WorldWideScience

Sample records for put teen chick

  1. Teening chick lit?

    OpenAIRE

    Whelehan, Imelda, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    online article - free to access This essay concerns itself with two examples of contemporary teen romance and examines the similarities with adult chick lit. These texts are compared with Judy Blume's classic 'Forever' written in 1975 to emphasis continuities between contemporary teen fiction and its more overty feminist forebears

  2. Strong Pictures Get the Point across: Teens Put Life (and Art) up on a Billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Teens have issues! They talk about suicide and war. They experiment with drugs, drinking and smoking. Their lives may have been touched by abuse, gangs, or guns. Young people worry about these issues and many others as they work out their emerging identities and race toward their futures. This article discusses how the teachers in Voyager House…

  3. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  4. Teen Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... episodes, or a mix of both types. Some teens will try to hide depression or thoughts of suicide. They might withdraw, or act out. This can ... teen depression? What should I do if my teen is depressed? Did I do ... antidepressants cause suicide? Once my teenager is treated for suicide or ...

  5. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  6. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...

  7. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  8. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

  9. Grieving Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time when they have been taught that showing emotion is something that girls do – but macho guys ... not caring about anything and a lack of motivation or interest. Help the teen understand that these ...

  10. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions ... for Teens Print en español Ejercicios fáciles para adolescentes Finding it hard to fit in fitness? Just ...

  11. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  12. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  13. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  14. Late metabolic changes in broiler chicks after irradiation of setting eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falis, M.; Striskova, K.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment setting eggs of broiler chicks were exposed to single dose of gamma radiation (0.25 Gy) before putting into hatcher. Analyses were performed in chicks, 51-day old, after hatching. Statistically significant decrease in glucose concentration and ALT activity and increase in serum total proteins in chicks that were exposed to irradiation during embryonal stage of development were recorded. Irradiation of chicks in this stage with low doses of ionising radiation may significantly influence the metabolism of individuals in subsequent developmental periods. (authors)

  15. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...

  16. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  17. Teen Suicide and Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect Your ... of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of the ...

  18. Strep Throat (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Educators Search English Español Strep Throat KidsHealth / For Teens / Strep Throat What's in this article? What Is ...

  19. Teens in cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    A study from Safe Kids Worldwide, made possible by a grant from the General Motors Foundation, surveyed 1,000 teens to learn why more teens die in motor vehicle crashes than from any other cause of death. The report highlights why teens don’t always buckle up, explores their texting and distraction

  20. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum.

  1. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  3. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions ... en español Tipos de cáncer que padecen los adolescentes Cancer is rare in teens. Certain diseases like ...

  4. Children & Teens (with Lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nine. blog Lupus at school: A guide for parents and kids Advice for communicating with your child's school about their lupus and ... teens on adjusting to life with lupus For teens, living with lupus can require some major ... in school Advice from parents and education experts on 504 and Individualized Education ...

  5. Homosexuality: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Family Health Kids and Teens Homosexuality: Facts ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Prevention and Wellness, Sex and Birth Control, Sex and SexualityTags: female, Gay ...

  6. Ages and Stages: Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome Tanning and Tanning Salon Safety Tips for Young People Teenagers and Gangs Teens and Acne Treatment Teens and Sun: Keeping Them Safe Without Ruining Their Fun The Teenage Brain VIDEO Ways To Build Your Teenager’s Self-Esteem What’s Going On in the Teenage Brain? Zits ...

  7. Anemia (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anemia KidsHealth / For Teens / Anemia What's in this article? ... Enough Iron Print en español Anemia What Is Anemia? Lots of teens are tired. With all the ...

  8. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  9. How to Run Successful Teen Volunteer Programs - Forms for teen volunteers and teen advisory groups (TAG) -Powerpoint Presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, Sarah; Donoghue, Vicki; Dawley, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Based on work with teen volunteers, teen advisory councils, teen reading buddy programs and anime and manga clubs, Sarah Donald, Vicki Donoghue and Amy Dawley discuss their successes with teenagers, and practical ways to serve teens in the community.

  10. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Average daily food intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and ... that contamination of feed for broilers chicks beyond 0.5% is detrimental to the performance of broiler chicks. Introduction ... nearly all manufacturing industries. Disposal of ...

  11. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Go Wrong Print en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  12. Dehydration (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More on this topic for: Teens What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Compulsive Exercise IV (Video) Sports Center Caffeine Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea A Guide ...

  13. Meniscus Tears (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...

  14. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  15. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  16. Hemophilia (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hemophilia KidsHealth / For Teens / Hemophilia What's in this article? ... bruises can be a big deal. What Is Hemophilia? Hemophilia is a disease that prevents blood from ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital or residential treatment center, in the juvenile justice system, abusing drugs, or committing suicide. Because children ... site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  18. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...

  19. Stomachaches (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help people figure out what's behind their stress — and then provide advice on how to fix problems or handle them better. What You Can Do The good news is belly pain isn't usually serious in teens. ...

  20. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  1. Endometriosis (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Endometriosis KidsHealth / For Teens / Endometriosis What's in this article? ... doctor thought Anne might have endometriosis. What Is Endometriosis? When a woman has endometriosis, tissue that looks ...

  2. Appendicitis in Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Appendicitis in Teens Page Content Article Body Early adolescence ... it has no known function. Symptoms that Suggest Appendicitis may Include: Persistent abdominal pain that migrates from ...

  3. Parent-teen worry about the teen contracting AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R M; Shepard, M P; Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; Orsi, A J; Moriarty, H J; Feetham, S L

    1999-04-01

    A secondary data analysis of the National Commission on Children: 1990 Survey of Parents and Children was conducted with a subsample of 457 parent-teen pairs who responded to the "worry about AIDS" question. The teen's worry about contracting AIDS was associated with race, parent's education, the amount of discipline from the parent for engaging in sex, the teen's desire to talk to the parent about the problem of sex, the teen's rating of the neighborhood as a safe place to grow up, whether the parent listened to the teen's telephone interview, and the parent's response to whether his or her teen had a history of sexually transmitted disease. Of the parent-teen pairs in the subsample, 46% (N = 210) agreed in their responses about worry. Agreement was more frequent among the parent-teen pairs when compared to randomly constructed surrogate pairs. Dyadic analysis supported a family system view of perceived susceptibility.

  4. PTSD in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PTSD » Public » PTSD in Children and Teens PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD in Children and Teens Public This section is ...

  5. Educational Resiliency in Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linnea Lynne; Vogel, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    While recent research has shown the long-term effects of teen pregnancy are not as devastating as once predicted, more than 40 years after the passage of Title IX legislation mandating equal educational opportunities for pregnant and parenting teens, only 50% of teen parents graduate high school, lagging far behind their non-parenting peers. This…

  6. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  7. Teens and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Carolyn Plunkett

    2016-10-01

    On seeing promising results in a small number of patients, some researchers are conducting trials to determine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). This article asks whether we should open enrollment in trials of DBS for AN to adolescents. Despite concerns about informed consent, parental consent, and unforeseeable psychological sequelae, the article concludes that the risks to anorexic adolescents associated with participation in trials of DBS are reasonable considering the substantial risks of not enrolling teens with AN in research on DBS. The seriousness of AN, its high incidence in teens, and serious shortfalls in the AN treatment literature point to the need for improved, evidence-based treatments for teens with AN. This unmet need generates an obligation on the part of researchers and physicians to promote and conduct research on AN in adolescents.

  8. An Update on Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci

    2016-02-01

    After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  10. Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, L L; Su, J J; Barnes, H J

    1993-01-01

    Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity was diagnosed in chickens less than 1 week of age. Mortality rate was 100%. Necropsy showed crops and gizzards to be full of feed. There was diffuse hemorrhage and unclotted blood in the abdomen and thorax. Histological examination showed congestion and hemorrhage. Chemical analysis of crop and gizzard contents contained approximately 340 ppm coumafuryl. The source of the coumafuryl was found to be the wood-straw mats in the chick boxes.

  11. Perceptions of injury prevention and familial adjustment among mothers of teen parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Duzinski, Sarah V; Brown, Juliette M; Lawson, Karla A

    2015-02-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death for infants and children. Teen mothering has been shown to put children at increased risk of injury. The mothers of teen parents often play a predominant role in the lives and caregiving of the children born to their children. This article presents the findings of three focus groups conducted with 21 mothers of teen parents. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore family dynamics and how they relate to injury prevention beliefs and practices regarding infants and children. Our findings revealed the difficulty mothers of teen parents and the teens themselves have in adjusting to the knowledge of the pregnancy. Unique barriers to injury prevention were also uncovered. Our findings provide evidence for the need of a multigenerational approach to programs aimed at improving the safety and well-being of children in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... Battles: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Status Reports (PSRs): Teen Pregnancy FastStats: Teen Births Vital Signs – Preventing Teen Pregnancy [PODCAST – 1: ...

  13. Lactose Intolerance (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth / For Teens / Lactose Intolerance What's in this ... t really consider it a disease. Who Gets Lactose Intolerance? A person may be or may become lactose ...

  14. Bell's Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bell's Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Bell's Palsy What's in this ... Print en español Parálisis de Bell What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis ...

  15. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  16. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  17. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...

  18. Teen Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During your teens you go through puberty and become sexually mature. If you're a girl, you develop breasts and begin to get your period. If you're a boy, your penis and testicles become larger. If you have sex, you could get pregnant or get someone pregnant. Whether you choose to have sex ...

  19. Turner Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...

  20. Depression (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Teens / Depression What's in this article? ... Yourself Print en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...

  1. The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2013-04-15

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home.

  2. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  3. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  4. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  5. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  6. Smells Like Teen Spirit: Evaluating a Midwestern Teen Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michael; Twill, Sarah; Kim, Chigon

    2011-01-01

    Teen courts have grown rapidly in the United States despite little evidence of their effectiveness. A survival analysis of 635 teen court and 186 regular diversion participants showed no significant differences in recidivism, although program completers were half as likely to reoffend as noncompleters. Older offenders survived significantly better…

  7. Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

  8. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.

  9. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  10. Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.

  11. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  12. Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Ages & Stages ...

  13. Understanding Teen UX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth

    2014-01-01

    UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more...... needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...

  14. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  15. Teen pregnancy prevention: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.

  16. Teen Sleep: Why Is Your Teen So Tired?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2016;12:785. Teens, young adults and sleep. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. http://www.aasmnet.org/. Accessed June 29, 2017. ...

  17. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  18. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  19. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  20. Body Image (Children and Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  1. All about Menstruation (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for ... topic for: Teens Why Are My Breasts Sore? Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Tampons, Pads, and Other ...

  2. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  3. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  4. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  5. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  6. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  7. Indoor Tanning (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re treating more and more young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types ... and put yourself at even greater risk for skin cancer. What Tanning Salons Don't Tell You Studies show that ...

  8. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  9. PCOS: What Teens Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turner Syndrome Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search PCOS for Teens September 2013 Download PDFs English Espanol ... PCOS Challenge womenshealth.gov Teens Health What is PCOS? PCOS, which stands for polycystic ovary syndrome, is ...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  11. Leadership Skill Development of Teen Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleon, Scott; Rinehart, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Teen participants in the Ohio 4-H Teen Community Leadership College (n=64) perceived their leadership skills to be much higher after the program. They appeared to need improvement in initiative, assertiveness, and objectivity. (SK)

  12. Especially for Teens: You and Your Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ042 ESPECIALLY FOR TEENS You and Your Sexuality (Especially for Teens) • What happens during puberty? • What ... feelings expressed? There are many ways to express sexuality. Sexual intercourse is one way. Others include masturbation , ...

  13. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  14. Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...

  15. Get Your Teen Screened for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Get Your Teen Screened for Depression Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is Depression? ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: What Is Depression? What is depression? Teen depression can be a ...

  16. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  17. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  18. Parent and teen agreement on driving expectations prior to teen licensure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara J; Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    To examine pre-licensure agreement on driving expectations and predictors of teen driving expectations among parent-teen dyads. Cross-sectional survey of 163 parent-teen dyads. Descriptive statistics, weighted Kappa coefficients, and linear regression were used to examine expectations about post-licensure teen driving. Teens reported high pre-licensure unsupervised driving (N = 79, 48.5%) and regular access to a car (N = 130, 81.8%). Parents and teens had low agreement on teen driving expectations (eg, after dark, κw = 0.23). Each time teens currently drove to/from school, their expectation of driving in risky conditions post-licensure increased (β = 0.21, p = .02). Pre-licensure improvement of parent-teen agreement on driving expectations are needed to have the greatest impact on preventing teens from driving in high risk conditions.

  19. Effects of graded doses of goitrin, a goitrogen in rapeseed, on synthesis and release of thyroid hormone in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Yukio; Matsumoto, Tatsuro

    1977-01-01

    Intrathyroidal metabolism in synthesis and release of thyroid hormone was investigated in chicks administered three different levels of goitrin (0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% in the diet) for 14 days. Thyroid glands were enlarged to 2-5 times as large as that of the control in proportion to the goitrin content of the diet. Typical high radioiodine uptake goiter was demonstrated in the goitrin-administered chicks. Total thyroid 125 I content increased about twice as much as that of the control in the goitrin-administered chicks though it was depressed in 0.0065% PUT-administered chicks. Decrease of plasma PB 125 I (approximately a half of the control) was ascertained by the estimation of plasma thyroxine by radiostereoassay. In the intrathyroidal metabolism of iodine, synthesis of iodothyronines and iodination of MIT were suppressed by goitrin, but monoiodination of tyrosine was rather accelerated. The elevated ratio of thyroid iodothyronines/plasma PBI (1.5-1.7 times as much as that of the control) reveals that the depression of plasma level of thyroid hormone is more striking than the decrease in thyroid hormone in the gland in the goitrin-administered chicks. It is, therefore, suggested that goitrin has inhibitory effects not only on the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone in the gland but also on the release of thyroid hormone from the gland. (auth.)

  20. Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-08

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/8/2014.

  1. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2012), s. 1312-1318 ISSN 1093-4529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Bendiocarb * central nervous system * chick embryo * liver * toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2012

  2. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  3. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  4. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  5. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.

  6. Freeze Frame 2012: A Snapshot of America's Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alison; Kaye, Kelleen

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to making decisions about sex, teens today are doing far better than they were 20 years ago. Fewer teens are having sex, and among those who are, more teens are using contraception. The happy result is that teen pregnancy and birth rates have declined dramatically. Despite this extraordinary progress, teen pregnancy and childbearing…

  7. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  8. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  9. Menu Ideas for Vegetarian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and calcium. Tofu, kidney and other beans, edamame (soy beans), quinoa, dark leafy greens, fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice are just a few of the many nutrient-rich plant-based options. Remind teens to replace animal-based ... 1 cup navy bean or lentil soup 1 ounce string cheese 1 ...

  10. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth / For Teens / Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  11. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  13. Understanding Your Teen's Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthMental Health: Keeping Your Emotional HealthPersistent ... Not caring about people and things. Lack of motivation. Fatigue, loss of energy, and lack of interest ...

  14. Chick Noir”: Shopaholic Meets Double Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2014, several articles appeared proclaiming the rise to prominence of a new subgenre of the crime novel: “chick noir,” which included popular books like Gone Girl, The Silent Wife, and Before We Met. However, there was also resistance to the new genre label from critics who viewed it as belittling to women’s writing and to female-focused narratives. Indeed, the separation of female-centred books - whether “chick lit” or “chick noir” - from mainstream fiction remains highly problematic and reflects the persistence of a gendered literary hierarchy. However, as this paper suggests, the label “chick noir” also reflects the fact that in these novels the crime thriller has been revitalized through cross-pollination with the so-called chick lit novel. I contend that chick lit and chick noir are two narrative forms addressing many of the same concerns relating to the modern woman, offering two different responses: humour and horror. Comparing the features of chick noir to those of chick lit and noir crime fiction, I suggest that chick noir may be read as a manifestation of feminist anger and anxiety - responses to the contemporary pressure to be “wonder women.”

  15. Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens' sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2010-07-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.

  16. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to induce a hyperthermic response; and c) the postnatal effects of TM in layers are limited in time.

  17. How the embryonic chick brain twists

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left–right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic m...

  18. From soil mechanics to chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Here, I provide some recollections of my life, starting as a civil engineer in South Africa and how I gradually became interested in biology, particularly pattern formation. In retrospect, I think that my decision to work on chick embryos to study limb development back in 1966 turned out to be the right one. The principles discovered in these 50 years, both by my collaborators and by other colleagues, have established the principles of how the limb develops in higher vertebrates, including humans.

  19. How Much Sleep Do I Need? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español How Much Sleep Do I Need? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Much ... enough sleep. Why Don't Teens Get Enough Sleep? Until recently, teens often got a bad rap ...

  20. Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? Print Having ...

  1. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  2. Rearing of germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Kaneuchi, Choji.

    1977-01-01

    A method of rearing germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator was developed, Hatchability of eggs was higher than 95% when eggs were sterilized in a 1.5% mercuric chloride solution on the 2nd day before hatching. Sterility was 93% when 5 to 10 chicks were reared in a vinyl isolator for 2 weeks. Depression of body weight gain was observed in chicks fed diet irradiated at higher than 4 Mrad. However, no effects of irradiation on chick growth were observed when fat and the other components were sterilized separately and mixed before feeding. The growth rates of germfree chicks were higher than those of the conventional chicks which were supplied a diluted solution of fresh cecum feces of young hens with a normal intestinal flora pattern at the first feeding. (auth.)

  3. Teen Use of a Patient Portal: A Qualitative Study of Parent and Teen Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, David A.; Brown, Nancy L.; Wilson, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members ...

  4. Taking a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program to the Home: The AIM 4 Teen Moms Experience, Implementation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles.

  5. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  6. Leucine and valine requirements of the growing germfree chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Mitsuoka, Tomotari.

    1977-01-01

    To compare the requirements of leucine and valine of the growing germfree and conventional chicks, 7-day-old chicks were fed a diet with graded levels of leucine or valine for 7 days. Daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were greater than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was higher than the requirement level. Adversely, daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were less than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was very low. Leucine and valine requirements for maximum growth, however, was the same and estimated to be 0.95 and 0.78%, repectively, of the diet for both groups. After the feeding test, the chicks were injected with L-leucine- and L-valine-U- 14 C and expired carbon dioxide was collected for 2 and 3 hours, respectively. From the percentage of recovery of 14 C in the expired carbon dioxide, the leucine and valine requirements were found to be 0.80 and 0.53% of the diet for both groups, respectively. Three hours after feeding test, the plasma free valine concentration was estimated in the chicks which was not injected the isotope. The requirement of valine was estimated to be 0.59% for the germfree chicks and 0.54% for the conventional chicks. From the above data, it may be concluded that no difference, or very small if any, is found in the requirements of leucine and valine between the germfree chicks and those of the conventional chicks. (auth.)

  7. Adolescent pregnancy. Teen perspectives on prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M L; Bragadottir, H

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the views of teens concerning effective strategies to prevent pregnancy. Qualitative methods and a focus group approach were used. The sample consisted of male and female adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, in grades 9 to 12, who volunteered to participate in the study. Seven groups of teens met with the investigator twice over 2 consecutive weeks. Instruments included a Screening Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines. Teens were concerned about teen pregnancy, and supported a comprehensive approach to sex education beginning in the early elementary grades, with age and developmentally appropriate content and reinforcement from late grade school through high school. Generally, teens thought that teaching abstinence in grade school followed by contraception education in junior high and high school was a realistic strategy for pregnancy prevention. They wanted to discuss sexual feelings as well as the mechanical aspects of sex. Finally, they did not want to be told not to have sex, but rather wanted to be guided in their own decision making. Teens wanted parents and other adults to be involved in helping them understand sexuality and make decisions about sexual behavior. Nurses who work with families need to understand why teens are becoming pregnant, provide opportunities for teens to discuss sexual behavior, and educate parents on sexual development and parent-child communication. Nurses also need to let parents and teens know that they are a resource for information, guidance, and health services related to sexual development and behavior.

  8. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  9. Ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism in pygoscelid penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism of chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins was studied on King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. The major findings of this study are: Chinstrap and gentoo penguin chicks hatched completely poikilothermic, due to their poor heat-production ability at low ambient temperatures. They were able to maintain high body temperatures and metabolic rates only by being brooded by adults. Newly hatched chinstrap penguin chicks had, at a specified ambient temperature, significantly higher metabolic rates than newly hatched gentoos. Moreover, chinstrap chicks maintained a significantly higher body temperature. It is suggested that this is a non-acclimatory metabolic adaptation of chinstrap penguin chicks to the lower mean temperatures of their breeding areas. On the 15th day after hatching, chinstrap chicks were completely, and gentoo chicks almost completely, homeothermic. In spite of their high thermogenic capacity from about day 10, chicks were not at that time capable of controlling heat dissipation, and were still dependent on their parents. In older downy chicks and fledglings, heat loss at low temperatures, expressed as heat conductance (CA), was similar to that found for the adults of other penguin species. Just before moulting the CA of chicks was lower than after moulting. Moulting alone did not cause a clear increase in CA. Towards the end of their stay on land the CA of pre-fledged gentoos decreased by 31%. This decrease was not connected with the development of feathers or growth in the chicks' weight. The combination of the low CA and high SMR of chicks gave very low lower critical temperatures, near -15 degrees C. The wide thermoneutral zones of the chicks covered the whole range of air temperature variations in the breeding colonies of both species studied on King George Island. The CA values of homeothermic chinstrap chicks were not lower than those of gentoos

  10. Teen use of a patient portal: a qualitative study of parent and teen attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, David A; Brown, Nancy L; Wilson, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members of the research team. Twenty-eight teens and 23 parents participated in the groups. Significant themes included issues about teens' control of their own healthcare; enthusiasm about the use of a patient portal to access their providers, seek health information, and make appointments; and concerns about confidentiality. In summary, there was considerable support among teens and parents for a patient portal as well as concerns about confidentiality. The teen portal affords an opportunity to negotiate issues of confidentiality.

  11. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens who drink ... number of teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's ...

  13. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  14. High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...

  15. Vital Signs-Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.

  16. Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have about bodies, such as the differences between boys and girls and where babies come from. But don't ... together, and we'll come out of it — together! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: January ... Problems in Teens Helping Teens Learn to Drive Talking to Your Child About Puberty ...

  17. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  18. Media and Sex: Perspectives from Hispanic Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…

  19. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, chicks of grey petrels, great-winged petrels and Salvin's prions attained homeothermy within five days of hatching, but some individuals exhibited well-developed homeothermy within 24 h of hatching. Chicks demonstrated a high capacity for heat production and maximum cold-induced oxygen consumptions ...

  20. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    May 6, 1988 ... temperatures at low ambient temperatures soon after hatching (Farner ... intervals during the experiment. Chamber .... chicks in each age class used in the experiments. (figures in ..... dence in chicks at a relatively low metabolic cost com- pared to that which ... knowledge of heat transfer physics. We thank ...

  1. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  2. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  3. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  4. Vital Signs-Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.

  5. Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…

  6. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  7. ICRP putting wealth before health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in recommended dose limits for radiation workers set by the International Commission for Radiological Protection do not go far enough. The ICRP has put industry profitability before worker safety, and their recommendations should not be the basis for UK or European law. (author)

  8. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether.

  10. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Teens and Mobile Phones: Text Messaging Explodes as Teens Embrace It as the Centerpiece of Their Communication Strategies with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Ling, Rich; Campbell, Scott; Purcell, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Daily text messaging among American teens has shot up in the past 18 months, from 38% of teens texting friends daily in February of 2008 to 54% of teens texting daily in September 2009. And it's not just frequency--teens are sending enormous quantities of text messages a day. Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a…

  12. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  13. What Are the Factors That Put a Pregnancy at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of transmission to 2%. 11 Age Teen pregnancy. Pregnant teens are more likely to develop high blood pressure ... from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/dating-sex/Pages/Teenage-Pregnancy.aspx Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ...

  14. Anesthesia -- What to Expect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia - What to Expect KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia - What ... Operating Room After Surgery Print Different Kinds of Anesthesia If you're having any kind of procedure ...

  15. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  16. Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Page Content Article ... this much-maligned form of contraception. Some young women, for example, say that using rubbers makes them ...

  17. Is Your Teen in an Abusive Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  18. Healthy Family 2009: Protecting Toddlers and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Protecting Toddlers and Teens Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... virus that causes a rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, and fever Mumps, a virus causing fever, ...

  19. Teen Depression and Suicide, A SILENT CRISIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroning, Maureen; Kroning, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a serious problem affecting 10.7% of all teens and 29.9% of high school students; 17% of high school students have contemplated suicide. Yet, depression in teens is often unrecognized. This article relays the tragic death of a 17-year-old, along with symptoms of depression and suicide in adolescents; DSM-5 criteria for depression; treatments including protective factors, psychotherapy, and medications; and imparts interventions for addressing this huge but silent crisis.

  20. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  1. Vital Signs-Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-07

    This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  2. Homocysteine interference in neurulation: a chick embryo model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afman, L.A.; Blom, H.J.; Put, N.M.J. van der; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Mothers of children with NTD have elevated plasma homocysteine levels. Administering homocysteine to chick embryos is reported to cause 27% NTD. Therefore, elevated plasma

  3. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  4. Development of the HD-Teen Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Martha; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, J Jackson; Sparbel, Kathleen J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-05-01

    Adolescents, who have a parent with Huntington Disease (HD), not only are at genetic risk for HD but also are witness to its onset and devastating clinical progression as their parent declines. To date, no mechanism has been developed to direct health care providers to the atypical adolescent experiences of these teens. The purpose of this report is to describe the process of developing the HD-Teen Inventory clinical assessment tool. Forty-eight teens and young adults from 19 U.S. states participated in the evaluation of the HD-Teen Inventory tool. Following item analysis, the number of items was reduced and item frequency and reaction scales were combined, based on the strong correlation (r = .94). The resultant tool contains 15 inventory and 2 open-ended response items. The HD-Teen Inventory emerged as a more compact and efficient tool for identifying the most salient concerns of at-risk teens in HD families in research and/or clinical practice.

  5. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  6. Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

    1994-04-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement.

  7. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  8. The Teen Science Café Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Teen Cafè' phenomenon grew out of an NSF-funded experiment to bring the Cafè Scientifique model for engagement of the public with science and scientists to high school teenagers. Cafè Scientifique New Mexico (cafènm.org), now in its seventh year, has proven highly popular with high school teens for much the same reason as for adult Cafè programs: the blend of socializing in an attractive venue and interaction with a scientist on an interesting science topic. Teen Cafés also include exploration of the topic with hands-on activities. The success of the model has led to the creation of the national Teen Science Cafè Network (teensciencecafe.org. This first year of the new program, four 'Founding Members' of the Network-- in Florida, Colorado, North Carolina, and the St. Louis, Missouri region--started up Teen Cafè programs. Each applied the model with a unique flair appropriate to local institutions and demographics. Each Member in the Network runs Cafès in multiple local venues. We are now gearing up for our second year, and the Network is growing. Our Teen Cafè topics have covered a very wide range, from belly-button biodiversity to cyber-security to patterns of mega-earthquakes to a day in the life of a teen dolphin to corals on acid to emergency room medicine to alternative fuel cars. Presenters have come from a great variety of local institutions. Though they are popular with teens because they are fun and interesting, our evaluations have demonstrated that the programs are having a significant impact on participating teens' understanding of the nature of science, the work that scientists do, and the importance of science to their daily lives. We are also having success in training scientists to communicate effectively with this public audience. Presenters report strong satisfaction with their resulting quality of science communication. A surprising number have reported that their experience with the program has led them to think in a new way about

  9. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  10. Teens Will Be Teens: The Latest Brain Research Has a Lot to Say about Adolescent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jami

    2005-01-01

    Most adults are challenged when it comes to understanding teens' motives. "What were they thinking of?" is an all-too-common response. Without a doubt, no developmental period in life is more confounding and baffling than adolescence. Until recently, erratic teen behavior was blamed on raging hormones, but scientific research in the last decade…

  11. The Teen Depression Awareness Project: Building an Evidence Base for Improving Teen Depression Care. Research Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Depression's effects on adolescent functioning and family burden are not well understood; there is also limited understanding of teens' and parents' attitudes and knowledge about depression, how these and other factors influence readiness for treatment, and the barriers to care that teens and their parents encounter. To address these knowledge…

  12. Real Teens, Real Tours: Teen Engagement Strategies for the One-Time Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Krista Dahl; Wyrick, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The teen behavior typically exhibited in school visit groups is often read by museum teachers as resistance or disengagement, when the opposite is more likely the case. This paper attempts to dispel some of the myths around teen behavior and serve as a practical guide to museum educators who desire a deeper, more successful engagement with teen…

  13. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas

    2018-02-28

    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  15. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-12-01

    Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Intervention improves physician counseling on teen driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-07-01

    As part of a statewide campaign, we surveyed physician attitudes and practice regarding teen driving safety before and after a brief intervention designed to facilitate in office counseling. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to Connecticut physicians, and this was followed by a mailing of teen driving safety materials to physician practices in the state. A postintervention survey was mailed 8 months after the presurvey. A total of 102 physicians completed both the pre and postsurveys. Thirty-nine percent (39%) reported having had a teen in their practice die in a motor vehicle crash in the presurvey, compared with 49% in the postsurvey. Physician counseling increased significantly for a number of issues: driving while impaired from 86% to 94%; restrictions on teen driving from 53% to 64%; teen driving laws from 53% to 63%; safe vehicle from 32% to 42%; parents model safe driving from 29% to 44%; and teen-parent written contract from 15% to 37%. At baseline, the majority of physicians who provide care to teenagers in Connecticut report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduate driver licensing laws or related issues. After a brief intervention, there was a significant increase in physician counseling of teens on teen driving laws and on the use of teen-parent contracts. Additional interventions targeting physician practices can improve physician counseling to teens and their parents on issues of teen driving safety.

  17. Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kao, Trudy; Curry, Allison E; Durbin, Dennis R

    2012-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders. Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of 297 parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education (p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status (classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience), and parent experience with teaching teens to drive. Twelve percent of teens received driving citations, and 12% of teens had been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive, the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers.

  18. Choose Health Action Teens: A Review of a Teens as Teachers Nutritional Education Training Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Flesch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review draws from published research related to the best practices for the utilization of teens as teachers to examine Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT, a teen’s as teachers (TAT training curriculum.  Research shows that there are various components necessary to build a high quality TAT program.  Most of these components fall under four areas in which training is necessary for teens and adults: Teaching strategies, youth/child development, subject matter to be taught, and youth-adult partnerships.  These four areas provide a framework to review the Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT (Crosiar & Wolfe, 2013 teens as teachers training program curriculum.

  19. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-03-15

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5-32.4 microg g(-1) fw) and eggs (0.04-2.79 microg g(-1) fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n=94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n=28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (feather Hg at hatching (feathers of chicks < or =10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg's effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  20. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Weight Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) ... and Weight Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: ...

  2. Pediatrician attitudes, knowledge, and practice behavior regarding teen driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Corsi, John M; Kelliher, Kristine M; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-01-01

    Each year about 4,000 teens ages 16-19 die on U.S. roads. Injury prevention counseling is recommended as a valuable and cost-effective part of routine health supervision. This study describes pediatrician knowledge and practice regarding teen driving safety. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to pediatricians. 160 of 392 pediatricians (41%) completed the survey. During a health supervision visit 93% of pediatricians reported discussing seat belt use, 89% impaired driving, 54% teen licensing laws, and 16% parent teen contract. Half reported having a teen in their practice killed in a crash. A majority surveyed report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduated driver licensing laws or related issues. Broadly adopted, this inexpensive counseling approach, could lead to reductions in teen motorvehicle crash injuries.

  3. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...

  4. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having a mutually respectful and honest relationship. Using birth control if they have sex and a condom every time. Know where their teens are and what they are doing, particularly after school. Be aware of their teen's use of social ...

  6. Novice teen driving : education and training administrative standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-09

    The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...

  7. Vital Signs-Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-08

    This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/8/2014.

  8. Teens Take Stand on Bullying, but Resources Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Nine percent of 13- to 15-year-old teens and 3% of teens 16 to 18 years old say they are "always" or "often" bullied to a point that makes them feel very sad, angry, sad, or upset. Over one-quarter of all teens say they are "sometimes" bullied to this point. This article presents some results of a "Harris Poll" of 776 teens surveyed online in…

  9. The Educational Consequences of Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B.; Morgan, S. Philip; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Guilkey, David K.

    2013-01-01

    A huge literature shows that teen mothers face a variety of detriments across the life course, including truncated educational attainment. To what extent is this association causal? The estimated effects of teen motherhood on schooling vary widely, ranging from no discernible difference to 2.6 fewer years among teen mothers. The magnitude of educational consequences is therefore uncertain, despite voluminous policy and prevention efforts that rest on the assumption of a negative and presumably causal effect. This study adjudicates between two potential sources of inconsistency in the literature—methodological differences or cohort differences—by using a single, high-quality data source: namely, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We replicate analyses across four different statistical strategies: ordinary least squares regression; propensity score matching; and parametric and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation. Results demonstrate educational consequences of teen childbearing, with estimated effects between 0.7 and 1.9 fewer years of schooling among teen mothers. We select our preferred estimate (0.7), derived from semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation, on the basis of weighing the strengths and limitations of each approach. Based on the range of estimated effects observed in our study, we speculate that variable statistical methods are the likely source of inconsistency in the past. We conclude by discussing implications for future research and policy, and recommend that future studies employ a similar multimethod approach to evaluate findings. PMID:24078155

  10. Teen and Parent Perceptions of a Secondary School Family Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonely, Heather M.; Klein, Shirley R.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent and parent focus groups were conducted to do a needs assessment and discover possible topics for a secondary school family class. Results included identifying teen and parent family-related needs and societal concerns; discovering where teens currently learn about family life; and receiving teen and parent feedback about a proposed…

  11. Family communication patterns and teen drivers' attitudes toward driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Campo, Shelly; Ramirez, Marizen; Krapfl, Julia Richards; Cheng, Gang; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Family communication patterns (FCPs) play an important role in reducing the risk-taking behaviors of teens, such as substance use and safer sex. However, little is known about the relationship between family communication and teen driving safety. We analyzed the baseline data from a randomized trial that included 163 parent-teen dyads, with teens who would be receiving their intermediate driver's license within 3 months. FCPs were divided into four types-pluralistic, protective, consensual, and laissez-faire-and were correlated with the frequency of parent-teen discussions and teens' driving safety attitudes. The ratings on four types of FCPs were distributed quite evenly among teens and parents. Parents and teens agreed on their FCP ratings (p = .64). In families with communication patterns that were laissez-faire, protective, and pluralistic, parents talked to their teens less about safe driving than did parents in families with a consensual communication pattern (p < .01). Moreover, the frequency of parent-teen communication about safe driving was positively associated with teen attitudes toward safe driving (adjusted β = 0.35, p = .03). Health care providers need to encourage parents, particularly those with non-consensual FCPs, to increase frequency of parent-teen interactions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study of Taiwanese Teens' Traditional and Cyberbullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Chia-Ying; Chen, An-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study examined several types of teen behaviors, specifically bullying, being bullied, and witnessing bullying, and analyzed teens' judgments of the seriousness of the bullying. A Bullying Behaviors Scale (BBS) was designed to investigate both traditional bullying (TB) and cyberbullying (CB) behaviors among teens in grades 5 through 11. The…

  13. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  14. Teen online problem solving for teens with traumatic brain injury: Rationale, methods, and preliminary feasibility of a teen only intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O

    2017-08-01

    To describe the Teen Online Problem Solving-Teen Only (TOPS-TO) intervention relative to the original Teen Online Problem Solving-Family (TOPS-F) intervention, to describe a randomized controlled trial to assess intervention efficacy, and to report feasibility and acceptability of the TOPS-TO intervention. Research method and design: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial, including 152 teens (49 TOPS-F, 51 TOPS-TO, 52 IRC) between the ages of 11-18 who were hospitalized for a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in the previous 18 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6-months post baseline, and 12-months post baseline. Data discussed include adherence and satisfaction data collected at the 6-month assessment (treatment completion) for TOPS-F and TOPS-TO. Adherence measures (sessions completed, dropout rates, duration of treatment engagement, and rates of program completion) were similar across treatment groups. Overall, teen and parent reported satisfaction was high and similar across groups. Teens spent a similar amount of time on the TOPS website across groups, and parents in the TOPS-F spent more time on the TOPS website than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .002). Parents in the TOPS-F group rated the TOPS website as more helpful than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .05). TOPS-TO intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention approach. Parents may perceive greater benefit from the family based intervention. Further examination is required to understand the comparative efficacy in improving child and family outcomes, and who is likely to benefit from each approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  16. Putting the spiritual into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia von Boguslawski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine how Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophical ideas were reflected and put into practice in the lives of the Finnish couple Olly (Olga Donner (1881–1956, neé Sinebrychoff and Uno Donner (1872–1958. They encountered anthroposophy in 1913 and subsequently embraced it as the guiding principle of their lives. Through a close examination of these two people we aim to shed light on how a new worldview like anthroposophy, which was gaining followers in early twentieth-century Finland, was also a manifestation of wider changes in religious culture in Europe. Our perspective could be described as biographical in the sense that it has been characterised by Simone Lässig (2008: 11 who writes that ‘the reconstruction of individual life courses helps to discover more about the context – for example, about daily rituals, pious practices, or kinship relationship’. Thus, the biographical perspective serves as a tool for grasping how something as deeply personal as an anthroposophical worldview was understood and practised, not only by Olly and Uno Donner, but also by a larger group of people who in the early twentieth century were looking for new ways to make sense of the surrounding world.

  17. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  18. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input.

  19. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

    1989-10-01

    The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  1. Spontaneous generalization of abstract multimodal patterns in young domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Spierings, Michelle J; Caffini, Matteo; Ten Cate, Carel; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    From the early stages of life, learning the regularities associated with specific objects is crucial for making sense of experiences. Through filial imprinting, young precocial birds quickly learn the features of their social partners by mere exposure. It is not clear though to what extent chicks can extract abstract patterns of the visual and acoustic stimuli present in the imprinting object, and how they combine them. To investigate this issue, we exposed chicks (Gallus gallus) to three days of visual and acoustic imprinting, using either patterns with two identical items or patterns with two different items, presented visually, acoustically or in both modalities. Next, chicks were given a choice between the familiar and the unfamiliar pattern, present in either the multimodal, visual or acoustic modality. The responses to the novel stimuli were affected by their imprinting experience, and the effect was stronger for chicks imprinted with multimodal patterns than for the other groups. Interestingly, males and females adopted a different strategy, with males more attracted by unfamiliar patterns and females more attracted by familiar patterns. Our data show that chicks can generalize abstract patterns by mere exposure through filial imprinting and that multimodal stimulation is more effective than unimodal stimulation for pattern learning.

  2. Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites: How American Teens Navigate the New World of "Digital Citizenship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…

  3. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Effects of Being Born during Their Teen or Later Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…

  4. TRIVIAL OR COMMENDABLE?: WOMEN'S WRITING, POPULAR CULTURE, AND CHICK LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  5. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  6. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  7. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  8. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

  9. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  10. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  11. Multicultural Programs for Tweens and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda B., Ed.; Kwon, Nahyun, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Multicultural Programs for Tweens and Teens" is a one-stop resource that encourages children and young adults to explore different cultures. Dozens of flexible programming ideas allow you to: (1) Choose a program specific to your scheduling, budget, or age group requirements; (2) Create an event that reflects a specific culture; and (3) Recommend…

  12. Can Diabetes Be Prevented? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Diabetes Be Prevented? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Diabetes Be ... español ¿Es posible prevenir la diabetes? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  13. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  14. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  15. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  16. The Teen Brain: 6 Things to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression in Teenagers Join a Research Study: Enrolling nationally ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  17. Mother-teen communication about weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, René M; Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey Kluever

    2014-01-01

    Although research shows family members can influence each other's diet and exercise behaviors, the specific strategies that most effectively motivate individuals to enact healthy behaviors have not been revealed. Toward this goal, this study employed confirmation theory to assess how the quality of weight management (WM) communication between 107 mother-teen dyads was related to their diet and exercise behaviors as well as their subjective perceptions of the productivity of WM conversations. Confirmation theory proposes two components of confirmation: acceptance and challenge. Analyses revealed that accepting and challenging communication were both positively related to the perceived productivity of WM conversations. However, more complex associations emerged for diet and exercise. Acceptance was more helpful in motivating better eating habits for mothers with low health motivation and teens with high health motivation. For exercise, challenge was helpful in motivating teens with higher sensitivity about communicating about weight issues; however, counter to predictions, challenge was negatively related to exercise for teens with low health motivation and low sensitivity. These interactions, however, explained less variance than analyses for perceived effectiveness and satisfaction.

  18. [Video games, a therapeutic mediator for teens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickler, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  20. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) ... Print en español Sangrado uterino anormal What Is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name doctors ...

  1. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  2. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  3. High School Dropout and Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…

  4. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  5. Meningococcal Immunizations for Preteens and Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-11

    This podcast provides information about vaccine recommendations to help prevent meningococcal disease in preteens and teens.  Created: 8/11/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 8/11/2015.

  6. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  7. Teen Appeal — Touching the Moving Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Christina

    An article to discuss the difficulties of designing educational multimedia for the teen target audience (13 - 16 year olds). The report will assess techniques used in existing online artefacts and reveal major trends in the attempt to appeal to this notoriously hard to reach user group.

  8. Young adult outcomes of children born to teen mothers: effects of being born during their teen or later years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2011-03-01

    Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged ≤20 years at the time of birth (current teen), and being born to a teen mother later in her life (>21 years, prior teen). The 1983 Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) and 2001 follow-up are used, including 2,355 participants 4 to 16 years old in 1983 with 2001 data. Using multilevel modeling we assessed the association between being born to a current versus prior teen mother, relative to a nonteen mother, and 2001 outcomes, controlling for individual and family level characteristics assessed in childhood. Being born to a teen mother (versus a nonteen mother) is associated with poorer educational achievement, life satisfaction, and personal income. Accounting for time of sample children's birth in teen mothers' lives, individuals born to current and prior teen mothers showed a ~0.8-year educational deficit, relative to individuals born to nonteen mothers in fully adjusted models. Individuals born to current teen mothers reported lower life satisfaction and personal income (-$7,262). There were no significant group differences at follow-up in mental or physical health between individuals born to nonteen mothers and those born to current or prior teen mothers. Although being born to a teen mother exerts a pervasive adverse effect on educational attainment, the adverse effects on life satisfaction and personal income appear to be selective for individuals born to a current teen mother. Further research is required to understand these differential effects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Dashtizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

  10. Distracted: Academic Performance Differences between Teen Users and Non-Users of MySpace and other Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamyra A. Pierce

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the differences in academic performance between teen users and non-users of various communication technologies. Participants included 517 high school students who completed a self-report survey. The results revealed that approximately 3/4 of the teens had a MySpace account and a cell phone and more than 1/2 had an IM account. Results also showed that those who had a MySpace account, cell phone and IM had signifi cantly lower grades than those who did not. Results also revealed that teens who used their MySpace, cell phone and IM while doing their homework reported having lower grades than those who did not use the technology while doing their homework. In addition, those who put off doing their homework to spend time on MySpace also reported lower grades than those who did not put off doing their homework to spend time with MySpace. Finally, results showed that 28% text messaged during class from always to frequently, and 5% reported text messaging during an exam from always to frequently.

  11. Intergenerational teen pregnancy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-05-22

    To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This

  12. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  13. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A

    2011-01-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  14. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  15. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  16. Assessment of hatchling egg losses and two chick sexing methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of hatchling egg losses and two chick sexing methods in the Nigerian indigenous chicken. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... The aim of the present study is to evaluate hatchling egg loss as well as sex determination methods at day old and sexual dimorphism over 8 weeks in Nigerian ...

  17. Capture and retention of tritiated serotonin by the chick notochord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Anne; Gerard, Hubert; Dollander, Alexis

    1978-01-01

    The 3 day old chick notochord capacity to fix tritiated serotonin is maximal in its axis and in cephalic region. Observations permitting to find, the intracellular serotonin binding sites, contribute to an explanation of the capture mechanism and suggest a special direct role of the notochord on the monoaminergic neuron cytodifferentiation [fr

  18. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  19. Evaluation of an infant simulator intervention for teen pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K; Chiquoine, Julie

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of simulation as a strategy to influence teens' perceptions of pregnancy and parenting. This pilot study was a preexperimental, one group pre/posttest design. The school-based wellness center of a high school was the setting for the weekly sessions and the pre/posttest administration. Sample members participated in 6 weekly Baby Think it Over (BTIO) classes and an infant simulator experience. The final sample included 79 teens age 14 to 18 years who attended one of eight BTIO sessions. We used the Thoughts on Teen Parenting Survey (TTPS) to assess the perceptions of teens with regard to the costs and rewards associated with teen parenting. The TTPS yields a composite score of the teen attitudes toward the teen parenting experience and eight subscale scores that assess different areas of teen life. No significant differences were found in the mean pre/posttest scores or in correlations of the demographic data and mean scores. Two significant differences in pre/posttest subscale scores were in the areas of friends and personal characteristics. The results of this study suggest that the effectiveness of using infant simulators to influence the perceptions of teens about the reality of teen parenting is minimal. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    1998-01-01

    1. We tested for costs of chick rearing in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) by removing entire clutches from 149 of 405 randomly selected nests, in which one or both mates was colour-banded. After the manipulation, we monitored adult nest attendance and body condition at unmanipulated and manipulated nests, and measured the survival and fecundity of these adults the following year.2. Late in the chick-rearing period, adults from unmanipulated nests (i.e. with chicks) went on significantly longer foraging trips, and were significantly lighter for their size, than adults from manipulated nests (i.e. without chicks).3. Adults from unmanipulated nests also survived to the following nesting season at a significantly lower rate than those from the manipulated nests (0·898 vs. 0·953), suggesting that attempting to raise chicks can reduce life expectancy by 55%.4. There was a tendency for adults from nests that were unmanipulated in year one to have lower reproductive success in year two, primarily because of reduced fledging success, and a higher incidence of non-breeding.5. These findings suggest that mass loss in kittiwakes during chick rearing may not be adaptive. Raising chicks can lead to reproductive costs, and the causal mechanism appears to be a reduction in body condition.6. We compare our results with previous brood (or clutch) size manipulation experiments that have measured adult body condition, survival and/or future fecundity. Although the empirical evidence suggests that long-lived species are more likely to experience survival costs than short-lived species, we believe the opposite may be true. We suggest that shifting the experimental protocol of cost of reproduction studies from brood enlargements (an approach taken in most prior studies) to brood reductions will provide more accurate quantifications of naturally occurring costs.7. The cost of reproduction is one mechanism proposed to explain the reduced survival rates reported

  1. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  2. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  3. A Cafe Scientifique for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts

  4. Assessing a relationship between bone microstructure and growth rate: a fluorescent labelling study in the king penguin chick (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Margerie, E; Robin, J-P; Verrier, D; Cubo, J; Groscolas, R; Castanet, J

    2004-02-01

    Microstructure-function relationships remain poorly understood in primary bone tissues. The relationship between bone growth rate and bone tissue type, although documented in some species by previous works, remains somewhat unclear and controversial. We assessed this relationship in a species with extreme adaptations, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). These birds have a peculiar growth, interrupted 3 months after hatching by the austral winter. Before this interruption, chicks undergo extremely rapid statural and ponderal growth. We recorded experimentally (by means of fluorescent labelling) the growth rate of bone tissue in four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibiotarsus) of four king penguin chicks during their fastest phase of growth (3-5 weeks after hatching) and identified the associated bone tissue types ('laminar', 'longitudinal', 'reticular' or 'radial' fibro-lamellar bone tissue). We found the highest bone tissue growth rate known to date, up to 171 microm day(-1) (mean 55 microm day(-1)). There was a highly significant relationship between bone tissue type and growth rate (P<10(-6)). Highest rates were obtained with the radial microarchitecture of fibro-lamellar bone, where cavities in the woven network are aligned radially. This result supports the heuristic value of a relationship between growth rate and bone primary microstructure. However, we also found that growth rates of bone tissue types vary according to the long bone considered (P<10(-5)) (e.g. growth rates were 38% lower in the radius than in the other long bones), a result that puts some restriction on the applicability of absolute growth rate values (e.g. to fossil species). The biomechanical disadvantages of accelerated bone growth are discussed in relation to the locomotor behaviour of the chicks during their first month of life.

  5. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  6. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max

    2015-09-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  7. Reframing the risks and losses of teen mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Teen mothers often face a stigmatizing gaze based on the belief that early childbearing jeopardizes their life chances and the health and development of their children. Growing evidence suggests that the poor maternal-child outcomes associated with early childbearing have been overstated and may be explained by teen mothers' childhood disadvantage and adversities. After reviewing what is currently known about the relationships between early childbearing and maternal-child outcomes, as well as teen mothers' perspectives on mothering, clinical practices are suggested that address teen mothers' concerns, strengths, aspirations, and the long-term inequities that contribute to poor outcomes.

  8. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  9. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  10. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  11. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changing Sociodemographic Factors and Teen Fertility: 1991–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Joyce C.

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed the roles of trends in sociodemographic factors known to be related to the risk of a teen birth. The goal was to analyze the roles of these trends in maternal education, family structure and mother’s age at first birth in the likelihood of adolescents becoming teen mothers across multiple birth cohorts of women covering the years since 1991. Data are from the 1995, 2002, 2006–2010 and 2011–2013 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Consecutive birth cohorts of female respondents were constructed and retrospectively followed to estimate the risk of a teen birth for each cohort. Logistic regression models estimate the odds of a teen birth across cohorts and within strata of the predictors across cohorts. Maternal education rose across cohorts; the proportion who were non-Hispanic white declined. In general, the likelihood of an adolescent birth did not change within categories of the predictors that are considered at higher risk for a teen birth across birth cohorts. Specifically, there was no change in the odds of a teen birth among women whose mothers did not finish high school, those born to teen mothers and those not from two-parent families. The odds of a birth declined across cohorts for black women. The findings suggest that much of the decline in teen birth rates is due to declines in the proportion of teens in higher risk categories, rather than to declines within those categories. PMID:25680702

  13. Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302

  15. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  16. Getting Teens to Really Work in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria de Gentile, Patricia; Leiguarda de Orue, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    Working with teenagers is not an easy task. This seems to be a notion shared by language teachers all over the world. While some instructors are very keen on working with this special age group, others are not fond of the challenge. The truth is that teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) to teens has never been easy. According to…

  17. Teen Births Keep American Crime High

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...

  18. Steering teens safe: a randomized trial of a parent-based intervention to improve safe teen driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Young, Tracy; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-07-31

    Crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, and parent-based interventions are a promising approach. We assess the effectiveness of Steering Teens Safe, a parent-focused program to increase safe teen driving. Steering Teens Safe aimed to improve parental communication with teens about safe driving using motivational interviewing techniques in conjunction with 19 safe driving lessons. A randomized controlled trial involved 145 parent-teen dyads (70 intervention and 75 control). Intervention parents received a 45-minute session to learn the program with four follow-up phone sessions, a DVD, and a workbook. Control parents received a standard brochure about safe driving. Scores were developed to measure teen-reported quantity and quality of parental communication about safe driving. The main outcome measure was a previously validated Risky Driving Score reported by teens. Because the Score was highly skewed, a generalized linear model based on a gamma distribution was used for analysis. Intervention teens ranked their parent's success in talking about driving safety higher than control teens (p = 0.035) and reported that their parents talked about more topics (non-significant difference). The Risky Driving Score was 21% lower in intervention compared to control teens (85% CI = 0.60, 1.00). Interaction between communication quantity and the intervention was examined. Intervention teens who reported more successful communication had a 42% lower Risky Driving Score (95% CI = 0.37, 0.94) than control parents with less successful communication. This program had a positive although not strong effect, and it may hold the most promise in partnership with other programs, such as Driver's Education or Graduated Driver's License policies. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014923. Registered Nov. 16, 2009.

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  20. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  1. Teen Advocates for Community and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunar, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago (MSI) is in the early stages of a NOAA supported Environmental Literacy Grant project that aims to engage high school age youth in the exploration of climate and Earth systems science. Participating youth are positioned as teen advocates for establishing resilient communities in the Midwest. The project utilizes a variety of resources, including NOAA Science On a Sphere® (SOS) technology and datasets, Great Lakes and local climate assets, and local municipal resiliency planning guides to develop museum-based youth programming. Teen participants in the project will share their learning through regular facilitated interactions with public visitors in the Museum and will bring learning experiences to Chicago Public Library sites throughout the city's neighborhoods. Project content will also be adapted for use in 100+ after-school science clubs to engage younger students from diverse communities across the Chicago area. Current strategies for supporting teen facilitation of public experiences, linkages to out of school time and summer learning programs, and connections to local resiliency planning agencies will be explored.

  2. Frequency of different congenital anomalies in prenatally valproic acid treated chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, L.; Khan, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of different congenital anomalies in surviving chick embryo on hatching after the prenatal administration of valproic acid by comparing with age-matched controls. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Anatomy Department, College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) Regional Centre, Islamabad, from February 2010 to February 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty fertilized chicken eggs were injected with valproic acid, incubated and then evaluated for different gross congenital anomalies, on hatching or day 22 of incubation whichever was earlier. Chicks of this group were labeled as experimental group-A. Similarly, another group of thirty fertilized chicken eggs labeled as control group-B, underwent sham treatment using normal saline. The weight and length of alive chicks, the total number of chicks with gross anomalies and the number of different types of gross anomalies in both groups were noted and statistically compared. Results: In control group-B, 28 chicks hatch out on 21 day of hatching with no visible gross deformities. Whereas in experimental group-A, 23 chicks were alive, out of which, 9 chicks were with delayed hatching on 22 days of hatching. The chicks with gross deformities were 8 (p=0.0008) which included: limb abnormalities (i.e. inverted feet) in 6 chicks (p=0.006), eye abnormality (i.e. closed palpebral fissure of both eyes) in 2 chick (p=0.2), 1 chick showed multiple deformities including gastroschisis, closed palpebral fissures and inverted foot (p=0.45). There were behavioral changes in 10 chicks (p=0.0001). There was statistically significant difference in their weights (p=0.03). Conclusion: Prenatal exposure of chick embryos to valproic acid increased the incidence of different gross deformities. (author)

  3. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1- 14 C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  4. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  5. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  6. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  7. Trends in Alabama teen driving death and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Irons, Elizabeth; Crew, Marie; Norris, Jesse; Nichols, Michele; King, William D

    2014-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in teens. Alabama has been in the Top 5 states for MVC fatality rate among teens in the United States for several years. Twelve years of teen MVC deaths and injuries were evaluated. Our hypothesis is that the teen driving motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries have decreased related to legislative and community awareness activities. A retrospective analysis of Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury for the years 2000 to 2011 was conducted. MVC data were obtained from a Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set managed by the Center for Advanced Public Safety at the University of Alabama. A Lowess regression-scattergram analysis was used to identify period specific changes in deaths and injury over time. Statistical analysis was conducted using True Epistat 5.0 software. When the Lowess regression was applied, there was an obvious change in the trend line in 2007. To test that observation, we then compared medians in the pre-2007 and post-2007 periods, which validated our observation. Moreover, it provided a near-even number of observations for comparison. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test for correlation of deaths and injury over time. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate median differences in deaths and injury comparing pre-2007 and post-2007 data. Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury demonstrated a significant negative correlation over the 12-year period (Rs for deaths and injury, -0.87 [p teen driver deaths and injury have decreased during the 12-year study period, most notably after 2006. Factors that may have contributed to this trend may include stricter laws for teen drivers (enacted in 2002 and updated in 2010), less teen driving because of a nationwide economic downturn, delayed licensing in teens, steady improvements in overall seat belt use, and heightened public awareness of risky behaviors in teen driving.

  8. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  9. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  10. Microarray analysis of normal and abnormal chick ventricular myocardial development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Eliška; Peševski, Živorad; Dealmeida, A.C.; Mrug, M.; Fresco, V.M.; Argraves, W.S.; Barth, J.L.; Cui, X.; Sedmera, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S137-S144 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * gene chip array * hypoplastic left heart syndrome * hemodynamics * gene expression Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  11. A chick model of retinal detachment: cone rich and novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Cebulla

    Full Text Available Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD model in the chick.Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA or hyaluronic acid (HA. Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG. Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP, proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas.Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies.

  12. Acute temperature effects on function of the chick embryonic heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vostárek, František; Svatůňková, Jarmila; Sedmera, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2016), s. 276-286 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : arrhythmias * calcium imaging * chick embryo * conduction block * heart development * optical mapping Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  13. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  14. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  15. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrose, M.; Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of 36 Cl - into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [ 14 C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([ 14 C]-TPP + ) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL - . Steady-state distribution of [ 14 C]methylamine ([ 14 C]MA) was used to examine for Cl - -dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na + gradients, but not Cl - gradients, induce changes in [ 14 C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [ 14 C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na + and Cl - . Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl - influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of P Cl relative to either P Na or P K . SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [ 14 C]TPP + or [ 14 C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl - influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl - conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl - -OH - exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  16. Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with 65 Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 μg Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection

  17. Single cell transcriptome profiling of developing chick retinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboissonniere, Lauren A; Martin, Gregory M; Goetz, Jillian J; Bi, Ran; Pope, Brock; Weinand, Kallie; Ellson, Laura; Fru, Diane; Lee, Miranda; Wester, Andrea K; Liu, Peng; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-15

    The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging. We have analyzed transcriptomes from individual cells isolated from the chick retina throughout retinogenesis. While we focused our efforts on the retinal ganglion cells, our transcriptomes of developing chick cells also contained representation from multiple retinal cell types, including photoreceptors and interneurons at different stages of development. Most interesting was the identification of transcriptomes from individual mixed lineage progenitor cells in the chick as these cells offer a window into the cell fate decision-making process. Taken together, these data sets will enable us to uncover the most critical genes acting in the steps of cell fate determination and early differentiation of various retinal cell types. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, K.; Khan, M.Y.; Minhas, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three sub-groups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrificed on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle. Conclusion: Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers. The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  19. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  20. Implementation evaluation of steering teens safe: engaging parents to deliver a new parent-based teen driving intervention to their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. Steering Teens Safe is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills with their teens. This implementation evaluation focuses on a sample of 83 parents who delivered Steering Teens Safe to their teens. One-, 2- and 3-month follow-up assessments were conducted with intervention parents to evaluate the self-reported quantity and quality of talking about, demonstrating, and practicing safe driving goals with teens; perceived success and benefit of the program; and barriers to implementation. Over 3 months of follow-up, parents discussed driving goals with their teens for a median of 101.5 minutes. The most frequently addressed topics were general safety principles, including distracted driving, driving in bad weather, wearing a seat belt, and being a safe passenger. Parents spent a median of 30 minutes practicing safe driving skills such as changing lanes. Sixty-seven percent of parents talked to their children about rural road safety, but just 36% demonstrated and half practiced these skills with their teens. Barriers to implementation include time and opportunity barriers and resistant attitudes of their teens. However, barriers neither affected frequency of engagement nor parents' perceived benefit and comfort in delivering the program. Parents with time/opportunity barriers also had higher practice and demonstration times than parents without these barriers. Findings indicate high acceptability among parent implementers and promise for real-world delivery. Future studies are needed to assess intervention impact.

  1. The ripples of adolescent motherhood: social, educational, and medical outcomes for children of teen and prior teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Roos, Noralou P; Brownell, Marni D; Briggs, Gemma; MacWilliam, Leonard; Roos, Leslie L

    2010-01-01

    We examined medical, educational and social risks to children of teen mothers and children of nonadolescent mothers with a history of teen birth (prior teen mothers) and considered these risks at both the individual and societal level. A population-based, retrospective cohort study tracked outcomes through young adulthood for children born in Manitoba, Canada (n = 32 179). chi(2) and logistic regression analyses examined risk of childhood death or hospitalization, failure to graduate high school, intervention by child protective services, becoming a teen mother, and welfare receipt as a young adult. For children of both teen and prior teen mothers, adjusted likelihoods of death during infancy, school-aged years, and adolescence were more than 2-fold higher than for other children. Risks for hospitalization, high hospital use, academic failure, and poor social outcomes were also substantially higher. At a societal level, only 16.5% of cohort children were born to teen and prior teen mothers. However, these children accounted for 27% of first-year hospitalizations, 34% of deaths (birth to 17 years), 30% of failures to graduate high school, 51% in foster care, 44% on welfare as young adults, and 56% of next-generation young teen mothers. Children of prior teen mothers had increased risks for poor health and for educational and social outcomes nearly equal to those seen in children of teen mothers. Combined, these relatively few children experienced a large share of the negative outcomes occurring among young people. Our results suggest the need to expand the definition of risk associated with adolescent motherhood and target their children for enhanced medical and social services. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban Teens in the Library: Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E., Ed.; Hughes-Hassell, Sandra, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Urban Teens in the Library" is the perfect solution for the concerns and uncertainty many librarians face when supporting this group of patrons and students. From a team of experts who have researched the information habits and preferences of urban teens to build better and more effective school and public library programs, this book will show…

  3. Reducing the Teen Birth Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Teen childbearing affects young people at both ends of childhood. When teens have children, their own health may be jeopardized and their chances to build productive lives are often diminished. Compared to women who postpone childbearing until they are older, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and to live in poverty. At the same…

  4. Health Care Factors Influencing Teen Mothers' Use Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...

  5. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  6. Teens Reflect on Their Sources of Contraceptive Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Hebert, Luciana; Mellor, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Based on semistructured interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 58 U.S. high school students, this study examines teens' exposure to contraceptive information from a range of sources and the extent to which they trust this information. Teens report exposure to contraceptive information from many individuals and places, most…

  7. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…

  8. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-08-01

    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  9. Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…

  10. Teen Pregnancy - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.

  11. Designing Public Library Websites for Teens: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robin Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in human-computer…

  12. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  13. Teen Pregnancy and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  15. Paediatrician knowledge, attitudes, and counselling patterns on teen driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey C; O'Neil, Joseph; Shope, Jean T; O'Connor, Karen G; Levin, Rebecca A

    2012-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death among teenagers. Little is known about the content of US paediatrician counselling about teen driving. To examine US paediatrician knowledge, attitudes, and counselling patterns regarding teen driving. A random sample questionnaire was mailed to American Academy of Pediatrics members in 2009 (n=1606; response=875 (55%)). Analysis was limited to 596 paediatricians who provide adolescent checkups. Questions addressed counselling and attitudes towards roles in promoting safe driving. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between counselling topics and practice characteristics. Most (89%) respondents provide some counselling about driving. Two topics commonly discussed by paediatricians were seatbelts (87%) and alcohol use (82%). Less frequently discussed were: cell phones (47%), speeding (43%), and dangers of transporting teen passengers (41%). Topics rarely discussed were: night driving (21%), graduated driver licensing laws (13%), safe cars (9%), driver education (9%), fatigue (25%), and parental limit setting (23%). Only 10% ever recommend a parent-teen driver agreement. Paediatricians who had a patient injured or killed in an MVC were more likely to discuss night driving (OR=2.86). Physicians caring for a high proportion of adolescents (OR=1.83) or patients with private insurance (OR=1.85) counsel more about the risks of driving with teen passengers. Paediatricians in the USA support counselling on teen driving during routine office visits, but omit many important risk factors. Few recommend parent-teen driver agreements. Methods that help clinicians efficiently and effectively counsel families about teen driving should be developed.

  16. Teen driver support system (TDSS) field operational test : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Although teen drivers make up a small percentage of the U.S. driving population, they are at an especially high risk : of being involved in a crash. Factors that contribute to teen drivers risk include their lack of experience and their : tendency...

  17. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students' language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of…

  18. A Survey of Teen Museum Education Participants and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Jenny; Bobick, Bryna

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a museum program for teens located in an urban environment. The participants were high school students from public, private, religious and home schools. The program allowed learning to occur in an informal setting and united teens from one city through a common interest in visual art. Also, it was an opportunity for the…

  19. Confessions of Former Teen Program Participants: Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fabrizio; Wyrick, Gabrielle; Zwicky, Calder

    2014-01-01

    As a companion to more data-driven articles and studies that consider the long-term impact of art museum teen programs on alumni, this article takes the form of a person to person interview with two founding teen members of important programs that emerged in the 1990s. Talking candidly about the impact of their program participation, Calder Zwicky…

  20. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-01-01

    Teeth were lost in birds 70–80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick ...

  1. Using Film Clips to Teach Teen Pregnancy Prevention: "The Gloucester 18" at a Teen Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…

  2. Teens in Transition: A Workshop on Teen Sexuality and AIDS for Youth-Serving Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveny, Mary Alice

    1993-01-01

    Provides excerpts from a presentation at a librarians' continuing education workshop on teen sexuality and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), together with participants questions and comments. Goals of an HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) education program are presented, and activities for librarians are suggested. (EAM)

  3. What Teens Want to Know: Sexual Health Questions Submitted to a Teen Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickberg, Suzanne M. Johnson; Kohn, Julia E.; Franco, Lydia M.; Criniti, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 Planned Parenthood[R] Federation of America (PPFA[R]) launched teenwire.com[SM], a Web site for young people. This study was designed to determine teens' reproductive health information needs. Selected for analysis were 1,219 submissions to the Ask the Experts section of the Web site. Each submission was independently coded by three of the…

  4. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A.; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of “worry” about their teen driver’s safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen’s driving. Methods We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental “worry,” and influence of rules regarding their teen’s driving, reported by teen’s driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver’s license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”) or perceived influence of parental rules (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”). Results Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying “a lot” was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Conclusions and Practical Applications Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver’s safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively

  5. Vital signs: teen pregnancy--United States, 1991--2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    In 2009, approximately 410,000 teens aged 15-19 years gave birth in the United States, and the teen birth rate remains higher than in other developed countries. To describe U.S. trends in teen births and related factors, CDC used data on 1) teen birth rates during 1991-2009 from the National Vital Statistics System, 2) sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among high school students during 1991-2009 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and 3) sex education, parent communication, use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), and receipt of reproductive health services among teens aged 15-19 years from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. In 2009, the national teen birth rate was 39.1 births per 1,000 females, a 37% decrease from 61.8 births per 1,000 females in 1991 and the lowest rate ever recorded. State-specific teen birth rates varied from 16.4 to 64.2 births per 1,000 females and were highest among southern states. Birth rates for black and Hispanic teens were 59.0 and 70.1 births per 1,000 females, respectively, compared with 25.6 for white teens. From 1991 to 2009, the percentage of high school students who ever had sexual intercourse decreased from 54% to 46%, and the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months but did not use any method of contraception at last sexual intercourse decreased from 16% to 12%. From 1999 to 2009, the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months and used dual methods at last sexual intercourse (condoms with either birth control pills or the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera) increased from 5% to 9%. During 2006-2008, 65% of female teens and 53% of male teens received formal sex education that covered saying no to sex and provided information on methods of birth control. Overall, 44% of female teens and 27% of male teens had spoken with their parents about both topics, but among teens who had ever had sexual intercourse, 20% of females and 31

  6. A teen's guide to creating web pages and blogs

    CERN Document Server

    Selfridge, Peter; Osburn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Whether using a social networking site like MySpace or Facebook or building a Web page from scratch, millions of teens are actively creating a vibrant part of the Internet. This is the definitive teen''s guide to publishing exciting web pages and blogs on the Web. This easy-to-follow guide shows teenagers how to: Create great MySpace and Facebook pages Build their own unique, personalized Web site Share the latest news with exciting blogging ideas Protect themselves online with cyber-safety tips Written by a teenager for other teens, this book leads readers step-by-step through the basics of web and blog design. In this book, teens learn to go beyond clicking through web sites to learning winning strategies for web design and great ideas for writing blogs that attract attention and readership.

  7. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  9. Baby Think It Over: Using Role-Play To Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, Jennifer W.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of Baby Think It Over (BTIO), an infant simulation program that seeks to modify attitudes toward teen pregnancy and teen parenting. After experiencing BTIO, teens in the intervention group were more likely to accurately access their personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy than were teens in the comparison group. (Author)

  10. Teen Perceptions of the Promotion of Safer Sexual Practices: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…

  11. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  12. Effects of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program on Teens' Attitudes toward Sexuality: A Latent Trait Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles L.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…

  13. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  14. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  15. Teens-as-teachers nutrition program increases interest in science among schoolchildren and fosters self-efficacy in teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L.J. Bolshakova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Living Ambassador Program brings health, teen leadership, and teamwork to California's elementary school gardens through interdisciplinary UC Cooperative Extension collaboration, community-based partnerships and teen teaching. During spring 2015, teen ambassadors trained by Extension educators and volunteers at UC Elkus Ranch in San Mateo County taught nutrition science, food cultivation and healthy living skills in an 8-week, garden-based, after-school nutrition and physical education program for elementary school children in an urban setting. We conducted a pilot study using a mixed-methods approach to measure and explore the program's impact on children's vegetable selection and consumption preferences, as well as perceived self-efficacy in teen healthy living behavior. The children trended toward an increased preference for gardening, cooking and science, and teens displayed an increase in perceived health self-efficacy.

  16. TeenDrivingPlan effectiveness: the effect of quantity and diversity of supervised practice on teens' driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Jessica H; Albert, W Dustin; Curry, Allison E; Winston, Flaura K; Fisher Thiel, Megan C; Durbin, Dennis R

    2014-11-01

    The large contribution of inexperience to the high crash rate of newly licensed teens suggests that they enter licensure with insufficient skills. In a prior analysis, we found moderate support for a direct effect of a web-based intervention, the TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), on teens' driving performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which TDP may be effective and to extend our understanding of how teens learn to drive. A randomized controlled trial conducted with teen permit holders and parent supervisors (N = 151 dyads) was used to determine if the effect of TDP on driver performance operated through five hypothesized mediators: (1) parent-perceived social support; (2) teen-perceived social support; (3) parent engagement; (4) practice quantity; and (5) practice diversity. Certified driving evaluators, blinded to teens' treatment allocation, assessed teens' driving performance 24 weeks after enrollment. Mediator variables were assessed on self-report surveys administered periodically over the study period. Exposure to TDP increased teen-perceived social support, parent engagement, and practice diversity. Both greater practice quantity and diversity were associated with better driving performance, but only practice diversity mediated the relationship between TDP and driver performance. Practice diversity is feasible to change and increases teens' likelihood of completing a rigorous on-road driving assessment just before licensure. Future research should continue to identify mechanisms that diversify practice driving, explore complementary ways to help families optimize the time they spend on practice driving, and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TDP. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...

  18. THE IDIOM OF KRIVI PUT KOD SENJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čilaš Šimpraga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The idiom of Krivi Put kod Senja is part of West-Štokavian dialect. The basics of phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical characteristics of idiom are considered in this article. Research confirmed common features with idioms of Bunjevo beyond Velebit’s part of hinterland of Senj.

  19. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  20. Multicultural Education Course Put into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which two teachers who have previously taken a multicultural education course put into practice multicultural teaching in a first grade afterschool program. Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education are used as the theoretical framework for analyzing past research on multicultural education courses and for…

  1. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  2. Big meeting puts the case for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    It was a workshop on a scale to match the ultimate goal. When some 500 physicists met in Aachen, Germany, in October to put the research case for the proposed Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the turnout was among the biggest attendances of the year

  3. Heavier chicks at hatch improves marketing body weight by enhancing skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklan, D; Heifetz, S; Halevy, O

    2003-11-01

    This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gastrointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and gastrointestinal tract were compared in chicks hatching at the same weight from maternal flocks of 28 and 64 wk of age and in chicks from the same maternal flock (44 wk old) hatching at different weights. The results indicated that no differences were found among chicks hatching with the same weight from maternal flocks of different ages. In contrast, in chicks from the same maternal flock hatching at different weights the gastrointestinal tract tended to compose a smaller proportion of BW in large chicks, and its growth was not correlated with performance. Liver proportions were greater in heavier chicks. Pectoralis growth and satellite cell numbers and activity were greater in heavier chicks through 5 d posthatch, and pectoralis muscles were heavier at marketing. Examination of some of the growth factors involved suggested that in heavier chicks satellite cells underwent higher proliferation and earlier differentiation during their critical period of activity in the immediate posthatch days. To determine when these differences in activity were established, examination of 15-d embryonic myoblast activity indicated that at this stage activity was already greater in the heavier eggs. This finding suggests that programming of muscle growth may be completed in late embryonic stages. This study suggests that enhanced satellite cell activity is involved in increased growth of chicks hatching with higher BW.

  4. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  5. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteriological examination of cull chicks from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from 25...

  6. Activity of certain enzymes in cadmium-poisoned chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kench, J E; Gubb, P J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Activities of a number of enzymes in the liver and other tissues of newly hatched cadmium poisoned chicks have been compared with those of normal controls before and after incubation with Cd/sup +2/ at a concentration similar to that present in vivo. Concentrations of Cd/sup +2/ in the various cellular fractions were determined, after wet oxidation, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Interaction of Cd/sup +2/ with enzymes may provide information on the localization of enzymes within mitochondria and other cellular structures. 7 references.

  7. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  8. Falling teen pregnancy, birthrates: what's behind the declines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1998-10-01

    About half of the almost 1 million US teenagers who become pregnant each year carry their pregnancies to term and give birth. However, after years of steady increases, teen birthrates in the US are lower and pregnancy rates have fallen to their lowest level in 20 years. Teenage sexual activity is also declining. Over the period 1991-96, the birthrate in the US among teens declined from the 20-year high of 62.1 births/1000 females aged 15-19 to 54.4/1000. This 12% decline comes after a 24% increase in the birthrate between 1986 and 1991. Declines in the teen birthrate were observed for the nation overall, as well as in each state, ranging from 6% in Alabama to 29% in Alaska. The teen birthrate among Blacks declined 21% to reach a record low of 91.4/1000 in 1996, while the rate for Hispanic teens barely changed during 1991-95, but eventually declined 5% during 1995-96 to 101.8/1000. The birthrate among non-Hispanic White teens declined 9% during the period to 48.1/1000, while the birthrate for teens aged 15-17 fell 13% during the period and 9% for 18-19 year olds. Pregnancy rates among women aged 15-19 years declined 14% between 1990 and 1995, to 101.1/1000, the lowest level since the mid-1970s. Although researchers are unsure why teen pregnancy and birthrates have fallen, recent survey data suggest that the declines have occurred because both fewer teens are having sex and more sexually active adolescents are using contraception.

  9. Opportunity, community, and teen pregnancy in an Appalachian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, R; Weaver, S; Williams, T; Lange, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examines female adolescents' responses to opportunities, costs, and community in West Virginia. It is posited that adolescent women's responses to structurally determined contextual factors will be the most important determinant of the teen birth rate. It is posited that girls avoid becoming pregnant and work to stay in school as a wise investment in their future. The variation in males' participation in contributing to teen pregnancy is not considered due to data limitations. West Virginia is a state with low teen abortion rates and limited teen mobility out of state. Community is construed as having a positive sense of affiliation and value for adolescents. Community is measured by school size and a range of 7 measures of community social organization: percentage of urban population in the district, percentage Black, percentage neither Black nor White, level of educational attainment, percentage of college preparatory students, percentage of college students, and percentage of service employees. The 7 factors were reduced with principal component analysis to a measure of modernity. Findings indicate that the birth rate increased by 8% for every increase of 100 students in average school size. The modern variable, which indicates departures from traditional patterns of community organization, was positively, statistically significantly related to the teenage birth rate. The college degree variable was related to increased teen pregnancy as a departure from traditional norms and decreased teen pregnancy as a measure of opportunity. Findings contrast with traditional interpretations of teen pregnancy. Findings indicate that teen pregnancy reflects a lack of opportunity, a decline in traditional community patterns, and the replacement of traditional social relations by shifting labor market relations. Teen births are consequences of disadvantage and disruption as context-driven factors.

  10. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  11. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are

  12. New kid on the block A condor chick takes flight near Fillmore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... very attentive and caring.” Most first- time condor parents fail in their initial attempts to hatch out that first egg. This chick was born on 2 May, near the service's California Condor Recovery. Program. It is the first chick to fledge in the wild in California since 2004, since captive-bred condors were reintroduced.

  13. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  14. A Public Survey on Handling Male Chicks in the Dutch Egg Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.; Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Blok, V.; Stassen, E.N.

    2018-01-01

    In 2035 global egg demand will have risen 50% from 1985. Because we are not able to tell in the egg whether it will become a male or female chick, billons of one day-old male chicks will be killed. International research initiatives are underway in this area, and governments encourage the

  15. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  16. Teen financial literacy evaluated to develop outreach materials

    OpenAIRE

    Varcoe, Karen; Peterson, Shirley; Go, Charles; Johns, Margaret; René-Fitch, Paula; Powell, Carol; Costello, Connie

    2002-01-01

    Teenagers have access to and spend a great deal of money each year, yet research indicates that their financial literacy is low. Many curricula for teaching money management exist, but we do not know if we are teaching teens what they want to know in a way that they want to learn. This study, conducted by the Money 2000+ for Teens Workgroup of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, sought to find out what teens want to know about financial management. Questionnaires were admini...

  17. The Effects of Chicken Box, Chick Paper Type and Flock Age on Sound Level and Leg Abnormalities in One-Day Old Chicks in the Hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    SALAHI, Ahmad; ESMAILIZADEH, ALI K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Chicken box and chick paper are two important factors affecting quality of delivered chicks after hatching and packaging until arrival in rearing farms. In this study, characteristics of 70 samples of chicken boxes collected during two years in four hatcheries in Iran were surveyed. Winter and summer types of chicken boxes each with seven replicates including five chicken boxes were studied. The capacity, length, width, height, weight, area, total ventilation ducts  of  the boxes in...

  18. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T CDNB activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB and GSH concentration regardless of VE status

  19. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  20. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we show...... that bounded rationality may drive opportunism. All hierarchal forms are inherently subject to specific bounded-rationality-based conflicts, thus have different capacities to mitigate bounded-rationality-based transaction costs....

  2. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  3. Characterisation of genes induced during memory formation in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.A.; Luermans, J.; Gibbs, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Memory formation can be divided into short-term and long-term. Short-term memory involves electro-chemical activity in the neurons whereas long-term memory requires a permanent change that includes protein synthesis. One of the problems involved with identifying late memory related genes is determining an optimal system in which to study gene expression. We have used a discriminated passive avoidance task in chicks to identify genes that are differentially regulated during memory formation. A mRNA subtraction method was previously used to specifically identify several genes that are expressed in the chick intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) within two hours of training. Eight bands ranging in size from 400bp to 1100bp were obtained in the initially screen. We are currently cloning these PCR products into suitable vectors for further analysis. Two of these clones have been sequenced and analysed using both the blastn and blastx programs in ANGIS. The first clone was found to correspond to cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) is a transmembrane protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane and forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. The second clone codes for the ferritin heavy chain. Ferritin is a ubiquitous protein that is involved in iron homeostasis. At present it is unclear what role these two proteins play in memory formation but further studies are being undertaken to determine the expression profiles of these genes following memory induction. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  4. Evaluation of Immunodulatory effect of Stresroak Premix in Broiler Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.Gatne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory efficacy of polyherbal formulation Stresroak along with effect on performance in broiler chicken. Four hundred and fifty healthy days old chicks were randomly divided into three groups (each group consisting of 150 chicks. Group A served as a negative control while group B served as positive control supplemented with levamisole, a known immunomodulator @ 15 mg/kg body weight through water for four consecutive days from third day onwards. Group C birds supplemented with Stresroak were administered @ 1 kg /tone of feed for consecutively for 11 days i.e. 5 days before and 5 days after vaccination. Parameters under study were performance traits viz, body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, blood samples were collected at weekly interval for evaluation of various haematological, biochemical immunological and histopathological examination parameters. Results revealed that the antibody titre, total proteins and globulins were increased significantly in the birds receiving Stresroak as compared to untreated control group. Performance parameters were improved non-significantly as compared to untreated control (Group A. Histopathologically varying degrees of lympho-proliferative changes noted which reveals increase number of lymphocytes. It was concluded that Stresroak exhibits hematinic, hepato-protective and Immunomodulator properties [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 122-125

  5. Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on some biochemical variables in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Salih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism ofchicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albuminlevels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels inserum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levelsas compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal for 14 dayscaused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereasit did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showedsignificant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxiceffects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low densitylipoprotein level.

  6. Economic Impacts of White Chick Syndrome in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathleen E; Hastie, Gordon M; Ojkić, Davor; Brash, Marina L

    2017-09-01

    A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1.8% to 49.1%. Some flocks experienced increased feed clean-up duration and/or reduced hatching egg weight. The financial impacts of WCS to affected hatching egg producers averaged $5,912 CAD (US$4,417) per 10 000 hens and were as great as $16,788 CAD (US$12,544) per 10 000 hens. The financial impacts of WCS to the affected hatcheries averaged $1,723 CAD (US$1,287) per 10 000 broiler breeder hens and were as great as $4,096 (US$3,060) per 10 000 hens.

  7. Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A

    2014-12-01

    A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age.

  8. Dealing with teen-age pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, P L

    1991-01-01

    The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role

  9. 10 Ways to Help Your Teen Succeed in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encourage your teen to do practice problems in math or science. If the material is beyond your ... can get involved by: serving as a grade-level chairperson organizing and/or working at fundraising activities ...

  10. Charge Up! Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits for Better Health Healthy Meals & Snacks for Teens ... Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Power up with lean meats, chicken, seafood, eggs, beans, ...

  11. Distracted Driving in Teens with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect cell phone conversation or text messaging has on motor : vehicle collision-related injury risk in teens with or without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity : Disorder Combined Type (ADHD-C) and whether a computerized cognitive...

  12. Video and non-video feedback interventions for teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In-vehicle feedback technologies, including some that use video, help parents monitor and mentor their young drivers. While different feedback technologies have been shown to reduce some risky driving behaviors, teens and parents cite privacy concern...

  13. Healthy Weight Gain for Teens: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids with each meal and snack. What about protein bars? Protein bars are another type of supplement. ... gain but remember to have discussions about school, sports, current events, and feelings with your teen. Related ...

  14. Effectiveness of Oregon's teen licensing program : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in Oregons teen licensing laws went into effect on March 1, 2000. The new laws expanded the provisional driving license program which had been in effect since October 1989 and established a graduated driver licensing (GDL) prog...

  15. Teens and Stress: Who Has Time for It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  16. Teen Screen: Take a Walk on the Wild Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Reviews seven videos that involve some aspect of extreme sports, feature loud rock music, and are popular with teens. Includes snowboarding, Gravity Games, BMX bikes, skateboarding, and skydiving. (LRW)

  17. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2013 More on this topic for: Teens Can Diabetes Be Prevented? How Much Food Should I Eat? 5 Ways to Reach a Healthy Weight Body Image and Self-Esteem What's the Right Weight for My Height? Staying ...

  18. Teen dating violence: building a research program through collaborative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Carrie F; Blachman-Demner, Dara R

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has an emerging portfolio of research in the area of teen dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse). This article begins with a discussion of the developments that prompted NIJ to focus on teen dating violence. Next, the article highlights specific accomplishments and contributions that NIJ has made to helping develop knowledge and scientific understanding of adolescent relationship abuse, particularly around the prevention of teen dating violence perpetration and victimization. This is followed by a presentation of some of the key findings from NIJ-funded research. We then move to a discussion of some of the complex issues around definition, measurement and research methods and how NIJ has been involved in addressing those issues. The article concludes with some thoughts about the intersection of teen dating violence research, policy, and practice and highlights several research gaps that are in need of additional attention.

  19. Isokinetic trunk muscle performance in pre-teens and teens with and without back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J-C; Boudokhane, S; Pujol, A; Chaléat-Valayer, E; Le Blay, G; Deceuninck, J

    2014-02-01

    To assess with an isokinetic dynamometer the force and endurance of the spinal flexor and extensor muscles in pre-teens or teens aged 11 to 13 and 14 to 16 years with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group and the LBP group were homogeneous in terms of age, weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). Assessment was carried out with the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex Norm®. The spinal flexors and extensors were explored concentrically at speeds of 60°, 90° and 120°/sec. The parameters chosen were: maximal moment of force (MMF), mean power (MP), total work (TW), F/E ratios (between the flexors and the extensors for the aforesaid parameters). In the LBP groups, clinical information (pain, extensibility of the spinal and sub-pelvic muscles, sports practice) and sagittal radiological data were all measured. While no significant difference in isokinetic performance was found between asymptomatic and LBP children in the 11-to-13-year-old group, the isokinetic performances of the LBP children were influenced positively by BMI value, number of hours of physical activity and radiologic value of the lumbar lordosis. As regards these pre-teens, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer does not highlight muscle characteristics that might explain LBP occurrence. As regards the 14-to-16-year-old group, muscle strength has been found to be correlated with age. LBP teens were showed to have weaker extensors and stronger flexors than the healthy teens. It is with regard to this age group that assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer clearly yields interesting results. Since we have yet to standardize our evaluation criteria (working speed, number of trials…), it is difficult to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This is a preliminary study involving a relatively low number of patients. That said, given the fact that numerous parameters are connected with the age and height of the subjects, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer can be

  20. Racial Disparity, Depression, and Birth Outcomes Among Pregnant Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Hala; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Aly, Hany

    2018-03-20

    Objectives To examine the risk of premature delivery (PD) and small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant teens with depressive disorders (DD), and the impact of race/ethnicity on these birth outcomes. Design/Methods We examined the hospital discharge records of pregnant mothers between the age of 13-18 year old who gave birth in the years 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012 in the National Inpatient Sample database. We calculated the risk for PD and SGA among pregnant teens with and without DD in the overall population and within each race/ethnicity. Results Weighted sample included 1,023,586 pregnant teenage women. Prevalence of DD among teens was 0.93%, with a significantly increasing trend from 0.29% in 1994 to 2.01% in 2012 (p teens from 1994 to 2012. Prevalence of depression among teenage mothers was highest among Caucasians compared to other races. Prevalence of SGA among pregnant teens was 2.23% that significantly increased from 1.63% in 1994 to 3.44% in 2012 (p teens with DD had decreased risk for PD compared to AA without DD (OR 0.70; CI 0.57 - 0.387, p teens with DD had increased risk for SGA compared to Hispanics without DD (adjusted OR 1.53; CI 1.10-2.13, p teens. Less young teenage girls are giving birth in recent years. The impact of DD on PD and SGA differs according to race. More studies are warranted to examine underlining factors responsible for these findings.

  1. Teen Pregnancy - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-05

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  2. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  5. Challenges to Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Robles, Sonia; Pedersen, Laura; LeCroy, Craig Winston

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding practices of teen mothers in a pre- and postnatal education and support program. We studied breastfeeding practices of primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic White teen mothers who participated in the Teen Outreach Pregnancy Services (TOPS) program, which promoted breastfeeding through prenatal programming and postpartum support. Analyses identified the most common reasons participants had not breastfed and, for those who initiated breastfeeding, the most common reasons they stopped. Participants (g = 314) reported on whether and for how long they breastfed. Nearly all participants reported initiating breastfeeding but few breastfed to 6 months. For the most part, reasons they reported stopping breastfeeding paralleled those previously reported for adult mothers across the first several months of motherhood. We found that teen mothers can initiate breastfeeding at high rates. Results highlight areas in which teen mothers' knowledge and skills can be supported to promote breastfeeding duration, including pain management and better recognizing infant cues. Our findings expand limited previous research investigating reasons that teen mothers who initiate breastfeeding stop before 6 months.

  6. Exploring African-American and Latino Teens' Perceptions of Contraception and Access to Reproductive Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Charlotte T.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Dixon, Rena P.; Fuller, Taleria R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens? 1) preferen...

  7. Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Heather Keyronica

    2016-01-01

    Heather K. Petty ABSTRACT Title: Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens Background: Childhood, adolescent, and adult obesity is a major health and economic concern affecting the United States and various countries across the globe. Obese children and adolescents are at a potential risk for developing certain chronic diseases as they transition into adulthood. There are community-based cooking intervention programs designed t...

  8. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; El-Barkouky, E.E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was 60 Co gamma-rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma-rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes did not affect by 60 Co gamma-rays. Gamma-rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to 60 Co gamma-rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to this rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Growth of Audouin's gull chicks: the role of prehatch and posthatch factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villuendas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the growth rates of Audouin´s Gull (Larus audouinii chicks from the Ebro Delta and Columbretes Islands. Chicks from the Columbretes Islands were reared in captivity and fed ad libitum. Wild chicks from the Ebro Delta weighed more than chicks hatched from Columbretes eggs but attained a lower weight at fledging. Chicks from Columbretes eggs hatched with a longer wing length but rates did not differ between samples during the early stages of growth. Eggs from the Ebro Delta were significantly larger than eggs from Columbretes. Hence, differences in growth appeared not to be related to differences in egg size (prehatch factor but only in parental quality (posthatch factor through the amount of food delivered to chicks. These differences could be due to the incapacity of parents to provide enough food during the last stages of chick development, in part because of reduced food availability at the Ebro Delta during the study period. Alternatively, differences could be attributed to a trade-off between present and future reproduction. Demographic consequences of reduced food availability for the 1993 Ebro Delta cohort should be explored in future work.

  10. Irradiated eggs and chicks in broilers: 3- carcass and blood parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Abdelaal, A.E.; Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E.; EL-Barkouky, E.E.; Salem, M.A.I.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out on 200 broiler chicks (Hcbbard) representing 3 groups of non-irradiated, irradiated eggs and 4-day-old irradiated chicks (exposed to gamma rays of Co-60). The doses used were 500 and 1000 rad.Half the chickens within each group and within each dose level were treated with vitamin C (50 mg/chick/day) in the drinking water. Carcass analysis, giblets weight and some blood parameters were measured individually in five chicks from each group at 2,4,5 and 6 weeks of age. The data revealed that the exposure of either eggs or chicks to gamma-rays induced a highly significant decrease in liver, heart and gizzard weights. The effect was more pronounced in the irradiated chicks than that in the chicks of irradiated eggs particularly at the dose level of 1000 rad. Except few sporadic cases noticed at different age intervals, no appreciable changes in either carcass chemical analysis (water, fat, protein and ash contents) or blood parameters (RBCs, Hb, PCV, Ca, P, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin) were observed. It seems that the giblets were more sensitive to and reflect the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation than carcass chemical analysis and/or Blood parameters

  11. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; El-Barkouky, E.E.M.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes were not affected by /sup 60/Co gamma rays. Gamma rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to these rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex.

  12. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Modeling the marine resources consumed in raising a king penguin chick: an energetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Bost, C-A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of penguin energetics would represent an important contribution to our understanding of the trophodynamics of the Southern Ocean ecosystem and our ability to predict effects of environmental change on these species. We used the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption technique to estimate rate of energy expenditure in adult king penguins raising a chick, in combination with data from the literature on changes in adult mass, chick energy requirements, and prey energy density. Our model estimated a variety of energetic costs and quantities of prey consumption related to raising a king penguin chick during the austral summer. The total energy requirements of a king penguin chick at the Crozet Archipelago from hatching until reaching a mass of 8 kg 90 d later is 271 MJ, representing the consumption of 38.4 kg of myctophid fish. A successfully breeding male requires 0.78 kg d(-1) of fish during the entirety of the incubation period and 1.14 kg d(-1) during the subsequent 90 d of chick rearing. Assuming the same energy requirements for females, the estimated 580,000 pairs of king penguins that breed successfully at Crozet each year, together with their chicks, consume a total of around 190,000 tons of fish during the incubation and summer rearing periods combined. If, due to depletion of fish stocks, the diet of breeders and chicks during the summer becomes identical to the typical diet of adults during the austral winter, the mass of prey required by both adults and chicks combined (where the chick still reaches 8 kg after 90 d) would increase by more than 25%.

  14. Social facilitation revisited: increase in foraging efforts and synchronization of running in domestic chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko eOgura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1 running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s, (2 running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3 paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4 social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner’s movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.

  15. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull

  16. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  17. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Pirsljin, J.; Beer Ljubic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Kraljevic, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Characteristics in the Embryonic Chick Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Jesper

    This ph.d. thesis contains the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamical phenomena in the tubular embryonic chick heart at HH-stages 10, 12, 14, and 16. The models are constructed by application of energy bond technique and involve the elasticity of heart walls with elliptic cross-section, Womersley...... modified inertia, and resistance due to friction and curvature of the multilayered tubular heart. Through the modeling, flow conditions in the embryonic heart are characterized. The models suggest that eccentric rather than concentric deformation of the beating heart is optimal for mean flows induced...... the models are not conclusive on this point. In addition the Liebau effect is investigated in a simpler system containing two elastic tubes joined to form a liquid filled ring, with a compression pump at an asymmetric location. Through comparison to other reports the system validates model construction...

  19. Formation of Youth Identity in Indonesian Islamic Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to argue that literature studies may help reveal the formation of young Indonesian female Muslim identity by looking at the books they read and write. It will particularly discuss two popular Islamic Chick Lit Santri Semelekete [Funky Islamic Boarding School Girl] (2005 by Ma’rifatun Baroroh and Jilbab Britney Spears: Catatan Harian Sabrina [Britney Spears’ Headscarf: Sabrina’s Diary] (2004 by Herlinatiens. The first part of the discussion will examine some external aspects such as physical presentation, biographical details of the authors, and publication-related matters. Then, using such side-line information, the next part will discuss the novels’ contents to see in what way they offer some cultural analysis of youth identity in contemporary Indonesian society.

  20. The chick embryo: a leading model in somitogenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    The vertebrate body is built on a metameric organization which consists of a repetition of functionally equivalent units, each comprising a vertebra, its associated muscles, peripheral nerves and blood vessels. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the presomitic mesoderm and they subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somitogenesis has been very actively studied in the chick embryo since the 19th century and many of the landmark experiments that led to our current understanding of the vertebrate segmentation process have been performed in this organism. Somite formation involves an oscillator, the segmentation clock whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries by a spacing mechanism relying on a traveling threshold of FGF signaling regressing in concert with body axis extension.

  1. The effect of insecticide Deltamethrin on development of chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Naal, R.; Bassal, M. Osman, M.

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cyto and the embryo toxicity of Deltamethrin and its commercial formulation DECIS 50 EC in chick embryo during its critical embryonic development period before and in the organogenesis. The embryos were incubated in well closed plastic caps containing the complete egg composition at 38 o. the Deltamethrin and DECIS were found to cause histological and morphological malformations, specially in the brain, also they reduced the majority of the synthetic activities of the DNA, RNA, and proteins in the embryonic and the vascular areas. The flow cytometric analysis showed alterations in frequency of cells in both embryonic and vascular areas in the treated embryo during the cell cycle phases. Our study also showed that the DECIS had greater cyto and embryo toxicity than the Seltamethrin for analysis (author). 149 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Monitoring phthalates in the tissues of broiler chicks with feedstuffs different phthalate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat, skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate contents, or animal fat with a high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K, nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oils or animal fat. The N chicks were given the grower (BR2 and finisher (BR3 diets supplemented with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The V chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The Z chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% animal fat, respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in the tissues of chicks in all the experimental groups. The DBP content in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from < 0.20 to 2.56 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 1.49 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.03 to 0.13 mg . kg−1. The content of DEHP in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 1.15 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from 0.25 to 9.85 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 4.68 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.16 to 0.24 mg . kg−1. The highest concentrations of DBP of 1.28 ± 1.00 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 ± 2.87 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (mean of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. The accumulation of DEHP was 3.2; 2.6 and 2.9 times higher than that of DBP in the muscle, adipose tissue and skin

  3. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  4. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-05-27

    Teeth were lost in birds 70-80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick chimeras obtained show evidence of tooth formation showing that avian oral epithelium is able to induce a nonavian developmental program in mouse neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells.

  5. What to Do If Your Teen or Young Adult Has a Problem with Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavioral approaches. With adults, both individual therapy and group counseling settings with peers are used. However, studies suggest ... Will a support group help my teen? While group counseling is sometimes discouraged for teens, peer support groups ...

  6. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  7. "Danish women put up with less"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leine, Marie; Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    2018-01-01

    women put up with less”—and that the report was, in effect, invalid. In this article we outline the discursive space that emerges when the mass media seeks to tackle symptoms of inequality in Denmark. We argue that the ideology of gender equality comes to construct a dominant discourse, which silences...... symptoms of inequality. Thereby, gendered violence in Denmark is rendered invisible in public awareness.......Denmark is a country that has been heralded for its high levels of gender equality for decades. One would have expected, then, that the recent EU report that ranked Denmark as the EU-member country with the highest occurrence of physical violence towards women would have created a public uproar...

  8. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  9. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  10. Vital Signs: Repeat Births Among Teens — United States, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Lorrie; Warner, Lee; O’Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Duong, Linh M.; Marshall, Cassondra; Hastings, Philip A.; Harrison, Ayanna T.; Barfield, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother’s education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. Methods To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and t...

  11. Toxicity to Chicks of Aspergillus and Penicillium Species Isolated from Moldy Pecans 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Ben; Bell, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus chevalieri, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, and Penicillium funiculosum and complexes of P. citrinum-P. implicatum isolated from moldy pecan meats were toxic to chicks. PMID:5564681

  12. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  13. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintu, Andrei; Rouwet, Ellen; Verlohren, Stefan; Brinkmann, Joep; Ahmad, Shakil; Crispi, Fatima; van Bilsen, Marc; Carmeliet, Peter; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Tjwa, Marc; Cetin, Irene; Gratacos, Eduard; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hofstra, Leo; Jacobs, Michael; Lamers, Wouter H.; Morano, Ingo; Safak, Erdal; Ahmed, Asif; le Noble, Ferdinand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos.

  14. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students’ language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of technology on teens, and scant literature is available that incorporates the perspective of urban and linguistically diverse students on the feasibility of applying new technologies in teaching and learning literacy in intact classrooms. This paper reports urban adolescents’ perspectives on the use of technology within teen culture, for learning in general and for literacy instruction in particular. Focus group interviews were conducted among linguistically diverse urban students in grades 6, 7 and 8 in a lower income neighborhood in the Northeastern region of the United States. The major findings of the study were that 1 urban teens primarily and almost exclusively used social media and technology devices for peer socializing, 2 they were interested in using technology to improve their literacy skills, but did not appear to voluntarily or independently integrate technology into learning, and 3 8th graders were considerably more sophisticated in their use of technology and their suggestions for application of technology to literacy learning than 6th and 7th graders. These findings lead to suggestions for developing effective literacy instruction using new technologies.

  15. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  16. Diploma Attainment among Teen Mothers. Fact Sheet. Publication #2010-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perper, Kate; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recently released government data show that in 2006, the U.S. teen birth rate began to increase, marking the end of a 14-year period of decline. More specifically, these data show that between 2005 and 2007, the teen birth rate climbed five percent. This trend reversal is a cause for concern, given the negative consequences of teen childbearing…

  17. Evaluating opportunities for text message communication: a survey of parents and teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Jones, Jordan T; Chesser, Amy; Weeks, Kerri

    2013-09-01

    Text messaging is a widespread, cost-effective method for communicating. It is widely used by both parents and teens. The study objective was to survey teens and their parents to assess the capability and willingness of teens to receive healthcare-related text messages from their physician. Parents and teens (12-17 years old) at an adolescent clinic were asked to complete surveys. Surveys were available in hard copy or electronically (via Survey Monkey) using computer kiosks in the waiting room. Approval was received from two local Institutional Review Boards. Of the 93 pairs who began the survey, 47 pairs (51%) qualified and completed both the teen and parent surveys. Over 85% of teens were willing to receive texts from their doctor. Teens were most interested in appointment reminders (81%), immunization reminders (53%), and general test results (for example, strep [53%]). Parents' willingness to allow teens to receive text messages directly varied by content. Many parents preferred to also receive a copy of any text message sent to their teen. Both parents and teens endorse using text messages for appointment reminders. Parents appear willing for their teens to receive some health information directly. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of using text messages for communication with teens to improve care and utilization of services for adolescents.

  18. Extending the Five-Foot Bookshelf: More Essential Books for Professionals Who Serve Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Provides annotated bibliographies for five books that are recommended professional reading for librarians serving teens. Topics include American Indian stereotypes in the media; a leadership guide for school library media specialists; views of teens; how teens who are different are often outcasts; and tips for public library young adult services.…

  19. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  20. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual…

  1. 76 FR 6307 - National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation's...

  2. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  3. Denormalizing a Historical Problem: Teen Pregnancy, Policy, and Public Health Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Smith, Leonie C. R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of teen-adult sexual relationships as a public health threat and the effectiveness of statutory rape laws in protecting adolescent children. Methods: A comprehensive review of current literature surrounding child abuse, teen pregnancy, and statutory rape was conducted. Results: Of one million teen girls who become…

  4. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  5. Postponing Second Teen Births in the 1990s: Longitudinal Analyses of National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela

    A sample of high school-age mothers was followed from 1988 to 1994 in order to examine factors associated with having a second teen birth or closely spaced second teen birth. Factors associated with postponing a second teen birth included characteristics measured prior to the first birth, at the time of the first birth, and after the first birth.…

  6. What's behind the Good News: The Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Christine

    Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…

  7. Trends in Hispanic Teen Births: Differences across States. Research Brief. Publication #2007-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics represent one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population, and this rapid growth is projected to be even more dramatic for Hispanic teens. The number of Hispanic teens is projected to increase by 50 percent by 2025, even though the total teen population is expected to increase by only 6 percent in the same time period.…

  8. Teen Drinking and Driving: A Dangerous Mix. CDC Vitalsigns[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The percentage of teens in high school who drink and drive has decreased by more than half since 1991, but more can be done. Nearly one million high school teens drank alcohol and got behind the wheel in 2011. Teen drivers are 3 times more likely than more experienced drivers to be in a fatal crash. Drinking any alcohol greatly increases this risk…

  9. Vitamin E as a radioprotector of bursa of Fabricius in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Rana, K.; Malhotra, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radioprotective influence of vitamin E has been studied on the bursa of Fabricius 1 and 7 day old white leghorn chicks exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body γ-radiations. The study has revealed that the loss of lymphocytic population in the bursal follicles due to irradiation was very small in vitamin E treated animals compared to the untreated irradiated chicks. Also, the rate of reparation and lymphocytic repopulation was enhanced with vitamin E administration. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  10. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi; Alireza Seidavi; Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi; Vito Laudadio; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows...

  11. Elevated temperatures are associated with stress in rooftop-nesting Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Gretchen N; Swanson, David L

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk ( Chordeiles minor ) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types. Mean humidity has increased and mean wind speed and cloud cover have decreased during the nighthawk breeding season from 1948 to 2016 in southeastern South Dakota. These changes might contribute to increasing operative temperatures at exposed rooftop nest sites and this could influence chick condition. We studied nest micro-climate and the plasma stress response for 24 rooftop-nesting nighthawk chicks from 17 nests during 2015 and 2016. High humidity prior to blood collection reduced both baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone (CORT). In contrast, high maximum temperatures during the day before sampling increased stress-induced CORT. The magnitude of the chick stress response was significantly negatively related to maximum wind speed for the week prior to CORT measurement. Other weather and micro-climate variables were not significant effectors of CORT metrics. Most chicks had low baseline CORT and were able to mount a stress response, but a subset of chicks ( n = 4) showed elevated baseline CORT and a negative association between the magnitude of stress response and ambient temperature. For this subset, mean ambient temperature for the day before sampling was significantly higher (2.3°C) than for chicks with typical baseline CORT levels. These data suggest that regional climate change trends could affect the ability of nighthawk chicks to mount a stress response, which, in turn, might influence the susceptibility of

  12. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of

  13. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed.

  14. EFFICACY OF GENTAMICIN AFTER INTRAYOLK ADMINISTRATION IN EXPERIMENT ALLY INDUCED OMPHALITIS IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf, Qamar Arif and Kashif Aziz Khan1

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to observe the effect of intrayolk injection of gentamicin on experimentally induced omphalitis in broiler chicks. Escherichia coli was injected into yolk sac to induce omphalitis and treatment was done by intrayolk injection of gentamicin. Results showed that mortality decreased and feed intake increased after treatment, Intrayolk injection of antibiotics is suggested as an alternative to oral administration for the treatment of omphalitis in chicks.

  15. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r2 = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r2 = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weights of 56 (r2 = 0.657) and 60 (r2 = 0.870) g, respectively, ...

  16. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tintu

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The aim of this study was to further characterize cardiac disease in hypoxic chick embryos.Chick embryos were exposed to hypoxia and cardiac structure was examined by histological methods one day prior to hatching (E20 and at adulthood. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography and ex vivo by contractility measurements in isolated heart muscle bundles and isolated cardiomyocytes. Chick embryos were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its scavenger soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1 to investigate the potential role of this hypoxia-regulated cytokine.Growth restricted hypoxic chick embryos showed cardiomyopathy as evidenced by left ventricular (LV dilatation, reduced ventricular wall mass and increased apoptosis. Hypoxic hearts displayed pump dysfunction with decreased LV ejection fractions, accompanied by signs of diastolic dysfunction. Cardiomyopathy caused by hypoxia persisted into adulthood. Hypoxic embryonic hearts showed increases in VEGF expression. Systemic administration of rhVEGF(165 to normoxic chick embryos resulted in LV dilatation and a dose-dependent loss of LV wall mass. Lowering VEGF levels in hypoxic embryonic chick hearts by systemic administration of sFlt-1 yielded an almost complete normalization of the phenotype.Our data show that hypoxia causes a decreased cardiac performance and cardiomyopathy in chick embryos, involving a significant VEGF-mediated component. This cardiomyopathy persists into adulthood.

  17. Physiological responses of newly hatched broiler chicks to increasing journey distance during road transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Khosravinia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects on weight loss (WL, residual yolk (RY utilization and serum biochemical parameters of transport distance (TD in newly hatched broiler chicks. Just after hatching, 200 Ross 308 broiler chicks were traveled over 1000 km. At hatchery and after 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 km journey, a random sample of 20 birds were killed for blood collection, WL and yolk weight assessment. Live weight decreased linearly by 0.42 and 0.48 g per 100 km of journey in males and female chicks, respectively. Yolk sac residual utilized by 0.071 and 0.069 g per 100 km of travel in males and females chicks, respectively, over journey distances up to 800 km. Extended journey from 800 to 1000 km caused a great decline of 0.51 and 0.58 g per 100 km in yolk weight in male and female chicks, respectively. Serum Ca concentration reduced in TDs up to 400 km, then increased for longer journeys (P<0.05. Over 1000 km journey, serum GLU level of 196.24 mg/dL at hatchery was decreased to 117.31 mg/dL at the end of journey. Serum urea, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations were increased with the extended TDs (P<0.05. In conclusion increasing transportation distance causes intensified physiological stress in broiler chicks with varying effect on different stress indicators. Stress indicators in newly hatched chicks in transit may differ from those proposed for replaced chicks and the broiler chicken at later ages.

  18. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  19. Vital signs: Repeat births among teens - United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother's education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007-2010. Based on 2010 NVSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, of more than 367,000 births to teens aged 15-19 years, 18.3% were repeat births. The percentage of teen births that represented repeat births decreased by 6.2% between 2007 and 2010. Disparities in repeat teen births exist by race/ethnicity, with the highest percentages found among American Indian/Alaska Natives (21.6%), Hispanics (20.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (20.4%) and lowest among non-Hispanic whites (14.8%). Wide geographic disparities in the percentage of teen births that were repeat births also exist, ranging from 22% in Texas to 10% in New Hampshire. PRAMS data from 16 reporting areas (15 states and New York City) indicate that 91.2% of teen mothers used a contraceptive method 2-6 months after giving birth, but only 22.4% of teen mothers used the most effective methods. Teens with a previous live birth were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods postpartum compared with those with no prior live birth (29.6% versus 20.9%, respectively). Non-Hispanic white and Hispanic teens were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods than non-Hispanic black teens (24.6% and 27.9% versus 14.3%, respectively). The percentage of teens reporting postpartum use of the most effective methods varied greatly geographically across the PRAMS reporting areas, ranging from 50.3% in Colorado to 7.2% in New York State. Although the

  20. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments

  1. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using 14 C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter

  3. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Breeding biology of the whiskered auklet (Aethia pygmaea): incubation, chick growth, and feather ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniukhov, N B; Zubakin, V A; Williams, J; Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    This is the second publication on the results of studies of the whiskered auklet breeding biology on Buldir Island. In 1993, according to the time of chick hatching the egg-laying period began in late April-early May. The single egg was incubated by both parents, which relieved each other once a day, usually at early night. Among the chicks under observation, the first hatched on June 11; the median of hatching was on June 17. After hatching, the egg shell usually remained in the nest. The chick was continuously brooded by one of parents for the first several days but since the age of 7-9 days, it stayed in the nest by itself during the daytime. Each parent fed the chick once a day, at early night, although occasional feedings were recorded also during daytime and at dawn. A newly hatched chick was covered by typical embryonal (natal) down. The remiges, rectrices, their coverts, and large feathers on pteryla humeralis had a mesoptile stage during their growth (the second down generation). The juvenile plumage consisted of semiplumes of types I and II and contour feathers of type I and, possibly, type II. In fledglings, the ornamental feathers were underdeveloped: the crest was absent and facial plumes only began growing. By reaching 100 g, the chicks left their nests at the age of about 37 days. A longer nesting period than in other Aethia auklets appears to be related to a low feeding rate due to the nocturnal activity in the colony.

  5. Chick Development and Asynchroneous Hatching in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging. To determine whether such processes in fact occur in the zebra finch, we observed chick development in 18 clutches of zebra finches. We found that there were effects of asynchronous hatching, but these were smaller than expected and mostly not significant. Our observations suggest that the amount of care given to each chick may be equated with such factors as a camouflage effect of the down feathers, and that the low illumination within the nest also complicates the determination of the hatching order by the parents.

  6. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Eichhorst, B.A.; Warburton, D.

    2007-01-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Vladimir; Plachy, Jiri; Pinterova, Daniela; Kolostova, Katarina; Boubelik, Michael; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed. We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lewis lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing GFP, were injected on the 12th day of incubation in the chick embryo. GFP-Lewis lung carcinoma metastases were visualized by fluorescence, after seven days additional incubation, in the brain, heart, and sternum of the developing chick embryo, with the most frequent site being the brain. The combination of streptokinase and gemcitabine was evaluated in this GFP metastatic model. Twelve-day-old chick embryos were injected intravenously with GFP-Lewis lung cancer cells, along with these two agents either alone or in combination. The streptokinase-gemcitabine combination inhibited metastases at all sites. The effective dose of gemcitabine was found to be 10 mg/kg and streptokinase 2000 IU per embryo. The data in this report suggest that this new stably fluorescent imageable metastatic-cancer chick-embryo model will enable rapid screening of new antimetastatic agents.

  8. Responses of broiler chicks to radiation processed full-fat rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din Diaa.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds

  9. Adolescent bariatric surgery program characteristics: the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H; Teich, Steven; Eneli, Ihuoma; Miller, Rosemary; Brandt, Mary L; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph C

    2014-02-01

    The number of adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) has increased in response to the increasing prevalence of severe childhood obesity. Adolescents undergoing WLS require unique support, which may differ from adult programs. The aim of this study was to describe institutional and programmatic characteristics of centers participating in Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS), a prospective study investigating safety and efficacy of adolescent WLS. Data were obtained from the Teen-LABS database, and site survey completed by Teen-LABS investigators. The survey queried (1) institutional characteristics, (2) multidisciplinary team composition, (3) clinical program characteristics, and (4) clinical research infrastructure. All centers had extensive multidisciplinary involvement in the assessment, pre-operative education, and post-operative management of adolescents undergoing WLS. Eligibility criteria and pre-operative clinical and diagnostic evaluations were similar between programs. All programs have well-developed clinical research infrastructure, use adolescent-specific educational resources, and maintain specialty equipment, including high weight capacity diagnostic imaging equipment. The composition of clinical team and institutional resources is consistent with current clinical practice guidelines. These characteristics, coupled with dedicated research staff, have facilitated enrollment of 242 participants into Teen-LABS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. What Teens Want: Barriers to Seeking Care for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Green, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of teenagers seeking and receiving care for depression from primary care providers. We investigated teens’ perceived barriers in obtaining care to determine how primary care can effectively address depressed teens’ stated needs. In-depth individual (n = 15) and focus group (n = 7) interviews with adolescents were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory and prominent themes were identified. Teenagers reported faring best when providers actively considered and reflected upon the teenagers’ developmentally appropriate desires to be normal, to feel connected, and to be autous. These goals are achieved by providers establishing rapport, exchanging information about depression etiology and treatment, and helping teens make decisions about their treatment. To the extent that providers improve efforts to help teens feel normal, autonomous, and connected, the teens report they are more likely to accept treatment for depression and report success in treatment. PMID:16489480

  11. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  12. The effect of spending cuts on teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David; Wright, Liam

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, English local authorities have been forced to make significant cuts to devolved expenditure. In this paper, we examine the impact of reductions in local expenditure on one particular public health target: reducing rates of teen pregnancy. Contrary to predictions made at the time of the cuts, panel data estimates provide no evidence that areas which reduced expenditure the most have experienced relative increases in teenage pregnancy rates. Rather, expenditure cuts are associated with small reductions in teen pregnancy rates, a result which is robust to a number of alternative specifications and tests for causality. Underlying socio-economic factors such as education outcomes and alcohol consumption are found to be significant predictors of teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  14. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, Ptransportation, chicks showed increased CORT (Ptransportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Is a driver's license age waiver worth a teen's life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dawn M; Miller, Beverly K; Mullins, Samantha H; Porter, Mary E; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers. This is a brief report on an informative query exploring risk factors related to age waivers. Publicly available databases were utilized for across state comparisons. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems (WISQARS) was utilized to calculate motor vehicle crash crude death rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data were utilized to identify seat belt use rates. The Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was utilized to identify crash fatality risks for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas (N = 24). Age waiver data were obtained from the Arkansas Driver Control Administration. De-identified data on fatal crashes and rates of age waiver issuance in Arkansas for 14 and 15 year olds from 2004 through 2016 were calculated. We reviewed crash data for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas between 2004 and 2014 to determine fatality risks. Thirty-one out of seventy-five counties in Arkansas were above the state age waiver issuance rate of 30.4 per 1000 14 to 15 year old teens. Among the four states that had similar age waivers for 14 to 15 year olds, Arkansas had the highest motor vehicle death rate of 10.2 per 100,000 young teens and the lowest seat belt use rate at 73%. Arkansas had the highest reported teen crash fatality rates among 4 states with age waivers. The volume of age waivers issued in Arkansas is concerning. Further research is needed

  17. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  18. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  19. Aluminum toxicity perturbs long bone calcification in the embryonic chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firling, C.E.; Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth; Hill, T.A.; Severson, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    Long bone calcification in chick embryos acutely- or chronically-treated with aluminum (Al) citrate was investigated. Acutely treated embryos received 100 μl of 60 mM Al citrate, 60 mM sodium (Na) citrate, or 0.7% sodium chloride on day 8 of incubation. Chronically treated embryos received a daily 25 μl dose of the above solutions beginning on day 8. Following 2-8 days of additional incubation, blood was collected, embryos killed, hind limbs radiographed, and tibias collected. Radiography indicated that Al administration resulted in a persistent angulation in the mid-diaphysis of tibias and femurs and a transient mineralization defect during the 10- to 12-day period of incubation. Tibias from 10- to 12-day embryos which were administered Al contained significantly less (P 45 Ca uptake by tibias of embryos treated with Al was significantly lower on days 10 (acute) and 12 (chronic) with no significant differences in Ca uptake rate among the three treatment groups by day 16. In each treatment group bone alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity increased approximately tenfold between days 10 and 16. At all stages, bone ALPase activity was consistently higher and significantly different (chronic) compared with levels in NaCl-treated embryos. In contrast, Al had no significant effect on the rate of tibia collagen and noncollagenous protein synthesis or serum levels of procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). (orig.)

  20. Effect of Phosphorus-32 Incorporated into Chick Embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, L. D.; Antoni, F.; Koeteles, G. J.; Holland, J.; Hidvegi, E. J.; Varteresz, V. [Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-06-15

    The bilogical effects of {sup 32}P on the viability and development of chick embryo were studied. 200,100 and 50 {mu}Ci per egg killed the embryos during incubation. Growth retardation preceded their death. 25 {mu}Ci per egg, however, did not cause mortality until hatching. An attempt was made to correlate the observed effects with the radiation dose and the number of {sup 32}P atoms incorporated into DNA and therefore, the frequencies of radiophosphorus atoms in the polynucleotide chains of DNA and RNA were determined under various conditions. Some biochemical consequences of the decay of {sup 32}P incorporated into ribonucleic acids were demonstrated. Structural changes of RNA were observed. Parallel with structural changes, functional alterations of various kinds of RNA molecules were demonstrated in isolated ribosomal systems. The decrease in protein synthesis by liver ribosomes was found to be proportional to the number of decayed intramolecular {sup 32}P atoms. The structural and functional changes of ribonucleic acids observed on molecular and sub-cellular levels could be attributed to nuclear transmutation of {sup 32}P. (author)

  1. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  2. Angiographic examinations of the circulatory development of living chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeter, P.; Buchhoecker, M.; Bruzek, W.; Drews, U.; Schulze, K.; Tuebingen Univ.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In chick embryos of an age of incubation of 5-14 days, the physiological development of the circulation and the morphological differentation of the arterical system were studied by intravital and postmortal angiography. For the examinations of the living embryos, a special radiographic and injection technique had to be developed. The contrast medium was injected into the umbilical veins and transported by the actions of the embryonic heart. Continuous ECG recordings showed no marked interference of the injections with the cardiac activity. According to the angiographic findings, the circulation is relatively fast within the main arteries, but the capillary perfusion is prolonged and lasts up to several minutes. The average circulatory velocity of the blood stream within the carotid artery increases parallel to the arterial enlargement, whereas the circulatory time decreases and the number of heart beats during the period of carotid opacification does not change to a great extent. By this, a steady transport of gas and nutritional material may be achieved in the growing arterial system. (orig.) [de

  3. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  4. DNA repair in lens cells during chick embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counis, M.F.; Chaudun, E.; Simonneau, L.; Courtois, Y.

    1979-01-01

    When chick lens epithelium is cultured in vitro, differentiation into lens fiber cells is accompanied by DNA degradation. This phenomenon of terminal differentiation was studied in the epithelium from embryos at the 6th and 11th days of development. DNA size and the ability of the cells to repair DNA damage induced by X-rays were analysed in alkaline sucrose gradients. In the 6-day epithelium a rapid degradation and complete lack of DNA repair were recorded. Similar observations have been made in previous studies on the 11-day sample, but here degradation is progressive and occurs after a lag of several days. In the younger epithelium, internal irradiation by [ 3 H)thymidine also had a drastic effect resembling that caused by X-rays. In order to assess the process of differentiation in the experimental system the synthesis of delta- and αcrystallins was monitored. Stage-related modifications in the rates of synthesis were recorded. The results confirm that the DNA repair system is impaired during terminal differentiation. The differences observed between the two stages may reflect either a developmental modification in DNA repair mechanisms or a change in the relative proportions of differentiating cells. An hypothesis is proposed in support of the latter case. (Auth.)

  5. Parenting teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  7. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  8. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  10. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar ( S. ) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks ( n  = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os . Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n  = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n  = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n  = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  11. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  12. Immunomodulation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of neonatal chicks by immunobiotic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Tohno, M; Miura, Y; Kamada, T; Ikegami, S; Kitazawa, H

    2009-12-01

    Developmental changes in immunocompetent cells of the gut during the first week posthatch were determined in broiler chicks fed immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in the form of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937-, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1131(T)-, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6-, or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets. The relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius in chicks fed the immunobiotic diets were slightly higher than the control valued at 1 and 3 d of age, with the exception of spleen weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 3 d of age, the bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 1 and 3 d of age, and bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri TL2919 group at 1 d of age. There were no significant differences in body and liver weights among the treatments. When chicks were fed the L. jensenii TL2937- or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets, expression of T cell-related mRNA [cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] in the foregut was significantly higher than that of control chicks at 3 or 7 d of age. Expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA tended to increase in the foregut of chicks fed the immunobiotic diets, except for the L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6, compared with expression levels in control chicks. The Bu-1 mRNA expression levels in the bursa of Fabricius were not affected by the supplementations with immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria. These results show that immunobiotics, particularly L. gasseri TL2919, might be useful as immunomodulators to stimulate the gut-associated immune system in neonatal chicks, and thereby protect them from disease without decreasing growth performance as a possible substitution of antibiotics.

  13. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  14. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  15. Quality Risk Management: Putting GMP Controls First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne; Zwitkovits, Michael; Calnan, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    to be any control that is put in place to assure product quality and regulatory compliance. This improved approach is also based on how the detectability of risks is assessed. This is important because when producing medicines, it is not always good practice to place a high reliance upon detection-type controls in the absence of an adequate level of assurance in the manufacturing process that leads to the finished medicine.

  16. Library Service to Pregnant Teens: How Can We Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Melissa

    1997-01-01

    Discusses teenage pregnancy and sexuality and suggests ways in which librarians can help provide access to appropriate and needed information. Highlights include developing policies and procedures for dealing with sexual issues, collection development, organizing information and making it accessible, and a brief teen pregnancy bibliography. (LRW)

  17. Beyond Evidence-Based Interventions for Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Scribner-O'Pray

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs); whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.

  18. Success Skills Curriculum for Teen Single Parents. Bulletin No. 96142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Sarah, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains the materials required to teach a 36-hour program of competency-based instruction designed to meet the needs of teen single parents who require additional skill building before entering the job market or a job training program. The course is divided into 4 learning modules that cover 18 competencies as follows: taking…

  19. Teen Series' Reception: Television, Adolescence and Culture of Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Dominique

    1996-01-01

    Noting the popularity of television teen series among young viewers in France, this study examined how the programs are used as a way of defining gender identity for children and adolescents. Results indicated construction of meanings of characters and plots varied by age, gender, and social background of viewers. Relationship to series relied on…

  20. Teen Artists: Impact of a Contemporary Art Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Hales, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the effects of a yearlong, multivisit teen program in a contemporary art museum on adolescents' reflections about art. Our purpose was to discover whether this program, focused on experiences with contemporary art and artists with its metacognitive approach, affected students' thinking about their own artmaking. The…

  1. Parents Are the Key to Safe Teen Drivers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-18

    This podcast offers information to help parents keep their teen drivers safer on the road.  Created: 10/18/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/18/2010.

  2. What Books Should Anyone Working with Teens Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 44 young adult books that represent the wide range of young adult literature available for teens. Represents a variety of genres from poetry to science fiction/fantasy to historical fiction and story collections. Lists the 2002 winners for six major awards. (SG)

  3. The social networks of teens and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...

  4. Guiding Teen Drivers (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. This podcast discusses the importance of helping to keep young drivers safe.  Created: 10/20/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  5. Teen Vaccines (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-24

    Just because children become preteens doesn’t mean they’re too old for vaccinations. This podcast discusses the importance of preteen and teens being up-to-date on all recommended vaccines.  Created: 7/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/24/2014.

  6. What's the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, teens can be underweight because of a health problem that needs treatment. See a doctor if you notice any of these things: You ... Motivated to Exercise? When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem 5 Ways to Reach a Healthy ... diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images ...

  7. Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... booster. Unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated first-year college students living in residence halls should receive 1 dose of MCV4. Teens who are unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated may need to receive an MCV4 if they travel to areas with high rates of meningococcal disease, ...

  8. Support for Teens When a Family Member has Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a parent, brother, or sister has been diagnosed with cancer, family members need extra support. Information to help teens learn how to cope, talk with family members, manage stress, and get support from counselors when a loved one has been diagnosed with, or is being treated for, cancer.

  9. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  10. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  11. Teen sexting and its association with sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Paul, Jonathan A; van den Berg, Patricia; Le, Vi Donna; McElhany, Amy; Temple, Brian W

    2012-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors as well as their relation to dating, sex, and risky sexual behaviors using a large school-based sample of adolescents. Data are from time 2 of a 3-year longitudinal study. Participants self-reported their history of dating, sexual behaviors, and sexting (sent, asked, been asked, and/or bothered by being asked to send nude photographs of themselves). Seven public high schools in southeast Texas. A total of 948 public high school students (55.9% female) participated. The sample consisted of African American (26.6%), white (30.3%), Hispanic (31.7%), Asian (3.4%), and mixed/other (8.0%) teens. Having ever engaged in sexting behaviors. Twenty-eight percent of the sample reported having sent a naked picture of themselves through text or e-mail (sext), and 31% reported having asked someone for a sext. More than half (57%) had been asked to send a sext, with most being bothered by having been asked. Adolescents who engaged in sexting behaviors were more likely to have begun dating and to have had sex than those who did not sext (all P sexting was also associated with risky sexual behaviors. The results suggest that teen sexting is prevalent and potentially indicative of teens' sexual behaviors. Teen-focused health care providers should consider screening for sexting behaviors to provide age-specific education about the potential consequences of sexting and as a mechanism for discussing sexual behaviors.

  12. Teen Videos on YouTube: Features and Digital Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel; García-Jiménez, Antonio; Menor-Sendra, Juan

    2018-01-01

    As a mechanism for social participation and integration and for the purpose of building their identity, teens make and share videos on platforms such as YouTube of which they are also content consumers. The vulnerability conditions that occur and the risks to which adolescents are exposed, both as creators and consumers of videos, are the focus of…

  13. Guiding Teen Drivers (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Parents have a big influence on young drivers and can help them reduce their risk for being involved in a crash. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses what parents can do to help keep young drivers safer on the road.

  14. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  15. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  16. Teen Legal Rights: A Guide for the 90's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelman, Kathleen A.

    Young people's legal rights have expanded dramatically in the past 25 years, but many times these rights are abridged. This publication informs teens, teachers, high school counselors, and parents of the lawful rights of minors in the 1990s. In a question-and-answer format, the book covers the expanding rights of young people at home, at school,…

  17. Teen Perceptions of Cellular Phones as a Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Denise D.

    2011-01-01

    The excitement and interest in innovative technologies has spanned centuries. However, the invention of the cellular phone has surpassed previous technology interests, and changed the way we communicate today. Teens make up the fastest growing market of current cellular phone users. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine teen…

  18. Developing a Teen Suicide Prevention Program in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    The problem of adolescent suicide worldwide is discussed. Teen suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds in the United States, and has become an increasing concern for counselors employed in schools. Contributing factors to suicide, such as cultural and socio-demographic factors, dysfunctional family patterns, cognitive…

  19. Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives of Four Multilingual Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Pacheco, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, educational research suggests that translanguaging pedagogies can provide meaningful supports for English language learners. Yet, few studies examine how multilingual teens in English-dominant settings independently translanguage to make sense of school and achieve their goals. In this study, we review definitions of translanguaging…

  20. Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment admission (“other female teen admissions”). Note that TEDS is a census of all admissions to treatment facilities reported to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by State substance abuse agencies. IN BRIEF X X Between 2007 and 2010, about 57,000 ...

  1. The Original Handhelds: Magazines that Teens Can't Resist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Carlie

    2009-01-01

    In a world of instant messages, Twitter, and Facebook, what do magazines have to offer teens? Well, as it turns out, plenty. For starters, they feature celebrity gossip, humor, beauty tips, sports, and even manga. Some magazines offer online content that can only be accessed by using a special code that's available in the print edition. Recently,…

  2. Developing an Effective Tool for Teaching Teens about Workplace Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Christine; Gallagher, Susan; Bush, Diane; Dewer, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Paid employment is an important feature of adolescent life. Too often, it has negative health consequences, including more than 200,000 workplace injuries to 14 to 17 year olds every year. Training teens about occupational safety is part of an overall strategy to address this problem. When the project described in this article began, there were…

  3. Beyond Evidence-Based Interventions for Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Scribner-O'Pray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.

  4. Understanding the Human Volcano: What Teens Can Do about Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Earl

    Anger and violence among children has moved from the streets to the schools, with tragic, and well-documented, results. This book addresses anger and violence among children and is, in essence, an anger-management course for teens, written at about an eighth-grade level. Part 1, "The Problems of Violence in Our World," explores human violence. It…

  5. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  6. Cyberbulling among Children and Teens: A Pervasive Global Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This report is a compiliation of evidence-informed blog posts on cyberbulling among children and teens. It examines the issue of cyberbullying from the perspective of both the victim and the perpetrator. A key argument is that cyberbullying is a matter not only for the children involved, but also for their families and educators.

  7. Sports Promotion and Teen Smoking and Drinking: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…

  8. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  9. Romanticism and Self-Esteem among Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, Nilufer P.; von der Hellen, Cheryl

    1997-01-01

    Examined teen mothers' (N=94) romanticism and self-esteem so as to investigate these variables' relationships among ten independent variables, (e.g., age and sexual activity). Results indicate that five variables were significantly related to romanticism (previous abortion, etc.), whereas two variables were connected to self-esteem (age and birth…

  10. Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Do If You're Bullied Self-Esteem Self-Esteem Issues: What You Can Do Depression Print en español Abordar tus propios sentimientos cuando tienes sobrepeso Recognizing Feelings Living through our teen years comes with all sorts of changes and ...

  11. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are a few tips to help protect your child: Make sure your teen knows about the importance of wearing seatbelts. Motor vehicle crashes are the ... your baby grows, including parenting tips. Patient/parent education handouts ... for your child’s regular check-up visit with your healthcare provider ...

  12. Teen Court-School Partnerships: Reducing Disproportionality in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Katie Cotter

    2018-01-01

    Reducing disproportionality in school discipline is a grand challenge for school social work. Although the causes of disproportionality in exclusionary school discipline are interrelated and complex, one solution is to introduce alternatives to suspensions and expulsions that discipline students while keeping them engaged in school. The teen court…

  13. Effect of egg storage duration and brooding temperatures on chick growth, intestine morphology and nutrient transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G; Izzetoglu, G T

    2017-10-01

    The effects of egg storage duration (ESD) and brooding temperature (BT) on BW, intestine development and nutrient transporters of broiler chicks were investigated. A total of 396 chicks obtained from eggs stored at 18°C for 3 days (ESD3-18°C) or at 14°C for 14 days (ESD14-14°C) before incubation were exposed to three BTs. Temperatures were initially set at 32°C, 34°C and 30°C for control (BT-Cont), high (BT-High) and low (BT-Low) BTs, respectively. Brooding temperatures were decreased by 2°C each at days 2, 7, 14 and 21. Body weight was measured at the day of hatch, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Cloacal temperatures of broilers were recorded from 1 to 14 days. Intestinal morphology and gene expression levels of H+-dependent peptide transporter (PepT1) and Na-dependent glucose (SGLT1) were evaluated on the day of hatch and 14. Cloacal temperatures of chicks were affected by BTs from days 1 to 8, being the lowest for BT-Low chicks. BT-High resulted in the heaviest BWs at 7 days, especially for ESD14-14°C chicks. This result was consistent with longer villus and larger villus area of ESD14-14°C chicks at BT-High conditions. From 14 days to slaughter age, BT had no effect on broiler weight. ESD3-18°C chicks were heavier than ESD14-14°C chicks up to 28 days. The PepT1 and SGLT1 expression levels were significantly higher in ESD3-18°C chicks than ESD14-14°C on the day of hatch. There was significant egg storage by BT interaction for PepT1 and SGLT1 transporters at day 14. ESD14-14°C chicks had significantly higher expression of PepT1 and SGLT1 at BT-Low than those at BT-Cont. ESD14-14°C chicks upregulated PepT1 gene expression 1.15 and 1.57-fold at BT-High and BT-Low, respectively, compared with BT-Cont, whereas PepT1 expression was downregulated 0.67 and 0.62-fold in ESD3-18°C chicks at BT-High and BT-Low. These results indicated that pre-incubation egg storage conditions and BTs affected intestine morphology and PepT1 and SGLT1 nutrient transporters

  14. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four

  16. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  17. Neuro-economics in chicks: foraging choices based on amount, delay and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Kawamori, Ai; Bem-Sojka, Tiaza

    2008-06-15

    Studies on the foraging choices are reviewed, with an emphasis on the neural representations of elementary factors of food (i.e., amount, delay and consumption time) in the avian brain. Domestic chicks serve as an ideal animal model in this respect, as they quickly associate cue colors with subsequently supplied food rewards, and their choices are quantitatively linked with the rewards. When a pair of such color cues was simultaneously presented, the trained chicks reliably made choices according to the profitability of food associated with each color. Two forebrain regions are involved in distinct aspects of choices; i.e., nucleus accumbens-medial striatum (Ac-MSt) and arcopallium intermedium (AI), an association area in the lateral forebrain. Localized lesions of Ac-MSt enhanced delay aversion, and the ablated chicks made impulsive choices of immediate reward more frequently than sham controls. On the other hand, lesions of AI enhanced consumption-time aversion, and the ablated chicks shifted their choices toward easily consumable reward with their impulsiveness unchanged; delay and consumption time are thus doubly dissociated. Furthermore, chicks showed distinct patterns of risk-sensitive choices depending on the factor that varied at trials. Risk aversion occurred when food amount varied, whereas consistent risk sensitivity was not found when the delay varied; amount and delay were not interchangeable. Choices are thus deviated from those predicted as optima. Instead, factors such as amount, delay and consumption time could be separately represented and processed to yield economically sub-optimal choices.

  18. Metabolism and biological activity of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.; Baxter, L.A.; Schraufrogel, P.K.; Tavela, T.E.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    The vitamin, 24R,24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , is capable of inducing a minimal intestinal calcium transport response in chicks when compared to an equal amount of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . 1,24,25-Trihydroxyvitamin D 3 is also less active than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and its activity is much shorter lived than that of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . A comparison of the metabolism of 25-hydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 and 24,25-dihydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 in the rat and chick shows that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 disappear at least 10 times more rapidly from the blood and intestine of chicks. Furthermore, examination of the excretory products from both of these species demonstrates that chicks receiving a single dose of 24,25-dihydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 excrete 66% of the total radioactivity by 48 hours, whereas rats receiving the same dose excrete less than one-half that amount. These results demonstrate that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 is considerably less biologically active in the chick than in the rat, probably due to more rapid metabolism and excretion

  19. Performance of broiler chicks fed on irradiated full-fat soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaa El-Din, M.; Farag, H.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A N experiment was conducted to evaluate physiological and biochemical responses of arbor chicks from 7 to 49 days fed on diets containing raw and full-fat soybeans processed at 20 and 50 KGy. The results demonstrate that feeding chicks on raw soybeans significantly depressed growth rate and increased feed intake. A significant thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard enlargement were also noticed, in addition a significant reduction was found in total plasma protein and albumin during the experimental period. These responses were not as pronounced as when soybeans irradiated at 20 KGy were fad. Soybeans processed at 50 KGy markedly reduced trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent (71% and 87%, respectively) and resulted in improved chick performance and normalized thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard weight and total plasma protein and albumin concentrations. Plasma transaminase activities were similar in all chicks during the experimental period. The improvement in performance of groups fed processed soybeans was the correlated with reduction of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent. It is concluded that the radiation processing of soybeans up to 50 KGy is sufficiently suitable to have potential in the feed industry without any deleterious effect on chicks' performance as evidenced by the physiological and biochemical responses

  20. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.