important propellant for community and national development. Botswana is not immune to this trend. Consequently, available evidence puts the overall level of electrical connectivity in Botswana rural areas to just 12%. A plethora of factors are responsible for inhibiting high levels of access to electrical energy by rural communities. Some major impediments often cited as causing ineffective energy provision to rural-based communities include, among others, the following: (a)geographical set-ups of the concerned communities; (b)inappropriately conceived energy policies; (c)low-income status of most rural inhabitants. This paper, therefore, examines Botswana's policy on energy supply with the view to confirm or deny any correlation between the above factors and the low-levels of electrical connectivity in the country's rural communities, as well as many others that may have impacted on this state of affairs. The policy is evaluated by undertaking a comparative study of its implementation on two seemingly geographical contrasting rural communities within the country

  18. Impacts of Rural Electrification Revisited: The African Context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Jorg; Sievert, Maximiliane; Vincent, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The investment requirements to achieve the United Nations' universal electricity access goal by 2030 are estimated at 640 billion US Dollars. The assumption underlying this goal is that electrification contributes to poverty alleviation in many regards. In recent years, a body of literature has emerged that widely confirms this positive poverty impact assumption. Most of these studies, however, are based on data from Asia and Latin America. This paper challenges the transferability of impact findings in the literature to the African context. Using a unique data set that we collected in various African countries we suggest that impact expectations on income, education, and health should be discounted considerably for Africa. In many cases, the low levels of electricity consumption can also be served by low-cost solar alternatives. To ensure cost-effective usage of public investments into rural electrification, we call for careful cost-benefit comparisons of on-grid and off-grid solutions. (authors)

  19. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  20. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J M; Villasenor, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  1. Delivery Mechanisms for Rural Electrification. A report from a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Arvidson, Anders; Katyega, Maneno (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    The workshop was attended by 28 participants from Kenya, Mozambique South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, representing energy service providers (private, public and cooperative), consumer groups, public energy authorities, researchers, consultants, NGOs and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. The topic of the workshop was how different types of electricity delivery mechanisms - i.e. the combination of an energy supply technology and the organisation managing it - can support rural development. Which energy services have high priority for rural development? What are the appropriate delivery mechanisms? How can the expansion of different delivery mechanisms be supported and made to work efficiently? These are some of the key questions that were discussed in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to share experiences and develop a better understanding of existing and potential energy delivery mechanisms that contribute to development in rural areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. The workshop was targeted at, amongst others, the authorities which are in the process of being formed, or have recently been formed, to take charge of rural electrification such as the Rural Electrification Agencies and Rural Electrification Funds. Four case studies were presented and discussed to provide an introduction to the topic, and concrete examples of different delivery mechanisms were given to inspire the workshop discussions. Focus group discussions were used to explore the participants perceptions and experience of: (i) what rural development is, (ii) what role energy plays in rural development, (iii) which energy services are important for rural development, (iv) which delivery mechanisms are used and appropriate for different situations of energy service delivery in rural areas, and (v) what the institutional framework requirements are for delivering different types of energy services and supporting different types of

  2. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  3. Solar energy, component of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, the Foundation Energies for the World was associated, in the scope of the Energy-Solidarity China Program, with Xneri for the installation of photovoltaic equipment in five isolated villages in the extreme west of China. Here is the presentation of a first experience in China intended to make the beneficiaries, technicians and politicians more aware of the concept of decentralized rural electricity

  4. A method multi criterio to evaluate projects of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Posse, E.

    1994-01-01

    In this document about the problem of the evaluation projects methodologies in rural electrification.The low analysis problem is of complex nature, because each project is evaluation object and an economic agent. One of these agents identifies different benefits and cost, and also has a different approaches for value them.In consequence, the form in that it is carried out the evaluation of the one project for each one of this agents that it is usually solved for mechanisms linked to the capacity of incidence or of determination of each one of them, this does not assures a satisfactory results for the general interest

  5. Review of photovoltaic energy development in Kenya for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Ndjeli, L.; Raturi, A.K.

    1995-10-01

    Energy demand is rapidly growing throughout much of the developing world, where an estimated two billion people, mostly from sparsely populated areas, currently live without electricity. As electrical energy systems are selected to help meet these people's electricity need, the environmental ramifications of the generating systems become increasingly important. Photovoltaic systems generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases, and result in global, regional and local air quality advantages. In this work we intend to carry out research and development of photovoltaic solar cells for rural electrification - especially solar powered water pumping. (author). 56 refs, 11 figs

  6. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.

  7. Rural Electrification through Decentralized Concentrating Solar Power: Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Quoilin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of small-scale solar Organic Rankine Cycles for rural electrification in remote areas of Lesotho. It is subdivided in two parts. The first part deals with the success conditions of decentralized rural electrification projects. Through a literature survey, relevant guiding principles and recommendations are formulated. The second part of the paper describes the proposed system, which is designed in agreement with the formulated recommendations. A framework for benchmarking the performance and cost of various micro-utility platforms and rural electrification distribution models is proposed.

  8. Light for all? Evaluating Brazil's rural electrification progress, 2000–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slough, Tara; Urpelainen, Johannes; Yang, Joonseok

    2015-01-01

    In an ideal world, rural electrification would serve the goal of socio-economic development. Improved electricity access can power rural industries, enhance agricultural productivity, and provide households with more productive time for study and work at night. Brazil's national rural electrification program has promised to target poor and remote rural communities, but has this goal been met? We analyze statistically representative data from Brazil's Census of 2000 and 2010. While Brazil has reached municipalities with low initial electricity access rates, rural electrification has not targeted the least developed municipalities. Furthermore, we find that the government has not reached the most remote and sparsely populated rural communities. Primary policy implications include more precise targeting of the least developed municipalities, complementary interventions to promote rural development, and increasing investments into distributed energy, such as off-grid solar power. With these strategies, Brazil and other countries facing similar issues can enhance the socio-economic benefit of rural electrification. - Highlights: • Progress of rural electrification in Brazil, 2000–2010. • Low initial electrification rates predict high achievement. • Lack of socio-economic development predicts neither high nor low achievement. • Remoteness predicts low achievement.

  9. Locally manufactured wind power technology for sustainable rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, J.; While, A.; Howell, R.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the use of wind power for rural electrification has been limited. However the fact that micro-wind turbines can be manufactured using only basic workshop tools, techniques and materials, and therefore can be produced locally is often overlooked. Local manufacture has the potential to boost the local economy, build local capacity, reduce costs and produce resilient and flexible energy systems. However, locally manufactured technology must be seen as socially embedded due to the variety of local knowledge, skills, equipment and materials needed to construct and maintain such systems, as well as the organisational structures needed to ensure their long term sustainability. Evidence from successful initiatives suggests that stable institutional support from intermediaries such as the local/national government or NGOs is necessary to foster the development of a wind power industry based on local manufacture. The roles of these intermediaries include identifying and targeting windy areas with favourable environmental conditions, conducting research and development, collecting feedback from end users, creating supply chains for new parts and materials and developing relevant knowledge and skills. In this paper, three case studies of specific initiatives are analysed to draw out the social, economic and technical factors that could facilitate wider adoption of the technology. - Highlights: ► Local manufacture of wind turbines often overlooked for rural electrification. ► Flexible to adapt to local context and benefits local economy, capacity and supply chain. ► Development of technology discussed and 3 case studies of dissemination analysed. ► Critical factors: institutional support, system level planning, continuity of supply. ► Dissemination successful in Inner Mongolia; work continues elsewhere.

  10. The theory and practice of 100 pilot SHP-based rural electrification counties in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the theory and practice of 100 pilot small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) based rural electrification counties in China. The document reports the research contents, methodology and results, and the pilot benefit analysis and evaluation.

  11. Small hydropower for rural electrification in South Africa - using experiences from other African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, WE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Local hydropower sources can play an important role in the electrification of rural areas in South Africa remote from the national electricity grid. To ensure the sustainability of hydropower developments it is essential that lessons learned...

  12. Rural electrification in Malaysia via small scale biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin

    2000-01-01

    It is the government of Malaysia's vision to see that the rural community is not left behind in its endeavour to be an industrialised nation in the year 2020. The standard of living in the rural areas is very far different from that in the urban areas. To obtain equality the standard of living of the rural folks need to be ungraded. This is done largely by electrification. Electricity has been in the past the catalyst for development and raising the standard of living of the poor. Electricity supplied by the nation's electricity company might not reach all remote areas and therefore there must be a means to provide alternative electrical supply to these places. Present method employ the use of diesel generator sets to provide electricity. The availability of biomass source of supply in the rural areas could be effectively exploited to provide alternative source of energy via a gasification system to run a reciprocating engine coupled to a generator to generated electricity. A small-scale biomass gasification generator set in the range of 2-5 kW is suitable to provide electrical supply to a typical house in the rural area. The present use of biomass source of energy is in its utilisation to provide source of heat for cooking. Several tests have been conducted and the performance is very good. Alternatively another medium scale system generating about 50-20O kW would be suitable for a typical village having about 50 houses. A small-scale system has been developed in USM to provide 5 kW of electrical power. The system used a petrol engine and produces an overall efficiency of 7% with a specific consumption of about 3 kg/kWh. The biomass material used is wood. However for application in the rural areas the biomass material will depend on the type available. A further 50 kW system is being develop in USM. (Author)

  13. Integration and Optimization of Renewables and Storages for Rural Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brenna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electricity access in Sub-Saharan African countries is below 10%; thus, introducing a microgrid for rural electrification can overcome the endemic lack of modern electricity access that hampers the provision of basic services such as education, healthcare, safety, economic and social growth for rural communities. This work studies different possible comparison methods considering variations such as land area required, location for the storage, efficiency, availability and reliability of energy resources, and technology cost variability (investment cost and levelized cost of electricity, which are among the major key parameters used to assess the best possible utilization of renewables and storage system, either using them in the form of integrated, hybrid or independent systems. The study is carried out largely with the help of the Micropower optimization modeling simulator called HOMER for Ethiopia. As a result, the study proposes the use of Photovoltaic (PV–Wind–Hydro–Battery hybrid system model that concludes the optimal configuration of power systems at affordable price for underserved rural communities.

  14. FAR from the grid: A rural electrification field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, P.; Pena, R. [Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Arias, C.A.; Sandoval, D. [Empresa Jujena de Servicios Energeticos Dispersos (EJSEDSA), Independencia 60, 4600 San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    This paper analyses the field performance of different off-grid generation technologies applied to the electrification of rural villages. Autonomous diesel generators are the most extended technology. It is a well known application, although it has also some disadvantages: fuel transportation and consumption costs, maintenance needs or environmental problems. In places where accessibility is difficult and costly, the use of local energy resources (basically renewable) constitutes a significant advantage. Due to the intermittent character of those resources, renewable generation systems are sometimes associated to diesel gen-sets in order to increase the reliability of supply of small and medium-size communities. A comparative analysis between diesel, hydro-diesel and photovoltaic-diesel technologies is presented in this article. It is based on data collected from systems installed in the rural area of the province of Jujuy, northwest of Argentina. The study covers from year 2001 to 2008, with a research universe of 16 locations supplied by thermal diesel generation (1 with a large-diesel system and other 15 with smaller ones), 5 locations with hydro-diesel and 7 with photovoltaic-diesel systems. The energy demand evolution of rural villages is also studied because of its influence on the system operation and sustainability. (author)

  15. An assessment of electricity and income distributional trends following rural electrification in poor northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermaier, Martin; Szklo, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio Lèbre; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification is considered to be a key strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. It should therefore include (1) expanding electricity access and (2) enable new consumers to increase their electricity consumption. In this paper we ask how Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts have managed to reach these objectives. A new method to measure energy and income equity is presented which uses estimations of non-parametric density curves for the analysis of energy and income distributional trends following electrification. By applying our method to a panel data set from two Brazilian states situated in the country’s poor northeast region we find that (1) rural consumers take up electricity consumption after electrification, and that (2) low consumption levels give way to higher electricity consumption levels after only a few years. This indicates immediate social benefits for households through consumption of electricity services. However, our analysis cannot verify a direct link between electricity use and rural income generation in the short term. The results emphasize the need for government and other actors to integrate rural electrification into broader rural development strategies in order to enable long-term welfare increases through electricity use. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts. ► New methodology to analyze energy and income equity trends ex post electrification. ► Analysis indicates immediate social benefits for electrified households. ► We cannot establish a direct link between electricity use and income in the short-run. ► Electrification thus should be integrated in long-term rural development strategies.

  16. Rural electrification in Chihuahua, Mexico at one third of the cost vs a conventional substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Omar; Gomez, Rolando; Solano, Arturo; Acosta, Eduardo

    2010-09-15

    This paper and presentation describes technical details about a successful experience in a unique project in Mexico for making possible the rural electrification at one third of the total cost vs a traditional substation. This alternate solution for electrification of rural communities where construction of distribution lines or traditional substations are not economically possible due to local government's budget limits or because the electrical companies are looking for the ROI Return Over Investment in poverty communities.

  17. SELCO: A model for solar rural electrification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, H. Harish

    1999-11-01

    The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the

  18. People's participation in rural electrification - a successful case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)

    2012-06-15

    Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)

  19. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  20. Utility led rural electrification in Morocco: combining grid extension, mini-grids, and solar home systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dafrallah, Touria

    2016-01-01

    Morocco has become known for being an example of a well-performing utility-led rural electrification program, but so far little independent research has scrutinized this extraordinary case. Based on a critical review of the available literature, this study attempts to draw a picture of the evolut......Morocco has become known for being an example of a well-performing utility-led rural electrification program, but so far little independent research has scrutinized this extraordinary case. Based on a critical review of the available literature, this study attempts to draw a picture...... of the evolution of rural electrification in Morocco, the policies and programs that have been implemented, and their institutional, technical, and financial dimensions. The review reveals that information available about the success of the programme has almost entirely been provided by the utility ONE, which has......) a level of rural electrification in Morocco that from the outset was far below that in comparable neighboring countries; (2) a high GDP compared to sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries; and (3) a high level of urban electrification that allowed cross-subsidization from urban consumers. So while...

  1. Impact analysis of rural electrification projects in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Tanguy

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews trends in rural electrification over the past 30 years in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, it is shown that motivations for rural electrification programs have evolved significantly over the years, following changes in development paradigms. The author finds, however, that knowledge of the impact of this has only marginally improved: low connection rates and weak productive utilization identified in the 1980's remain true today, and impacts on such dimensions as health, education, or income, though often used to justify projects, are largely undocumented. Indeed impact evaluations are methodologically challenging in the field of infrastructures and have been limited thus far. Nevertheless examples of recent or ongoing impact evaluations of rural electrification programs offer promising avenues for identifying both the effect of electricity per se and the relative effectiveness of approaches to promoting it

  2. Village electrification technologies - an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, B.

    2005-01-01

    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example. In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact. The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service

  3. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  4. Driving and hindering factors for rural electrification in developing countries: Lessons from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Poudyal, Aditya; Lahdelma, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Rural electrification is essential for bringing about social and economic developments, but the progress is distressingly slow in most developing countries. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP) has been highlighted as a positive case among developing countries, but from 2006 onwards there have been doubts about the program's chances of success. In this paper, we examine the rural electrification practices in Bangladesh and evaluate the claim that, whereas they were successful up to 2005, they then began to decline in terms of their performance. This study determines the factors behind the initial success of the program as well as those that account for the recent downturn in BREP. We found that the BREP was a clear success in terms of its growth and progress; however, its performance has been declining since 2006. The key driving factors for the success of this program had to do with prioritizing system investment, community involvement, anti-corruption features, standardized practices and performance-based incentives while excluding political parties. The major issues accounting for the decline were the lack of organizational autonomy, a shortage of funding, unrealistic tariffs, and power supply shortages. Renewable-based, off-grid technologies have been successfully supplementing the on-grid program in remote areas. - Highlights: • Rural electrification is essential for bringing about socio-economic developments. • The pace of rural electrification in the developing countries has been very slow. • A multitude of issues plays behind in making the task a success or a failure. • Lack of policy reforms, unrealistic tariffs are the main hinderers. • Rural electrification cannot be successful by sticking to a rigid model

  5. Rural Electrification Efforts Based on Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in the Andean Region: Comparative Assessment of Their Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we comparatively assess the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based on off-grid solutions in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural. We found that Ecuador and Chile have consistently failed to ensure mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the deployed off-grid systems, which has made these solutions in poor Chilean and Ecuadorian communities inevitably unsustainable. Although Peru has adopted a cross-tariff scheme, the Peruvian case shows that ensuring the funding of off-grid PV solutions is not enough. Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation (local values and lifestyles are constantly disregarded and most of the projects have been designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has often led to project failures and payment defaults. However, although each country has its particular challenges, we found that the three Andean countries have consistently neglected the importance of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure, which in turn significantly compromised the rural electrification effort in these countries.

  6. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  7. The Chinese electricity access model for rural electrification: Approach, experience and lessons for others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Ohiare, Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    The economic and infrastructural disparities between the rural and urban communities of most developing countries in general and in terms of energy access in particular are quite glaring. China presents a good example of a developing country that has successfully embarked on rural electrification projects over the last few decades and achieved a great feat of almost 100% electrification rate (. World Energy Outlook, 2009, International Energy Agency, Paris (see IEA website at (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/electricity.asp).)). The purpose of this paper is to find out how China has achieved this feat; how China’s rural energy projects were financed and whether China provides lessons for other countries to follow. The above questions are examined through an extensive literature review and the paper finds that unlike many other countries following the top-down approach to rural electrification, China has preferred to use a phased development through a bottom-up approach where local resources, and village level development and empowerment played an important role. While the state provided the overall guidance and financial support, the integrated rural development approach has produced local-level solutions that are subsequently integrated to produce an alternative development pathway. Strong government commitment, active local participation, technological flexibility and diversity, strong emphasis on rural development through agricultural and industrial activities and an emphasis on capacity building and training have also played an important role in the success. However, despite achieving the universal access objective, China still faces a number of issues related to rural electricity use, especially in terms of regional use patterns, long-term sustainability of supply and commercial operation of the systems. The Chinese model could serve as an inspiration for other developing countries trying to ensure universal electricity access. - Highlights: ► It

  8. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  9. An integrated framework for rural electrification: Adopting a user-centric approach to business model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillebeeckx, Simon J.D.; Parikh, Priti; Bansal, Rahul; George, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification (RE) has gained prominence over the past two decades as an effective means for improving living conditions. This growth has largely been driven by socio-economic and political imperatives to improve rural livelihood and by technological innovation. Based on a content analysis of 232 scholarly articles, the literature is categorized into four focal lenses: technology, institutional, viability and user-centric. We find that the first two dominate the RE debate. The viability lens has been used less frequently, whilst the user-centric lens began to engage scholars as late as 2007. We provide an overview of the technological, institutional and viability lenses, and elaborate upon the user-centric lens in greater detail. For energy policy and practice, we combine the four lenses to develop a business model framework that policy makers, practitioners and investors could use to assess RE projects or to design future rural electrification strategies. - Highlights: ► Review of two decades of rural electrification research. ► Content analysis of 232 scholarly articles. ► Literature is categorized into four focal lenses: technology, institutional, viability and user-centric. ► We develop a business model framework for rural electrification strategies.

  10. Constructing low emitting power systems through grid extension in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Y. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Ogimoto Lab. 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Department of Advanced Energy, The University of Tokyo, 5-4-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277-8561 (Japan); Yamaji, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The effective rural electrification method varies with economic status and geographical location, and the benefits of decentralized generation differ for each energy system depending on its characteristics. This paper evaluates the most effective generation strategies with rural electrification in an optimized power system of Papua New Guinea (PNG) using a linear programming model. The energy system model developed for the study includes decentralized generation, centralized generation, and grid systems of electricity and gas with consideration for the current energy system and infrastructure. Two methods of rural electrification, decentralized generation and grid extension, are compared with and without the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results of simulations show that extending the power grid that allows economical generation such as coal-fired power and hydropower to supply rural electricity is a more cost effective way for rural electrification. Although grid extension is more capital intensive than decentralized generation, the former reduces the total system cost through reduction of the fossil fuel use. Extending the power grid is also effective at attracting CDM investments, since it makes the power system flexible and provides opportunities to advance low emitting energy such as hydropower. (author)

  11. Rural electrification and efforts to create enterprises for the effective use of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastakoti, B.P. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). International and Rural Development Department

    2003-11-01

    The provision of energy in rural households and communities has several implications and uses. The field experience drawn in this paper shows the efforts and approaches employed to make the optimum use of the electric energy through enterprise creation. If rural electrification is left to grow without any directional inputs, experience has shown that, beyond obvious use for lighting, radios and basic home-appliances, uses which might bring economic development to an area, are slow to emerge. To be of development benefit to an area, electricity should be employed in enterprises which employ local people, and add value to local resources. However, contrary to the conventional ideology, the empirical observation from this field experience in one of the hill districts of Nepal demonstrates the positive effect of a rural-electrification programme with various innovative approaches, practical tariff policies and varieties of motivational and entrepreneurship development mechanisms. These strategic approaches with supportive institutional mechanisms have proven conducive for fostering the growth of local enterprises, thus creating employment and resource harnessing. Complementary service mechanisms and policy coordination is a necessary precondition for an effective use of power in the rural community rather than the rhetoric policy of rural electrification in isolation. Electrification in isolation, without any promotional or supportive mechanisms, still creates pitfalls. (author)

  12. Rural electrification and efforts to create enterprises for the effective use of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badri Prasad Bastakoti [University of Reading (United Kingdom). International and Rural Development Dept.

    2003-11-01

    The provision of energy in rural households and communities has several implication and uses. The field experience drawn in this paper shows the efforts and approaches employed to make the optimum use of the electric energy through enterprise creation. If rural electrification is left to grow without any directional inputs, experience has shown that, beyond obvious use for lighting, radios and basic home-appliances, uses which might bring economic development to an area, are slow to emerge. To be of development benefit to an area, electricity should be employed in enterprises which employ local people, and add value to local resources. However, contrary to the conventional ideology, the empirical observation from this field experience in one of the hill districts of Nepal demonstrates the positive effect of a rural-electrification programme with various innovative approaches, practical tariff policies and varieties of motivational and entrepreneurship development mechanisms. These strategic approaches with supportive institutional mechanisms have proven conducive for fostering the growth of local enterprises, thus creating employment and resource harnessing. Complementary service mechanisms and policy coordination is a necessary precondition for an effective use of power in the rural community rather than the rhetoric policy of rural electrification in isolation. Electrification in isolation, without any promotional or supportive mechanisms, still creates pitfalls. (author)

  13. Geographic and socio-economic barriers to rural electrification: New evidence from Indian villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugoua, Eugenie; Liu, Ruinan; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The International Energy Agency estimates that more than a billion people remain without household electricity access. However, countries such as India have recently made major progress in rural electrification. Who has benefited from these achievements? We focus on 714 villages in six energy-poor states of northern and eastern India to investigate trends in electricity access. We use data both from the 2011 Census of India and an original energy access survey conducted in 2014 and 2015. During the three years that separated the surveys, distance to the nearest town and land area lose their power as predictors of the percentage of households in the village that has access to electricity. In this regard, the Indian government's flagship rural electrification program seems to have managed to overcome a major obstacle to grid extension. On the other hand, socio-economic inequalities between villages related to caste status and household expenditure remain strong predictors. These findings highlight the importance of socio-economic barriers to rural electricity access and alleviate concerns about remoteness and population density as obstacles to grid extension. - Highlights: • Empirical analysis of rural electrification progress in India. • Geographic differences across villages no longer explain electricity access. • Social and economic inequities remain stark. • Future policy should focus on household electrification within villages.

  14. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia)]|[GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  15. The Gtz system management applied to photovoltaic rural electrification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Pablo [Brendel Proper, (Bolivia); [GTZ-Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica de Alemania, (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The GTZ (Federal Republic of Germany Technical Cooperation Society) has developed a general project design system, particularly for Renewable Energy, that systematically covers all aspects necessary in their planning and implementation, so that their effects are sustainable in the long run, and cover as well all the requirements of a determined diffusion. This is what they have called System Management. This methodology of project implementation can be described as capable of being applied to any action area, and has already proved and validated its efficiency in projects where it has been applied. The main reason for its use is based on the correction of previous experiences with projects that had a tendency towards one area of action alone, in a much too exclusive way -mainly the technological- neglecting important aspects in the sustainability of technologies being introduced. The experience of PROPER - Bolivia (Programa para la difusion de energias renovables), who has been applying this system to its projects, is being used as a methodological basis. PROPER started in 1991, and is programed to last until September or 1996. Among the main components being described in the system`s methodology, in the particular case of PHOTOVOLTAIC RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROJECTS, stand out the areas of Technological Transference; Training; Diffusion; Financing; Energy Policy; Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation; and Support and Follow-up to the supply and demand. [Espanol] La GTZ (Sociedad de Cooperacion Tecnica de la Republica Federal de Alemania) ha desarrollado un proyecto de sistema de diseno general, particularmente para Energia Renovable, que cubre sistematicamente todos los aspectos necesarios en su planeacion y puesta en practica , de tal manera que sus efectos son a la larga sustentables y cubren, asimismo todos los requerimientos de una difusion determinada. Esto es lo que han llamado {sup A}dministracion del Sistema{sup .} Esta metodologia de puesta en practica

  16. Rural electrification in an imperfect world: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Peter; Tembe, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Electricity is universally recognized as a necessary, although not sufficient, requirement for social and economic development. However, increasing access to electricity in developing countries has proven to be difficult and expensive, particularly in rural areas. In this article, we analyze the dynamics of the relationship between electricity and socio-economic development by means of a cost-benefit analysis of a typical rural electrification project in Mozambique, assessing the impact of electricity on households, education, agro-business, commerce, and the public sector. We show that rural electrification can be commercially viable and cause structural transformation in rural areas within a short period of time. Finally, illustrated by the actual policy practice in Mozambique, we argue that low institutional quality is a key barrier to promote increased access to electricity for the poor

  17. Multi-Criteria Optimization of the Deployment of a Grid for Rural Electrification Based on a Heuristic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Matos, L.; Aguila-Tellez, A.; Hincapié-Reyes, R. C.; González-Sanchez, J. W.

    2017-07-01

    In order to design electrification systems, recent mathematical models solve the problem of location, type of electrification components, and the design of possible distribution microgrids. However, due to the amount of points to be electrified increases, the solution to these models require high computational times, thereby becoming unviable practice models. This study posed a new heuristic method for the electrification of rural areas in order to solve the problem. This heuristic algorithm presents the deployment of rural electrification microgrids in the world, by finding routes for optimal placement lines and transformers in transmission and distribution microgrids. The challenge is to obtain a display with equity in losses, considering the capacity constraints of the devices and topology of the land at minimal economic cost. An optimal scenario ensures the electrification of all neighbourhoods to a minimum investment cost in terms of the distance between electric conductors and the amount of transformation devices.

  18. Initiative for 100% rural electrification in developing countries: Case study of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouf, Boucar; Pode, Ramchandra; Osei, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest access to electricity in the World. In Senegal, less than 25% of the rural population benefit of electricity service. Solar energy offers an important potential to Senegal with over 3000 h of sunlight a year. This is a real opportunity to generalize the access to electricity. But, the efforts to bridge the gap must be diversified and completed. We approach the problem of rural electrification with a different point of view. Grid expansion and centralized solutions may be adequate for villages with a population organized in high-density of habitations. Small size villages or those with highly dispersed population may need different propositions because of cost. These regions will not be the priority of electrification programs. Furthermore, this rural population is characterized by its low income and saving. Such a conjuncture suggests the opportunity of a service based fees model for access to electricity. On the basis of a fees-for-service model, individual standalone photovoltaic systems may be a more appropriate solution to cover the priority needs of lighting and mobile phones battery charge for telecommunication. We present a pilot project in a village of Senegal to support the model and demonstrate its feasibility. - Highlights: • Rural electrification in developing countries. • Problems of access to electricity in rural areas. • Fees-for-service solution for small villages/highly dispersed population villages. • Situation of Senegal. • Presentation of a pilot project in a small village of Senegal

  19. Photovoltaic battery charging stations for sustainable off-grid rural electrification in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Acebedo, I.P.; Gudoy, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Mariano Marcos State University-Affiliated Non Conventional Energy Center (MMSU-ANEC) in partnership with the Energy Management Bureau-Renewable Energy Management Division, Department of Energy implemented the Barangay Electrification Program (BEP) of the government in the off-grid rural areas at the northern Philippines from 1995-2004 with a common vision of promoting the use of new and renewable energy systems for rural electrification in order to spur development in the far-flung, off-grid rural areas. Such activity of the MMSU-ANEC on BEP used modified and improved Photovoltaic battery charging stations (PVBCS) to energize households and augment their livelihood in collaboration with the local government units and the beneficiaries. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts using long-range energy alternative planning or LEAP software showed that PVBCS are indispensable, feasible, economical, environmental-friendly and sustainable renewable energy resources systems in off-grid areas. Improvement of a locally-made battery charging unit (patent applied at IPO, Manila) which is cheaper and comparable than the imported unit, enabling project implementation strategies in community organizing and lessons learned during the implementation of BEP are also presented. Such improvement of the PVBCS is considered an innovative advancement in renewable energy that can be commercialized towards a sustainable agro-industrial development in far-flung, off-grid rural areas, among other applications for rural electrification and power generation using clean and environment-friendly sustainable technologies. (author)

  20. Lighting up the villages: Livelihood impacts of decentralized stand-alone solar photovoltaic electrification in rural northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naah John-Baptist Saabado Ngmaadaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of solar photovoltaic (PV technology dissemination and utilization has taken center stage in recent years on a global scale, aiming to partly address prevailing rampant energy poverty situations particularly in developing countries. This paper evaluates a flagship electrification project called Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP. We purposively sampled 250 solar users in 65 villages across 6 districts in the Upper West region which has the country’s lowest level of electricity access and possibly the highest proportion of abject poverty among its inhabitants compared to the rest of the country. Based on the survey, it can be said that the overall impact assessment of the GEDAP-sponsored off-grid solar PV systems on the quality of life of the local beneficiaries was found to be positively marginal. Among all livelihood assets considered, social capital was markedly enhanced by the provision of modern energy services via isolated solar PV systems. Bottlenecks were identified, including limited system wattage capacity, slight dysfunction of some balance of components, higher interest rates, low technical know-how and inadequate monitoring, all of which are negatively affecting the sustainability of the project. Our findings also indicate that satisfaction derived from solar PV electricity supply among local solar customers differed for varied reasons as follows: moderately satisfied (43%, satisfied (52%, and dissatisfied (5%. For a decisive enhancement of rural livelihoods, we strongly recommend up-scaling system wattage capacity and coverage to build up new or improve upon existing livelihood assets through diversification of the income sources of the local inhabitants.

  1. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  2. Golden Genesis and the Teotonio Vilela Foundation: commercializing PV residential electrification with a not-for-profit partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Addario, P.J. [International Fund for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-11-01

    This article presents a case study of a project which provides photovoltaic-based rural electrification in the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil. The project, the Luz do Sol Programme (LdS), was initiated in mid-1996 by the Golden Genesis Company (Golden) and the Fundacao Teotonio Vilela (FTV). The article emphasizes some noteworthy characteristics of the project: the partnership between US commercial and Brazilian philanthropic interests; the financial aspect, a dedicated line of credit requiring only the equipment itself as security; and the local ownership and management of system operations, collections, and routine maintenance. In 1996, the Golden Genesis Company had developed a central battery charging system to bring the price of electrification within the range of the rural poor; it financed the US content of the systems, with the Bank of the Northeast of Brazil (BN) financing the Brazilian content. The article traces the long and arduous path to establish the programme, including both bureaucratic and technical challenges. These difficulties brought the project to an impasse in August of 1998, and Golden withdrew. FTV then re-negotiated the agreement with BN, changing the technical approach to individual solar home systems. This improved the situation, and the project has since enjoyed 100% loan repayment rates from the entrepreneurs. In June 1999, BP/Solarex became FTV's new commercial partner. The project currently shows promise of becoming the commercially viable programme originally envisaged by Golden, with commercial and technical decision-making at the local level. (author)

  3. Rural electrification in the Cote d'Ivoire : the will to share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancart, R.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The electrification of rural communities in the Cote d'Ivoire has progressed more rapidly than any other sub-Saharan nation, principally because of the will of government authorities to eliminate any regional disparities within the country. Out of a total of 8,538 villages, 475 villages had electricity by the end of 1980. This number climbed to 1,068 by 1995 and 1,691 in 1997. Currently, 66 per cent of all citizens of the country have electricity. Much of this effort, at least until 1990, was supported by a strong state-owned electric utility. A limited number of off-grid power generation projects were also undertaken. These projects involved photovoltaic stations, diesel or gasoline powered generating stations and biomass fueled stations. Privatization of the national electric utility in 1990 resulted in significant decrease in the progress of rural electrification. fig

  4. Solar-based rural electrification policy design: The Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) model in Fiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornan, M. [Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, The Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Solar photovoltaic technologies have for some time been promoted as a cost effective means of rural electrification in developing countries. However, institutional structures resulting in poor maintenance have adversely affected the sustainability of past solar projects. In Fiji, the Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCO) program is the latest attempt to promote solar-based rural electrification in a fee-for-service model, aiming to remove the high upfront capital costs associated with solar technologies and using a public-private sector partnership for maintenance. This paper assesses the program using survey and interview data. Major flaws are identified, relating to incorrect treatment of principal-agent problems, information asymmetries, motivational problems, and resourcing of government agencies. General lessons for fee-for-service solar home system models emerge, including that incentives for stakeholders must take centre stage in designing and administering such programs, and that active government support and ownership are required to make programs sustainable. (author)

  5. Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1999-09-01

    The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

  6. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  7. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  8. Delivery Models for Decentralised Rural Electrification Case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel

    2012-06-15

    Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, over 95 per cent living in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 per cent of them living in rural areas. There are many different ways to electrify rural areas, not only with regard to the different technologies used, but also to the types of delivery models applied. Common rural electrification technologies include grid extension, community mini-grids, stand-alone household systems, multifunctional platforms, and central charging stations with battery banks. This report will focus on the delivery models used for community mini-grids, as there is evidence to show that mini-grids can be one of the cheaper forms of electrification (on a per unit basis, calculated over the system's lifetime) and also potentially offer a 24 hour AC service that can power a wide range of appliances.

  9. Indicators for assessment of rural electrification-An approach for the comparison of apples and pears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability. An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies. It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk

  10. Rural electrification in multiethnic Arizona: A study of power, urbanization and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Leah Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    From as early as the 1880s until as late as the 1970s, electrical power served as a critical tool for bringing America's diverse western communities into an urban industrial era. This study examines the process of electrification in three demographically diverse rural regions of Eastern Arizona. These three regions include the valleys of the Southeast, the White Mountains, and the Navajo Reservation to the north. While federal programs aided rural residents, local and regional factors determined the timing and nature of electrification and its impact. Access to electricity depended upon economics and technological advances, as well as a combination of local community and regional characteristics such as location, landscape, demographics, politics, and culture. At the turn of the century, electricity, with its elaborate and extensive infrastructure of wires, towers, and poles, emerged across America's cultural landscapes as the industrial era's most prominent symbol of progress, power, and a modern, urban lifestyle. Technological innovations and mechanization flourished, but primarily in the urban areas of the Northeast. People living outside concentrated settlements, of all ethnic backgrounds, had few hopes for delivery due to the cost of building power lines to a limited market. Arizona's rural population has historically been ethnically diverse, and its landscape varies from desert valleys to mountains of alpine forest. The federal government owns much of the land. Aided by federal guidance and funding sources like the New Deal's Rural Electrification Administration (REA), the existing rural communities took the initiative and constructed electrical systems specific to their local and regional needs. While products of the communities that built them, these systems symbolized and defined newly urbanized regions within the context of old rural landscapes, lifestyles, and traditions. In some ways the rural electrification process urbanized rural Arizona. The

  11. A Decentralized Control Architecture applied to DC Nanogrid Clusters for Rural Electrification in Developing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Mashood; Jin, Zheming; Khan, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    resources with the community. An adaptive I-V droop method is used which relies on local measurements of SOC and DC bus voltage for the coordinated power sharing among the contributing nanogrids. PV generation capability of individual nanogrids is synchronized with the grid stability conditions through......DC microgrids built through bottom-up approach are becoming very popular for swarm electrification due to their scalability and resource sharing capabilities. However, they typically require sophisticated control techniques involving communication among the distributed resources for stable...... and coordinated operation. In this work, we present a communication-less strategy for the decentralized control of a PV/battery-based highly distributed DC microgrid. The architecture consists of clusters of nanogrids (households), where each nanogrid can work independently along with provisions of sharing...

  12. Clustering Algorithm As A Planning Support Tool For Rural Electrification Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pornillosa Parreno Jr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study clustering algorithm was developed to optimize electrification plans by screening and grouping potential customers to be supplied with electricity. The algorithm provided adifferent approach in clustering problem which combines conceptual and distance-based clustering algorithmsto analyze potential clusters using spanning tree with the shortest possible edge weight and creating final cluster trees based on the test of inconsistency for the edges. The clustering criteria consists of commonly used distance measure with the addition of household information as basis for the ability to pay ATP value. The combination of these two parameters resulted to a more significant and realistic clusters since distance measure alone could not take the effect of the household characteristics in screening the most sensible groupings of households. In addition the implications of varying geographical features were incorporated in the algorithm by using routing index across the locations of the households. This new approach of connecting the households in an area was applied in an actual case study of one village or barangay that was not yet energized. The results of clustering algorithm generated cluster trees which could becomethetheoretical basis for power utilities to plan the initial network arrangement of electrification. Scenario analysis conducted on the two strategies of clustering the households provideddifferent alternatives for the optimization of the cost of electrification. Futhermorethe benefits associated with the two strategies formulated from the two scenarios was evaluated using benefit cost ratio BC to determine which is more economically advantageous. The results of the study showed that clustering algorithm proved to be effective in solving electrification optimization problem and serves its purpose as a planning support tool which can facilitate electrification in rural areas and achieve cost-effectiveness.

  13. PRODEEM - the Brazilian programme for rural electrification using photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco A.; Lima, Jorge H.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: marcoag@cepel.br, jlima@cepel.br

    2002-07-01

    This work describes several technical and managerial aspects of the Brazilian PRODEEM Program, which comprises installation of thousands of PV systems for several applications in Brazilian outback. The equipment were acquired through international bidding and CEPEL was specially concerned about the its quality and lifespan, as well as about the correct sizing of the systems. The purpose of this work is to present a history and the technical experience obtained by CEPEL after several years of involvement in PRODEEM activities. (author)

  14. Socio-economic and Environmental impacts, planning and administration of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Haroun Osman

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the population in Sudan still lives in the rural areas where they still suffer from problems of poverty, unemployment, high rates of illiteracy, poor health services, shortage of water, and migration to urban areas. Development plans within decentralization efforts taking place in the country should give great importance to rural development by activating rural productive sector comprising agriculture and small scale industries. Rural electrification (RE) can play an important role as akey infrastructure for rural development, and could change the rural communities socially and economically to the better. RE also have desirable environmental impacts when substituting polluting and scare fuels such as petroleum fuel and fuel wood by electricity. Compared with urban electrification, RE is characterized by scattered consumers, low demands, and low load factors. This results in high connection costs of electricity per consumer, and high unit (Kwh) cost. In Sudan, rural electricity demands range from small industries of 50 or industries and individual farms. To bring electricity supply to these different categories of rural consumers at a reasonable investment cost requires proper planning. It needs regular data collection and updating, selection of appropriate technology, project formulation, financing implementation, management, and follow-up. The Sudan National Electricity Corporation (NEC), gives priority to the generation and transmission of electricity to the big urban and industrial areas. NEC treats RE as low priority to which resources are only devoted after the more urgent needs of the urban and industrial consumers not impossible, for a utility like the NEC to construct, operate, and maintain a large number of small scale projects in rural areas. To enable RE to play an effective institution with RE as its primary objectives is very crucial. This paper aims to highlight the importance of RE and its impacts on the rural inhabitants socially

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaud, F.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  16. Renewable energy for rural electrification in Uruguay; Energias renovables para la electrificacion rural en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaer, R; Zeballos, R [Facultad de Inngenieria, Instituto de Ingenieria Electrica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The analysis of the possibility of application of the eolic technologies is presented and for the electrification of small rural consumers in the Uruguay, comparing them with the alternative of being connected to the National electric net using the but economic of the systems with return for earth. It was carried out to summary of the existent alternatives in both technologies and it builds to shammer to evaluates it the generation cost and with to classification, for consumption level, of the potential users, it can make to Map of the Uruguay that allows to guide on the solution to adopt according to the consumption level, the distance to the National electric net and according to the characteristics of the wind in the geographical location of the location. All the systems were evaluated on a base of 20 year-old operation keeping in mind the replacements of the materials whose useful life is inferior. In this work, the results of the studies are presented and the followed methodology is shown on a concrete example.

  17. Power sector reforms in Ethiopia: options for promoting local investments in rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teferra, Mengistu [Ministry of Economic Development and Co-operation, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    An estimated 13% of Ethiopia's population has access to electricity. Almost all electrified centres are urban, with rural areas as well as most small rural towns largely unelectrified. Rural electrification (RE) thus remains a major challenge to the power sector of Ethiopia. The national power utility (EEPCO) has traditionally been assigned the task of electrifying rural demand centres. EEPCO has, however, concentrated on the more developed and profitable urban areas. The objective of this article is to present the findings of a study that examined whether the ongoing power sector reforms in Ethiopia can attract private investment in RE as an alternative to the sole reliance on EEPCO. Initial findings of the study indicate that private investment in RE can be enhanced with some improvement in the legal and regulatory provisions, along with extension of technical assistance from EEPCO to private investors. (Author)

  18. Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy: A case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhood, Rebecca; Gross, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the political and institutional factors that have influenced the success of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan (Plan d'Action Sénégalais d'Électrification Rurale, PASER). PASER is of interest because its innovative design attracted extensive offers of finance from donors and independent power providers, however it has had limited effect on electrification levels. This paper examines PASER's progress and problems in detail, with the aim of informing rural electrification policy internationally. An extensive literature review was combined with 26 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, to produce a snapshot of the Plan's status after its first decade of operation. PASER's experiences are compared with other reform-based rural electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. PASER has faced significant institutional and political barriers, with delays arising from organisational opposition, inconsistent ministerial support, protracted consultations and the inherent challenges of implementing an innovative policy framework in a country with limited institutional capacity. The development of human and institutional capacity has been compromised by inconsistent political commitment. Such experiences mirror those of electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst PASER's successes in garnering external support and fundraising are noteworthy and won praise from early reviews, in terms of delivery the Plan has failed to resolve common institutional barriers. - Highlights: • Factors influencing the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan are investigated. • 26 Stakeholder interviews inform a review of the Plan after 10 years of operation. • The Plan has attracted extensive finance, but installations are severely delayed. • The delays are found to be largely the result of institutional and political barriers. • These barriers mirror the experiences of electrification

  19. Renewable energy rural electrification. Sustainability aspects of the Mexican programme in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huacuz, J.M.; Martinez, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 20 years Mexico has been fertile ground for rural projects using renewable energy technologies. In many cases, however, sustainability aspects were either improperly handled or essentially ignored. Such was the case, for instance, with solar thermal water pumping projects, solar water desalination, and even complete 'solar towns'. Painful but important lessons were learned from such failed projects. Now, sustainability is the focal point of a current rural electrification programme with renewable energy. As of this writing, over 24,000 individual home photovoltaic lighting systems have already been installed in different regions of Mexico; another 12,000 systems are estimated to have been installed in rural areas as a result of private commercial activities; seven village-size hybrid systems (photovoltaic-wind and photovoltaic-wind-diesel) have also been implemented. With this, the Mexican renewable energy rural electrification programme stands among the largest programmes of its kind in the world today. The question of the programme's sustainability has been a major concern at the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), where activities have been under way since the start to lend it technical support. The lessons learned in the process will be discussed in this article. (author). 8 refs

  20. Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorion, Marie-Josee

    Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages

  1. Pico hydro power for rural electrification in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, P.; Smith, N.P.A.; Williams, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Pico hydro power is a renewable energy system which has the potential to provide millions of rural people world-wide with a cheap, sustainable source of electricity. The development of new, cost-reducing approaches, including local manufacture and implementation in developing countries, has increased the accessibility of this technology to large numbers of people. The new approaches are investigated and some of the present constraints to wider adoption of this technology are analysed. (Author)

  2. The role of Decentralized Distributed Generation in achieving universal rural electrification in South Asia by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Nagai, Yu; Pachauri, Shonali

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by the goal of achieving ‘Universal Energy Access’ by 2030 and looks at electricity access for rural households in the South Asian region. The ‘MESSAGE-Access’ model is employed to assess the cost effectiveness of centralized and Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) technologies. Delivery mechanisms are modelled to include mini-grid and stand-alone systems and the analysis includes an estimation of rural household electricity demand from lighting and appliances. We assume two future demand scenarios with a ‘minimum threshold’ and a ‘higher threshold’ of electricity consumption of 65 and 420 kW h per household per year, respectively. We find that the cost of delivering electricity by centralized generation and grid distribution is up to four times the cost of stand-alone and mini-grid DDG options in the case of ‘minimum threshold’ demand scenario. These results are robust to alternate assumptions regarding costs of technologies. We also estimate that public subsidy bill for kerosene can be substantially reduced if all households switch to electricity as their primary source of lighting. Thus, promoting DDG options can reduce capital investments needed to meet access goals significantly and have an important role to play, in meeting the goal of universal electrification by 2030. - Highlights: ► We model and assess DDG options for rural electrification in South Asia. ► Particularly, when demand is low, off-grid and mini-grid are least cost options for electrification. ► DDG options can be 3–4 times cheaper than extending a central grid. ► Kerosene lighting is up to 6 times as expensive as electric lighting. ► If electricity replaces kerosene for lighting, large subsidy savings can be realized.

  3. A Novel Off-Grid Optimal Hybrid Energy System for Rural Electrification of Tanzania Using a Closed Loop Cooled Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the world’s populations live in developing countries. Rural areas in many of these countries are isolated geographically from grid connections and they have a very low rate of electrification. The uninterrupted power supply (UPS in these regions is a considerable challenge. The use of renewable energy resources (RER in an off-grid hybrid energy system can be a pathway to solving this problem. Tanzania has a very low electrification rate (rural 16.9%, urban 65.3%. This paper discussed, described, designed a novel uninterruptible, and environmental friendly solar-wind hybrid energy system (HES for remote area of Tanzania having closed loop cooled-solar system (CLC-SS. An optimized configuration for the proposed HES was obtained by Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER analysis software using local solar and wind resources. The designed CLC-SS improved the efficiency of the hybrid solar-wind systems by extracting more power from the solar modules. An evaluation of CLC-SS revealed a 10.23% increase in power output from conventional solar PV modules. The results validate that the optimized system’s energy cost (COE is 0.26 $/kWh and the net present cost (NPC of the system is $7110.53. The enhanced output solar wind hybrid system, designed in this paper is cost-effective and can be applied easily to other regions of the world with similar climate conditions.

  4. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    Few historians document Lyndon Johnson's efforts to construct a state-wide political machine at the local level early in his congressional career. The literature glorifies Johnson for hydroelectric river development and rural electrification. This thesis acknowledges the transformative nature of rural electrification in Central Texas through the efforts of Johnson but, more importantly, reveals how extensively Johnson sought to capitalize on the tail-end of the New Deal to utilize government-funded relief projects to establish a state-wide political machine. An analysis of the correspondence between Johnson, his local political operators, members of his state-wide network, and rural constituents reveals another layer to the complexity of Johnson and further exposes his ambitious, calculating nature. Johnson used rural electrification to first create a community of supporters in his congressional district then used rural electrification and multipurpose river development programs to cultivate political contacts across the state of Texas. This thesis explores the first time that Lyndon Johnson used patronage to develop a political community as a publicly elected official. Johnson pushed for constant expansion of operations to ensure a steady supply of new jobs while displaying a cavalier attitude about specific regulations regarding the allocation of funds. His machine manipulated and massaged congressional appropriations restrictions and utilized multiple congressional revenue streams to stretch finances further and lower overhead costs to increase the scope of operations thus further improving the lives of his constituents. Johnson also used this movement to efficiently and effectively construct a foundation for his political machine. This thesis also clarifies an early moment in Johnson's beliefs about civil rights. Instead of standing on principle, Johnson relied on extortion and threats to fight racism at this early juncture in his political career because of

  5. Mini hydraulic energy: An alternative for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Florez, Sergio; Chamorro, Luis Javier

    1992-01-01

    Within the activities of alternative energy group of the faculty of engineering of the university of Antioquia, the development of prototypes is included, of using the non conventional sources for electrical energy production and then satisfy urgent necessities in rural home isolated from the national energy network. In the eastern region of Antioquia, a great hydraulic resource was found with large rivers, stream and water sources near houses, that don't have possibilities of a rural energy network in a near or faraway future, because of its isolation and low economic capacity. A small hydraulic pico generator was developed for this region with the following characteristics: very small dimensions, low weight, compact and integrated design, easy manufacturing in great volumes with low cost. in its operation it loads one or more stationary batteries that provide electricity to a residence, being used in: illumination, communications and some home appliances. By its operation capacity of 24 hours per day, it would compete in advantage with the photovoltaic panel systems used in isolated regions. Advantages of these plants: It is property of the user; zero expenses in administration and operation, low environmental impact (elimination of dams), protection of micro river basins and automatic operation

  6. Models of rural disperse electrification by means of renewable energies in Latin America: an alternative proposal based on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, M.; Fuentes, M.; Alvarez, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the overdue change in the processes of rural electrification by means of renewable energies. The actors involve in these processes have failed to contemplate every dimension of this issue: Social, Institutional, Technological, Economical, Financial and Political. We will account for the reason why the concept of sustainability must be closely related to that of local socioeconomic development. Rural electrification must be a vector for social development. It is in this context that it cannot depend exclusively on the market and its actors, but it must be immersed within rural development planning. For this new paradigm to work properly, donor agencies -mainly- should understand the dynamics of socioeconomic development, contemplating the different local characteristics of small rural communities; they should provide genuine financial support within an adequate regulatory framework and active participation should be encouraged, both of the local community and of local enterprises. The sustainability of these initiatives is determined not only by the consideration of the dimensions above but also by the creation of labour possibilities or lack thereof. (authors)

  7. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Srivastava, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  8. Comparative analysis between grid extension and decentralized solutions for rural electrification. Case study: Sofala Province in Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Jakob; Le Fol, Yoann; Donnay, Adrian; Chatzipoulidis, Ioannis; Mozumder, M. Zahangir; Zampouki, Maria; Carlson, Anna; Boje Blarke, Morten [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Development and Planning

    2011-07-01

    A special early excerpt of the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2010 focusing on energy poverty indicates that 1.4 billion people don't have access to electricity, 85% of which live in rural areas. The social, economic and local environmental benefits from having access to electricity are well-known, including less indoor pollution, less spending on fuel, less stress on the local eco-system, expansion of the productive and social hours of the day, cooling for food and medicine, and enabling education in the evening hours. This study examines options for rural electrification in Mozambique, where 89% of the population doesn't have access to electricity. Conventional and alternative options are compared with respect to energy, environmental, and economic consequences. The research methodology follows a knowledge-based approach, which allows for a comprehensive and holistic evaluation of how different rural electrification options affect the society in general, and the economy in particular. The paper presents an innovative techno-economic model for Mozambique that evaluates how different stakeholders and economic sectors are influenced by conventional and alternative options for rural electrification. The study offers new qualitative and quantitative empirical data, which support a significantly better understanding of how different rural electrification strategies are impacting society. (orig.)

  9. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    The goal of providing universal energy access to all by 2030 under the UN-led SE4ALL initiative calls for new and innovative solutions to rural electrification and is fuelling the recent interest in mini-grids. Mini-grid solutions are emerging as a third alternative to rural electrification, coming...... between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... electrification and the challenges identified in the literature, the study concludes by proposing three avenues for further research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website....

  10. Solar home systems for rural electrification - the case of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laarhoven, J. van [Rural Electrification (Africa) Shell Solar BV, Helmond (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Prior to that, as an introduction, I'd like to tell you a bit about Shell solar and rural electrification from their perspective. If I could add something to the speech of Mr. Holm, I would gladly do that. Thirdly, I'd like to address the South African rural electrification market. I'd like to talk a bit about the system we have on the offering called the ''Powerhouse'' system, give you the Eastern Cape project status, and draw some conclusions with you. ''Jenza'' is a Zulu word, which means ''just do it - get on with it''. In a number of speeches today, I heard the words ''demonstration'', ''research'', ''study'', etc. I don't think the two billion people that have been on several occasions are waiting for more studies; I think they are waiting for initiatives - to ''just do it'' on a large scale. As Mr. Gehr pointed out, in Morocco there is a program of 200,000 customers, and they're running it.

  11. A method multi criterio to evaluate projects of rural electrification; Un metodo multicriterio para evaluar proyectos de electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Posse, E

    1994-07-01

    In this document about the problem of the evaluation projects methodologies in rural electrification.The low analysis problem is of complex nature, because each project is evaluation object and an economic agent. One of these agents identifies different benefits and cost, and also has a different approaches for value them.In consequence, the form in that it is carried out the evaluation of the one project for each one of this agents that it is usually solved for mechanisms linked to the capacity of incidence or of determination of each one of them, this does not assures a satisfactory results for the general interest.

  12. Rural electrification with multiple actors - the experience of the brazilian state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The lack of resources and the new scenery of private utilities turn necessary to look for the ways that allow to illuminate the rural zone. Several international papers show the involvement of different segments of the society as being a viable alternative to execute this goal. This paper analyses the experience of Sao Paulo in the practice of a program of rural electrification in which the society is involved. The model, the operational difficulties and the alternatives made to agile program are appraised. The main conclusion is that, in spite of the difficulties, the model in which the society is included is a viable alternative to solve the subject of the lack of energy in the countryside. (author)

  13. Standardized small diesel power plants for rural electrification in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, A.; Soerman, J.; Gullberg, M.; Kjellstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on small townships where the forecasted power demand stays below 500 kW during the ten first years. Case study calculations were made where two hypothetical load centres form the base. Each load centre is assumed to be supplied by two alternative standardized diesel power plants. One option is a power plant consisting of two medium speed (750 rpm) generator sets, one always on stand-by. Alternatively, a power plant consisting of three high speed (1500 rpm) generator sets is evaluated for each hypothetical load centre. The calculations clearly show that the high speed, three unit option comes out cheaper than the two unit, medium speed option in all the considered cases. The fuel costs per kWh generated are almost the same in all the cases studied, i.e. between 6 and 7 US cents. The medium speed engine tends to consume more fuel per kWh generated than the high speed, as it runs more often on part load. Consequently, the fuel costs will be slightly higher for this option. It is also of interest to compare the plant failure rate of the two options. In this study no proper probability evaluation has been made, but some general reflections can be worth considering. The availability of spare parts in Tanzania is doubtful. Many small diesel power plants presently operating have to wait indefinitely, when a failure appears that requires spare parts. As long as the individual sets have the same, or nearly the same failure rate, a three unit plant has lower probability for total loss of generating capacity than a two unit plant. The main conclusion of this evaluation is that for electricity generation in rural Tanzanian villages, power plants with three small, high speed generator sets are preferable to plants with two, medium speed generator sets. A power plant made out of small sets requires less capital, consumes less fuel and is not as likely to loose its generating capacity totally. 16 refs, 10 figs, 21 tabs

  14. Electrification of Sub-Saharan Africa through PV/hybrid mini-grids: Reducing the gap between current business models and on-site experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Solano-Peralta, M.; Lazopoulou, M.

    2018-01-01

    involvement. Regarding policy considerations, stronger political will coupled with proactive rural electrification strategies and targeted renewable energy regulatory framework would be essential in order to establish viable dynamic domestic market for off grid renewables. In the presented benchmarking...... be mitigated through studying the issues that influence mini-grid costs (both hardware and software). In addition to understanding other factors that can influence project costs such as the market maturity and remoteness of the site, organisation capability, development approach, and level of community...

  15. The prospects of renewable energy technologies for rural electrification: A review from Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurung, Anup; Kumar Ghimeray, Amal; Hassan, Sedky H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of renewable energy technologies remains one of the major energy policies throughout the world. These technologies are proven to be successful for electrifying rural communities, especially in developing countries. Realizing the benefits of renewable energy sources, the Government of Nepal has initiated the production and distribution of renewable energy technologies in recent years, mainly to electrify rural communities. Although these technologies are suitable for providing electricity in isolated and remote rural areas, their implementation programs have not been successful as expected. This review provides broad-spectrum view about the energy situation in Nepal and highlights the current policies and subsidies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources in isolated and poor rural communities. In addition, major promotional barriers for their implementation in Nepal have been discussed. - Highlights: ► Nepal has enormous potential of renewable energy sources. ► Till date only small fraction of renewable energy sources has been exploited. ► However, renewable energy technologies seem to be promising options for rural electrification.

  16. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  17. A case study of small hydro and grid extension for rural electrification alternatives and complementarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebicke, H.L.; Mariam, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that rural electrification in Eastern and Southern African Countries (ESAC) has so far been based largely on stand-alone diesel electric generating plant or on the extension of high-voltage transmission grids fed by large hydro and/or thermal electric generating stations. The alternative of furnishing supply at modest investment and competitive cost from a nearby small- hydro plant has rarely been considered in those countries of the sub-region that have ample hydro-power resources. All countries in the sub-region (except Angola) import petroleum and/or petroleum product supplies, as well as all hardware for electricity supply and utilization. As a result, in most countries an acute shortage of foreign exchange severely hampers implementation of rural electrification schemes. This should turn attention increasingly to strategies which are less capital-intensive and less dependent on foreign exchange, such as small-hydro plants, where the resource is located near to rural demand. Increasing the local content of small-hydro project implementation has paid off in recent years, considerably reducing costs in a number of Asian and Latin American projects. Local contributions have taken the form of resource assessment at a particular site, design, construction works, and fabrication of relatively simple components of power plant such as hydraulic equipment, low pressure penstocks and gates, as well as simpler types of turbines (e.g., the Banki type). Inadequacy of indigenous technical capacity to make similar local contributions in the ESAC has meant that the few recent small-hydro projects have relied on importing both expertise and equipment. The high costs resulting have frequently fueled arguments against pursuit of small-hydro projects

  18. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  19. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  20. The power of light: socio-economic and environmental implications of a rural electrification program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges da Silveira Bezerra, Paula; Ludovique Callegari, Camila; Ribas, Aline; Lucena, André F. P.; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Koberle, Alexandre; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Universal access to electricity is deemed critical for improving living standards and indispensable for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development. In 2003, the ‘Luz para Todos’ (LpT—Light for All) program was launched aiming to universalize access to electricity in Brazil. The program focused on rural and isolated areas, also targeting to bring development to those regions along with electrification. This paper evaluates the results of the LpT program in improving socio-economic development in the poorest regions of Brazil. After an initial qualitative analysis, an empirical quantitative assessment of the influence of increased electrification rates on the components of the Human Development Index (HDI) is performed. The empirical results of this study showed that electrification had a positive influence on all dimensions of the HDI, with the education component having the strongest effect. Although complementary policies were needed to achieve this, results show that electricity access is a major requirement to improve quality of life.

  1. Sizing through simulation of systems for photovoltaic solar energy applied to rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez‐Borges, Ciaddy Gina; Sarmiento‐Sera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The present work is based on the sizing method by means of simulation of the photovoltaic systems energy behavior, applied to rural electrification in regions far from the electric net. The denomination of infra/over sized systems is made and a requested analysis of one particular case is exposed, where it is considered two energy options of different qualities of electric service and the economic valuation of each option is requested, with its corresponding argument. The quality level is established with the fault index in the electricity service for energy lack in the batteries, besides the quantity of energy autonomy days of the system. As conclusions, in infra-sizing conditions systems, and with established quality level of service, multiple sizing solutions exist, and under certain conditions, not always the systems with more quality level, are those of more cost, as well as the presence of a minimum cost in the sizing can be obtained by simulation methods. (author)

  2. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahama, Amadu

    2012-01-01

    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  3. Rural electrification in Santarem: the contribution of micro hydropower; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Diniz, Janaina Deane de Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA . The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA ) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  4. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  5. Institutional reforms and their impact on rural electrification: Case studies in South and Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Kumar, S.; Toodoc, M.J.; Sharma, S.

    2004-04-01

    South and Southeast (S and SE) Asian countries are characterized as being densely populated and having low access to electricity. In faet, about 59.2% and 37.8%, respectively, of the total population do not have access to electricity. Moreover, rural areas of the subregion also suffer from low electrification levels - only 30.1% in South Asia and around 51% in Southeast Asia compared to 68.2% and 89.9% in the urban areas, respectively. Some of the countries in the sutregion are at various stages of economic reforms, but all of which are moving from a centrally or heavily regulated economy to a more market- driven economy. The economic reforms in S&SE Asia have also permeated the power sector. A cursory look at the evolution of the electricity sector in some countries in the subregion reveal that the reforms undertaken in electricity sector during the early years were primarily aimed at addressing the issues of providing electricity to the people and then increasing electricity coverage. Later, in order to increase electricity coverage, institutions were established or 'carved out' from existing institutions to undertake national electrification programs to increase electricity coverage. In most cases, the electricity sectors remained under vertically integrated monopolies responsible for generation, transmission, and distribution but internal restructuring was undertaken for the purpose of increasing electricity coverage, especially in rural areas. In recent years, the reforms focused on fundamental major restructuring of the sector: separation or unbundling of the generation, transmission, and distribution; change in ownership from public to private sector, or at least increase in private sector participation by deregulating generation; and restructuring of electricity tariffs and gradually removing subsidies to better reflect economic or true costs of electricity supply. All these changes have geared towards increasing economic efficiency of the sector

  6. Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Micro-Enterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.

    2000-11-16

    Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90% of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic remoteness and low energy consumption patterns may preclude the extension of the conventional electricity grid. Women are heavily impacted by the energy scarcity given their role as primary energy procurers and users for the household, agricultural and small industrial subsectors in developing countries. As a result, women spend disproportionately more time engaged in energy-related activities like carrying water and searching for cooking fuel. This paper describes the use of decentralized renewable energy systems as one approach to meet the energy needs of rural areas in Latin America. It outlines the advantages of a decentralized energy paradigm to achieve international development goals, especially as they relate to women. The paper studies Enersol Associates, Inc.'s Solar-Based Rural Electrification model as an example of a decentralized energy program which has merged energy and development needs through the local involvement of energy entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and community members.

  7. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  8. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC, which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup.

  9. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, C; Porkumaran, K; Jaganathan, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC), which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup.

  10. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  11. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  12. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  13. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1996-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  14. Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brisa; Vetter, Matthias [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany); Bourg, Catherine [Fondation Energies pour le Monde (France); Crehay, Romain [Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The project ''Renewable Energy Sustainable Programs for Intelligent Rural Electrifrication'' RESIREA has been looking for the creation of conditions that make possible the establishment of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) markets in targeted provinces to Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. As a main result of the project, in three different selected provinces (one in each country) have been proposed villages as ''ready to implement''. The ''ready to implement'' villages are specific RET projects resulted from applying developed methodologies. One methodology is a deeply well structured cross-analysis of technical and economic parameters and the results have been integrated in a Geographical Information System GIS. Based on the least-cost methodology, off-grid biomass and photovoltaic PV power supply systems have been designed and asset for the proposed villages. In the case of PV system designs, a detailed study has been carried out by means of simulations tools and extensive field data. The PV system design looks to contribute to an ''easy scale-up'' concept for off-grid power supply systems, especially when rural communities are too diverse. Further expected benefits besides the supply of electricity services are the improvement of the living and health conditions of the populations, the stimulation of local markets for RET and economic activities. (orig.)

  15. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Renewable Energy Unit, 2749 via Enrico Fermi, TP450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Moner-Girona, M, E-mail: Sandor.Szabo@ec.europa.eu [UNEP Energy Branch Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, 15 rue de Milan, F-75441, Paris CEDEX09 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  16. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T; Moner-Girona, M

    2011-01-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  17. Transformation of the rural PV market through the National Rural Water Service Delivery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The primary objective of the project is to reduce the country's energy-related Co2 emissions by substituting solar Pv to fossil fuels to provide basic water pumping services to the non-electrified rural communities in the Middle-South region. A secondary objective is to institutionalize the use of solar Pv for low-head irrigation and basic domestic (lighting, Tv) and community (health clinics, telecom, schools) uses in rural areas as a substitute for fossil fuel-based energy sources (paraffin, diesel and LPG). The activities proposed in the project are designed to: (I) remove barriers to the wide-scale utilization of solar Pv for solar pumping; (II) meet the basic energy needs of community based organizations; and (III) reinforce public-private partnerships in promoting solar Pv technology. This project will assist with the introduction of solar Pv in the Government rural water program - which is a unique opportunity to tap a sizable Pv market within the country - and will ensure sustain ability through the involvement of the private sector in the provision of water services

  18. Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madubansi, M.; Shackleton, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet there are limited longitudinal studies on the impacts of the introduction of electricity on the patterns of household energy use, and even more so in the neglected rural sector. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002. Results indicate a changing pattern of energy use for lighting and powering entertainment appliances, more specifically from dry-cell batteries and paraffin to electricity. Yet for thermal needs, most notably cooking, fuelwood has remained the most widespread fuel, and the amount used per month has not changed, despite increasing scarcity of wood in the local environment. There has been an increase in the proportion of households purchasing fuelwood as opposed to collecting their own. Overall, the mean total number of fuel types used per household has increased, indicating that electricity is simply viewed as an additional energy, rather than an alternative. Yet, electricity accounted for approximately 60% of expenditure on energy sources in 2002, despite the government's policy of a free basic allowance of 5-6 kWh per month. This has implications for energy supply costing, as well as the poverty alleviation dimensions of the whole programme

  19. Using contingent behavior analysis to measure benefits from rural electrification in developing countries: an example from Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Dale T.; Means, Peter; Zimmerle, Daniel; Galvin, Kathleen; Loomis, John; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to electricity and will not receive it from national grids in the next few decades. Electricity makes up an important component of rural development and so increasing access can have positive socioeconomic benefits. In this study, we use contingent behavior analysis to quantify the potential benefits of electricity in rural Rwandan villages which currently do not have electricity. The proposed method allows for calculation of net benefits as well as electricity bills. We find that even relatively poor, isolated households would pay for electricity, though amounts vary across households and this affects the financial viability of electrification. Common uses for electricity include lighting, battery charging, and agricultural processing. Despite heterogeneity, opportunities exist to improve rural economic welfare through increased electricity access. - Highlights: • A lack of electricity slows economic growth in rural villages of Sub-Saharan Africa. • Household survey provides data on potential electricity use in Rwandan villages. • Contingent behavior analysis estimates total economic surplus from electricity. • Household electricity bills estimated to calculate investment returns. • Investment in rural electrification likely to bring positive benefits to rural Rwanda.

  20. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  1. Rural electrification programme with solar energy in remote region - a case study in an island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Snigdha; Chakrabarti, Subhendu [Indian Statistical Inst., Economic Research Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2002-01-01

    In the programme of total electrification, centralized supply of power generated by conventional methods using exhaustible resources is proving to be uneconomic and, more importantly, unmanageable so far as supply to rural areas, particularly remote places, are concerned. On the other hand, the decentralized approach based on supply of power produced with renewable energy resources available locally is, for various reasons, gradually being recognized as a viable alternative for such remote places. The present paper attempts to examine, from a broad-based socio-economic and environmental point of view, the feasibility of decentralized solar photovoltaic (SPV) system as a source of power compared to that from conventional sources in a remotely located island. The study, based on a sample survey, conducted in an island called 'Sagar Dweep' in West Bengal, India, shows that within a short spell of time of four years, there have been noticeable improvements and significant impact on education, trade and commerce, entertainment, health etc. as a result of supply of power from SPV power plants. Productivity level of some agricultural activities as well as women's participation in different economic activities (at night) other than household work have shown definite signs of betterment. The SPV system is also superior to other conventional systems on consideration of its environmental effects. Thus, on the whole, there seems to be a strong case for the locally installed SPV system in spite of its current unfavourable position in respect of the direct cost of production. (Author)

  2. Options for rural electrification in Mexico; Opcion para la electrificacion de pequenas comunidades rurales en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in the study carried out in communities of the Hidalgo State, localized in remote and of difficult access sites. In the study 19 different options, which are technically and economically feasible, from the stand point of commercialization and electrification of the same. The performance of these systems was evaluated with respect to their capability to satisfy 12 technical goals and 5 social-economical, as well as their environmental impact. An hybrid system based on photovoltaic cells, diesel or gasoline generator and a wind-power generator, we think is the recommended option for this type of communities. [Espanol] Este trabajo sintetiza los resultados de un estudio llevado a cabo en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo, localizadas en lugares remotos y de dificil acceso. En el estudio se analizaron 19 diferentes opciones que son factibles tecnica y comercialmente hablando para la electrificacion de las mismas. El comportamiento de estos sistemas fue evaluado con respecto a su capacidad para satisfacer 12 objetivos tecnicos y 5 socioeconomicos, asi como su impacto ambiental. Un sistema hibrido a base de celdas fotovoltaicas, generador a diesel o gasolina y generador eolico, creemos que es la opcion recomendada para este tipo de comunidades.

  3. Options for rural electrification in Mexico; Opcion para la electrificacion de pequenas comunidades rurales en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in the study carried out in communities of the Hidalgo State, localized in remote and of difficult access sites. In the study 19 different options, which are technically and economically feasible, from the stand point of commercialization and electrification of the same. The performance of these systems was evaluated with respect to their capability to satisfy 12 technical goals and 5 social-economical, as well as their environmental impact. An hybrid system based on photovoltaic cells, diesel or gasoline generator and a wind-power generator, we think is the recommended option for this type of communities. [Espanol] Este trabajo sintetiza los resultados de un estudio llevado a cabo en comunidades del estado de Hidalgo, localizadas en lugares remotos y de dificil acceso. En el estudio se analizaron 19 diferentes opciones que son factibles tecnica y comercialmente hablando para la electrificacion de las mismas. El comportamiento de estos sistemas fue evaluado con respecto a su capacidad para satisfacer 12 objetivos tecnicos y 5 socioeconomicos, asi como su impacto ambiental. Un sistema hibrido a base de celdas fotovoltaicas, generador a diesel o gasolina y generador eolico, creemos que es la opcion recomendada para este tipo de comunidades.

  4. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee; Adib, Rana

    2002-01-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  5. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee [International Solar Energy Society (ISES), Freiburg (Germany); Adib, Rana [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  6. Operational performance of the Bangladesh rural electrification program and its determinants with a focus on political interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Mariko; Kaneko, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    This article tries to quantitatively capture the effect of political intervention on the operational performance of the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (REP). Firstly, efficiency changes over the last 15 years of rural electric cooperatives in the REP are examined using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Then, the critical determinants of the efficiency changes including political indicator are identified with an application of the Tobit model. Results from the DEA analysis show the overall efficiency score, on a scale of zero to one, changes in the 0.856-0.929 range in 15 years, with two turnaround points in 1996 and 2001. These are the years that the national elections were held. The results also find a gap between the efficient rural electric cooperatives and the inefficient rural electric cooperatives. The results of the Tobit model imply that political power has a negative impact on efficiency.

  7. Rural electrification through private models: the case of solar-powered mini-grid development in Kenya: Exploring the hybrid nature of private business models and the interplay between new players and existing structures in the Kenyan rural electrification regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-01-01

    -effective alternative to traditional fossil fuel-based solutions like diesel generators in off-grid areas in many countries. This has made rural electrification through mini-grids an interesting area for private-sector firms looking to do mission-driven business in the growing African economies. This, in combination......, advocacy and other forms of institutional work, other actors are following a strategy of increasing cohesion within the niche by building partnerships and generating knowledge and learning. This shows how niches build and grow not only through niche-internal processes, but also through purposeful actor...

  8. Economic challenges of hybrid microgrid: An analysis and approaches for rural electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah, Mohammad; Mahmud, Khizir; Koçar, Günnur; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul; Salehin, Sayedus

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of three renewable resources: biogas, wind energy and solar energy, utilizing solar PV panels, a biogas generator, and a wind turbine, respectively, to analyze the technical and economic challenges of a hybrid micro-gird. The integration of these sources has been analyzed and optimized based on realistic data for a real location. Different combinations of these sources have been analyzed to find out the optimized combination based on the efficiency and the minimum cost of electricity (COE). Wind and solar energy are considered as the primary sources of power generation during off-peak hours, and any excess power is used to charge a battery bank. During peak hours, biogas generators produce power to support the additional demand. A business strategy to implement the integrated optimized system in rural areas is discussed.

  9. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Gormally, Alexandra; Cruickshank, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: → Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. → The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. → A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. → External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  10. Rural electrification for isolated consumers: Sustainable management model based on residue biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Giorgiana; Rendeiro, Goncalo; Pinho, Joao; Macedo, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the electrification of a riparian community in the State of Para, Brazil, within the scope of the Program for Electric Power Service Universalization in Brazil. The community is located in a remote area; approximately 100 km from the municipal district, there is no regular transport to access the community, and adequate communication service. The community is provided with electrification facilities through a small biomass-based power plant, directly firing residues produced by the local economic activity. The objective of the paper is to propose a sustainable management model that is suitable for community's isolation conditions, considering the high costs with operation and maintenance related to the supply of isolated consumers in small locations. A simulation is conducted for the operation of the small biomass-based power plant, the generation costs are determined, the legal aspects are analyzed, and a suggestion for the management model is presented. - Highlights: → Electrification of isolated consumers is a great challenge for utilities. → Using local labor and resources allows lower energy costs for electrification. → Creation of a specific legislation for utilities is required. → Should also be implemented social activities together with electrification.

  11. The utility service concept for the sustainable electrification of the outer Islands of Kiribati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akura, T.; Merten, J.; Vallve, X.; Adamandiades, A.

    2004-01-01

    The experience of Kiribati in PV-based rural electrification is unusual and important, as Kiribati originally failed in its attempt to use PV for rural electrification through purchase of systems by rural households. Kiribati then changed the institutional structure of the solar implementation agency to a service-based institution and turned failure into success. The energy service concept developed by the Solar Energy Company has assured reliable operation of solar home systems during the past ten years. A currently ongoing project, funded by the European Union, is dealing with the extension of this concept to increase the solar home systems from the existing 300 to 2100, bringing the coverage of the electrified rural households to 20%

  12. Geographical Information Systems and the Integration of Renewable Energies in the Electrification of Rural Communities. Case Study: Electrification of the Cuban Municipality of Guama; Aplicacion de los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica a la Integracion de las Energias Renovables en la Produccion de Electricidad en las Comunidades Rurales. Caso de Estudio: Electrificacion del Municipio Cubano de Guama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo Pascua, I

    2007-09-27

    The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using level electric cost (LEG) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (Author) 43 refs.

  13. Microgrid Utilities for Rural Electrification in East Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    Expanding access to electricity is central to development in East Africa but massive increases in investment are required to achieve universal access. Private sector participation in electrification is essential to meeting electricity access targets. Policy makers have acknowledged that grid extension in many remote rural areas is not as cost effective as decentralized alternatives such as microgrids. Microgrid companies have been unable to scale beyond pilot projects due in part to challenges in raising capital for a business model that is perceived to be risky. This thesis aims to identify and quantify the primary sources of investment risk in microgrid utilities and study ways to mitigate these risks to make these businesses more viable. Two modeling tools have been developed to this end. The Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM) models the technical and financial performance of microgrid utilities using uncertain and dynamic inputs to permit explicit modeling of financial risk. This model is applied in an investment risk assessment and case study in Rwanda. Key findings suggest that the most important drivers of risk are fuel prices, foreign exchange rates, demand for electricity, and price elasticity of demand for electricity. The relative importance of these factors is technology dependent with demand uncertainty figuring stronger for solar and high solar penetration hybrid systems and fuel prices driving risk in diesel power and low solar penetration hybrid systems. Considering uncertainty in system sizing presents a tradeoff whereby a decrease in expected equity return decreases downside risk. High solar penetration systems are also found to be more attractive to lenders. The second modeling tool leverages electricity consumption and demographic data from four microgrids in Tanzania to forecast demand for electricity in newly electrified communities. Using statistical learning techniques, improvements in prediction performance was achieved over

  14. Revisiting Renewable Energy Map in Indonesia: Seasonal Hydro and Solar Energy Potential for Rural Off-Grid Electrification (Provincial Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyuono Ruri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the acceleration of renewable energy diffusion in Indonesia as well as achieving the national energy mix target, renewable energy map is essential to provide useful information to build renewable energy system. This work aims at updating the renewable energy potential map, i.e. hydro and solar energy potential, with a revised model based on the global climate data. The renewable energy map is intended to assist the design off-grid system by hydropower plant or photovoltaic system, particularly for rural electrification. Specifically, the hydro energy map enables the stakeholders to determine the suitable on-site hydro energy technology (from pico-hydro, micro-hydro, mini-hydro to large hydropower plant. Meanwhile, the solar energy map depicts not only seasonal solar energy potential but also estimated energy output from photovoltaic system.

  15. Analysis of Technological Competitiveness for Rural Electrification in the Municipality of Ensenada, Mexico; Analisis de Competitividad Tecnologica para la Electrificacin Rural del Municipio de Ensenada, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral Osuna, B. C.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Serrano Cambronero, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present an technological competitiveness analysis for six electricity generation systems conventional and renewable, in order to obtain a proposal for electrification to the rural locations in the municipality of Ensenada, at Northwest of Mexico. To do this, we use the software IntiGIS a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows multi-criteria analysis using: technical, economic, geographic and socio-demographic variables. Ensenada is located in a Mexican state away from the national electric network; and its regional electrical grid is concentrated on a small land area at north having about fifteen hundred rural villages scattered without electricity in the center and south. Therefore, we perform this work in order to provide elements for decision making of subsequent initiatives aimed to solve this lack of basic services. (Author)

  16. The experience of the LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in low cost energy networks for rural electrification; A experiencia da LIGHT na implantacao de redes de baixo custo para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Fernando F; Andre, Oswaldo P [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows the experience of LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in planning and implementation of low cost energy networks in rural electrification. Were also showed guidelines for consumer`s orientation, viability of installations and wiring options. 4 figs., 16 tabs., 12 refs.

  17. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  18. Rural Electrification of Coban Municipality, Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala) using Intigis Model; Electrificacion Rural en el Municipio de Coban, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) segun el Modelo Intigis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bravo, J; Pinedo Pascua, I; Auger Campos, C; Cedillo Heine, A; Gil Garcia, M

    2009-05-15

    The present project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energies and Environment Masters given by the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). It has been developed in collaboration with the research centre CIEMAT, the NGO Energy without Borders (ESF) and the University UPM, with the purpose of analyzing in a real context the application of Geographic Information Systems in renewable energies regional integration. The final aim of our study is to provide the isolated communities, specifically 13 communities in Alta Verapaz (Department of Coban, Guatemala), with the necessary conditions of electrification. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the area. Through the analysis of the geographic, technical and economic information gathered, using the IntiGIS methodology we will identify which is the most suitable autonomous generating system to cover the basic needs of the rural population in these Guatemalan communities. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  20. Potential of hybrid PV systems for rural South Africa: addressing income activities and water supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortiz, B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available " player to develop sustainable solutions and to scale-up hybrid PV systems for supplying energy and water to rural areas and to other African countries. The challenge to scale-up new renewable energy technologies in the next years is that they have...

  1. Geographic Information Technologies for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies. Case Study: Carchi, Ecuador; Tecnologias de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables. Caso de Estudio: Carchi, Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sarmiento, R. A.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2013-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, INEC, INAMHI , CONELEC and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Car chi's electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Carchi, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author)

  2. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  3. Feasibility study for power generation using off- grid energy system from micro hydro-PV-diesel generator-battery for rural area of Ethiopia: The case of Melkey Hera village, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigussie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity supply in Ethiopia is extremely antiquated. Most of the remote rural areas of Ethiopia are not yet electrified. Electrifying these remote areas by extending grid system is difficult and costly. Melkey Hera village is one of a rural community situated in western Ethiopia. In this village, extension of the grid is not yet practical. As the current international trend in rural electrification is to utilize renewable energy resources; solar, wind, biomass, and micro hydro power systems can be seen as alternatives. Therefore, the target of this paper is to investigate the viability of a micro hydro, Photo Voltaic (PV and Diesel Generator-battery hybrid power system options to come up with the best techno-economic and optimum configuration for supplying electricity to this village. The study was performed by an assessment of the predicted village energy demand, the available renewable energy resources, and then using the software called HOMER. The best hybrid system type was described and the optimization of the system configuration was also done. Furthermore, through the simulation of different configuration of the supply system, the optimal mini-grid hybrid system design was established to combine hydro, solar PV, battery energy storage and diesel generator. This system demonstrated to be more reliable in operation, and the most cost-effective for the required level of service. The role of energy storage in system operation also demonstrated to offer additional operational advantages in-terms of reliability and cost savings. Overall, the design results show that the majority of energy obtained from hydropower, which accounts 79%, the PV module covers 20%, and diesel generator is only 1% of the total load consumption. The obtained hybrid system is cost competitive with $\\$$0.133/kWh, which is somewhat good to satisfy the community needs. However, this is more than current energy price in Ethiopia which $\\$$0.06/kWh. If due-merit given

  4. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  5. An assessment method and a case study of rural electrification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguerza, D.; Santander, P.R.; Bordon, H.C.; Gomez, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    From 1985 to 1987, a research team from the Institute of Energy Economics and the National University of Misiones, Argentina, in co-operation with Obera University Foundation, Argentina and the International Development Research Centre, Canada, developed a comprehensive method for analyzing electric power supply alternatives in depressed rural areas as an integral part of the development planning. The method compares the economics of centralized and decentralized power supply systems, including all conventional and non-conventional technology alternatives, and is based on the natural resources and development of the region. It also provides a method for the analytical processing of data on the energy requirements of rural populations and makes it possible to determine energy consumption by use and income level of a rural family resulting in a realistic estimation of the electric power supply needs. 3 tabs

  6. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  7. Unified costs for the rural electrification in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Custos unificados para a eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: kurahass@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social - BNDES, a Brazilian bank for the economic and social development - worried about the high connections costs practiced by the energy utilities, made some demands to the Sao Paulo State Government, Brazil to become the agent backer of the rural electrification 'Luz da Terra' program. Two of them was the elaboration and adoption of an unified technical norm privileging the adoption of simplified systems of electric energy distribution and an only system of costs establishment compatible with the goals of low medium connection costs for the state. A model of costs establishment was elaborated through the medium prices of market materials and labor activities whose values were more significant in the final composition of the projects. The model was accepted by the utilities participants of the program as a pattern to establish a reference cost for each project to be executed. The advantage of an unified system is that it allows to each project of grid extension to have its costs of materials and labor activities estimated in the same base, independent of the company involved. In spite of not having been adopted by all the utilities ones, the adoption of an unified system and the establishment of reference costs was essential for the control of rural distribution grids prices in the Sao Paulo State. (author)

  8. Education in Rural Peru: Exploring the Role of Household Electrification in School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S.; Barnes, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs Peru's National Survey of Rural Household Energy Use data to investigate the correlation between household access to electricity and enrollment of children age 6-18 after taking into account individual-child and household level characteristics. Results indicate that children residing in households with access to electricity…

  9. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  10. Energy policies for rural electrification : a social multi-criteria evaluation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Munda, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a real-world case- study is presented with two general objectives: to give a clear and simple illustrative example of application of social multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) in the field of rural renewable energy policies, and to help in understanding to what extent and under which circumstances solar energy is suitable for electrifying isolated farmhouses. In this sense, this study might offer public decision- makers some insight on the conditions that favour the diffusion of...

  11. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  13. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  14. Life cycle assessment of village electrification based on straight jatropha oil in Chhattisgarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuender, Simon Michael; Zah, Rainer; Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Lab, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstr. 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bhatacharjee, Somnath [Winrock India International, New Delhi (India); Classen, Mischa [First Climate AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mukherjee, Prodyut [Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and Allied Trusts, New Delhi (India)

    2010-03-15

    A decentralized power generation plant fuelled by straight jatropha oil was implemented in 2006 in Ranidhera, Chhattisgarh, India. The goal of this study was to assess the environmental sustainability of that electrification project in order to provide a scientific basis for policy decisions on electrifying remote villages. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was conducted on jatropha-based rural electrification and then compared with other electrification approaches such as photovoltaic (PV), grid connection and a diesel-fuelled power generator. In summary, the jatropha-based electrification in Ranidhera reduces greenhouse gas emissions over the full life cycle by a factor of 7 compared to a diesel generator or grid connection. The environmental performance is only slightly improved, mainly due to the high air pollution from pre-heating the jatropha seeds. With additional measures oil extraction and overall efficiency could be further improved. However, environmental benefits can only be achieved if jatropha is cultivated on marginal land and land use competition can be excluded. Under these conditions, jatropha-based electricity generation might be a useful alternative to other renewable electrification options, as the technology is very sturdy and can be maintained even in remote and highly under-developed regions. (author)

  15. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  16. Application of jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E.

    2008-06-15

    In this thesis, the technical feasibility of using jatropha oil and biogas for dual fuel generators is investigated. This technology could be used for electricity generation in rural areas in developing countries. The use of jatropha oil and biogas is considered a sustainable energy supply, when both fuels are produced locally. The local production of fuel and generation of electricity could result in economic development and poverty reduction. In order to investigate the technical feasibility, a parameter study is performed, an experimental set-up is constructed and experiments are carried out. Three performance parameters are investigated: thermal efficiency, because it is a direct measure for fuel efficiency; volumetric efficiency, because it is a measure for power output; and air-excess ratio, because it influences particulate emissions and HC emissions. The parameter study is conducted, to predict the effect of dual fuel operation, by deriving expressions for the performance parameters. The experiments are carried out to assess the effect of dual fuel operation on performance and to find the operation limits (smoke limit and knock limit). Experiments are carried out on a 12 kW diesel generator set. The jatropha oil that is used is pure oil. Biogas mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. Simulated, bottled, biogas of different quality is used (i.e. CH4/CO2 ratios). Pure methane is also tested as gaseous fuel. Gas is added to the inlet air with a venturi. The design of the venturi limited the gas flow; consequently the maximum heat release fraction of methane was 80% for pure methane and approximately 70% for biogas. Tests were performed at 6, 8 and 10 kW load. The engine showed a thermal efficiency characteristic for pure jatropha oil operation, which is expected for a diesel generator. The characteristic for jatropha oil did not deviate from that of diesel. At full load, thermal efficiency is approximately 32%. Under dual fuel operation, with biogas, at

  17. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  18. A thorough investigation on hybrid application of biomass gasifier and PV resources to meet energy needs for a northern rural off-grid region of Bangladesh : A potential solution to replicate in rural off-grid areas or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Md Shahinur; Akhter, Ruma; Rahman, Mohammad Ashifur

    2018-01-01

    Rural electrification is a critical global challenge specifically in developing countries and Bangladesh is no exception. Most of the people live in the rural areas of the country and having no access to grid electricity hindering the development of these areas and the overall progress of the

  19. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 3rd European Conference at the Centre de Congres in Aix en Provence (France) between 11th and 12th May, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Small electric networks: European drivers and projects for the integration of RES and DG into the electricity grids of the future (Manuel Sanchez-Jimenez); (2) PV hybrid system within mini grids - IEA PVPS programme (Meuch Konraf); (3) Renewables for the developing world (Alvaro Ponce Plaza); (4) Rural electicity supply using photovoltaic / - Diesel hybrid systems: Attractive for investors in the renewable energy sector? (Andreas Hahn); (5) Economic analysis of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems under current tariff structure of Taiwan (Yaw-Juen Wang); (6) Using wind-PV-diesel hybrid system for electrification of remote village in Western Libya (N.M. Kreama); (7) Venezuela's renewable energy program for small towns and rural areas ''Sembrando Luz'' (Jorge Torres); (8) AeroSmart5, the professional, sysem-compatible small-scale wind energy converter will be tested in field tests (Fabian Jochem); (9) Lifetime, test procedures and recommendations for optimal operating strategies for lead-acid-batteries in renewable energy systems - A survey on results from European projects from the 5th framework programme (Rudi Kaiser); (10) Prototype of a reversible fuel cell system for autonomous power supplies (Tom Smolinska); (11) Interconnection management in microgrids (Michel Vandenbergh); (12) Control strategy for a small-scale stand-alone power system based on renewable energy and hydrogen (Harald Miland); (13) Standard renewable electricity supply for people in rural areas - mini-grids in western provinces of China (Michael Wollny); (14) The Brava island a ''100% renewable energy'' project (Jean-Christian Marcel); (15) Breakthrough to a new era of PV-hybrid systems with the help of standardised components communication? (Michael Mueller); (16) Standardized

  20. Electrification of small rural properties in the Cangucu-Brazil city using alternative sources for electricity generation; Eletrificacao de pequenas propriedades rurais do municipio de Cangucu empregando fontes alternativas para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecktheuer, Lucio Almeida [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia

    1998-12-31

    This paper aims at specifying and measuring the main alternative electrification system components, such as solar and eolic, which make use of the property`s energetical potential that, to a small extent, do not represent pollution sources to the environment. The results indicated that, the small rural properties of Cangucu country, which present a low daily electric energy consumption, these alternative systems are able to technically and economically supply electric energy and provide reasonable subsidies to electrification projects which can eventually be developed in the country. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  2. Photovoltaic rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes projects taken on by the Solar Electric Light Fund in various developing countries to implement the use of Solar Home Systems. Such systems have seen dramatic drops in demand for kerosene from families purchasing such systems. They provide a source of power which does not put a carbon load back in the atmosphere, while providing power which can be used for lighting and other appliance usage.

  3. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management; Heterogeneite spatiale d'un service de reseau, equite et efficacite collective: la distribution rurale d'electricite et la maitrise de la demande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, F

    2005-11-15

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  4. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  5. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  6. Integrating projects in markets: an entrepreneurial approach to making PV work for rural end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, N.; Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive market research proves that there is a large market potential for Solar Home Systems in rural area of developing countries. Hundred thousands of people are willing and able to pay for PV. Donors and support projects can play an effective role in supporting and accelerating market development, if they succeed in carefully translating the insights and experiences in market success stories into smart market support instruments. The smartness of the donor instruments is especially needed so they can find a connection to local entrepreneurs, often small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and support these local entrepreneurs without taking away their entrepreneurial creativity and effectiveness, without dictating what the entrepreneurs should do. (authors)

  7. Performance evaluation of a stand-alone solar dish Stirling system for power generation suitable for off-grid rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadri, Y.; Hadj Abdallah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of the output temperature reached by 2 m parabolic dish. • Output power estimation for uncontrollable load was done using Matlab®. • Validation of the proposed system under Tunisian conditions for rural electrification. - Abstract: The development of green power generation such as solar systems that have become a great interest for several countries especially for Tunisia as it presents a significant solar potential. For this purpose, this research has investigated the feasibility and the performance of standalone solar dish/Stirling micro generation plant for rural electrification. The considered hybrid system includes solar dish/Stirling engine, permanent magnet synchronous generator and a storage battery. To start with, thermal modeling and simulation have been carried out using Matlab® for the solar-driven Stirling heat engine system composed of an Alpha Stirling engine, a solar collector and a receiver, in which the radiation, convection, conduction and radiation heat loss have been taken into consideration for the selected design. For numerical validation of the receiver’s thermal model, simulation results were compared with experimental measurements reported for the EURODISH system with a reasonable degree of agreement. Second, the generated torque driving the generator has been estimated by the Adiabatic model of URIELI based on the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta. In order for an autonomous control, the dish generator is connected to the load via power electronic converters where the bidirectional power flow is possible by the use of two voltage source converters in a back-to-back configuration. They are referred to as Stirling/generator side converter and load side inverter, both are oriented control by space vector pulse width modulation. In this context, the Stirling side converter is used to adjust the synchronous generator while the inverter controls the power flow between the direct current bus and the

  8. Competitividad de los sistemas híbridos eólicos-fotovoltaicos para la electrificación rural//Competitiveness of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems for the rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaddy Rodríguez Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de electrificación rural mediante extensión de la red eléctrica o mediante el uso exclusivo de generadores diésel suelen ser soluciones costosas, que además presentan alto impacto ecológico. Este trabajo abordó el planteamiento de opciones de electrificación empleando sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos con bajo respaldo diésel. Los sistemas propuestos están dimensionados para un número de viviendas y nivel de recursos renovables disímiles en función de cada localización. Se abordan distintos rangos de demandas mediante los 4 sistemas híbridos propuestos y se propone un procedimiento simple de ayuda para la selección. Fue realizado un análisis económico que permitió obtener como principal conclusión la comprobación de la mayor competitividad de estos sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos respecto a la generación diésel en función al costo equivalente de la energía y el impacto ambiental para la condición de disponibilidad de recursos renovables de una gran mayoría de regiones de América Latina y el Caribe.Palabras claves: competitividad energética, electrificación rural, sistema híbrido.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe possibility of rural electrification by means of extension of the electric net or by the exclusive use of generating diesel are usually expensive solutions, besides presenting this last option high ecological impact. This work approached the electrification options using wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems with low diésel support. These systems are sized for a number of housings and level ofresources renewable dissimilar in function to each localization. Different ranges of demands were approached by means of 4 proposed hybrid systems. It was proposed a simple procedure of help for the selection it was carried out an economic analysis that allowed to obtain the main conclusion when checking the biggest competitiveness

  9. Task 9. PV deployment in developing countries. Institutional framework and financial instruments for PV deployment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the institutional framework and financial instruments necessary for PV deployment in developing countries. This guide describes the institutional and financial aspects that need to be addressed to ensure that a long term sustainable (and profitable) PV market is established in developing countries. The guide details main fundamental functions that need to be performed such as the agents needed to perform the functions and their differing roles within the framework, the relationships between these agents and the financial instruments available. It is stated that the majority of the aspects recommended in this guide can be adopted to two main PV deployment models: direct sales and rural electrification and development programmes. It is noted that both approaches will have to be tailored and adapted to local conditions.

  10. Project of setting to contribution of renewable energies for an pre-electrification to support rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a project of the Government of Burkina Faso. The project aim is to increase the energy utilization renewable by the populations living in the rural areas. It aims moreover the improvement of the standard living in the rural areas, the access of rural population to basic elements to fight against poverty and rural depopulation. It is a question of popularizing in rural area, the use of the renewable energy equipment consumers, in particular the photovoltaic one. This equipment will make it possible to satisfy the requirements in lighting with the Community systems, in leisure by providing a minimum of equipment in the community centres of leisure, in drugs conservation installation in the health centres and in using energy to pump drinking water. The use of this energy source will make it possible to mitigate the non access of the rural areas to the energy produced by the National Company of Electricity of Burkina [fr

  11. Meeting electrification's social objectives in South Africa, and implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Electrification programmes and projects are usually planned and evaluated on the basis of their economic (financial) and socio-economic performance. It is not usually recognised that electrification is often carried out for social objectives of poverty alleviation and political effect. Examination of electrification in South Africa reveals clearly that initial electrification was to meet economic objectives, later socio-economic objectives were adopted, and recently the objectives were social. Social electrification, particularly rural electrification, is not viable according to usual assessment methods, which are frequently distorted to provide the justification for a project to proceed. The technology of network electrification changed to meet the constraints, challenging usual perceptions about the relative costs of urban and rural electrification and the potential for photovoltaic electrification. Adopting a specification for social electrification allows suitable tariffs for electrification to be identified, indicates how capital investment decisions might be modified for social electrification, and identifies implications for electricity industry restructuring. A better understanding of electrification's social objectives has implications for projects and programmes in other developing countries

  12. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  13. CRERAL: one experience in cooperative in rural electrification and a new legislation for the cooperatives; CRERAL: uma experiencia de cooperativa na eletrificacao rural e a nova legislacao para as cooperativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Joao Alderi do [Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA (CRERAL), Campinas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: creral@st.com.br

    2003-01-15

    Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA - CRERAL was created in July 23rd, 1969, to take energy to the countryside, because the concessionaire did not use to do that in that time. CRERAL has been distributing electric energy in the countryside for 33 years and, recently, it has been producing energy too. This work shows a brief historic of CRERAL and a new scenario to the cooperatives of rural electrification in relation to the new Brazilian electric model. After 33 years, CRERAL has a great experience in distributing electric energy in the countryside. In 2001, CRERAL had 5,647 partners using the energy in 37 cities in the north region of Rio Grande do Sul, with its head-office in Erechim - RS, with an electric system of 1,781 km of web and 18,890 posts, 1,475 transformers installed with a potency of 17,161 KVA. CRERAL has implanted a model of democratic management, that permits the partners to take part in the decisions of the cooperative, including organized groups in the communities (that are 105 today) and the general assembly. The partners define the priorities, the changes, the investments and the tariff to be charged. With studies starting in 1997, CRERAL started producing energy. In 2000, was inaugurated the first PCH. With a potency of 720 KW, Abauna Dam was responsible for 26% of the energy consumed by the cooperative in 2001. Cascata das Andorinhas PCH Dam, with a potency of 1,000 KW , is being built and it must be working by the end of 2002. The new electric model will bring great changes to the cooperativism of electrification with the possibility that the cooperatives be transformed in permissionaires of public service of energy, but it will also represent a great challenge to be inserted and to continuo existing in this new scenario. (author)

  14. Power Quality Experimental Analysis on Rural Home Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jorge Cerqueira Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgeneration is the small-scale generation of heat or electric power or both, by individuals or buildings to meet their own needs. Recently, microgeneration is being regarded as a means to decentralize the power production of renewable energies, reducing the impacts on the grid caused by unexpected energy demands. Given the increase in microgeneration facilities, determining the quantity of energy produced and the power quality assumes growing importance in low, medium, or high voltage facilities. This paper presents a power quality analysis of two different facilities with photovoltaic generation localized in a rural area of Portugal, describing the voltage and frequency behaviour, the harmonic contents, and the total harmonic distortion. Statistical data are presented regarding the number of voltage events and occurrence of dips and swells in both facilities as a percentage of rated voltage. We conclude that some PV systems can severely affect voltage quality, forcing the grid to work at and even above the maximum voltage standard limit.

  15. Off-grid photovoltaic systems as a solution for the ambient pollution avoidance and Iraq’s rural areas electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Qusay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for local pollution free renewable energy sources in the world considered the solar energy as a one of the important renewable energy technologies and becomes dominant to the renewable energy source being exploited. The paper presents a unique approach to study and analysis off-grid photovoltaic (PV system in order to provide the required energy for a one fold household in Diyala State, Iraq as well as the CO2 emissions and life cycle (LCC and economical aspect was considered. The results of the study by depending on site metrological data shows that the unit of electrical cost of (1 kWh about ($0.51 and this value is not expensive compared to the current unit cost of electricity and becomes effect and encouraged the use the PV system to electrify the rare sites. The average of CO2 emissions get avoidance about 1840 kg/year compared with conventional fuels used in Iraq to generate electricity.

  16. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L; Dominguez, J; Amador, J; Arribas, L; Pinedo, I

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. Connective power: solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Market-based rural electrification with solar energy is increasingly common in developing countries. This article revolves around three main claims about solar electrification in Kenya's unsubsidized market: (1) The benefits of solar electrification are captured primarily by the rural middle class. (2) Solar electricity plays a modest role in supporting economically productive and education-related activities, but 'connective' applications such as television, radio, and cellular telephone charging often receive a higher priority. (3) Solar electrification is more closely tied to increased television use, the expansion of markets, more rural-urban communication, and other processes that increase rural-urban connectivity than to poverty alleviation, sustainable development, or the appropriate technology movement. [Author

  18. Electrification in rural Bangladesh. A comprehensive analysis on Grameen Shakti's energy for the poor-business model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Niclas D.H.

    2010-07-01

    People in industrialized countries enjoy nowadays the luxurious advantages of energy. Electricity has converted the former preindustrial economies and societies into highly industrialized, mechanized and automated ones. On the contrary, many rural areas in developing countries are suffering from the heavy lack of access to energy, such as Bangladesh. Grameen Shakti, a subsidiary of the world famous Grameen family set up by Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus, has created a market for renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh, though not in the industrial and commercial areas but in the very poor and energy-starved rural areas of the country. By employing a special market-based business model, Grameen Shakti provides rural households with access to renewable energy technologies and thus with electricity. The objective of this study is the analysis and depiction of the functionality of this business model, its structural aspects, implications as well as replication potential. (orig.)

  19. Financial sustainability of PV implementation in Swaziland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, C.A.; Van Roekel, G.M.; Lasschuit, P.E.

    2001-10-01

    During the past 10 years, more than 700 Solar Home Systems have been implemented by this project in Swaziland, southern Africa. The implementation process started with household energy surveys, the results of which showing significant energy needs for cooking, lighting and basic communication applications (i.e. radio/TV), particularly in rural areas. An implementation project of Solar Home Systems was set up to start rural electrification with solar PV and focused on lighting and small electrical demands. The national government, whose own resources were limited, supported the project as an important step towards addressing the country's range of energy needs. Together with a local company, Swazitronix, a joint venture was established to facilitate the implementation project. With a project loan from the Dutch social bank, the Triodosbank, standard Solar Home Systems were sold, assembled, installed and serviced. Customers paid the full cost of their PV systems and services. Awareness and education issues also formed key aspects of the project. During a later project phase, credit financing instruments were introduced providing a final element of experience crucial to future project implementation. The project's relative success and experiences (i.e. 82% loan repayment rate, detailed review of the causes behind loan defaults, and monitoring survey results) are detailed herein, providing valuable lessons regarding financial sustainability, the linchpin of successful PV implementation. 8 refs

  20. Modelo para la valoración integral de tecnologías de electrificación rural;Model for Integral valuation of technologies for rural electrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaddy Gina Rodríguez Borges

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo para la valoración integral de distintas tecnología de electrificación rural, basado fundamentalmente en el comportamiento de los sistemas híbridos que emplean fuentes renovables de energía, considerando múltiples criterios, tales como: el porcentaje de generación diesel requerido, costo de la energía equivalente, valor presente neto, costo de operación y mantenimiento, riesgos de la instalación y facilidad de gestión del sistema. Se estudian ocho sistemas energéticos, dimensionados para ofrecer una calidad similar a la extensión de red, que pueden satisfacer distintos escenarios de recursos energéticos y consumos de energía desde 20 hasta 320 kWh/día, y se emplea el modelo matemático desarrollado en un caso práctico, a través del cual se demuestra la facilidad que presenta para valorar tecnologías de electrificación rural, ameritando solo tres datos característicos de la comunidad: la irradiación solar promedio, la velocidad de vientos y el consumo de energía estimada.In this work it is developed a model for the integral valuation of different technology of rural electrification, the study of the behavior of the hybrid systems was emphasized with the use of renewable energy sources and it was considered multiple approaches for the valuation, such as: the percentage of required generation diesel, cost of the equivalent energy, net present value, operation cost and maintenance, risks of the installation and easiness of administration of the system. A group of eight sized energy systems was studied to offer a similar quality to the one given by the net extension net, with which it can satisfy energy consumptions from 20 up to 320 kWh/day, estimating the behavior of the proposed systems for different scenarios of energy resources readiness. The developed mathematical pattern allows valuing technologies for rural electrification using three characteristic data of the community

  1. A learning-based approach to understanding success in rural electrification : insights from micro hydro projects in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkwaard, ir. W.; Kirkels, A.F.; Romijn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the performance of a set of rural Micro Hydro Power (MHP) projects and MHP-implementing organizations in Bolivia, using a learning-based analytical perspective. Rather than identifying a generic set of critical success factors such as access to finance, adequate technological

  2. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    Community micro-grids have played a central role in increasing access to off-grid rural electrification (RE) in many regions of the developing world, notably South Asia. However, the promise of community micro-grids in sub-Sahara Africa remains largely unexplored. My study explores the potential and limits of community micro-grids as options for increasing access to off-grid RE in sub-Sahara Africa. Contextualized in five community micro-grids in rural Kenya, my study is framed through theories of collective action and combines qualitative and quantitative methods, including household surveys, electronic data logging and regression analysis. The main contribution of my research is demonstrating the circumstances under which community micro-grids can contribute to rural development and the conditions under which individuals are likely to initiate and participate in such projects collectively. With regard to rural development, I demonstrate that access to electricity enables the use of electric equipment and tools by small and micro-enterprises, resulting in significant improvement in productivity per worker (100--200% depending on the task at hand) and a corresponding growth in income levels in the order of 20--70%, depending on the product made. Access to electricity simultaneously enables and improves delivery of social and business services from a wide range of village-level infrastructure (e.g. schools, markets, water pumps) while improving the productivity of agricultural activities. Moreover, when local electricity users have an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and electricity consumption is closely linked to productive uses that generate incomes, cost recovery is feasible. By their nature---a new technology delivering highly valued services by the elites and other members, limited local experience and expertise, high capital costs---community micro-grids are good candidates for elite-domination. Even so, elite control does not necessarily

  3. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  4. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  5. Techno-economy optimization of PV-diesel hybrid / stand-alone systems for remote area power supply based on empirical analysis for Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiono, Chayun [Komplek BPP Teknologi, Jl. Teknologi VII, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2007-07-01

    The techno-economy assessment of photovoltaic (PV) system applications for remote area power supply (RAPS) in combination with operation of diesel generating set (DGS) in Indonesia based on an empirical model is formulated. This model has shown that it helps the project owner to easily optimise the sub-system size (i.e. PV array, auxiliary generator and battery sizes) based on the financial constraints needed for the investment and operation of the system. Two major markets of RAPS in Indonesia are currently for rural electrification and telecommunication systems (orig.)

  6. Impact of a rural solar electrification project on the level and structure of women’s empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Alaofè, Halimatou; Naylor, Rosamond; Taren, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Although development organizations agree that reliable access to energy and energy services—one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals—is likely to have profound and perhaps disproportionate impacts on women, few studies have directly empirically estimated the impact of energy access on women’s empowerment. This is a result of both a relative dearth of energy access evaluations in general and a lack of clarity on how to quantify gender impacts of development projects. Here we present an evaluation of the impacts of the Solar Market Garden—a distributed photovoltaic irrigation project—on the level and structure of women’s empowerment in Benin, West Africa. We use a quasi-experimental design (matched-pair villages) to estimate changes in empowerment for project beneficiaries after one year of Solar Market Garden production relative to non-beneficiaries in both treatment and comparison villages (n = 771). To create an empowerment metric, we constructed a set of general questions based on existing theories of empowerment, and then used latent variable analysis to understand the underlying structure of empowerment locally. We repeated this analysis at follow-up to understand whether the structure of empowerment had changed over time, and then measured changes in both the levels and likelihood of empowerment over time. We show that the Solar Market Garden significantly positively impacted women’s empowerment, particularly through the domain of economic independence. In addition to providing rigorous evidence for the impact of a rural renewable energy project on women’s empowerment, our work lays out a methodology that can be used in the future to benchmark the gender impacts of energy projects.

  7. Development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification; Desenvolvimento de conversor eletronico para maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena Brandao [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves Cardoso [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cortizo, Porfirio Cabaleiro [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the electric energy conversion is essential to the developing of technical and economic viability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. This paper presents the development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification. The standalone photovoltaic system used is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. Initially were developed test procedures of the equipment used in the system like photovoltaic generators, electronic ballasts, inverters, charge controllers and batteries, covering minimum performance requirements and in compliance with national and international standards, as possible, due to the instrumentation availability. A data acquisition system was assembled to monitoring the photovoltaic system. A simulation of the system was implemented and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitoring results. The converter with maximum power point tracking consists of a direct current converter in the buck configuration and the control algorithm was implemented in a micro controller, being the first results presented here. After finished the prototype, it will be incorporated in the photovoltaic system and will be accomplished a study of the technical and economic viability. The first results of the tests, of the monitoring and of the converter with maximum power point tracking are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives in the quality control of equipment and promoting the development of national technology. (author)

  8. Navajo Electrification Demonstraiton Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Ahasteen, Project Manager

    2006-07-17

    This is a final technical report required by DOE for the Navajo Electrification Demonstration Program, This report covers the electric line extension project for Navajo families that currently without electric power.

  9. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  10. Case for railway electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.N.

    1981-06-10

    The publication earlier this year of the joint BR-DTp final report of the review of main line electrification represented the culmination of over two years work; the study is almost certainly the most complex and comprehensive of this type ever undertaken. Heavy reliance on computer models allowed business analysis over the 34-year timespan of the review to extend to a level of detail that was not expected at the time of the last such investigation, the 1931 Weir Report of the Committee on Main Line Railway Electrification. It is encouraging that, despite the sweeping changes in both technology and economic conditions during the intervening years, the verdict remains highly favourable.

  11. Evaluation, testing and further development of PV systems in Indonesia. Final report; Evaluation, Erprobung und Weiterentwicklung von PV-Systemen in Indonesien. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiser, K.; Schweizer-Ries, P.; Kuhmann, J.; Adib, R.

    2000-06-01

    The Indonesian government initiated the World's biggest decentralised rural electrification programme with PV systems, the so-called 50 MW PV programme, which is to provide 10 million households with PV systems within the next decade. The report describes the financing, distribution strategies, organisation of maintenance work, and training. The focus will be on locally produced components, with cooperation of German organisations. [German] Indonesien besteht aus mehr als 17.500 Inseln, so dass die Ausdehnung der nationalen Netze auf verschiedene Barrieren stoesst. Dort gibt es ungefaehr 23 Millionen Haushalte, die nicht an das nationale Stromnetz angeschlossen sind. Um diese zu ueberwinden, hat die indonesische Regierung das weltweit groesste dezentrale rurale Elektrifizierungsprogramm mit Photovoltaik, das sogenannte 50 MW PV-Programm, ins Leben gerufen. Im Rahmen dieses Programmes sollen in den naechsten zehn Jahren eine Million Haushalte mit Photovoltaik versorgt werden. Welchen Einfluss dabei nicht-technische Aspekte, wie Finanzierungssysteme, Verbreitungsstrategien, Organisation von Wartungsarbeiten, Ausbildung der Programmakteure auf die Zufriedenheit der Nutzer mit den gelieferten Energiedienstleistungen hat und wie diese eine dauerhaften Betrieb und eine nachhaltige Verbreitung dieser Technologie foerdern koennen, war Gegenstand detaillierter Untersuchungen. Grossen Wert legten wir auf Tests lokal produzierter Komponenten und Systeme, mit dem Ziel den beteiligten Firmen die Verbesserung der Qualitaet ihrer Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu ermoeglichen. Neben verschiedenen Projekterfolgen ist sicherlich erwaehnenswert, dass initiiert durch unsere Taetigkeiten, ein deutscher Ladereglerhersteller die Produktion seiner Regler in Zusammenarbeit mit einer indonesischen Firma ausweiten konnte. (orig.)

  12. Connective power: Solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Arne Edward

    Household solar photovoltaic systems have emerged as a key alternative to grid-based rural electrification in many developing countries. This may seem a victory for appropriate technology advocates, but my research indicates that the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya, which is among the largest developing country solar markets per capita, is far removed from the classic "small is beautiful" neo-populist vision of building small-scale alternatives to global capitalism. Instead, solar electrification is more closely connected to neo-liberal goals of market-based service provision and economic integration. In this study I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including surveys, intra-household energy allocation studies, and historical analysis, to analyze the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya. I find that "connective" applications, including television, radio, and cellphones, are centrally important. Television is especially notable; the expansion of TV broadcasting to rural areas was a key condition for solar market development. Solar electricity is also used for lighting. In Kenya, income and work related uses of solar lighting are modest, while education uses are more significant. However, in many households, especially those with small systems, intra-household dynamics constrain key social uses (e.g. children's studying), as the energy is allocated to other uses. Social use patterns combine with access dynamics in Kenya's unsubsidized market to shape the social significance of solar electrification. Solar ownership is dominated by the rural upper and middle classes. Thus, productivity and education uses make small contributions to differentiation and middle class formation. Additionally, solar electrification's role in supporting rural television and radio use improves business advertisers' ability to expand consumer goods markets. These findings link solar electrification to important processes of rural development

  13. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  14. Africa and electricity: To electrify Africa - necessary financial and human investments; The development of hydroelectricity in sub-Saharan Africa; A major challenge: to improve distribution efficiency; Smart grids in Africa?; Rural electrification in Africa; The development of renewable energies in Ethiopia - an example of empowerment of a local structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvilleur, Jacques; Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Cerdan, Jean-Pierre; Bauley, Jacky; Caumon, Pauline; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Beaussant, Henri; Louis, Frederic; Sall, Ousmane; Ledoux, Thierry; Boye, Henri; Bagayoko, Moussa

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of six articles which address various aspects related to the issue of Africa electrification. More precisely, the authors propose a general presentation of the present situation and an assessment of necessary financial, organisational, governance and training investments or needs (To electrify Africa: necessary financial and human investment), illustrate these issues in the case of hydroelectricity-rich Republic of Congo, discuss the issue of financing hydroelectricity development in Africa and of the need of operation and maintenance policies to meet needs associated with sustainable installations (The development of hydroelectricity in sub-Saharan Africa), address issues related to distribution through an improvement of existing distribution networks (A major challenge: to improve distribution efficiency) and through a possible development of smart grids (Smart grids in Africa?), comment issues related to rural electrification as a major challenge for these sometimes very poor areas with almost none financial resources, and evoke the possibilities associated with decentralised photovoltaic production (Rural electrification in Africa), and report interventions of an NGO in Ethiopia based on solar installations and actions of empowerment of local structures (The development of renewable energies in Ethiopia - an example of empowerment of a local structure)

  15. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  16. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  17. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  18. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  19. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  20. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  1. Off-grid community electrification projects based on wind and solar energies: A case study in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Domenech, Bruno; Reyes, Gustavo Alberto; Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; García Villoria, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite various institutional efforts, about 22% of the total Nicaraguan population still do not have access to electricity. Due to the dispersed nature of many rural inhabitants, off-grid electrification systems that use renewable energy sources are a reliable and sustainable option to provide electricity to isolated communities. In this study, the design of an off-grid electrification project based on hybrid wind-photovoltaic systems in a rural community of Nicaragua is developed. Firstly t...

  2. Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa: The 'flexy-energy' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Ginies, P.; Coulibaly, Y.; Girard, P.

    2011-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. - Research highlights: → Design and load management Optimization are big concerns for hybrid systems. → Hybrid solar PV/Diesel is economically viable for remote areas and environmental friendly. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas.

  3. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, A

    1994-01-01

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  4. Truckstop - and Truck - Electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skip Yeakel

    2001-01-01

    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y-how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop-+ truck - electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers-learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal-if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants-they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants-electricity-to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet participation/ lead

  5. Review and comparison study of hybrid diesel/solar/hydro/fuel cell energy schemes for a rural ICT Telecenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Yung, V.C.; Anyi, M.; Othman, A.K.; Ab. Hamid, K.B. [Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Tarawe, J. [e-Bario ICT Telecenter, Bario, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, the rural electrification study of an ICT Telecenter in particular reference to the Kelabit Highland of Sarawak is presented. The use of diesel generator and its associated environmental implications is first discussed. The cost-effectiveness of the present solar PV system and the solar/hydro schemes for rural electrification of the rural ICT are evaluated employing the HOMER simulation software, considering sustainability factors such as system efficiency, weather, fuel costs, operating and maintaining costs. Subsequently, simple novel Hybrid Energy Performance Equations and the associated Energy Performance Curves are derived and introduced, respectively, which provide a visualization model, simplifying hybrid system analysis. Results obtained in this study have shown that combined power schemes is more sustainable in terms of supplying electricity to the Telecenter compared to a stand-alone PV system due to prolong cloudy and dense haze periods. The hybrid systems can have efficiency range of {proportional_to}15%-75% compared to PV stand-alone of only {proportional_to}10%, indicating hybrid systems are more reliable and sustainable - in minimizing both energy losses and excess energy. (author)

  6. Feasibility study of an islanded microgrid in rural area consisting of PV, wind, biomass and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shakti; Singh, Mukesh; Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost effective hybrid PV-wind-biomass energy system with storage is proposed. • Mathematical modeling and operational strategy of the proposed system is discussed. • Optimal sizing of components is evaluated using evolutionary algorithms. • Results obtained is compared with software tool HOMER. • The performance of the hybrid system in the critical case has been presented. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems are proving to be promising and environment friendly sources of electricity generation, particularly, in countries with inadequate fossil fuel resources. In recent years, wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and biomass based systems have been drawing more attention to provide electricity to isolated or energy deficient regions. This paper presents a hybrid PV-wind generation system along with biomass and storage to fulfill the electrical load demand of a small area. For optimal sizing of components, a recently introduced swarm based artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is applied. To verify the strength of the proposed technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from the standard software tool, hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been verified from the results that the ABC algorithm has good convergence property and ability to provide good quality results. Further, for critical case such as the failure of any source, the behavior of the proposed system has been observed. It is evident from the results that the proposed scheme is able to manage a smooth power flow with the same optimal configuration.

  7. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  8. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  9. Microgrids project. Part 2. Design of an electrification kit with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzola, J.A.; Santos, M. [Robotiker Tecnalia, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Vechiu, I. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Camblong, H. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Electrical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (E.U.P.-D), Europa Plaza 1, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Sall, M. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables (UCAD) (Senegal); Sow, G. [Laboratoire des Energies Renouvelables (LER), Ecole Sup. Polytechnique, Dakar (Senegal)

    2009-10-15

    Senegal is one of the less developed countries in the world (position 158 in a list of 174 countries). 85% of its rural population does not have access to electricity and there's no doubt that this is an important barrier for socio-economic development. In this context, the project Microgrids aims at contributing to solve this problem. This project is part of the Intelligent Energy - Europe Programme supported by the European Commission. Its objective is the promotion and dissemination of the use of micro-grids with high content of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for the electrification of villages far away from the grid in Senegal. One of the results of the project was the analysis of rural electrification needs, which is described in another paper [Camblong H, Sarr J, Niang AT, Curea O, Alzola JA, Sylla EH, Santos M. Microgrids project, part 1: analysis of rural electrification with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal. Renewable Energy, submitted for publication.]. This paper presents the design of an electrification kit based on the information provided by that analysis [Analyse des besoins locaux pour l'electrification de zones rurales au Senegal. Technical report of Microgrids project; 2007. Available from: http://www.microgrids-eie.com.]. After identifying necessary previous conditions for the sustainability of any electrification project, a methodology is proposed for the design of the electrification kit. This methodology is applied to a typical village and results are extended to differently sized villages in the areas of Thies, Fatick and Kaolack. Economic considerations are also included to establish the relationship between electrification costs and paying capability of the communities. Now the Microgrids' consortium hopes to set-up a new project to apply the designed kit on some rural non-electrified villages. (author)

  10. Sustainable Electrification for Asia and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2016-03-01

    option considering its social and political impact, but does not always provide a sufficient service quality. Grid extensions require substantial investments in heavy infrastructures, which cannot be profitable in remote areas where population density remains low. Besides, the UN progressively highlights the fact that in places where grid connections do exist, the beneficiaries are exposed to regular blackouts. The example of China's grid extension policy implemented over its whole territory confirms that this solutions is not always adapted. Nevertheless, innovative and promising projects are flourishing in areas hardly reachable by grid extension policies. To this respect, Bangladesh has achieved remarkable results in decentralized rural electrification. Over the last decade, renewable decentralized electricity production systems developed, breaking technological barriers that have made these systems expensive, complex and unreliable for years. They benefited from a 75% drop in the price of photovoltaic panels since 2009 and a 42% drop in the price of batteries since 2008. The emergence of these systems shows the increasing interest given to a new idea of what electrification might be, based on the concept of 'energy ladder', in which the first step equals a minimum consumption level allowing the use of a few light bulbs. If this approach does not give access to the same level of electricity consumption per year than the one theoretically provided by the grid, at least it gives the opportunity for people in need to access rapidly a basic lighting service, more efficient than traditional solutions. Poorly deployed at the moment, off-grid and mini-grid systems are increasingly raising support in a context of deep rethinking of our energy systems, pushing governments to consider innovative and sustainable solutions to face the challenges of poverty and climate change. Numerous obstacles still need to be overcome though, in order to create the conditions for a stable

  11. Data compilation project for rural electrification systems evolution measurement and social-economical impacts of network electrification in agriculture areas; Proyeto de recopilacion de datos para medir la evolucion de sistemas de electrificacion rural y el impacto socio-economico de la electrificacion por redes, en explotaciones agropecuarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luro, C E; Rodriguez, O C [Banco de la Nacion Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology for planning the implementation of electricity systems networks in rural and isolated areas, mainly across agriculture areas. The main objective of this paper is propose a way to reliable data acquisition in order to measure the evolution of the system, at technological and economical levels. 23 refs.

  12. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  13. Social trust aspects of rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This report is a contribution to a growing body of work which acknowledges the importance of social considerations in the electricity industry, and provides an electricity industry perspective on the role of social trust, which is closely related to concepts such as social responsibility, corporate governance and corporate stewardship. The report provides a full explanation of the concept of social trust, defines its components (competence, commitment, consistency, fairness, respect, caring and empathy) and makes suggestions as to how each of these components could be implemented in a variety of settings and situations such as facility planning, construction and operation, risk management and customer relations.

  14. Options for rural electrification in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study which examined 19 commercially available options for electrifying remote communities in Mexico. Characteristics of a typical community are defined and, using 7 of the technologies, power systems are designed capable of supporting this community. The performance of these systems is evaluated with respect to their ability to satisfy 11 technical design objectives, 5 socioeconomic objectives, and their impact on the environment. A photovoltaic- diesel generator hybrid system with wind generator option is recommended for the typical community

  15. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis. Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacte...

  16. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design

  17. Solarising tropical Africa’s rural homes to sustainably overcome energy poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyarusoke, K. E.

    2017-11-01

    At less than 30% electrification, Tropical Africa is the most energy-poor electrified region of the world. At home level, the annual per-capita electric energy consumption ranges between 0 and 150 kWh in rural areas, where 83% of the population reside. This is well below the 250 kWh recommended by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as the threshold for exiting rural ‘Energy Poverty’. Some governments have tried to extend the grid to such areas but these efforts have not yielded much. The approaches of rural electrification - as is being done now have therefore failed - and they may not be able to electrify every home in the countries concerned. An alternative approach promoting stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) and other solar powered heat and mass transfer systems at home level is proposed. An example of the approach in a village home in rural Uganda, East Africa is given. It is estimated that the combined unit energy cost over the systems’ lifespan would be just about US 3 cents. Health, Education, and Sustainability in all its forms would be greatly improved. The main recommendation is for policy makers to adopt this approach for rural homes while sparing grid supply only for commercial and industrial activities.

  18. Evaluation of electrification projects with renewable energy in communities of the mountain and forest of the Peru: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Teodoro; Escobar Rafael; Cherni, Judith

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses results of research on energy solutions in isolated rural areas in Peru. The communities being studied use solar panels and micro-hydroelectric systems. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the rural electrification in Peru

  19. Evaluation of electrification projects with renewable energy in communities of the mountain and forest of the Peru: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Teodoro; Escobar, Rafael; Cherni, Judith

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses results of research on energy solutions in isolated rural areas in Peru. The communities being studied use solar panels and micro-hydroelectric systems. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the rural electrification in Peru

  20. The electrification of the world begins at Labastide-Murat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2001-01-01

    There is a basic historical contradiction in France being the leader in public electrification while at the same time the French state has never assumed the associated financial or business risks. The electrification of the country has been built virtually entirely around decentralized initiatives and the national company has only completed, modernized and managed the existing system though doubtless with a great deal of professionalism and success. It is probably this very professionalism and success which have given electrical producers an the Third World, (seeking a role model in the developed world), a false image of the future of this sector, presenting it as that of a large company moving from the centre outwards, from the town to the rural world. Beyond the ideologies of public versus private which have left their mark on the history of electricity for several decades, the French experience gives the image of an electrification programme which is being built up by the will of the people, where a centralized and highly legislative State has succeeded in both stimulating a large number of private entrepreneurs, large and small alike, and mobilizing tens of thousands of districts sharing this ambition, as shown by the example of Labastide Murat, a small village in the South West of France. (author)

  1. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador; Problemas de la Energizacion rural en Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, A [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Escuela superior politecnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    1994-07-01

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use.

  2. Putting together a public-private financing partnership in electrical distribution : the Moroccan experience; Le montage financier d'un partenariat public-prive en matiere d'electrification : L'experience marocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughaba, F.; Dhaiby, N. [Office National de l' Electricite, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2003-09-01

    In Third World countries, the vast majority of the rural population does not have access to electricity. The factors that affect rural electrification policies include economic, demographic, social, and cultural factors and the fact that each country has its own policy regarding electrification. Since 1963, Morocco has been aware that rural electrification represents an important aspect of sustainable development. The government of Morocco has implemented several initiatives to overcome the challenge of rural electrification. This paper presents a brief historical overview of key dates in the rural electrification in Morocco. In particular, the authors discussed Morocco's Global Rural Electrification Program (PERG), outlining its global approach, master plan, and implementation. To finance this endeavour, Morocco relies on several international institutions ready to help in accordance with the priorities determined by the State. For example, funds have been provided by the Agence Francaise de Developpement (AFD), Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Islamic Development Bank (IDB), the KFW and the FADES. The socio-economic impact of rural electrification was also reviewed, noting increased economic activity and a 30 per cent reduction in emigration from electrified villages. Households also benefit from improved hygiene and quality of life. 1 tab.

  3. Application of a geographical information system to the feasibility analysis of PV electricity supply in rural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chica, R.M.; Manzano, G.; Perez, M.; Pinero, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are a wide spread and very valuable tool able to manage and analyse spatial multivariate and interdisciplinary data sources. Their application to the feasibility assessment for the implementation of renewable energy sources is still recent but they have been proven as very adequate decision support elements according to the characteristic dependencies involved in this kind of studies, including site extrinsic (climate, solar and wind resources,...) and intrinsic (electrical feeding patterns, topography, grid proximity,...) variables. This work presents an example of the use of ArcView TM GIS software in the estimation of feasibility criteria for the adoption of solar photovoltaic electricity supply systems in a rural area located South Eastern Spain taking into account the eventual agronomic and/or dwelling land use and its corresponding energy demand. In this analysis, a set of data sources have been integrated ranging from remote sensed solar radiation to digital elevation models to evaluate correction factors for grid connection costs, apart of crops placement and water demands. The obtained graphical output allows to users and systems installers for an immediate functional and economical estimation of eventual projects related to rural development of the studied zone. (authors)

  4. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is heavily dependent on the traditional energy sources and imported fossil fuel, which has an adverse impact on the environment and economy. Renewable energy technologies promoted in the country are regarded as a means of satisfying rural energy needs of the country for operating different...... using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations......, incentives on the investments, which have effects on the cost of pumped water. Likewise, in case of biodiesel-based system, different yield rate of jatropha plants is also considered in estimating the cost of producing biodiesel. It is found that for operating a biodiesel-based pumping system for the study...

  5. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of

  6. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  7. Lighting up the World The first global application of the open source, spatial electrification toolkit (ONSSET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Siyal, Shahid; Broad, Oliver; Zepeda, Eduardo; Bazilian, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    In September 2015, the international community has adopted a new set of targets, following and expanding on the millennium development goals (MDGs), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all is one of the 17 set goals that each country should work towards realizing. According to the latest Global Tracking Framework, 15% of the global population live without access to electricity. The majority of those (87%) reside in rural areas. Countries can reach universal access through various electrification options, depending on different levels of energy intensity and local characteristics of the studied areas, such as renewable resources availability, spatially differentiated costs of diesel-fuelled electricity generation, distance from power network and major cities, population density and others, data which are usually inadequate in national databases. This general paucity of reliable energy-related information in developing countries calls for the utilization of geospatial data. This paper presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based electrification analysis for all countries that have not yet reached full access to electricity (Sub-Saharan Africa, Developing Asia, Latin America and Middle East). The cost optimal mix of electrification options ranges from grid extensions to mini-grid and stand-alone applications and is identified for all relevant countries. It is illustrated how this mix is influenced by scrolling through various electrification levels and different oil prices. Such an analysis helps direct donors and investors and inform multinational actions with regards to investments related to energy access.

  8. Electrification of agricultural machinery; Elektrifizierung von Landmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Manuel; Grad, Karl; Weinmann, Olrik [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    As early as 2009, ZF exhibited a generator system for agricultural machinery at Agritechnica under the name Terra+ which consisted of an electric motor in the transmission housing. As part of the ElecTra project, the company is now presenting its first tractor prototype with this generator system at Agritechnica 2011. The project involves combining the electrification of the tractor's auxiliary systems with electric drives for an attachment. The electrification of the implement was carried out in cooperation with Amazone, manufacturer of implements for the agricultural industry. (orig.)

  9. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  10. Decentralized electrification of an isolated town by means of photovoltaic solar energy; Electrificacion descentralizada de una poblacion aislada mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred [Universidad Nacional de Energia, Lima (Peru)

    1997-12-31

    The insular community of Taquile in the Titicaca Lake is performing a pilot project of domiciliary electrification with photovoltaic systems. The project wants to evaluate the feasibility of a basic rural electrification with photovoltaic systems based in private initiatives, under the frame of the free market economy, in vogue in Peru. [Espanol] En la comunidad insular de Taquile en el Lago Titicaca se esta ejecutando un proyecto piloto de electrificacion domiciliaria con sistemas fotovoltaicos. El proyecto quiere evaluar la posibilidad de una electrificacion rural basica con sistemas fotovoltaicos en base a iniciativas privadas, dentro del marco de la economia de mercado libre, vigente en el Peru.

  11. Decentralized electrification of an isolated town by means of photovoltaic solar energy; Electrificacion descentralizada de una poblacion aislada mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred [Universidad Nacional de Energia, Lima (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    The insular community of Taquile in the Titicaca Lake is performing a pilot project of domiciliary electrification with photovoltaic systems. The project wants to evaluate the feasibility of a basic rural electrification with photovoltaic systems based in private initiatives, under the frame of the free market economy, in vogue in Peru. [Espanol] En la comunidad insular de Taquile en el Lago Titicaca se esta ejecutando un proyecto piloto de electrificacion domiciliaria con sistemas fotovoltaicos. El proyecto quiere evaluar la posibilidad de una electrificacion rural basica con sistemas fotovoltaicos en base a iniciativas privadas, dentro del marco de la economia de mercado libre, vigente en el Peru.

  12. Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of grid-connected solar PV in Indonesia on a provincial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy could play a large role in increasing the electrification ratio and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia, especially since Indonesia comprises over 17,000 islands which is a challenge for the distribution of fuels and modern grid connection. The potential of

  13. The electrification of the world begins at Labastide-Murat; L'electrification du monde commence a Labastide-Murat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matly, M. [Marge, Marcheage et Gestion de l' Environnement (France)

    2001-01-01

    There is a basic historical contradiction in France being the leader in public electrification while at the same time the French state has never assumed the associated financial or business risks. The electrification of the country has been built virtually entirely around decentralized initiatives and the national company has only completed, modernized and managed the existing system though doubtless with a great deal of professionalism and success. It is probably this very professionalism and success which have given electrical producers an the Third World, (seeking a role model in the developed world), a false image of the future of this sector, presenting it as that of a large company moving from the centre outwards, from the town to the rural world. Beyond the ideologies of public versus private which have left their mark on the history of electricity for several decades, the French experience gives the image of an electrification programme which is being built up by the will of the people, where a centralized and highly legislative State has succeeded in both stimulating a large number of private entrepreneurs, large and small alike, and mobilizing tens of thousands of districts sharing this ambition, as shown by the example of Labastide Murat, a small village in the South West of France. (author)

  14. A socio-cultural perspective on transformation of gender roles and relations, and non-change in energy-health perceptions following electrification in rural South Africa : case study for Gender and Energy World Development Report Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo

    2012-01-01

    This case study draws on a PhD which used an ethnographic approach in data collection and analysis. It is informed by extensive periods of observation and interviews by the researcher embedded in two villages, Cutwini and Tsilitwa in rural South Africa. Cutwini had no electricity or modern

  15. Electric power and sustainable rural development: a way for the citizenship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the rural electrification usage. Rural production requires efficient energy sources, and the State must encourage landowners to make use of market forces to modernize their activities. Important authors have claimed that rural electrification should be viewed as an investment in the energy structure of a region, an investment to achieve economic returns. In this paper, this opinion is criticized in light for the need of sustainable rural development. More than just a macroeconomic policy, electrification should be viewed through a social lens, as indispensable component of citizenship. (author)

  16. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirault, D.

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  17. Quality control tools applied to a PV microgrid in Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camino-Villacorta, M.; Egido-Aguilera, M.A. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar - UPM; Gamez, J.; Arranz-Piera, P. [Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The Instituto de Energia Solar has been dealing with quality control issues for rural electrification for many years. In the framework of project DOSBE (Development of Electricity Service Operators for Poverty Alleviation in Ecuador and Peru), a technical toolkit has been developed to implement adapted integral quality control procedures for photovoltaic systems (covering all components and equipment, installation and servicing), applicable at a local and regional scale, with the overall aim of increasing the confidence in photovoltaic systems. This toolkit was applied in the evaluation of an existing microgrid in Ecuador, which is described in this paper. The toolkit and the detailed results of its application are presented in a published document which is being widely distributed among the stakeholders of rural electrification in Ecuador and Peru. It can be downloaded from the web page of the DOSBE project: www.dosbe.org (orig.)

  18. Social and technical history of the electrification of the lower Saint Lawrence, 1888-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, Y.

    1993-06-01

    The lower St. Lawrence region of Quebec is a rural area with little industry and does not possess important hydraulic resources. Electrification of this region progressed slowly and in an uneven manner. From 1888 to 1922, many local distributors, private or municipal, gave a mediocre quality of service to a small number of customers. A regional firm, the Compagnie de Pouvoir du Bas St-Laurent, followed in 1922 but its resources remained limited, and in a few years it passed under the control of American capitalists. The most rural sectors of the region were badly provided with electricity even in 1945, and the state, in the form of the Office de l'Electrification Rurale, had to intervene to remedy this situation. The Office took charge of organizing and financing electric power distribution cooperatives which ensured service in the most remote zones of Quebec. At the beginning of the 1960s, the inequalities in electric power rates in the region supplied a weighty argument to those in favor of nationalization of power companies. The Compagnie de Pouvoir was acquired by Hydro-Quebec in 1963 and the region was finally correctly integrated with the provincial grid. The cooperatives were also acquired by the Crown corporation a short time thereafter. Electrification was not only building power plants and distribution networks, but also involved development of consumption of electricity on farms and in homes. This made city comforts universal and modified rural life styles, for example by the introduction of electric appliances. 430 refs., 35 figs., 70 tabs

  19. Pico hydro turbines for electricity in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Descotte, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the feedback and lessons learned, particularly from a survey carried out following the deployment program of a pico hydro power solution in a very isolated rural area in north Laos. This project is part of the strategic development for the rural electrification of Laos, in which pico hydro power facilities constitute the main avenue of progress for the electrification of isolated villages.

  20. Scenarios for the Electrification of Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kanudia , Amit; Gastineau , Pascal; BACHMANN , Till; PREISS , Philipp; STOFFREGEN , Alexander; VINOT , Simon; CHEZE , Benoît; Tchung-Ming , Stéphane; BOUVART , Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    SCelecTRA - Scenarios for the electrification of Transport is a collaborative project under the ERANET - Electromobility+ call for project and aims at: · identifying the conditions and public policies actions to develop road passenger electromobility in Europe for 2030, · assessing the environmental impacts of such policies via consequential Life Cycle Analysis as well as their external costs.; Sélectionné dans le cadre du programme ERANET- Electromobility+, le projet visait à identifier les ...

  1. Ford Motor Company's Global Electrification Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Hughes-Cromwick

    2011-01-01

    Ford Motor Company has developed global platforms for its vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and forthcoming battery-electric and plug-in hybrids. Providing electrification technologies is a key element of Ford's broader strategy of producing vehicles that have improved fuel economy and reduced greenhouse emissions. The breadth of this effort—across a range of vehicle types—is unique in the automotive industry. Of particular importance is using the same vehicle platforms for electri...

  2. NRECA`s electrification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at the role of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) with regard to applying renewable energy in a village setting. This group has historically been active with state utilities to promote extension of the grid system, and until recently has no historical involvement with renewable resources. They have realized that most future clients will not be served by extending the grid, because of the costs involved, and that renewables play a part of the solution to this problem. NRECA has sought to provide project management and management consultant services, emphasizing training, management efficiency, cost of services studies, and assistance in dealing with regulations. They specialize in forming, training, and supporting user-owned electric service companies, and rely on other partners for technological services and support.

  3. Building Integrated PV and PV/Hybrid Products - The PV:BONUS Experience: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.; Pierce, L. K.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Successes and lessons learned from PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the United States in PV). This program has funded the development of PV or PV/hybrid products for building applications.

  4. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  5. A multi-scalar investigation of development and health in Ethiopia: household electrification in a agriculturally dependent and climate sensitive country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Brown, M. E.; Bakhtsiyarava, M.

    2017-12-01

    In poor countries, household electricity status is often used as a measure of household resources. Often, the primary use of the variable is to sort the poorest households - those without electricity - from the better-off households - those with electricity. Expanding electrification is also part of a suite of goals developed by health and development and reflected in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and now the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Therefore, this measure is also used in a macro-level description of a country to describe a country's process of urbanization or development. As countries, electrify and expand access to electrification to the poorest households and communities, understanding the role and impact of electrification on the health and development of these communities is necessary. In other words, moving beyond the binomial categorization of a household as electrified or not electrified and instead investigating the ways that electrification impacts communities, households and individuals is a necessary component of understanding contemporary patterns of health and development in the world's poorest countries. The goal of this research is to examine the linkages between health and development using multi-scalar, remotely-sensed measures of electrification in Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world. For this study we use spatially referenced Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ethiopia from 2000 and 2005. In addition to measures of electrification gathered from the DHS, we also use time-varying satellite based measure of electrification collected by the US Department of Defense. Also, because many rural Ethiopians are dependent on small-scale, rainfed agriculture and therefore highly vulnerable to climate shocks and food insecurity, any investigation of health and development must also consider the local food production context. To support the analysis and provide information on broader measures of food insecurity

  6. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  7. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  8. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  9. Rural energetic development: cuban experience; El desarrollo energetico rural: experiencia cubana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera Barciela, M [Secretariado Ejecutivo, Comision Nacional de Energia, La Habana(Cuba)

    1994-07-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life.

  10. Economic and Environmental Performances of Small-Scale Rural PV Solar Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Schepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The two core objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM are cost-effective emission reduction and sustainable development. Despite the potential to contribute to both objectives, solar projects play a negligible role under the CDM. In this research, the greenhouse gas mitigation cost is used to evaluate the economic and environmental performances of small-scale rural photovoltaic solar projects. In particular, we compare the use of absolute and relative mitigation costs to evaluate the attractiveness of these projects under the CDM. We encourage the use of relative mitigation costs, implying consideration of baseline costs that render the projects profitable. Results of the mitigation cost analysis are dependent on the baseline chosen. To overcome this drawback, we complement the analysis with a multi-objective optimization approach, which allows quantifying the trade-off between economic and environmental performances of the optimal technologies without requiring a baseline.

  11. Research on electrostatic electrification during jet kerosene spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Quanzhen; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Wentian; Sun, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Multiple electrostatic electrifications during aircraft fuelling process may cause a fire disaster or explosion, so study on the protection measure for electrostatic electrification is very important for the security of aircraft fuelling. This paper investigated the electrostatic voltage and charge of the fuel nozzle and metal parts during the fuel spraying by self-designed jet kerosene spraying electrostatic electrification test system. The experimental results indicate that the voltage on the fuel nozzle and metal parts is very dangerous for electrostatic safety if they are not reliably grounded.

  12. Electrification: Connecting the Pieces in the Broader View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Chris C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    Presented at the SELECT Annual Meeting on September 26, 2017, this PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of connectivity and automation and how these new technologies will impact society in both known and unknown ways. Electrification challenges and opportunities are also outlined as without electrification, connectivity and automation will just magnify the negative health, climate and economic problems of the current transportation systems. Electrification can provide benefits while mitigating the negative consequences. And with careful connection of all of the pieces from materials up through controls, a sustainable transportation eco-system is attainable.

  13. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  14. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  15. Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    NRECA International, Ltd.

    2000-01-01

    This study first reviews the cost of grid extension in a number of countries. It then identifies ways to reduce costs by examining how they are affected by a variety of factors. An electricity supply system may be divided into two discrete components: the grid extension and the low-voltage distribution system. This study will focus on the first of these two components, the cost of grid ext...

  16. Sino-American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.; Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses primarily two different renewable energy programs which are in progress in China. One is in Gansu province, based on a solar home system project. This project is stressing a sustainable market development, provision of small lighting systems for residential and small schools, and water pumping and telecommunications support. It seeks involvement of 600 households as a minimum over 18 months. The second project is a very aggressive renewable energy project in Inner Mongolia, where there are excellent wind and solar resources, and where there are already 110,000 small wind turbines installed, in addition to more than 9 hybrid power systems for villages. These programs have major involvement from the Chinese government and industry, with some guidance and support from the USA.

  17. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  18. Renewable electrification and local capability formation: Linkages and interactive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Hanlin, Rebecca; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospects for developing production and innovation capabilities arising from renewable electrification efforts. This discussion falls at the intersection of several literatures within innovation studies and development studies. It requires a combination of ideas from acro...

  19. Barefoot in Afghanistan: solar electrification of villages in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Bunker [Barefoot Coll., Rajasthan (India); Synnevag, Gry [Norwegian Church Aid (Norway)

    2006-05-15

    In the mountains of Afghanistan, villagers must walk long distances and pay high prices to buy fuel to survive. The authors report on an innovative solar electrification scheme that has enabled villagers to be self-reliant installers. (Author)

  20. Electrification, economic growth and uranium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1983-01-01

    The worldwide growth of uranium power plant capacity is obviously dependent on both the growth of electrification and the competitive status of uranium power. In this paper the thesis is developed that expanded use of uranium power is essential to provide a substantial portion of the electricity necessary for world economic growth. Further, the case is made that the obstacles to this expansion arise not from the technology, but rather from the inadequacies of our industrial, political, and economic institutions to manage this new energy system effectively, nationally and internationally. Data are presented on the relation between electricity consumption and GNP; percentage of primary energy used for electricity; energy price ratio; relative generation costs of U, coal and oil-fired power plants; generating costs and capacity factors of conventional and uranium power plants. (U.K.)

  1. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  2. Social and technical history of the electrification of the lower Saint Lawrence, 1888-1963. Histoire sociale et technique de l'electrification au Bas-Saint-Laurent, 1888-1963; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Y

    1993-06-01

    The lower St. Lawrence region of Quebec is a rural area with little industry and does not possess important hydraulic resources. Electrification of this region progressed slowly and in an uneven manner. From 1888 to 1922, many local distributors, private or municipal, gave a mediocre quality of service to a small number of customers. A regional firm, the Compagnie de Pouvoir du Bas St-Laurent, followed in 1922 but its resources remained limited, and in a few years it passed under the control of American capitalists. The most rural sectors of the region were badly provided with electricity even in 1945, and the state, in the form of the Office de l'Electrification Rurale, had to intervene to remedy this situation. The Office took charge of organizing and financing electric power distribution cooperatives which ensured service in the most remote zones of Quebec. At the beginning of the 1960s, the inequalities in electric power rates in the region supplied a weighty argument to those in favor of nationalization of power companies. The Compagnie de Pouvoir was acquired by Hydro-Quebec in 1963 and the region was finally correctly integrated with the provincial grid. The cooperatives were also acquired by the Crown corporation a short time thereafter. Electrification was not only building power plants and distribution networks, but also involved development of consumption of electricity on farms and in homes. This made city comforts universal and modified rural life styles, for example by the introduction of electric appliances. 430 refs., 35 figs., 70 tabs.

  3. Regulation about universal electrification; A regulamentacao da universalizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], e-mail: sergio.fugimoto@edpbr.com.br, e-mail: marcpel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper argues the regulation about universal electrification. It presents preliminary estimates of domiciles do not have access to electricity service, resources destined to promote the extension of electric power services, Law 10,438/200 - legal landmark of universal electrification - and regulation established by ANEEL. It argues about financial participation of the consumer, since the Decree 41,019/57 until recent alterations in 2002 and 2003. (author)

  4. Heat pump and PV impact on residential low-voltage distribution grids as a function of building and district properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapadaki, Christina; Saelens, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive method includes variability in building and feeder characteristics. • Detailed, 10-min, Modelica-based simulation of buildings, heat pumps and networks. • Overloading and voltage issues appear from 30% heat pumps in rural Belgian feeders. • Analysis of load profiles reveals great impact of heat pump back-up heaters. • High correlation of building neighborhood properties with grid impact indicators. - Abstract: Heating electrification powered by distributed renewable energy generation is considered among potential solutions towards mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Roadmaps propose a wide deployment of heat pumps and photovoltaics in the residential sector. Since current distribution grids are not designed to accommodate these loads, potential benefits of such policies might be compromised. However, in large-scale analyses, often grid constraints are neglected. On the other hand, grid impact of heat pumps and photovoltaics has been investigated without considering the influence of building characteristics. This paper aims to assess and quantify in a probabilistic way the impact of these technologies on the low-voltage distribution grid, as a function of building and district properties. The Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate an assortment of Belgian residential feeders, with varying size, cable type, heat pump and PV penetration rates, and buildings of different geometry and insulation quality. Modelica-based models simulate the dynamic behavior of both buildings and heating systems, as well as three-phase unbalanced loading of the network. Additionally, stochastic occupant behavior is taken into account. Analysis of neighborhood load profiles puts into perspective the importance of demand diversity in terms of building characteristics and load simultaneity, highlighting the crucial role of back-up electrical loads. It is shown that air-source heat pumps have a greater impact on the studied feeders than PV, in terms

  5. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  6. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  7. PV Life Cycle Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Wambach

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was part of the Workshop: Recycling, reuse and resource efficiency: New solutions for a PV circular economy - Results from the projects CABRISS and ECOSOLAR. The workshop was organized within Freiberg Silicon Days 2017.

  8. Experiences with a small scale Solar/Wind pilot installation for basic electrification in the chilean altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, Raul; Ovalle, Ricardo; Torres, Ariel; Brockmeyer, Ricarda; Schmidt, Reinhold [Centro de Energias Renovables/Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica, (Chile); Meer, Andreas V. [Solar Institute, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Basic rural electrification programmes are already carried out in the rural areas of northern Chile by local communities and local governments using photovoltaic systems. Solar Home Systems, 12 VDC are installed for individual households while systems for schools, public lighting etc. are realized with bigger systems, 220 VAC. Within a cooperation with the Solar Institute of the Fachhochschule Juelich, Germany, the Renewable Energy Center of the University of Tarapaca designed, installed and evaluated the first solar/wind hybrid installation for basic electrification in northern Chile, realized in Colpitas, a typical small village in the chilean altiplano. The following paper presents results and experiences of this first pilot installation. [Espanol] Ya se estan llevando a cabo programas de electrificacion rural basica en las areas rurales del Norte de Chile por las comunidades y los gobiernos locales, usando sistemas fotovoltaicos. Se instalan Sistemas Domesticos Solares de 12VDC para casas-habitacion individuales, mientras que los sistemas para escuelas, alumbrado publico, etc., se ejecutan con sistemas mas grandes de 220VAC. Con la coperacion del Instituto Solar de la Fachhochschule en Julich, Alemania, el Centro de Energia Renovable de la Universidad de Tarapaca, diseno, instalo y evaluo, la primera instalacion hibrida solar/viento para electrificacion basica en el Norte de Chile, realizado en Colpitas, un pueblo tipico pequeno del altiplano chileno. El siguiete articulo presenta los resultados y experiencias de esta primera instalacion piloto.

  9. Experiences with a small scale Solar/Wind pilot installation for basic electrification in the chilean altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, Raul; Ovalle, Ricardo; Torres, Ariel; Brockmeyer, Ricarda; Schmidt, Reinhold [Centro de Energias Renovables/Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica, (Chile); Meer, Andreas V [Solar Institute, Juelich (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Basic rural electrification programmes are already carried out in the rural areas of northern Chile by local communities and local governments using photovoltaic systems. Solar Home Systems, 12 VDC are installed for individual households while systems for schools, public lighting etc. are realized with bigger systems, 220 VAC. Within a cooperation with the Solar Institute of the Fachhochschule Juelich, Germany, the Renewable Energy Center of the University of Tarapaca designed, installed and evaluated the first solar/wind hybrid installation for basic electrification in northern Chile, realized in Colpitas, a typical small village in the chilean altiplano. The following paper presents results and experiences of this first pilot installation. [Espanol] Ya se estan llevando a cabo programas de electrificacion rural basica en las areas rurales del Norte de Chile por las comunidades y los gobiernos locales, usando sistemas fotovoltaicos. Se instalan Sistemas Domesticos Solares de 12VDC para casas-habitacion individuales, mientras que los sistemas para escuelas, alumbrado publico, etc., se ejecutan con sistemas mas grandes de 220VAC. Con la coperacion del Instituto Solar de la Fachhochschule en Julich, Alemania, el Centro de Energia Renovable de la Universidad de Tarapaca, diseno, instalo y evaluo, la primera instalacion hibrida solar/viento para electrificacion basica en el Norte de Chile, realizado en Colpitas, un pueblo tipico pequeno del altiplano chileno. El siguiete articulo presenta los resultados y experiencias de esta primera instalacion piloto.

  10. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  11. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  12. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  13. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  14. Impact evaluation of productive use—An implementation guideline for electrification projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus in the international community that rural electrification and, in particular, the productive use of electricity contributes to poverty alleviation. At the same time, efforts to evaluate the impacts of development projects have increased substantially. This paper provides a hands-on guide for designing evaluation studies regarding the impacts of productive electricity usage. Complementary to the existing literature on evaluation methods, this guide familiarizes project managers with the concrete steps that have to be undertaken to plan and implement an evaluation. The guide comprises three modules based on enterprise surveys and on anecdotal case studies. For each module, the implementation is described on a step-by-step basis including conceptual issues as well as logistics and methodological questions. - Highlights: ► Hands-on evaluation guideline for development project managers. ► Step-by-step procedure on how to implement evaluation. ► Impacts of productive electricity use.

  15. Electrification as a Development Driver for “Smart Cities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing electrification of the transport infrastructure, residential and commercial sectors of a “smart city” induces structural changes in energy sector. This investigation will enhance our understanding of mechanisms to develop a regional power industry, which would serve intellectual technologies of future urban environment considering national features. The authors define electrification as the process of bringing the most advanced energy carrier — electricity — to the national economy. This process integrates the spheres of electric power consumption and electric power generation. The article identifies the features and key trends in a new electrification stage in «smart cities». The paper shows that the energy sector of such cities combines centralized and decentralized technological solutions. This requires a certain readjustment of the distribution and sales divisions of the regional electric power industry. In particular, modernization of low-voltage distribution networks, improvement of tariff policy, implementation of programs of energy demand management are needed. The authors reveal priority areas for electrification in smart cities. Firstly, these cities need to develop electric transport, electric cars and associated infrastructure. Secondly, the introduction of various control systems for residential appliances will make households smarter. We show the impact of electric cars on the electricity market and loads in a regional energy system. In particular, we analyse the foreign experience of electric cars integration into power network. As regards the electrification of smart homes, the authors outline the basic «energy» conditions for their design, and requirements to be met by regional contractors, producers of energy equipment, utilities and grid companies. We develop a system of technological and economic solutions for moving relevant projects to an active phase. These projects include controllable

  16. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  17. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  18. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  19. Electrification situation in MEVIR housing collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopitsch, R.

    1994-01-01

    MEVIR: The Movement of Erradication of the Rural unhealthy housing has made high-priority to build decorous and economic housings in the rural means as well as it has acted as nexus between UTE and the field to be able to take the electric power to different communities. It is in San Gregorio of Polanco (Dept. of Lavalleja). Through a program of the National Directorate of Energy and with financing of the European Economic Community it outlines the option of installing a hybrid system of eolic and fotovoltaic energy. The presents work studies the details of this project

  20. Linking the open source, spatial electrification tool (ONSSET) and the open source energy modelling system (OSeMOSYS), with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Siyal, Shahid; Zepeda, Eduardo; Taliotis, Constantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. "Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030" is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of world population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach coupled with open access data and linked to the Electricity Model Base for Africa (TEMBA), a model that represents each continental African country's electricity supply system. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  1. Lighting the World: the first application of an open source, spatial electrification tool (OnSSET) on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Zepeda, Eduardo; Siyal, Shahid; Taliotis, Costantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-08-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. ‘Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030’ is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank’s 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of the world’s population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a geographic information systems approach coupled with open access data. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  2. Performance evaluation of a 2-mode PV grid connected system in Thailand -- Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jivacate, C.; Mongconvorawan, S.; Sinratanapukdee, E.; Limsawatt, W. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nontha Buri (Thailand)

    1994-12-31

    A PV grid connected system with small battery bank has been set up in a rural district, North Thailand in order to demonstrate a 2-mode operation concept. The objective is to gain experience on the PV grid connected concept without battery storage. However, due to the evening peak demand and a rather weak distribution grid which is typical in rural areas, small battery bank is still required to enable the maximum energy transfer to grid for the time being before moving fully to the no battery mode. The analyzed data seems to indicate possible performance improvement by re-arranging the number of PV modules and battery in the string.

  3. Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m 2 ), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an [fr

  4. PV and PV/hybrid products for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H. P.; Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L., Pierce, L. K.

    2000-05-15

    Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings combined are the largest consumers of electricity in the United States and represent a significant opportunity for photovoltaic (PV) and PV/hybrid systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a phased research and product development program, Building Opportunities in the United States for Photovoltaics (PV:BONUS), focused on this market sector. The purpose of the program is to develop technologies and foster business arrangements integrating cost-effective PV or hybrid products into buildings. The first phase was completed in 1996 and a second solicitation, PV:BONUS2, was initiated during 1997. These projects are resulting in a variety of building-integrated products. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seven firms and collaborative teams currently participating in PV:BONUS2 and outlines planned work for the final phase of their work.

  5. An analysis of off grid electrical systems in rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P.; Khan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The decade leading up to the end of the last millennium saw systematic unbundling and privatisation of power utility companies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The new profit driven entrepreneurs have swiftly moved to consolidate in urban enclaves and put paid to any remote hope for future rural electrification. Consequently, rural communities have resorted to fending for themselves by adapting to off grid electrification. Most of these emerging installations are individual isolated units. This paper looks at various off gird electric system configurations in rural Kenya and suggests ways in which they could be reconfigured to be more energy efficient

  6. Smart control for minimizing distribution network reinforcement cost due to electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjianto, Danny; Djapic, Predrag; Aunedi, Marko; Gan, Chin Kim; Strbac, Goran; Huang, Sikai; Infield, David

    2013-01-01

    Electrification of transport fleets and heating sectors is seen as one of the key strategies to further reduce the use of fossil fuels and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. However, it will potentially cause a significant increase of electricity peak demand and have adverse consequences on the electricity system, in particular on distribution networks. This paper will address the benefits of various applications of smart network control and demand response technologies for enhancing the integration of these future load categories, and for improvements in operation management and efficient use of distribution network assets. A range of numerical simulations have been carried out on different distribution network topologies (rural and urban networks) to identify the need and the cost of network reinforcement required to accommodate future load under various operating strategies such as Business as Usual (passive demand and passive network) against the smart grid approach. Applications of smart Plug-in vehicle (PiV) charging, smart heat pumps, and optimised control of network voltage regulators to reduce network investment have been studied, and selected key results of our studies on evaluating the benefits of implementing these technologies for Great Britain's distribution networks are presented and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: ► Growth of electricity loads driven by electrification of transport and heat will be significant. ► It will increase the electricity peak demand up to 2–3 times and cost tens of billion pounds if we maintain Business as Usual approach. ► A coordinated application of smart demand technologies can significantly reduce this cost. ► It requires sets of policies and regulations to facilitate timely deployment of such technologies.

  7. Advances in PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander

    and preferably low complexity leads to new research demands. This is especially true in the field of low cost residential PV inverters where efficiencies are used as major selling arguments. Traditional converter topologies equipped with conventional Silicon based semiconductors to date reach their limitations......, a replacement of only two switching devices per phase leg can greatly reduce the semiconductor losses. The Hybrid-NPC converter can be seen as an attractive and cost competitive alternative to the Silicon Carbide based converter, also allowing to overcome the major drawbacks with the conventional Silicon IGBT...

  8. Electrification pathways for Kenya-linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Nandi; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark

    2017-09-01

    In September 2015 UN announced 17 Sustainable Development goals (SDG) from which goal number 7 envisions universal access to modern energy services for all by 2030. In Kenya only about 46% of the population currently has access to electricity. This paper analyses hypothetical scenarios, and selected implications, investigating pathways that would allow the country to reach its electrification targets by 2030. Two modelling tools were used for the purposes of this study, namely OnSSET and OSeMOSYS. The tools were soft-linked in order to capture both the spatial and temporal dynamics of their nature. Two electricity demand scenarios were developed representing low and high end user consumption goals respectively. Indicatively, results show that geothermal, coal, hydro and natural gas would consist the optimal energy mix for the centralized national grid. However, in the case of the low demand scenario a high penetration of stand-alone systems is evident in the country, reaching out to approximately 47% of the electrified population. Increasing end user consumption leads to a shift in the optimal technology mix, with higher penetration of mini-grid technologies and grid extension.

  9. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report provides projected cost and performance assumptions for electric technologies considered in the Electrification Futures Study, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the effects of widespread electrification of end-use service demands in all major economic sectors - transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industry - for the contiguous United States through 2050. Using extensive literature searches and expert assessment, the authors identify slow, moderate, and rapid technology advancement sensitivities on technology cost and performance, and they offer a comparative analysis of levelized cost metrics as a reference indicator of total costs. The identification and characterization of these end-use service demand technologies is fundamental to the Electrification Futures Study. This report, the larger Electrification Futures Study, and the associated data and methodologies may be useful to planners and analysts in evaluating the potential role of electrification in an uncertain future. The report could be broadly applicable for other analysts and researchers who wish to assess electrification and electric technologies.

  10. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  11. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  12. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  13. Electrification of particulates in industrial and natural multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.

  14. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  15. Wind driven erosion and the effects of particulate electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.; Rasmussen, K. R.

    2012-09-01

    Several related aspects of Aeolian activity are presently being studied in the laboratory, the most recent advances in this field will be presented. These include simulating wind driven erosion in the laboratory, quantifying erosion rates and the study of mineral change due to mechanical activation. Also advances in our understanding of the electrification of sand/dust particles is being made and how this phenomenon affects their behavior.

  16. Final Report - Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project - FY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Craig, Interim General Manager

    2007-03-31

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year projects which addresses the needs of unserved Navajo Nation residents without basic electricity services. The Navajo Nation is the United States' largest tribe, in terms of population and land. An estimated 18,000 Navajo Nation homes do not have basic grid-tied electricity--and this third year of funding, known as NEDP-3, provided 351 power line extensions to Navajo families.

  17. Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

  18. Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

    1991-12-31

    The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

  19. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reolon, R.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  20. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  1. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply; Sector rural uruguayo: demanda de energia y sus posibles fuentes de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reolon, R [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Energia, Montevideo(Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them.

  2. Sino/American cooperation for PV development in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. Environmental pollution from the increased use of coal-fired steam turbines to meet this capacity expansion is a concern. There is a growing interest in China to develop renewable-energy resources and technologies to meet energy demands and help mitigate pollution problems. In February 1995, Secretary Hazel O`Leary of the U.S. Department of Energy signed an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing, China. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China.

  3. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  4. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  5. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoh, L.; Gyoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  6. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  7. Rural power supply with local management: Examples from Bolivia, India and Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerger, Aa; Gullberg, M

    1997-08-01

    Local management of rural power supply is being evaluated in a joint research project conducted by Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) on new approaches to management and organization of rural electrification. The study is based on literature, and on data from eight visited local organizations for management of power supply in Bolivia (4), India (1) and Nepal (3). Common for these countries is that the national, rural electrification programmes have encountered difficulties. Governments have failed to generate enough funds from existing power supply systems to cover the cost for a continued rural electrification. In cases where large private companies exist, they have had few incentives for expanding into rural areas since it is often not profit making. A third category may be defined as local initiators to power supply, private or co-operative. In all these countries, locally managed power supply systems have developed as a complement to governmental and other large scale programmes. The national policies pertaining to rural power supply in general and local management thereof in particular are described for each country. From the study, it appears that local management of rural power supply is a feasible approach in developing countries. Local management of rural power supply can slightly lower the costs of electrification, and it may help accelerate the pace of load development in newly electrified areas. For successful local organizations though, the most significant factor appears to be local peoples` willingness to develop their own area. Important though, is that proper financial and technical assistance is provided the local organizations. Crucial for sound external assistance is that the national rural electrification policies are clear and consistent. 53 refs, 1 fig, 11 tabs

  8. Electrification of buildings and industry in the United States: Drivers, barriers, prospects, and policy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Jeff; Wei, Max; Leventis, Greg; Smith, Sarah; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2018-03-26

    The report offers several use cases and case studies of electrification in buildings and industry: air source heat pumps for space heating, zero net energy buildings, electric water heaters and demand response, electric arc furnaces, and electric boilers. Finally, the report suggests several areas for further research to better understand and advance beneficial electrification.

  9. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  10. Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro

    The hypothesis of this work is that there are social, financial, technical, managerial institutional and political key factors that may either support or prevent the success of small stand alone energy systems in rural areas. This research work aims at contributing to the identification of such factors and study their relevance to the performance and sustainability of stand alone energy systems in rural areas; to meet its purpose, a wide range of literature was reviewed including rural electrification programmes and projects, research and development projects on access to electricity in rural areas, impact studies and others, and a field research survey was done the Andes and Upper Jungle regions in Peru. Nineteen possible critical factors were identified, thirteen with relevance at the local context (the community or village), and six with relevance at the national (or wider) context. From literature review it was found that the possible local critical factors were relevant only to four categories of factors instead of the six considered initially (i.e. social, financial, technological and managerial): the other two categories, political and institutional were found to be more relevant to the national context, therefore those were included in the group of possible critical factors of wider context. A series of questionnaires were designed to collect field data information, which was later used to analyse and establish the relation of each identified factor with the success of the systems studied. The survey research was implemented in 14 villages, 7 with small diesel sets and 7 with small hydropower schemes, all spread in the Andes and Upper Jungle of Peru, which were carefully selected to be representative of regions with isolated stand alone systems and with different socioeconomic background. Out of the 13 possible critical factors of local context, it was found that only 3 are really critical, the others are important but not critical; one of them (technical

  11. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact on the overall PV energy cost, due to the increased maintenance for the PV inverters. This paper...... evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering the PV array sizing and installation sites, e.g., Denmark and Arizona. The results reveal that the PV array sizing has a considerable impact on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability, especially in Denmark, where the average solar irradiance level...

  12. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  13. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  14. Decentralized electrification by small-scale hydraulic stations : a viable solution in mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahman Saidi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The installation of a small-scale hydroelectric generating station to supply electricity to the small community of Takordmi in Morocco was described. The community of Takordmi consists of 32 households located in the remote mountainous region of Morocco. Takordmi was without electrical power until 1992 when a small 15 kW Pelton turbine was installed to supply electricity to the residents. Water to power the turbine generator was supplied by a small stream with an output of 4 to 8 liters per second and a head of 535 meters. Since the unit was installed, the mean monthly consumption of the community has been only 115 kWh, which averages to 4 kWh per household. The success of the Takordmi project has prompted the electrification of several other small communities in the remote regions of Morocco either by similar micro-hydroelectric stations or by photovoltaic cells. This project, funded by the Republic of Austria, demonstrates that it is feasible to provide electricity to remote rural communities by using local sources of power. 3 figs

  15. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  16. Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Class 2b-3 Commercial Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated; Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Incorporated; Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Incorporated; Price, Rebecca [Energetics Incorporated; Lim, Brandon [Energetics Incorporated; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The class 2b-3 truck market covers a wide range of commercial truck applications across a half-million vehicle sales annually. This report collected public information and stakeholder input to assess the opportunity for electrification in this market. Although class 2b-3 pickup truck and van bodies are very similar to personal light vehicles, their functional requirements are quite different due to the demands of the commercial market. These demands vary by application and often vary from day to day for a single application. Fleet customers purchase these vehicles to perform a particular job for their business and are concerned about the overall cost of doing that job. Therefore, the vehicles must meet the job requirements cost effectively. Customers also are sensitive to initial cost. Electrification offers the potential to reduce vehicle operating costs and possibly improve vehicle functionality. However, the current market for class 2b-3 electrified trucks is very small, and the trucks are costly. Increased production volumes are key to cost reductions and may be assisted by sharing components with larger or smaller truck classes. Expanding demand is also crucial and stakeholders identified several niche markets with duty cycles that are likely well-suited to electrified class 2b-3 trucks. To expand beyond these niches, class 2b-3 electric solutions must be robust, flexible, and adaptable in order to cover a wide range of vocations, applications, and duty cycles.

  17. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  18. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  19. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  20. Performance parameters of a standalone PV plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fathi, Amine; Nkhaili, Lahcen; Bennouna, Amin; Outzourhit, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We described in details a photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (Essaouira Morocco – 7.2 kWp). • We presented the results of monitoring and some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve. • We discussed the energy management of the plant which is based on the droop mode control. • We presented and discussed the yields and the performance ratio of the plant. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed description of a 7.2 kWp photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (province of Essaouira in Morocco). This plant supplies 16 households with electricity through a local grid that was installed for this purpose. The results of monitoring some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve, the yields and the performance ratio are presented and discussed. The performance ratio of the PV plant varied between 33% and 70.2%. The low values of this parameter are mainly attributed to the way the battery inverter manages the energy flow

  1. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In order to enable a more wide-scale utilization of PV systems, the cost of PV energy has to be comparable with other energy sources. Oversizing the PV array is one common approach to reduce the cost of PV energy, since it increases the PV energy yield during low solar irradiance conditions. However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact...

  2. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  3. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report is the first in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The EFS is a multiyear research project to explore widespread electrification in the future energy system of the United States. More specifically, the EFS is designed to examine electric technology advancement and adoption for end uses in all major economic sectors as well as electricity consumption growth and load profiles, future power system infrastructure development and operations, and the economic and environmental implications of widespread electrification. Because of the expansive scope and the multiyear duration of the study, research findings and supporting data will be published as a series of reports, with each report released on its own timeframe.

  4. Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to Myanmar's rural poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, Alex; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private...... partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other...... similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting...

  5. Economic PV - a shift in thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that photovoltaic (PV) technology is already economically viable contrary to current opinion. A table of world PV module shipments for 1990 to 1998 by market sector is presented, and use of PV modules in consumer electronics such as calculators, battery trickle chargers, and garden lights; in communications and signals (eg. microwave repeaters, cellular communication); and in the residential sector in fluorescent lights, radios etc. are discussed. The early adopters of PV technology, and the value placed on PV devices by consumers are considered. Details of PV manufacturing costs for 1997, and forecasts for 2000 and 2010 are tabulated

  6. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  7. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  8. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  9. Photovoltaics for Buildings Cutting-Edge PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets

  10. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  11. Mechanisms of Contact Electrification at Aluminum-Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polypropylene-Water

    KAUST Repository

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya

    2017-01-01

    of electrons, but a comprehensive understanding of contact electrification at interfaces of electrical insulators, such as air, water, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene remains incomplete. In fact, a variety of mechanisms responsible for transfer

  12. Electrification Opportunities in the Transportation Sector and Impact of Residential Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-04

    This presentation provides an overview of electrification opportunities in the transportation sector and present results of a study assessing the impact of residential charging on residential power demand and electric power distribution infrastructure.

  13. Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Price, Rebecca [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Commercial fleets form the backbone of the nation’s economy, getting people and the things they need to the places they need to go and performing services necessary to keep public and private physical infrastructure in working order. Commercial fleets include a wide range of vehicle and equipment types, typical uses, and sizes, and involve millions of on-road and offroad vehicles. This diversity means there is no single solution to the challenges these vehicles pose for reducing petroleum dependence, impact on air quality, and emission of greenhouse gases. This document focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets. These fleets have been divided into three market segments based on equipment use: service fleets, goods movement, and people movement. In particular, it addresses highway vehicles not used for personal transport; non-highway modes, including air, rail, and water; and non-road equipment used directly or in support of these uses.

  14. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropke, Inge; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Ole Jensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark in 2007-2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people's ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications for energy policy.

  15. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present...... socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark...... in 2007–2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people’s ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption...

  16. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  17. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  18. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  19. Design of a hybrid power PV – Genset – Battery storage system for a remote off-grid application in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Pierre-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The thesis project presented in this report focuses on an analysis of the electrification prospects for a remote village in the Malaysian state of Sabah, where a micro grid is planned to be built. The main goal is to define the best sizing for a hybrid power plant to serve the micro grid, coupling a solar PV array with a storage system and a diesel genset. The first step of the study case consists of defining the energy needs of the village in order to draw its consumption curve and assume it...

  20. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 2: Screening and Identifying PV Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    When screening and identifying PV projects, cities and counties should understand the different factors that impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project, the steps of the PV screening process, and how to use REopt Lite to screen a site for PV and storage project potential.

  1. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares the ...

  2. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  3. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  4. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  5. Solar electricity for Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naehr, Catrin [SMA Corporate Communication, Niestetal (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Eight off-grid PV power plants that supply households, schools and smaller businesses in southern Mali villages with electricity not only boost the rural electrification but also the local economy in the crisis-ridden country. (orig.)

  6. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  7. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  8. Mechanisms of Contact Electrification at Aluminum-Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polypropylene-Water

    KAUST Repository

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya

    2017-04-01

    Contact electrification refers to the transfer of electrical charges between two surfaces, similar and dissimilar, as they are brought into contact and separated; this phenomenon is also known as static electrification or triboelectrification. For example, everyone has experienced weak electrical shocks from metal doorknobs, wool and synthetic clothing on dry days. While contact electrification might appear insignificant, it plays a key role in numerous natural and industrial processes, including atmospheric lightning, accumulation of dust on solar panels, charging of liquids during pipetting and flow in the tubes, and fire hazards in granular media. Contact electrification at metal-metal interfaces is well understood in terms of transfer of electrons, but a comprehensive understanding of contact electrification at interfaces of electrical insulators, such as air, water, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene remains incomplete. In fact, a variety of mechanisms responsible for transfer of electrical charges during mechanical rubbing, slipping, sliding, or flow at interfaces have been proposed via: electrons, ions, protons, hydroxide ions from water, specific orientation of dipoles, mechanoradicals, cryptoelectrons, and transfer of material. We have noticed that the extent of contact electrification of solids in water is influenced by surface free energies, mobile ions, surface roughness, duration of contact, sliding speeds, and relative humidity. Herein, we present results of our experimental investigation of contact electrification at the following interfaces: (i) PTFE-aluminum in air and (ii) polypropylene-water interfaces. To identify the underlying mechanism, we started with various hypotheses and exploited a variety of experimental techniques to falsify most of them until we got an answer; our techniques included high-voltage power supply (0-10,000 V), Faraday cages, Kelvin probe force microscopy, electrodeposition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  9. Radial-arrayed rotary electrification for high performance triboelectric generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tiejun; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-04

    Harvesting mechanical energy is an important route in obtaining cost-effective, clean and sustainable electric energy. Here we report a two-dimensional planar-structured triboelectric generator on the basis of contact electrification. The radial arrays of micro-sized sectors on the contact surfaces enable a high output power of 1.5 W (area power density of 19 mW cm(-2)) at an efficiency of 24%. The triboelectric generator can effectively harness various ambient motions, including light wind, tap water flow and normal body movement. Through a power management circuit, a triboelectric-generator-based power-supplying system can provide a constant direct-current source for sustainably driving and charging commercial electronics, immediately demonstrating the feasibility of the triboelectric generator as a practical power source. Given exceptional power density, extremely low cost and unique applicability resulting from distinctive mechanism and structure, the triboelectric generator can be applied not only to self-powered electronics but also possibly to power generation at a large scale.

  10. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P. [National Council of Research, Institute of Applied Science & Intelligent Systems (ISASI) ‘E. Caianiello’, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it’s possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  11. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country's new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties

  12. User acceptance of diesel/PV hybrid system in an island community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuangpornpitak, N.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at a rural (island) community to understand the role of PV hybrid system installed on an island. Until 2004, most islanders had installed diesel generators in their homes to generate electricity, which was directly supplied to appliances or stored in the batteries for later use. A field survey was carried out to study the user satisfaction of the PV hybrid system in the island community. The attitude of islanders to the PV hybrid system was mostly positive. The islanders can use more electricity, the supply of which can meet the demand. A comparison of pollutions before and after installation of the PV hybrid system was made along with the interviews with the users. The data show that the users are highly satisfied with the PV hybrid system which can reduce environmental impact, especially air and noise pollutions. New opportunities as a result of access to electric service include studying and reading at night that were not possible earlier. All the islanders use the PV hybrid system and more importantly, no one found that the system made their life worse as compared to the earlier state of affairs. (author)

  13. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaona Daka, Karen; Ballet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: → We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. → We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. → Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. → Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  14. Correlating the electrification of volcanic plumes with ashfall textures at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Charbonnier, Sylvain; McNutt, Stephen R.; Behnke, Sonja A.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Edens, Harald E.; Thompson, Glenn

    2018-06-01

    Volcanic lightning detection has become a useful resource for monitoring remote, under-instrumented volcanoes. Previous studies have shown that the behavior of volcanic plume electrification responds to changes in the eruptive processes and products. However, there has not yet been a study to quantify the links between ash textures and plume electrification during an actively monitored eruption. In this study, we examine a sequence of vulcanian eruptions from Sakurajima Volcano in Japan to compare ash textural properties (grain size, shape, componentry, and groundmass crystallinity) to plume electrification using a lightning mapping array and other monitoring data. We show that the presence of the continual radio frequency (CRF) signal is more likely to occur during eruptions that produce large seismic amplitudes (>7 μm) and glass-rich volcanic ash with more equant particle shapes. We show that CRF is generated during energetic, impulsive eruptions, where charge buildup is enhanced by secondary fragmentation (milling) as particles travel out of the conduit and into the gas-thrust region of the plume. We show that the CRF signal is influenced by a different electrification process than later volcanic lightning. By using volcanic CRF and lightning to better understand the eruptive event and its products these key observations will help the monitoring community better utilize volcanic electrification as a method for monitoring and understanding ongoing explosive eruptions.

  15. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaona Daka, Karen, E-mail: karen_rajaona@yahoo.f [University of Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, 47 Bd Vauban, 78047 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Ballet, Jerome, E-mail: jballetfr@yahoo.f [Centre of Ethics and Economics for Environment and Development in Madagascar, University of Antananarivo, BP905, 101 Antananarivo (Madagascar); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMI Resiliences, 32 Avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: {yields} We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. {yields} We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. {yields} Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. {yields} Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  16. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  17. PV monitoring at Jubilee Campus - Nottingham University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Gan, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated in the roofs of atria to meet the energy consumption needs of ventilation fans in the academic buildings at the Jubilee Campus of the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the instrumentation of one atrium to allow the monitoring the effectiveness of the ventilation in cooling the PV arrays integrated in the atrium roof, the economic analysis of the benefit of cooling the PV system, and the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to predict the performance of the atrium. The design of the PV system, the calculated system efficiency, the high cost of atrium integrated PV power supplies, the periodic failure of the inverters, and the overheating of the PV array and the atrium space in the summer are discussed.

  18. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  19. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  20. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  1. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  2. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  3. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  4. Good and bad practices in pv plants

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Helleputte, F.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Rabal Echeverria, Daniel; Conlon, Michael; Fartaria, Tomás; Oteiza, David

    2013-01-01

    The PVCROPS project (PhotoVolta ic Cost r€duction, Reliability, Operational performance, Prediction and Simulation), cofinanced by European Commission in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme, has compiled in the “Good and bad practices: Manual to improve the quality and reduce the cost of PV systems” a collection of good and bad practices in actual PV plants . All the situations it collects represent the state-of-the-art of existing PV installations all around Europe. They show how ...

  5. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  6. Automated Identification of Initial Storm Electrification and End-of-Storm Electrification Using Electric Field Mill Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Launa M.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States. As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area. This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation (EOSO) identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash.

  7. Optimum Availability of Standalone Photovoltaic Power Systems for Remote Housing Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of PV systems is discussed to determine the optimum availability at which standalone PV systems must be designed. Optimization methods and PV systems software, such as HOMER and PV.MY, were used for this purpose. Six PV systems with six availability levels were analyzed, in terms of wasted energy, cost of energy, battery usage, and power shortages, using real meteorological data. Results show that PV systems with 99% availability are recommended, because of their high reliability and favorably wasted energy.

  8. Processes and Materials for Flexible PV Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gierow, Paul

    2002-01-01

    .... A parallel incentive for development of flexible PV arrays are the possibilities of synergistic advantages for certain types of spacecraft, in particular the Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) Vehicle...

  9. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  10. The Importance of Government Effectiveness for Transitions toward Greater Electrification in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Best

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3, 2009] ...

  12. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  13. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  14. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  15. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  16. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  17. The PV market - Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1900's. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market, however, is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy, the cost of PV systems, utility acceptance of PV, and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer, stand-alone, and utility markets. PV has unique attributes which make it a desirable source of energy in specific applications. It is a renewable source of energy, non-polluting, very reliable, predictable, low maintenance, modular, and has a very low operating cost. The energy source (sunlight) is distributed around the globe. Its limitations are high initial cost, no inherent energy storage, and low energy density

  18. PV integration into a CSP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  19. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  20. HOMER Based Feasibility Study of Off-Grid Biogas Power Generation Model Using Poultry Litter for Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmin Sobhan; Tanvir Ahmad; Md. Jakaria Rahimi; Md. Habib Ullah; Shaila Arif

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to electricity is one of the major impediments to the economic growth and development for any developing country. As well as limited reserve of conventional fuel and geo-location of Bangladesh arise the demand to find an effective alternative energy source for rural electrification. This document approaches a poultry-home based power generation model for rural Bangladesh and diagnosis its feasibility through HOMER, a micro power modelling and optimization software. The introduc...

  1. Learning in PV trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    2004-06-01

    For large scale application of PV cost reduction is essential. It is shown in this study that the price evolution is on track and even accelerating the last 15 years. Using an experience curve approach a learning rate of little over 20% was found consistent with other studies. As data were collected for small rooftop grid connected systems, it could be shown that this learning rate is not only found for modules, but also for BOS (all costs apart from the modules) in Germany as well as in the Netherlands. Projections of the future price of PV systems show that a learning rate of at least 20% is needed to make introduction of PV affordable. It is very effective to invest in learning, thus increasing the learning rate, as well as developing market segments were the value of PV is higher, such as residential PV systems in southern Europe

  2. Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.M.L.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)

  3. Building opportunities in the U.S. for PV (PV:BONUS): A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Five contract teams are developing photovoltaic (PV) products that will have a significant impact on building-integrated PV systems. The product lines that these teams are pursuing include roofing materials, building facade materials, PV integrated into modular homes, ac-PV modules, and utility-dispatchable PV systems. The objective of these efforts is to develop product and market opportunities that can provide for the introduction of PV into the buildings market sector at higher allowable installed systems costs than conventional ground- or roof-mounted systems. Each of the teams has a unique approach, and synergistic opportunities among teams are beginning to emerge. This paper reviews the product and market development efforts of these teams and describes the links between the product efforts and parallel analytical work to develop PV as a demand-side management option

  4. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  5. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 6500 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency {eta}{sub t}, volumetric efficiency {eta}{sub v} and air-excess ratio {lambda} versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on {eta}{sub v} and {lambda}. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both {eta}{sub v} and {lambda} decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock. (author)

  6. Mini-grids for rural electrification of developing countries analysis and case studies from South Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C

    2014-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-

  7. Rural electrification in developing countries. Social acceptance of small photovoltaic lanterns in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueggenburg, Hannah; Schweizer-Ries, Petra [Saarbruecken Univ. (DE). Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie (FG-UPSY); Raabe, Tim [Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Eschborn (Germany); Tillmans, Annika

    2011-07-01

    In order to combat poverty and fight for the Millennium Development Goals through providing access to modern energy, it is necessary to analyze social acceptance of new forms of energy in order to implement them successfully. Nine different Pico Photovoltaic systems were tested during a field study in a non-electrified village in Ethiopia. Each lamp was tested for a week by one of 24 families. Quantitative methods (interviews, focus groups, participant observation) were conducted in order to explore technology change and its social impacts. With these methods, an alternating change of induction and deduction is achieved to gain insight. The most important results are: Apart from expected benefits in health, work, education and economy, people also noticed improvements in the autonomy of children, flexibility, stress, security and family life. Negative aspects were found regarding inter-social relations and in the absence of possible activities. Quality of lamps is defined by respondents according to brightness, duration and cone of light. Furthermore, people prefer white, bright light as well as a built-in switch. Systems considered best in European laboratory tests were evaluated poorly in Ethiopia. In the end, people ordered 30 systems. The decision to buy was a collective one. Even though energy supply is the responsibility of women, men made the final deicision about the purchase of the lamps. (orig.)

  8. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine’s thermal efficiency eta_t, volumetric efficiency eta_v and air excess ratio lambda

  9. Rural electrification in Indonesia : the role of micro hydro power in shaping forest conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I Wayan Gede Santika, W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Lemmens, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is reported that villagers at the villages electrified by micro hydro power (MHP) show more favorable attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward forest conservation. They initiated a community-based agreement regulating forest cutting, reduced trees chopped from the forests, reduced intention

  10. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency η t , volumetric efficiency η v and air-excess ratio λ versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on η v and λ. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH 4 /CO 2 ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both η v and λ decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock.

  11. High voltage electrification of tractor and agricultural machinery – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda, G.P.; Muñoz-García, M.A.; Barreiro, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 emission reduction calls for energy-efficient mobile work machines. • Energy recovery could be possible in some agricultural machinery operations. • Owning and operating costs of electrified tractor-implement pairs should be analyzed. • Plug-in hybrid electric tractors running along tramlines make sense. • Electrification allows for precise speed control, noise reduction and flexible design. - Abstract: Reduction of both pollutant emissions and fossil fuel dependency is an objective of energy policies worldwide. In many countries, governments promote the use of efficient vehicles like the hybrid electric vehicle. Incorporation of electric drives in tractor and agricultural machinery presents advantages in terms of increased energy efficiency and expanded functionalities. Higher efficiency means reduction in fuel consumption and subsequent decrease in CO_2 emission. New functionalities improve work quality and increase operator comfort. Tractor electrification takes advantage of decoupling loads and drives from the engine, which allows operating the latter at its highest efficiency point. Major advantages of machinery electrification are torque and speed control, noise reduction, and a more flexible design. In this paper, a review of the state-of-the-art of agricultural machinery high voltage electrification is presented.

  12. Effects of electron beam irradiation on electrification of and discharge from surface of artificial satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hironobu; Fujii, Haruhisa; Shibuya, Yoshikazu; Kasai, Koitaro; Abe, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma has the largest influence on the electrification and discharge in the space environment. In the present study, satellite surface material is irradiated with an electron beam witch simulates the electron flow in the plasma, in order to investigate the mechanism of electrification and discharge and to provide basic information required for developing electrification prevention techniques. The heat-control material samples used include silver-deposited Teflon, aluminum-deposited Kapton, optical solar reflector and transparent conductive-coated aluminum-deposited Kapton. It is shown that silvered Teflon is electrified more easily than aluminized Kapton. Two types of discharge are found to occur in silvered Teflon: creeping discharge in thick samples (5 mil) and penetration break accompanied by creeping discharge in thin samples (1 mil). The discharge frequency increases with increasing beam current density and electron energy. The occurrence of discharge results in an increase in the sunlight absorption factor of silvered Teflon. When a set of four sheets of optical solar reflector is subjected to electron beam, active discharge is seen to take place between the sheets. It is also revealed that static electrification can be prevented effectively if the surface of heat-control material is coated with transparent conductive material such as indium oxide. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Electrification of remote coastal areas through wind-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that with the present utilization of resources, the country will run out of oil and gas reserves in one and a half decade. There is, thus, a strong need to take measures to tap other resources of energy, which are abundantly available in Pakistan. The exploitation of these resources for production of electricity on local basis, under participatory system of development, would supplement energy being provided by WAPDA, at a much lower cost due to the avoidance of laying high-tension cables, transformers, and meters, etc., and the manpower required to maintain the system. Balochistan is a large but thinly populated province of Pakistan. The situation of electrification in Balochistan is serious, as a vast majority of the population is without access to electricity. Many villages and districts of Balochistan do not have centralized electricity-grid and there is no hope, in the near future, to have one because the extension of grid to such remote and scattered settlements is neither practical nor economically viable. In Balochistan, out of a total number of 13,700 villages, WAPDA has merely electrified 3,154 villages due to the high cost involved in developing the necessary infrastructure. Not surprisingly, this situation is a source of discontentment among the people of the Province. Pakistan has a considerable potential of wind-energy in the coastal belt of Balochistan and Sindh, as well as in the desert areas of Punjab and Sindh, which if utilized effectively, can not only electrify all remote coastal villages, but the electricity so produced also can be fed to the national grid. This renewable source of energy has however, so far, not been utilized. Recently, fourteen small wind-turbines (300-500 watts) were procured and installed by PCRET under Sino-Pak S and T Protocol. Being encouraged by performance of these small wind- turbines, a further 120 wind turbines (JOO of 500 watts and 20 wind-turbines of 5kW each) are being installed. The small

  14. EUROPE AND ITS GREEN FUTURE. ELECTRIFICATION AND DECARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baciu Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a great challenge which humanity faces, and which is climate change. Together with food and water shortages which will hit more and more humanity in the years ahead, climate change (which will only amplify these negative facts will bring negative consequences on economy and society, and in international relations area, too. In this context, the importance of the subject speaks for itself. The research is focused on EU objectives in climate area and in sustainable development, indicating that renewable energy could be a solution for energy independence, and for reducing CO2 concentration level, too. The subject is very important one nowadays being subject of intense debates and negotiations, having a high degree of visibility in international forums and in international press. The paper wants to show what EU aims in the future related to its development through fossil fuels consumption reduction and as a base for starting research are researched realized under the aegis of Group Futuribles from Paris, of the National Centre for Sustainable Development from Bucharest, from American Academy of Arts and Science, and International Energy Agency from Paris. We take from IEA data and present them in the tables in order to have a synthetic view upon energy in EU countries, and of course, there are presented trends in energy consumption in renewable at European level. The development of the subject with the involvements in transport area only brings a fresh air in the debates regarding reducing energy vulnerability together with fighting climate changes. There are presented some peculiarities of CO2 pollution and their implications, and consequences; and of course, solutions for fighting climate change is part of this presentation. Reducing oil consumption and expanding renewable resources (wind, solar, and hydro and nuclear energy coupled with the electrification of the economy and transportation sectors, and rising energy

  15. Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of off-grid PV systems in Indonesia on a provincial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the amount and costs of off-grid PV systems required to electrify Indonesian rural households lacking electricity access are estimated. Due to the Indonesian geography large differences exist among different provinces, therefore this study evaluates the potential and costs of off-grid

  16. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  17. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  18. Local management of rural power supply. A new approach in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    1999-07-01

    The rural electrification program in Tanzania has been on going since independence in 1961, with the national utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Ltd. (TANESCO) being responsible for its implementation. By 1992, 14 townships and 37 villages had been electrified as a result of this program. This covers only a small fraction of rural Tanzania. It is estimated that in 1998, less than 1% of the rural households in Tanzania had access to electricity. Electricity constitutes only 1% of Tanzania's final energy consumption. Except for the few latest years, electricity generation and distribution in Tanzania has been the full responsibility of TANESCO. The national electricity grid is mainly supplied by large-scale hydro power plants (391 MW), and thermal power plants (148 MW). Rural areas are supplied either by a transmission line from the national grid or by diesel generator sets. The isolated branches run by TANESCO have an installed capacity amounting to a total of 23 MW. Electric lighting is the dominating use of electricity in rural areas. Industrial use in these areas is marginal. Very few rural households use electricity for cooking. Cooking is made with fuelwood and to some extent charcoal and kerosene. Where electricity is not available, kerosene in simple wick lamps is used for lighting. As part of the research co-operation between TANESCO and the Stockholm Environment Institute, SEI, an extensive evaluation of the experiences from the rural electrification program in Tanzania was carried out in 1989 - 1991. The four main conclusions from this evaluation were in summary: The rural people appreciate electrification. Rural electrification is a large financial burden on TANESCO. The quality of the service, in particular the supply reliability, is low in rural areas. Many of the perceived benefits of rural electrification, like the creation of small scale industries or reduced use of fuel wood for cooking, have not materialised to a significant degree. As

  19. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  20. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  1. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  2. Transformerless PV inverters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, U.

    2009-12-15

    Since the start of the project the market for grid connected PV inverters have developed further. When the project started three - phase inverter were only available in high power systems. The technology developed within this project will enable three phase technology also to be implemented in string inverters for system down to 10 kW. We expect this to be very attractive due to the increased demand for symmetrical feed-in to the grid. The project relevance is therefore high and the sector continues to develop very much driven by technology. Especially the inverter technology is getting a lot of focus. The inverter systems are expected to take a much larger role in supporting the electrical grid in the future. The technology platform developed within the project is prepared to be extended with these utility functionalities. The main results of the project were: 1) A new technology concept for transformer-less inverters has been demonstrated with a number of prototypes. 2) Efficiency above 97,7% has been proven. 3) Efficiency and Maximum power point tracking has been optimized to ensure that almost all energy produced of the panels is transferred to the grid. 4) The platform is developed with a very fast control board, which enables extended functionality as demanding grid supporting functions in the future. Details about cost price and details about the control loop implementation is excluded from the report due to the competitive situation for Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S. (LN)

  3. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  4. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  5. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherring, Chris (Sherring Energy Associates)

    1999-08-30

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented.

  6. Robust PV Degradation Methodology and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kimball, Greg [SunPower; Anderson, Mike [SunPower

    2017-11-15

    The degradation rate plays an important role in predicting and assessing the long-term energy generation of PV systems. Many methods have been proposed for extracting the degradation rate from operational data of PV systems, but most of the published approaches are susceptible to bias due to inverter clipping, module soiling, temporary outages, seasonality, and sensor degradation. In this manuscript, we propose a methodology for determining PV degradation leveraging available modeled clear-sky irradiance data rather than site sensor data, and a robust year-over-year (YOY) rate calculation. We show the method to provide reliable degradation rate estimates even in the case of sensor drift, data shifts, and soiling. Compared with alternate methods, we demonstrate that the proposed method delivers the lowest uncertainty in degradation rate estimates for a fleet of 486 PV systems.

  7. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherring, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented

  8. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  9. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Huei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mi, Chris [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gover, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This collaborative educational project between the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, University of Michigan—Dearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K-12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick-off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed “consume education” activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our “education kit” activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K-12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands-on learning experience for next-generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money

  10. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  11. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  12. Building PV markets: customers and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    What makes market deployment strategies for PV successful? A group of specialists (from IEA Task 7) has been looking at the progress made so far. Here, in the first of two articles based on their report, the author presents some of their findings, including benefits and barriers for defined groups of customers; how customers for PV systems are identified, and what they are willing to pay. It also looks at current prices in different countries, and their possible trends. (Author)

  13. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  14. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  15. PV installations, protection and the code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silecky, L. [Mersen, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This article discussed the need for improved standards in Ontario's solar industry to ensure safety for the systems and also safety for the workers. Photovoltaic cells used in solar arrays can now deliver between 50 vDC to 600 vDC. The workings of such a high voltage photocell must be understood in order to understand its protection needs. Since PVs are semiconductors and susceptible to damage from short circuits and overloads, a fast-acting overcurrent protective device (OCPD) should be used. Combiner boxes are also needed to provide a clean method of safely connecting all the wires that are needed in the system, including surge protection and a means of isolation between the PV array and the inverter. Section 50 of the Canadian Electrical Code outlines the requirements for solar PV systems, but it does not mention the protection of DC circuits, including DC fuse protectors which are manufactured to provide a high degree of protection for the PV array. As the photovoltaic (PV) market continues to grow in Ontario, the PV industry also has a responsibility to ensure it is in compliance with codes and standards related to photovoltaic systems. This author suggested that Article 690 of the National Electric Code (NEC) is a good document to use when determining the requirements for PV systems. 3 figs.

  16. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  17. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  19. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  20. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  1. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-slit width and mounting angle are discussed.

  2. Annihilating time and space: The electrification of the United States Army, 1875--1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon Allen

    2000-10-01

    The United States Army embraced electrical technology in the 1870s as part of a wider initiative to meet the challenge of the coastal defense mission. As commercial power storage, generation, and transmission technology improved and the army came to recognize the value of the energy source as a means and method of improving command and control, localized electrical networks were integrated into the active service of the military. New vulnerabilities emerged as the army became ever more reliant upon electric power, however, and electrification---the institutional adoption and adaptation of electrical technologies---emerged as a very expensive and contentious process guided by technical, political, and economic pressures, and influenced by conflicting personalities within the service. This study considers the institutional evolution of the U.S. Army before and during World War I with respect to the adoption and application of electrical technology. The changing relationships between the military and electrical manufacturing and utilities industries during the period 1875--1920 are also explored. Using a combination of military archival sources and published primary materials, this study traces the effects of electrification on the army. In the end, this study proves that electrification was, at first, a symptom of, and later, a partial solution to the army's struggle to modernize and centralize during the period under consideration. Electrification produced a set of conditions that encouraged a new maturity within the ranks of the army, in technical, doctrinal, and administrative terms. This growth eventually led to the development of new capabilities, new forms of military organization, new missions, and new approaches to warfare.

  3. Rail transportation by hydrogen vs. electrification - Case study for Ontario, Canada, II: Energy supply and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, G.D.; Naterer, G.F.; Gabriel, K. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Locomotives offer an efficient mode of transportation when compared to buses, personal vehicles or airplanes for mass transportation over frequent intercity distances. For example, a Bombardier Regina EMU train with 272 seats and a load factor of 53% will consume under 0.07 kWh/passenger-km, which is typically much lower than corresponding values for other transportation modes in similar circumstances. European countries have invested significantly over the years in train electrification. Environmentally friendly methods of transferring power to the wheels are direct electrification and hydrogen fuel cells. Various methods to produce hydrogen for utilization with fuel cell train operation are examined in this paper. This companion paper of a 2-paper set examines the overall impact of energy supply (hydrogen vs. electricity) and distribution on rail transportation, specifically in terms of costs and overall GHG emissions for a case study of GO transit along the Lakeshore corridor in Toronto. Although electrification of train services simplifies some aspects of the operation, when considered over the Lakeshore corridor alone, electrified trains lose their flexibility to serve cities outside the Lakeshore corridor. Hydrogen fuelled trains can provide a smoother transition and interoperability by operating the same routes and stations served by diesel trains today, without being limited to the Lakeshore corridor. This paper evaluates technological, operational and economic aspects of the electrification of the Lakeshore corridor, versus hydrogen train operation, including infrastructure requirements to provide service to a substantial ridership increase projected for the years 2015-2031. Various methods of hydrogen production and distribution are presented and analysed, in order to evaluate the overall life cycle of GHG emissions and costs for various train alternatives. (author)

  4. South Africa's rapid electrification programme: Policy, institutional, planning, financing and technical innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekker, Bernard; Eberhard, Anton; Gaunt, Trevor; Marquard, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents South Africa's electrification programme from the late 1980s to the present. The primary aim of the paper is to present the reader with an overview of the policy, institutional, planning, financing and technological developments and innovations that resulted in more than 5 million households receiving access to electricity between 1990 and 2007. Key aspects include the way in which a period of political change and policy disruption were essential to the programme's initiation, and the critical role played by organisations and individuals outside of national government in helping shape new electrification policies and strategies. In addition, the paper identifies the contribution of technology development in cost reduction and achieving the social aims of the programme. Several lessons may be drawn from the institutional and planning arrangements that the South African programme has developed, the significance of the development of appropriate cost-driven technical innovations and standards, and the acknowledgement of the social function of electrification and its funding from the fiscus (rather than through cross-subsidies)

  5. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  6. Least-cost network evaluation of centralized and decentralized contributions to global electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    The choice between centralized and decentralized electricity generation is examined for 150 countries as a function of population distribution, electricity consumption, transmission cost, and the cost difference between decentralized and centralized electricity generation. A network algorithm is developed to find the shortest centralized transmission network that spans a given fraction of the population in a country. The least-cost combination of centralized and decentralized electricity that serves the country is determined. Case studies of Botswana, Uganda, and Bangladesh illustrate situations that are more and less suited for decentralized electrification. Specific maps for centralized and decentralized generation are presented to show how the least-cost option varies with the relative costs of centralized and decentralized generation and transmission cost. Centralized and decentralized fractions are calculated for 150 countries. For most of the world's population, centralized electricity is the least-cost option. For a number of countries, particularly in Africa, substantial populations and regions may be most cost-effectively served by decentralized electricity. - Highlights: ► Centralized and decentralized electrification are compared for 150 countries. ► A cost-optimized network algorithm finds the least-cost electrification system. ► Least-cost infrastructures combine centralized and decentralized portions. ► For most people, centralized electricity is cheapest option. ► In much of Africa, decentralized electricity may be cheaper than centralized.

  7. Latin America as new PV market opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    It is important to recognize solar energy as an international and strategic opportunity for the European market to expand. The objective of this paper is to apply the methodology created during the PV Parity project for analyzing PV Competitiveness in the emerging residential PV market in Brazil, using information from the State of Rio de Janeiro. The dynamic competitiveness analysis was performed considering the price with and without taxes in order to assess the year when PV will reach grid parity in Rio de Janeiro and how the taxes impact on the results. Results are divided into 3 scenarios: Optimistic, Conservative, and Conservative Moderate. The LCOE of residential systems will likely become competitive with the residential electricity tariffs between 2020 and 2030, assuming the residential tariffs in Rio de Janeiro. This is an indicator that PV energy business opportunities are increasing in Brazil and, with the adequate policy support, its market competitiveness could be improved. We are also looking in other markets of Latin America. (full text)

  8. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  9. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  10. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  11. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  12. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  13. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  14. Novel Methods to Determine Feeder Locational PV Hosting Capacity and PV Impact Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coogan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Often PV hosting capacity analysis is performed for a limited number of distribution feeders. For medium - voltage distribution feeders, previous results generally analyze less than 20 feeders, and then the results are extrapolated out to similar types of feeders. Previous hosting capacity research has often focused on determining a single value for the hosting capacity for the entire feeder, whereas this research expands previous hosting capacity work to investigate all the regions of the feeder that may allow many different hosting capacity values wit h an idea called locational hosting capacity (LHC)to determine the largest PV size that can be interconnected at different locations (buses) on the study feeders. This report discusses novel methods for analyzing PV interconnections with advanced simulati on methods. The focus is feeder and location - specific impacts of PV that determine the locational PV hosting capacity. Feeder PV impact signature are used to more precisely determine the local maximum hosting capacity of individual areas of the feeder. T he feeder signature provides improved interconnection screening with certain zones that show the risk of impact to the distribution feeder from PV interconnections.

  15. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  16. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  17. MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used t...... to track the MPP of the PV array, using the information that at MPP the power oscillations are very small. In this way the algorithm can detect the fact that the current working point is at the MPP, for the current atmospheric conditions....

  18. Economic perspective of PV electricity in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badi, A.H.; Albadi, M.H.; Al-Lawati, A.M.; Malik, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Solar and wind energies are likely to play an important role in the future energy generation in Oman. This paper utilizes average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data of 25 locations in Oman to study the economic prospects of solar energy. The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW at each of the 25 locations. The global solar radiation varies between slightly greater than 4 kWh/m 2 /day at Sur to about 6 kWh/m 2 /day at Marmul while the average value in the 25 locations is more than 5 kWh/m 2 /day. The results show that the renewable energy produced each year from the PV power plant varies between 9000 MWh at Marmul and 6200 MWh at Sur while the mean value is 7700 MWh of all the 25 locations. The capacity factor of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the cost of electricity varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. The study has also found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. Renewable energy support policies that can be implemented in Oman are also discussed. -- Research highlights: → The global solar radiation values for 25 locations in Oman are obtained using satellite data that are corrected by data from ground stations. → The study considers a solar PV power plant of 5-MW to calculate the capacity factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) at each of the 25 locations. → The study has found that the CF of PV plant varies between 20% and 14% and the corresponding COE varies between 210 US$/MWh and 304 US$/MWh for the best location to the least attractive location, respectively. → The study has found that the PV energy at the best location is competitive with diesel generation without including the externality costs of diesel. → Since PV energy is not competitive with fossil fuel-based generation in most locations renewable energy support mechanisms have been

  19. The impacts of health, education, family planning and electrification programs on fertility, mortality and child schooling in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirakartakusumah, M D

    1988-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of public health, family planning, education, electrification, and water supply programs on fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment decisions of rural households in East Java, Indonesia. The theoretical model assumes that parents maximize a utility function, subject to 1) a budget constraint that equates income with expenditures on children (including schooling and health inputs), and 2) a production function that relates health inputs to child survival possibilities. Public programs affect prices of contraceptives, schooling and health inputs, and environmental conditions that in turn affect child survival. Data are taken from the 1980 East Java Population Survey, the Socio-economic Survey, and the Detailed Village Census. The final sample consists of 3170 rural households with married women of childbearing age. Ordinary least squares and logit regressions of recent fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment on program and household variables yielded the following findings. 1) The presence of maternal and child health clinics reduced fertility but not mortality. 2) The presence of public health centers strongly reduced mortality but not fertility. 3) The presence of contraceptive distribution centers had no effect on fertility. 4) School attendance rates were influenced positively by the availability of primary and secondary schools. 5) Health and family planning programs had no effects on schooling. 6) The availability of public latrines reduced fertility and mortality. 7) The water supply variable did not affect the dependent variables when ordinary least squares techniques were applied but had statistically significant impact when logit methods were used. 8) Electricity supply had little effect on the dependent variables. 9) The mother's schooling had a strong positive correlation with children's schooling but no effect on fertility or mortality. 10) Household expenditures were related positively to school

  20. Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics (Energia Removable para Centros de Salud Rurales); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, A. C.; Olson, K.

    1998-01-01

    This guide provides a broad understanding of the technical, social, and organizational aspects of health clinic electrification, especially through the use of renewable energy sources. It is intended to be used primarily by decision makers within governments or private agencies to accurately assess their health clinic's needs, select appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to put into place effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware. This is the first in a series of rural applications guidebooks that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Village Power Program is commissioning to couple commercial renewable systems with rural applications. The guidebooks are complemented by NREL's Village Power Program's development activities, international pilot projects, and visiting professionals program. For more information on the NREL Village Power Program, visit the Renewables for Sustainable Village Power web site at http://www.rsvp.nrel .gov/rsvp/