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Sample records for pure cu subjected

  1. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Prorok, Barton C.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1994-01-01

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  2. Improvement of tensile properties of pure Cu and CuCrZr alloy by cryo-rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihira, Ryota; Gwon, Hyoseong; Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Konishi, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the effect of cryo-rolling process to Cu and CuCrZr alloy by tensile test and EBSD. • Cryo-rolling process simaltaneously increased strength and ductility of Cu as previously reported. • Cryo-rolling process increased strength of CuCrZr alloy without loss-of-ductility compared with conventional cold-rolling process. • We observed heterogeneous grain size distribution in cryo-rolled Cu but not in cryo-rolled CuCrZr alloy. • We found temperature-transition of texture formation in the rolled CuCrZr alloy. - Abstract: The present study investigates the effect of cryo-rolling process, i.e. cold-rolling at liquid-nitrogen temperature followed by heat treatment, on tensile properties of pure copper and precipitation-hardened CuCrZr alloy. The cryo-rolling process resulted in a simultaneous improvement of strength and ductility of pure copper. On the other hand, a cryo-rolled CuCrZr alloy showed higher tensile strength but comparable ductility with a conventional cold-rolled CuCrZr alloy. Microstructural analysis indicates that the drastically-beneficial effect of cryo-rolling on pure copper may be due to its heterogeneous size distribution of grains which consist of cryo-rolled fine grains, residual cryo-rolled grains and recrystallized coarse grains. The modest but certain benefit of cryo-rolling on CuCrZr alloy can be explained by different texture formation compared with conventional cold-rolling. Effect of neutron irradiation on tensile properties of cryo-rolled CuCrZr alloy is also examined.

  3. Variations for Pure Cu Melt Viscosity with Different Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿红霞; 耿浩然; 薛宪营; 郁可; 刘建同

    2003-01-01

    The viscosity of Cu melt is obtained to be in the ranges from 2.418 to 3.039mPa.s under vacuum atmosphere (2Pa), from 2.907 to 3.425mPa.s under nitrogen gas atmosphere and from 3.352 to 4.015mPa.s under argon gas atmosphere. The activation energy is estimated to be 0.224, 0.162 and 0.150eV for the vacuum atmosphere (2 Pa), nitrogen gas atmosphere and argon gas atmosphere, respectively. The results reflect the essential structural change in the Cu melt by using different atmospheres.

  4. Dynamic viscosities of pure tin and Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhitsina, E. V.; Gruner, S.; Kaban, I.; Hoyer, W.; Sidorov, V. E.; Popel', P. S.

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic viscosities of the melts of pure tin and eutectic Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu alloys are studied in heating followed by cooling, and the maximum heating temperature was 1200°C. An irreversible decrease in the viscosity is found in the temperature range 800-1000°C in the polytherms of all melts. This finding is related to the loss of a local order in a melt and can be used to develop temperature regimes for the production of lead-free solders.

  5. Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu2O thin films at reduced growth temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Subramaniyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu2O thin films to 300 °C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, Ptot at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO2. A strong non-monotonic effect of Ptot on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu2O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

  6. CO Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Cu-Incorporated SnO2 Nanoparticles: A Study of Cu-Induced Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tangirala Venkata Krishna Karthik; María de la Luz Olvera; Arturo Maldonado; Heberto Gómez Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Pure and copper (Cu)-incorporated tin oxide (SnO2) pellet gas sensors with characteristics provoking gas sensitivity were fabricated and used for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheres. Non-spherical pure SnO2 nano-structures were prepared by using urea as the precipitation agent. The resultant SnO2 powders were ball milled and incorporated with a transition metal, Cu, via chemical synthesis method. The incorporation is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM)...

  7. Fabrication Of Al 2024/SiC Nanocomposite with Al and Cu Pure Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Composites find an important place as new advanced materials in last decades; those especially produced with nanoparticles reinforcements, attracts researchers and a number of researches were executed on this topic. In this study, Al-base 2024 alloy composites reinforced with SiC nanoparticles were fabricated and the effects of two different coating materials were investigated. Coatings were pure Al and Cu powder with constant grain particle size. The results show that the Al coating has impacts on grain size and the interface layer between reinforcement and matrix. The mechanism of formation of interface layer between SiC nanoparticles and the Al-base 2024 matrix with reinforced with Cu coated SiC particles is quite different.

  8. Transport properties of microwave sintered pure and glass added MgCuZn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Penchal Reddy, M.; Kim, Il Gon [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of); Rama Manohar Reddy, N. [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516 227 (India); Siva Kumar, K.V. [Ceramic Composites Materials Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 055 (India); Murthy, V.R.K. [Microwave Laboratory, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Highlights: • MgCuZn ferrite was successfully prepared by novel microwave sintering (MS) method. • The sintering temperature was notably reduced from 1150 °C to 950 °C for MS. • Temperature dependence of DC conductivity and AC conductivity are studied. • 1 wt% PBS glass added MS MgCuZn ferrite samples are suitable for core materials in multilayer chip inductors (MLCI). -- Abstract: A series of pure stoichiometric and 1 wt% lead borosilicate (PBS) glass added MgCuZn ferrite with the general formula Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 were synthesized by microwave sintering technique. Single phase spinel structure is exhibited by the XRD patterns of these ferrites. DC and AC conductivity were investigated as a function of composition, temperature and frequency. DC conductivities were also estimated using the impedance spectroscopy analysis of Cole–Cole plots. The DC conductivities thus obtained are in good agreement with the experimental results. All the investigated samples exhibited two regions of conductivity one in the low temperature and the second in the high temperature region. It is observed that PBS glass added samples have lower conductivities than pure samples. Due to their lower conductivities and sintering temperatures the 1 wt% PBS glass added samples are suitable for multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) and high definition TV deflection yoke material application.

  9. Vacuum Brazing of WC-8Co Cemented Carbides to Carbon Steel Using Pure Cu and Ag-28Cu as Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Liu, G. W.; Tao, J. N.; Shao, H. C.; Fu, H.; Pan, T. Z.; Qiao, G. J.

    2017-02-01

    The wetting and spreading behavior of commercial pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy on WC-8Co cemented carbide were investigated by the sessile drop technique. The contact angle of both systems obviously decreases with moderately increasing the wetting temperature. Vacuum brazing of the WC-8Co cemented carbide to SAE1045 steel using the pure Cu or Ag-28Cu as filler metal was further carried out based on the wetting results. The interfacial interactions and joint mechanical behavior involving microhardness, shear strength and fracture were analyzed and discussed. An obvious Fe-Cu-Co transition layer is detected at the WC-8Co/Cu interface, while no obvious reaction layer is observed at the whole WC-8Co/Ag-28Cu/SAE1045 brazing seam. The microhardness values of the two interlayers and the steel substrate near the two interlayers increase more or less, while those of WC-8Co cemented carbide substrates adjacent to the two interlayers decrease. The WC-8Co/SAE1045 joints using pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy as filler metals obtain average shear strength values of about 172 and 136 MPa, and both of the joint fractures occur in the interlayers.

  10. Vacuum Brazing of WC-8Co Cemented Carbides to Carbon Steel Using Pure Cu and Ag-28Cu as Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Liu, G. W.; Tao, J. N.; Shao, H. C.; Fu, H.; Pan, T. Z.; Qiao, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    The wetting and spreading behavior of commercial pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy on WC-8Co cemented carbide were investigated by the sessile drop technique. The contact angle of both systems obviously decreases with moderately increasing the wetting temperature. Vacuum brazing of the WC-8Co cemented carbide to SAE1045 steel using the pure Cu or Ag-28Cu as filler metal was further carried out based on the wetting results. The interfacial interactions and joint mechanical behavior involving microhardness, shear strength and fracture were analyzed and discussed. An obvious Fe-Cu-Co transition layer is detected at the WC-8Co/Cu interface, while no obvious reaction layer is observed at the whole WC-8Co/Ag-28Cu/SAE1045 brazing seam. The microhardness values of the two interlayers and the steel substrate near the two interlayers increase more or less, while those of WC-8Co cemented carbide substrates adjacent to the two interlayers decrease. The WC-8Co/SAE1045 joints using pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy as filler metals obtain average shear strength values of about 172 and 136 MPa, and both of the joint fractures occur in the interlayers.

  11. Characteristics and Corrosion Behavior of Pure Titanium Subjected to Surface Mechanical Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianlin; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianxiong; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaohua; Zhan, Zhaolin

    2017-08-01

    A stable passive film exhibiting good corrosion resistance in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was formed on the surface of pure titanium (Ti) subjected to a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The corrosion potential (-0.21 V) of the film was significantly higher than that (-0.92 V) of the untreated sample. Moreover, the corrosion current density was an order of magnitude lower than that of the untreated sample. SMAT resulted in a decrease in the vacancy condensation in the TiO2 film, thereby inhibiting the invasion and diffusion of Cl- in the film.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam –603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu-603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Cu (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared using an electron beam evaporation technique. A systematic study was carried out on the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of the thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the films were cubic in structure. The pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed the saturation magnetization, coercivity and retentivity of 38.71 emu/cm{sup 3}, 245 G and 5.54 emu/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  13. Oxidation of two ternary Fe-Cu-5Al alloys in 1×105 Pa pure oxygen at 700 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun-huai; NIU Yan; WU Wei-tao; LIU Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of two two-phase ternary Fe-Cu-Al alloys containing about 5% Al(mole fraction),one Fe-rich and one Cu-rich,were studied at 700 ℃ in 1×105 Pa pure oxygen. The Fe-rich alloy (Fe-15Cu-5Al) shows two quasi-parabolic stages,with a large increase of the parabolic rate constant after about 4 h. The presence of 5% Al does not change greatly the oxidation rate of Fe-15Cu-5Al with respect to a binary Fe-Cu alloy of similar composition,which was quite different from the situation of the same alloys oxidized at 800 ℃. Oxidation of Fe-15Cu-5Al at 700 ℃ produced an outer layer of iron oxides and an inner layer containing a mixture of copper metal,iron and aluminium oxide. On the contrary,the Cu-rich Fe-85Cu-5Al alloy presents a rather irregular kinetic behavior,with formation of an inner continuous alumina thin layer and a rather irregular outer layer. The outer layer with a rather irregular thickness was mainly composed of a matrix of copper oxides plus some aluminium and iron oxides presenting in the deep part of the layer at certain locations. As a result of the formation of a protective alumina layer,the presence of 5% Al greatly reduced the oxidation rate of Fe-85Cu-5Al with respect to a binary Fe-Cu alloy of similar composition,which was also quite different from the situation of the same alloys oxidized at 800 ℃. Moreover,the oxidation rate at 700 ℃ of the Fe-85Cu-5Al alloy was much lower than that of Fe-15Cu-5Al alloy due to the same reason..

  14. Synthesis and characterization of pure STW-zeotype germanosilicate, Cu- and Co-substituted STW-zeotype materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Shi, Lei, E-mail: qg_shilei@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Yu, Tingting [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Li, Tianduo, E-mail: ylpt6296@vip.163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Hua, Wei; Lin, Cong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Pure STW-type germanosilicate (denoted as GeSi-STW), Cu- and Co-containing STW-zeotype (denoted as Cu-STW and Co-STW) materials were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA), N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEEDA). The effects of the reaction mixture ratio and the incorporation of transition metals M (M=Cu and Co) on the synthesis of the pure product was investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma analysis (ICP), thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) analysis and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results reveal that the crystallization time, the concentration of H{sub 2}O in the reaction mixture and the addition of HF all have an important impact on the synthesis of pure STW-type zeolite. GeSi-STW is stable up to 800 °C, and has much higher thermal stability than SU-32 (stable to 400 °C). Co and Cu have been introduced for the first time into STW-zeotype materials. - Graphical abstract: SEM images of GeSi-STW (A and B), Co-STW (C and D) and Cu-STW (E and F). - Highlights: • Pure STW-type germanosilicate materials were hydrothermally synthesized. • The STW-type germanosilicate has high thermal stability up to 800 °C. • Co and Cu have been introduced for the first time in the STW-zeotype materials.

  15. Influence of Micron-Ti and Nano-Cu Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pure Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmagid S. Hamouda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, metallic elements that have limited/negligible solubility in pure magnesium (Mg were incorporated in Mg using the disintegrated melt deposition technique. The metallic elements added include: (i micron sized titanium (Ti particulates with negligible solubility; (ii nano sized copper (Cu particulates with limited solubility; and (iii the combination of micro-Ti and nano-Cu. The combined metallic addition (Ti + Cu was carried out with and without preprocessing by ball-milling. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the developed Mg-materials were investigated. Microstructure observation revealed grain refinement due to the individual and combined presence of hard metallic particulates. The mechanical properties evaluation revealed a significant improvement in microhardness, tensile and compressive strengths. Individual additions of Ti and Cu resulted in Mg-Ti composite and Mg-Cu alloy respectively, and their mechanical properties were influenced by the inherent properties of the particulates and the resulting second phases, if any. In the case of combined addition, the significant improvement in properties were observed in Mg-(Ti + CuBM composite containing ball milled (Ti + Cu particulates, when compared to direct addition of Ti and Cu particulates. The change in particle morphology, formation of Ti3Cu intermetallic and good interfacial bonding with the matrix achieved due to preprocessing, contributed to its superior strength and ductility, in case of Mg-(Ti + CuBM composite. The best combination of hardness, tensile and compressive behavior was exhibited by Mg-(Ti + CuBM composite formulation.

  16. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  17. 纯铜化学镀Ni-Cu-P工艺的研究%A Study of Electroless Ni-Cu-P Plating on Pure Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈益兵; 赵芳霞; 张振忠; 孙晓东

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of corrosion and boundary conductivity to be improved when pure copper is in the process of application, the surface of pure copper was modified by electroless Ni-Cu-P plating. The effects of electroless Ni-Cu-P plating process on the properties of pure copper were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, contact resistance test, corrosion test, etc.The results show that the process can obtain a typical amorphous cellular structure, the contact resistance of modified pure copper is 15 % ~ 30 % of that before modification, and the self-corrosion current density is decreased by two orders of magnitude.%针对纯铜使用过程中表面腐蚀及导电性需进一步提高等问题,采用化学镀Ni-Cu-P对纯铜进行表面改性.采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、界面接触电阻测试、极化曲线等手段,研究了化学镀Ni-Cu-P工艺对纯铜性能的影响.结果表明:该工艺能得到典型的非晶胞状结构,改性后纯铜的接触电阻为改性前的15 %~30%,自腐蚀电流密度降低两个数量级.

  18. CO Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Cu-Incorporated SnO₂ Nanoparticles: A Study of Cu-Induced Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Tangirala Venkata Krishna; Olvera, María de la Luz; Maldonado, Arturo; Gómez Pozos, Heberto

    2016-08-15

    Pure and copper (Cu)-incorporated tin oxide (SnO₂) pellet gas sensors with characteristics provoking gas sensitivity were fabricated and used for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheres. Non-spherical pure SnO₂ nano-structures were prepared by using urea as the precipitation agent. The resultant SnO₂ powders were ball milled and incorporated with a transition metal, Cu, via chemical synthesis method. The incorporation is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis. By utilizing Cu-incorporated SnO₂ pellets an increase in the CO sensitivity by an order of three, and a decrease in the response and recovery times by an order of two, were obtained. This improvement in the sensitivity is due to two factors that arise due to Cu incorporation: necks between the microparticles and stacking faults in the grains. These two factors increased the conductivity and oxygen adsorption, respectively, at the pellets' surface of SnO₂ which, in turn, raised the CO sensitivity.

  19. CO Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Cu-Incorporated SnO2 Nanoparticles: A Study of Cu-Induced Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangirala Venkata Krishna Karthik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure and copper (Cu-incorporated tin oxide (SnO2 pellet gas sensors with characteristics provoking gas sensitivity were fabricated and used for measuring carbon monoxide (CO atmospheres. Non-spherical pure SnO2 nano-structures were prepared by using urea as the precipitation agent. The resultant SnO2 powders were ball milled and incorporated with a transition metal, Cu, via chemical synthesis method. The incorporation is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM analysis. By utilizing Cu-incorporated SnO2 pellets an increase in the CO sensitivity by an order of three, and a decrease in the response and recovery times by an order of two, were obtained. This improvement in the sensitivity is due to two factors that arise due to Cu incorporation: necks between the microparticles and stacking faults in the grains. These two factors increased the conductivity and oxygen adsorption, respectively, at the pellets’ surface of SnO2 which, in turn, raised the CO sensitivity.

  20. CO Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Cu-Incorporated SnO2 Nanoparticles: A Study of Cu-Induced Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Tangirala Venkata Krishna; Olvera, María de la Luz; Maldonado, Arturo; Gómez Pozos, Heberto

    2016-01-01

    Pure and copper (Cu)-incorporated tin oxide (SnO2) pellet gas sensors with characteristics provoking gas sensitivity were fabricated and used for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheres. Non-spherical pure SnO2 nano-structures were prepared by using urea as the precipitation agent. The resultant SnO2 powders were ball milled and incorporated with a transition metal, Cu, via chemical synthesis method. The incorporation is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis. By utilizing Cu-incorporated SnO2 pellets an increase in the CO sensitivity by an order of three, and a decrease in the response and recovery times by an order of two, were obtained. This improvement in the sensitivity is due to two factors that arise due to Cu incorporation: necks between the microparticles and stacking faults in the grains. These two factors increased the conductivity and oxygen adsorption, respectively, at the pellets’ surface of SnO2 which, in turn, raised the CO sensitivity. PMID:27537877

  1. A study of annealing stages in commercial pure Cu using mechanical measurements and positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishay, I.K. [Solid State Physics Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, E. Hassan, E-mail: emad_h_ali@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Saadallah, F.A. [Solid State Physics Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-25

    Mechanical property measurements, positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements and metallographic observations, have been performed to study the isochronal annealing of commercial pure Cu in the temperature range from 25 up to 850 deg. C. A positive correlation has been found between positron lifetime ({tau}) and both the tensile strain ({Delta}L/L{sub 0}) and Vicker's microhardness (H{sub v}). This correlation shows the presence of three annealing stages in commercial pure Cu which are attributed to recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. These different stages were studied by both pure tensile and combined torsion-tension deformation for samples pre-annealed at the different annealing stages. Plastic instability behavior is observed in the case of combined torsion-tension deformation. It is observed that the onset and disappearance of this instability depend on some parameters such as mode of deformation, applied axial tensile stress and pre-annealing temperature. The activation energy is found to be 0.5 eV for the recovery stage which is attributed to the energy for dislocation annihilation by glide or cross-slip. The recrystallization stage is a multi-energy stage (1.35, 1.6, and 1.71 eV) which is attributed to lattice diffusion or boundary diffusion.

  2. No antiferromagnetic reordering at low temperature in pure YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casalta, H.; Schleger, P.; Brecht, E.;

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic ordering has been investigated by neutron scattering on an YBa2Cu3O6+x single crystal with x=0.1 and x=0.18, and an Al doped YBa2(CU2.86Al0.14)O-6.25 crystal. For the undoped crystal an antiferromagnetic ordering transition (AFI) was observed at T-N=410 K and 368 K (respectively for x=0...

  3. Spray Deposited Pure and CuO Doped ZnO Thin Films for NH3 Sensing

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    L. A. Patil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure and CuO doped ZnO thin films, were prepared using chemical spray deposition. AR grade solutions of zinc nitrate (0.1M and copper chloride were mixed in the proportion of: 99:1, 95:5 and 90:10. The solutions were sprayed on substrate heated at 350 0C temperature to obtain the films. Films were annealed for an hour at 500 0C in air medium. The electrical and gas sensing properties of these films were investigated. The CuO doped ZnO thin films showed better ammonia response as compared to undoped ZnO. The gas response was observed to be increased with increase in proportion of copper chloride in zinc nitrate.

  4. Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; GENG Zuo-jun; ZHANG Quan; LI Wei; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    Background Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography are new techniques of brain functional imaging which can provide the information of excitation of neurons by measure the changes of hemodynamics and electrophysiological data of local brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to study functional brain areas evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects with these techniques and to compare the differences between the two groups.Methods Thirty healthy and 30 sensorineural hearing loss subjects were included in this study. In fMRI,block-design paradigm was used. During the active epoch the participants listened to 1000 Hz, sound pressure level 140 dB pure tones at duration 500 ms, interstimulus interval 1000 ms, which presented continuously via a magnetic resonance-compatible audio system. None stimulus was executed in control epoch. In magnetoencephalography study, every subject received stimuli of 1000 Hz tone bursts delivered to the bilateral ear at duration 8 ms, interstimulus intervals 1000 ms. Sound pressure level in healthy subjects was 30 dB; in sensorineural hearing loss subjects was 20 dB above everyone' s hearing threshold respectively. All subjects were examined with 306-channel whole-scalp neuromagnetometer.Results In fMRI, all subjects showed significant activations in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, planum temporale, precentral gyri, postcentral gyri, supramarginal gyri, superior temporal gyri,inferior frontal gyri, occipital lobes and cerebellums. The healthy subjects had more intensive activation in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, inferior frontal gyri, left superior temporal gyri and fight planum temporale than the hearing loss subjects. But in precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and occipital lobes,the activation is more intensive in the hearing loss subjects. In magnetoencephalography study, both in the

  5. Mechanism of surface texture evolution in pure copper strips subjected to double rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing ultra-thin copper foils with different surface roughness and microstructure has important significance for improving the service performance and reducing the production cost of high-end circuit boards. In this paper, pure copper strips with initial cube texture were subjected to a double rolling process (deformation amount ranges from 50% to 95%, and the surface textures evolution law and mechanism of double-rolled strips were studied by an X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that when a deformation amount increased from 50% to 70%, the grains of two surfaces rotate away from the cube orientation, and the formed textures of two surfaces mainly consisted of C, S and B orientation components. The orientation density values for these three components on bright surface only had slight difference; the orientation density values for C and S components were much larger than that for B components on a matt surface. When the deformation amount increased to 90%, the increase extents of orientation density values for C and S components were obviously larger than that for B components on a bright surface; the increase extents of orientation density values for these three components were almost the same on the matt surface. It has been found that when deformation amount reaches 95%, the grains orientation of bright surface were relatively concentrated, and the orientation density value for C texture obviously increased to 11.68 and that for B texture was only 3.15; the grains orientation of matt surface were relatively dispersed, and the orientation density value for C texture increased to 9.26 and that for B texture obviously increased to 6.35, and the density values of these two textures had less difference. For the condition of strong compressive and shear stress on the bright surface, grains were mainly rotating to C texture orientation; compared with the bright surface, “semi-free” deformation condition on the matt surface is

  6. W-Cu composites subjected to heavy hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Wencong [Harbin Institute of Technology-Weihai (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-04-15

    The effect of plastic deformation on the properties and microstructure of W-Cu composites produced by multi-pass hot extrusion with steel cup was investigated. W-Cu composites were sintered at 1 100 C and then the sintered billets were firstly extruded at 900 C with different extrusion ratios. The second hot extrusion was performed at 900 C. The plastic deformation of copper phase plays a dominant part during the whole extrusion process. The microstructural evolution of W phase during the whole processing of heavy hot deformation can be divided into different stages. Experimental results indicate that the W agglomeration will be broken into fine particles effectively when the accumulated plastic deformation amounts to 97.6 % after the second extrusion.

  7. Comparison of pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state responses in subjects with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdek, Ali; Karacay, Mahmut; Saylam, Guleser; Tatar, Emel; Aygener, Nurdan; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) thresholds in normal hearing (NH) subjects and subjects with hearing loss. This study involved 23 NH adults and 38 adults with hearing loss (HI). After detection of behavioral thresholds (BHT) with pure tone audiometry, each subject was tested for ASSR responses in the same day. Only one ear was tested for each subject. The mean pure tone average was 9 ± 4 dB for NH group and 57 ± 14 for HI group. There was a very strong correlation between BHT and ASSR measurements in HI group. However, the correlation was weaker in the NH group. The mean differences of pure tone average of four frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and ASSR threshold average of same frequencies were 13 ± 6 dB in NH group and 7 ± 5 dB in HI group and the difference was significant (P = 0.01). It was found that 86% of threshold difference values were less than 20 dB in NH group and 92% of threshold difference values were less than 20 dB in HI group. In conclusion, ASSR thresholds can be used to predict the configuration of pure tone audiometry. Results are more accurate in HI group than NH group. Although ASSR can be used in cochlear implant decision-making process, findings do not permit the utilization of the test for medico-legal reasons.

  8. Pure silica SBA-15 supported Cu-Ni catalysts for hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcayno, A.J.; Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologya (ESCET), c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen selectivity and the CO{sub 2}/CO{sub x} molar ratio. The best catalytic performance was achieved at 600 C with a catalyst containing 2 and 7 wt% of copper and nickel, respectively. In addition, two catalysts were prepared by the method of direct insertion of Ni and Cu ions as precursors in the initial stage of the synthesis. XRD, TEM, N{sub 2} adsorption and ICP-AES results evidenced that SBA-15 materials with long range hexagonal ordering could be successfully synthesized in the presence of copper and nickel salts with the (Cu+Ni) contents around 4-6 wt%. However, lower hydrogen selectivity and together with ethanol and water conversions were observed with catalysts prepared by direct synthesis in comparison with those prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. (authors)

  9. Dielectric constant of multiferroic pure and doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, A. T.; Apostolova, I. N.; Wesselinowa, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Within a microscopic model and a Green's function technique we have calculated the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the dielectric function ɛ(T,H) in CuO nanoparticles (NPs) taking into account frustration, single-ion anisotropy, s-d coupling, spin-phonon interaction and linear magnetoelectric coupling. ɛ(T) shows weak and broad anomalies at the two magnetic phase transition temperatures TN 2 and TN 1 due to the magnetoelectric coupling. ɛ(H) decreases with increasing of H and the kinks disappear. The changes of ɛ with ion doping are discussed. Comparisons to experimental data are made.

  10. Process Parameters Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of Pure Aluminium to Brass (CuZn30 using Taguchi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfar O. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the friction stir welding of dissimilar commercial pure aluminium and brass (CuZn30 plates was investigated and the process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The considered process parameters were the rotational speed, traverse speed and pin offset. The optimum setting was determined with reference to ultimate tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimum value of ultimate tensile strength was confirmed by experimental run using optimum parameters. Analysis of variance revealed that traverse speed is the most significant factor in controlling the joint tensile strength and pin offset also plays a significant role. In this investigation, the optimum tensile strength is 50% of aluminium base metal. Metallographic examination revealed that intermetallic compounds were formed in the interface of the optimum joint where the tensile failure was observed to take place.

  11. Strain localization of commercially pure titanium subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment followed by uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Alexey; Kazachenok, Marina; Kozelskaya, Anna; Perevalova, Olga; Balokhonov, Ruslan; Romanova, Varvara; Pochivalov, Yurii

    2016-11-01

    It was demonstrated that the ultrasonic impact treatment results in the gradient microstructure of the surface layer of commercially pure titanium composed of nanosized nonequiaxial α-Ti grains, underlying course α-grains with banded substructure and deformation twins, and subjacent layer characterized by the presence of a few twins and extinction contours within the course grains. The effect of ultrasonic impact treatment on the mechanical behavior of titanium specimen under tension was revealed theoretically and experimentally Using optical and atomic force microscopes it was shown that the fine-grained surface layer impede dislocation motion causing the initiation and propagation of shear bands oriented along the direction of maximum shear stresses. The fine structure of shear bands was studied by transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Pure CuCr2O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their morphological and size effects on the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban; Abazari, Reza; Gavi, Azam

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper a pure phase of the copper chromite spinel nanoparticles (CuCr2O4 SNPs) were synthesized via the sol-gel route using citric acid as a complexing agent. Then, the CuCr2O4 SNPs has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the next step, with the addition of Cu-Cr-O nanoparticles (NPs), the effects of different parameters such as Cu-Cr-O particle size and the Cu/Cr molar ratios on the thermal behavior of Cu-Cr-O NPs + AP (ammonium perchlorate) mixtures were investigated. As such, the catalytic effect of the Cu-Cr-O NPs for thermal decomposition of AP was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TGA/DSC results showed that the samples with different morphologies exhibited different catalytic activity in different stages of thermal decomposition of AP. Also, in the presence of Cu-Cr-O nanocatalysts, all of the exothermic peaks of AP shifted to a lower temperature, indicating the thermal decomposition of AP was enhanced. Moreover, the heat released (ΔH) in the presence of Cu-Cr-O nanocatalysts was increased to 1490 J g-1.

  13. Dynamics of liquid bridges inside microchannels subject to pure oscillatory flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report on 2D simulations of liquid bridges' dynamics in microchannels of uniform wettability and subject to external oscillatory flows. The flow equations were solved using the Cahn-Hilliard diffuse-interface formulation and the finite element method with unstructured grid. It was found that regardless of the wettability properties of the microchannel walls, there is a critical frequency above which the bridge shows perpetual periodic oscillatory motion. Below that critical frequency, the liquid bridge ruptures when the channel walls are philic and detaches from the surface when they are phobic. This critical frequency depends on the viscosity ratio, oscillation amplitude and geometric aspect ratio of the bridge. It was also found that the flow velocity is out of phase with the footprint/throat lengths and that the latter two show a phase difference. These differences were explained in terms of the motion of the two contact lines on the substrates and the deformation of the fluid-fluid interfaces. To characterize the behavior of the liquid bridge, two quantitative parameters; the liquid bridge-solid interfacial length and the length of the throat of the liquid bridge were used. Variations of the interfacial morphology development of the bridge were analyzed to understand the bridge response.

  14. A comparative study of pure and copper (Cu)-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications with their mechanism of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Tamanna; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, R.; Patel, S.; Reddy, M. R.; Anand, S.; Varma, A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. The samples were synthesized by simple, low cost mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition process. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The antibacterial activity of characterized samples was determined against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli using shake flask method with respect to time. The significant antibacterial activity was perceived from scanning electron micrographs that clearly revealed bacterial cell lysis resulting in the release of cytoplasmic content followed by cell death. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model organic dye for photocatalytic activity. The present study demonstrates the superior photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with respect to pure ZnO nanorods.

  15. A comparative study of pure and copper (Cu)-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications with their mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, Tamanna [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (India); Khanuja, Manika, E-mail: manikakhanuja@gmail.com; Sharma, R.; Patel, S.; Reddy, M. R.; Anand, S. [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Nanotechnology (India); Varma, A. [Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (India)

    2015-07-15

    The present study reports the synthesis of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. The samples were synthesized by simple, low cost mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition process. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The antibacterial activity of characterized samples was determined against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli using shake flask method with respect to time. The significant antibacterial activity was perceived from scanning electron micrographs that clearly revealed bacterial cell lysis resulting in the release of cytoplasmic content followed by cell death. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model organic dye for photocatalytic activity. The present study demonstrates the superior photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with respect to pure ZnO nanorods.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cluster of grapes like pure and Zinc-doped CuO nanoparticles by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, J.; Srinivasan, N.; Chandrasekaran, P.; Girija, E. K.

    2015-02-01

    Pure CuO and Zn-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized from sol-gel process by reacting copper acetate monohydrate with a urea in distilled water at 80 °C. The synthesized Samples were different concentrations but same annealing temperature at 400 °C. The obtained samples were characterized by means of UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-visible technique used to measure the band gap of the synthesized samples. The XRD spectra of the synthesized samples confirmed the CuO nanoparticles with monoclinic structure. All the functional groups of the pure and doped synthesized samples were investigated by FT-IR analysis. The morphological and elemental estimation of the pure and Zn-doped synthesized samples were examined by FE-SEM with EDS.

  17. Catalytic properties of pure and K{sup +}-doped Cu O/Mg O system towards 2-propanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Molla, S. A.; Amin, N. H.; Hammed, M. N.; Sultan, S. N. [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Education, Chemistry Department, Roxy, Heliopolis, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); El-Shobaky, G. A., E-mail: saharelmolla@yahoo.com [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-01

    Cu O/Mg O system having different compositions was prepared by impregnation method followed by calcination at 400-900 C. The effect of Cu O content, calcination temperature and doping with small amounts of K{sup +} species (1-3 mol %) on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the system were investigated using X-ray diffraction, adsorption of N{sub 2} at - 196 C, and conversion of isopropyl alcohol at 150-400 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the solids having the formulae 0.2 and 0.3 Cu O/Mg O calcined at 400 C consisted of nano sized Mg O and Cu O as major phases together with Cu{sub 2}O as minor phase. The Bet-surface areas of different absorbents are decreased by increasing Cu O content, calcination temperature and K{sup +}-doping. Mg O-support material showed very small catalytic activity in 2-propanol conversion. The investigated system behaved as selective catalyst for dehydrogenation of 2-propanol with selectivity >80%. The catalytic activity increased by increasing Cu O content and decreased by increasing the calcination temperature within 400-900 C. K{sup +}-doping increased the catalytic activity and catalytic durability. (Author)

  18. A comparative study on geometries, stabilities, and electronic properties between bimetallic AgnX (X=Au, Cu; n=1-8) and pure silver clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Li-Ping; Kuang Xiao-Yu; Shao Peng; Zhao Ya-Ru; Li Yah-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Using the meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange correlation TPSS functional,the geometric structures,the relative stabilities,and the electronic properties of bimetallic AgnX (X=Au,Cu; n=l-8) clusters are systematically investigated and compared with those of pure silver clusters.The optimized structures show that the transition point from preferentially planar to three-dimensional structure occurs at n =6 for the AgnAu clusters,and at n =5 for AgnCu clusters.For different-sized AgnX clusters,one X (X=Au or Cu) atom substituted Agn+1 structure is a dominant growth pattern.The calculated fragmentation energies,second-order differences in energies,and the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps show interesting odd-even oscillation behaviours,indicating that Ag2,4,6,8 and Ag1,3,5,7X (X=Au,Cu) clusters keep high stabilities in comparison with their neighbouring clusters.The natural population analysis reveals that the charges transfer from the Agn host to the impurity atom except for the Ag2Cu cluster.Moreover,vertical ionization potential (VIP),vertical electronic affinity (VEA),and chemical hardness (η) are discussed and compared in depth.The same odd-even oscillations are found for the VIP and ηof the AgnX (X=Au,Cu; n=1-8) clusters.

  19. Initiation and propagation of cleared channels in neutron-irradiated pure copper and a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N; Edwards, D.J.; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    has emerged. Recently we have studied the problem of initiation and propagation of cleared channels during post-irradiation tensile tests of pure copper and a copper alloy irradiated with fission neutrons.Tensile specimens of pure copper and a precipitation hardened copper alloy (CuCrZr) were neutron...... irradiated at 323 and 373K to displacement doses in the range of 0.01 to 0.3 dpa (displacement per atom) and tensile tested at the irradiation temperature.The stress-strain curves clearly indicated the occurrence of a yield drop. The post-deformation microstructural examinations revealed that the channels...... throughout the whole tensile test, no clear evidencehas been found for the operation of Frank-Read sources in the volume between the channels. Channels have been observed to penetrate through annealing twins, in some cases stopping at the opposite twin boundary and in other cases penetrating even throughthe...

  20. Evolution of Microstructure in Brazed Joints of Austenitic-Martensitic Stainless Steel with Pure Silver Obtained with Ag-27Cu-5Sn Brazing Filler Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Venkateswaran, T.; Kulkarni, Kaustubh

    2016-12-01

    Brazing of an austenitic-martensitic stainless steel (AMSS) with pure silver was carried out at 1053 K, 1073 K, and 1093 K (780 °C, 800 °C, and 820 °C) with Ag-27Cu-5Sn (wt pct) as brazing filler material (BFM). Wettability of the liquid BFM over base AMSS surface was found to be poor. Application of nickel coating to the steel was observed to enhance the wettability and to enable the formation of a good bond between BFM and the steel. The mechanism responsible for enhanced metallurgical bonding of the BFM with AMSS in the presence of nickel coating was explained based on diffusional interactions and uphill diffusion of iron, chromium and nickel observed in the brazed microstructure. Good diffusion-assisted zone was observed to form on silver side at all three temperatures. Four phases were encountered within the joint including silver solid solution, copper solid solution, Cu3Sn intermetallic and Ni-Fe solid solution. The Cu3Sn intermetallic was present in small amounts in the joints brazed at 1053 K and 1073 K (780 °C and 800 °C). The joint formed at 1093 K (820 °C) exhibited the absence of Cu3Sn, fewer defects and larger diffusion-assisted zone. Hardness of base AMSS was found to reduce during brazing due to austenite reversion and post-brazing sub-zero treatment for 2.5 hours was found suitable to recover the hardness.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of the Interface Between Pure Titanium and Low Melting Point Zr-Ti-Ni(Cu) Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmyoung; Sun, Juhyun; Kang, Donghan; Shin, Seungyoung; Hong, Juhwa

    2014-12-01

    Low melting point Zr-based filler metals with melting point depressants (MPDs) such as Cu and Ni elements are used for titanium brazing. However, the phase transition of the filler metals in the titanium joint needs to be explained, since the main element of Zr in the filler metals differs from that of the parent titanium alloys. In addition, since the MPDs easily form brittle intermetallics, that deteriorate joint properties, the phase evolution they cause needs to be studied. Zr-based filler metals having Cu content from 0 to 12 at. pct and Ni content from 12 to 24 at. pct with a melting temperature range of 1062 K to 1082 K (789 °C to 809 °C) were wetting-tested on a titanium plate to investigate the phase transformation and evolution at the interface between the titanium plate and the filler metals. In the interface, the alloys system with Zr, Zr2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases was easily changed to a Ti-based alloy system with Ti, Ti2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases, by the local melting of parent titanium. The dissolution depths of the parent metal were increased with increasing Ni content in the filler metals because Ni has a faster diffusion rate than Cu. Instead, slow diffusion of Cu into titanium substrate leads to the accumulation of Cu at the molten zone of the interface, which could form undesirable Ti x Cu y intermetallics. This study confirmed that Zr-based filler metals are compatible with the parent titanium metal with the minimum content of MPDs.

  2. Physical Characterization of Pure and Substituted Tetragonal LaBaCaCu3O7-δ Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Narlikar, A. V.

    The high Tc superconductor, forming the focus of the present review, presents an interesting situation where, despite its oxygen content close to 7.0, the system prefers to crystallize in tetragonal structure, as distinct from exhaustively studied orthorhombic RE:123 (REBa2Cu3O7, RE = rare earth) compounds. Its optimum Tc is decided by the cation intermixing at various sites, unlike that in case of normal RE:123, where all cationic sites are fully occupied and fixed, leaving the anionic sites free for oxygen filling. In this, we review the rich crystal chemistry of this compound and discuss it in conjunction with its unusual superconducting properties. The article is divided in five parts: (1) first we discuss variously reported interesting finer structural details and superconductivity of pristine LaBaCaCu3O7-δ (La:1113) superconductor. The La, Ba and Ca sites are found to be intermixed with respect to their nominal sites of the standard RE:123 structure. (2) We examine the structural aspects and superconductivity of La1-xRExBaCaCu3O7 (RE = Nd, Dy, Sm and Pr). Unlike RE:123 and 124 compounds, the RE:1113 compounds form only with light rare earths such as La, Pr and Nd. Pr:1113 compound is found to be an insulator with Pr moments ordering magnetically at around 8 K, unlike at 17 K for Pr:123. (3) Studies of Pr substitution reveal that relative Tc depression due to Pr in the (La,Nd)1-xPrxBaCaCu3O7 system is less in comparison to that found for La or Nd site Pr substituted (La,Nd)1- xPrxBa2Cu3O7. (4) The results of superconductivity and structural details are reviewed for LaBaCaCu3-xMxO7 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ga and Zn) and finally (5) we summarize our conclusions. The results in terms of Tc depression due to these impurities in the parent La:1113 system are seen as similar to those observed for RE:124 (REBa2Cu4O8) and Nd:214 (Nd2-xCexCuO4), but are different from RE:123 and La:214. The results of structural details, superconductivity and magnetic ordering presented in

  3. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of pure, Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped organic NLO l-arginine trifluoroacetate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Haris, M.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Amgalan, M.; Mathivanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Optically transparent Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystals were grown from its aqueous solution using the slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction to confirm the monoclinic crystal structure. The percentage of transmittance measured using the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer was found to be more than 80% for doped crystals. The functional group analysis of the grown crystals has been made by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis was performed for the grown crystals. An atomic absorption study was carried out to determine the presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show a significant variation in the hardness value between the pure and doped LATF crystals. The second harmonic generation measurements show that Cu2+ doped LATF is 2.8 times greater and Cd2+ doped is 2.6 times greater than KDP. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of the title compound were performed using the disc diffusion method against standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  4. Simple Precipitation Synthesis of Pure Cu3V2O8 Nanoparticles and Investigation of their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiyasiyan-Arani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Copper vanadate nanostructures were prepared via ex-situ precipitation approach in presence of Schiff-base ligand (N,N׳ -buthylenebis(acetylacetone iminatodianion = acacbn as a new capping agent. The effect of different Cu sources and pH on the size, morphology and size distribution of copper vanadate nanostructures was investigated. The as-prepared products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum, Electron Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and ultraviolet– visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The optical properties of different samples were compared.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of pure and doped YbInCu sub 4 compounds at ambient and high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Mushnikov, N V; Rozenfeld, E V; Yoshimura, K; Zhang, W; Yamada, M; Kageyama, H

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility and high-field magnetization of single-crystalline Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x InCu sub 4 (x = 0, 0.2 and 0.3) samples have been measured for different field orientations at ambient and high pressures. The compounds with x = 0 and 0.2 undergo a first-order valence transition from the intermediate-valence state to the trivalent state on increasing either temperature or magnetic field. The magnetization and susceptibility of these compounds have appreciable anisotropy in both states. The magnetic phase diagram of Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x InCu sub 4 determined at ambient pressure is also anisotropic, which is explained by the crystal-field calculations for the free Yb ion in the high-temperature phase. Moreover, the low-temperature magnetization process for x = 0.2 and 0.3 has been measured in low fields under high pressure; it shows anisotropic ferromagnetic ordering.

  6. Microstructure and electrical properties of pure 110K phase in the BiPbSrCaCuO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, E.; Berger, H.; Lévy, F.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Burri, G.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the d.c. resistivity and a.c. magnetic susceptibility was investigated in bulk ceramics of the BiPbSrCaCuO system with 2212 - free (2223) phase. The temperature domain needed to synthesize this phase was small and, according to the actual temperature used, the superconducting properties of the samples were strongly modified. The corresponding X-ray diffraction lines of the 110K phase can be indexed in the pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell with parameters 5.40x5.41x37Å 3. SEM microprobe study revealed the presence of several non-superconducting phases and a composition 2.1:0.1:2:2:3 for the cation ratio Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu of the 110K phase. Electrical measurements (d.c. resistivity and a.c. susceptibility) confirmed the existence of a 2212 - free (2223) phase. A low temperature "tail" in the d.c. electrical resistivity marks the low value of critical current in the samples.

  7. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and β-galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bertuccioli, Alexander; Marini, Eleonora; Ivaldi, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and β-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc). This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus β-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1) uncontrolled diet, 2) diet devoid of offending foods, and 3) uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and β-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®). Results Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation) significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. PMID:25733920

  8. The Photochemistry of Pyrimidine in Pure H2O Ice Subjected to Different Radiation Environments and the Formation of Uracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Materese. C. K..; Hu, W.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Wu, S.-R.; Fung, H.-S.; Sandford, S. A.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Wu, R.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleobases are N-heterocycles which are the informational subunits of DNA and RNA. They include pyrimidine bases (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Nucleobases have been detected in several meteorites, although no Nheterocycles have been observed in space to data. Laboratory experiments showed that the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ice at low temperature (<=20 K) leads to the formation of pyrimidine derivatives including the nucleobase uracil and its precursor 4(3H)-pyrimidone. These results were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. When pyrimidine is mixed with combinations of H2O, NH3, CH3OH, and CH4 ices under similar conditions, uracil and cytosine are formed. In the present work we study the formation of 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil from the irradiation of pyrimidine in H2O ice with high-energy UV photons (Lyman , He I, and He II lines) provided by a synchrotron source. The photo-destruction of pyrimidine in these H2O ices as well as the formation yields for 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil are compared with our previous results in order to study the photo-stability of pyrimidine and the production efficiency of uracil as a function of the photon energy.

  9. Synthesis of highly phase pure BSCCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, S.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Prorok, B.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Maroni, V.A.

    1995-11-21

    An article and method of manufacture (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor are disclosed. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. 5 figs.

  10. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  11. Altered physiology, cell structure, and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings subjected to Cu toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Vânia L; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, Jadiel de S; Mangabeira, Pedro A O; de Jesus, Raildo M; Pirovani, Carlos P; Ahnert, Dário; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro L

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Theobroma cacao CCN 51 genotype were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg Cu L(-1)) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L(-1), after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exchange was highly affected and changes in chloroplasts thylakoids of leaf mesophyll cells and plasmolysis of cells from the root cortical region were observed. In addition, cell membranes of roots and leaves were damaged. In leaves, 96 h after treatments started, increases in the percentage of electrolyte leakage through membranes were observed with increases of Cu in the nutrient solution. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in roots due to lipid peroxidation of membranes. Chemical analysis showed that increases in Cu concentrations in vegetative organs of T. cacao increased with the increase of the metal in the nutrient solution, but there was a greater accumulation of Cu in roots than in shoots. The excess of Cu interfered in the levels of Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, K, and Ca in different organs of T. cacao. Analysis of gene expression via RTq-PCR showed increased levels of MT2b, SODCyt, and PER-1 expression in roots and of MT2b, PSBA, PSBO, SODCyt, and SODChI in leaves. Hence, it was concluded that Cu in nutrient solution at doses equal or above 8 mg L(-1) significantly affected leaf gas exchange, cell ultrastructure, and transport of mineral nutrients in seedlings of this T. cacao genotype.

  12. Direct first principles calculations of \\mathrm {d} \\to \\mathrm {d} excitation energies in pure and hole-doped Sr2CuO2Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Derek S.; Mackrodt, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Direct first principles calculations are conducted for the three spin-allowed \\mathrm {d} \\to \\mathrm {d} excitations in pure and hole-doped antiferromagnetic Sr2CuO2Cl2. The results obtained for the pure system are close to the resonant x-ray Raman spectra reported by Kuiper et al (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 5204), most notably in respect of the \\mathrm {d}_{z^2} \\to \\mathrm {d}_{x^2-y^2} state, which was not observed directly. The energy of 1.53 eV computed for this excitation is in good agreement with the value 1.5 eV deduced from the Raman experiment, and both of these lie well above the energy 0.5 eV suggested previously on the basis of the optical spectrum (Perkins et al 1993 Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 1621). The associated spin-flip energy of approximately 0.2 eV proposed by Kuiper et al is shown to be entirely consistent with the observed Néel temperature and with first principles calculations, and further, that it corresponds to the flip of an unpaired dx2-y2 spin in the ground state rather than a dz2 spin in the excited state. The two \\mathrm {t}_{\\mathrm {2g}} \\to \\mathrm {e}_{\\mathrm {g}} excitation energies in the current UHF calculations differ by approximately 0.25 eV from the Raman values, an amount ascribed to the difference in pair correlation energies. In addition, hybrid functional calculations incorporating varying contents of exact exchange are found to offer no systematic improvement. The presence of a nearest neighbour hole in the most stable O(p) configuration is shown to have no significant effect upon either the order or the stability of the \\mathrm {d} \\to \\mathrm {d} states, with changes in excitation energy of 0.1-0.2 eV. A comparison with previous cluster calculations indicates that the latter do not capture fully the effect of the surrounding lattice on these highly local excitations. The generality of the direct approach to excitations is further established by calculations of the energies of three nearest neighbour charge

  13. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  14. First-order melting transition observed from resistivity measurements in ultra-pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals with high twin boundary density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Eltsev, Y.; Andersson, M.

    1999-01-01

    R(T) measurements have been performed on optimally and overdoped heavily twinned high-purity YBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals, under a magnetic field B oriented parallel to the twin boundary planes (B parallel to c). The characteristic feature attributed to the flux line lattice melting transition...

  15. High-resolution study of the yellow excitons in Cu2O subject to an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    We have used high-resolution transmission spectroscopy to study the exciton level spectrum in Cu2O subject to a longitudinal external electric field, i.e., in the geometry where the transmitted light is propagating along the field direction. Different experimental configurations given by the field orientation relative to the crystal and the light polarization have been explored. We focus on the range of small principal quantum numbers n ≤7 . The number of exciton states belonging to a particular principal quantum number increases with n , leading to an enhanced complexity of the spectra. Still, in particular, for n =3 ,...,5 , a spectral separation of the different lines is feasible and identification as well as assignment of the dominant state character are possible. We find a strong dependence of the spectra on the chosen light propagation direction and polarization configuration, reflecting the inadequacy of the hydrogen model for describing the excitons. With increasing the field excitonic states with different parity become mixed, leading to optical activation of states that are dark in zero field. As compared with atoms, due to the reduced Rydberg energy states with different n can be brought into resonance in the accessible electric field strength range. When this occurs, we observe mostly crossing of levels within the experimental accuracy showing that the electron and hole motion remains regular. The observed features are well described by detailed calculations accounting for the spin-orbit coupling, the cubic anisotropy effects, and the symmetry-imposed optical selection rules.

  16. Microstructure Evolution and Texture Development in a Cu-8.5%AT. AL Material Subjected to Hydrostatic Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowska D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate microstructure and texture evolution of two single crystals and polycrystal of Cu-8.5%at.Al material. All of mentioned samples were deformed by HE to achieve true strain ε = 1.17. For microstructure analyzes observations by transmission electron microscope (STEM were done. Crystalline size for samples after SPD were determine using XRD method. The global texture measurements were done using Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer equipped in Cr radiation. Microstructure investigations revealed nanocrystalline structure in single crystals with initial orientations and and polycrystalline Cu-8.5%at.Al material after SPD. The global texture measurements have shown the stability of initial orientation of Cu-8.5%at.Al single crystal after HE, whereas the same SPD process strongly brakes up the orientation Cu-8.5%at. Al single crystal.

  17. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  18. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  19. Precipitation of β′ phase and hardening in dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloys subjected to aging treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonghwan [Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Niinomi, Mitsuo, E-mail: niinomi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken [Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fukui, Hisao [Department of Dental Materials Science, School of Dentistry, Aichi-Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-0045 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    The age-hardening behavior of the dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy subjected to aging treatment at around 673 K is well known, and this hardening has been widely employed in various applications. To date, the age-hardening of this alloy has been explained to attribute to the precipitation of a β phase, which is a B2-type ordered CuPd phase or PdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x} phase. In this study, results obtained from microstructural observations using a transmission electron microscopy and a scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that a fine L1{sub 0}-type ordered β′ phase precipitated in the matrix and a coarse-structure region (consisting of Ag- and Cu-rich regions) appeared after aging treatment at 673 K and contributed to increase in hardness. The microstructure of the coarse β phase, which existed before aging treatment, did not change by aging treatment. Thus, it is concluded that the fine β′ phase precipitated by aging treatment contributed more to increase in hardness than the coarse-structure region and coarse β phase. - Highlights: • Hardness of Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy increased significantly by aging treatment. • A fine β′ phase and a coarse structure region appeared after aging treatment. • The microstructure of a coarse β phase did not change by aging treatment. • It is considered that the fine β′ phase contributed most to age-hardening.

  20. Aging Effect on Electrical Conductivity of Pure and Al-Doped YBa2Cu3O7−δ Single Crystals with a Given Topology of Planar Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan V. Vovk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conducting properties in the basal ab plane of pure and Al-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals before and after long-time exposure in air atmosphere are investigated. It is shown that prolonged aging leads to an increase of the density of effective scattering centers for the normal carriers. The aluminum doping has been revealed to partially slowdown the degradation of the conducting properties in process of aging. The excess conductivity, Δσ(T, has been found to obey exponential dependence in the broad temperature range Tc

  1. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  2. STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MULTI-CELL T-SHAPED CONCRETE FILLED STEEL TUBES SUBJECTED TO PURE BENDING%多室式钢管混凝土T形构件纯弯力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠永清; 严敏杰; 刘林林

    2012-01-01

    4 multi-cell T-shaped concrete-filled steel tubes (MT-CFST) and 2 multi-cell T-shaped steel tubes (MT-ST) subjected to pure bending were tested. The failure modes and the effects of cross-section dimensions and loading position on pure bending behaviors of MT-CFST specimens were examined as well. It was found in the experiment that the flexural capacities of MT-CFST specimens can be significantly enhanced by increasing the web height. The loading capacity was different when the force acted on the flange or the Web. Failure modes were mainly overall bending. Subsequently the finite element method is used to calculate the moment-deflection relationships of the MT-CFST specimens. The calculated curves show good agreement with the presented test results. Based on the parametric analysis, a simplified formula for calculating the ultimate strength of the new type of composite members under pure bending is recommended in the end.%进行了4个多室式钢管混凝土T形试件和2个多室式空钢管T形对比试件的纯弯试验,着重研究前者在纯弯状态下的变形过程及破坏形态,同时考察了截面尺寸、加载位置等参数对其纯弯力学性能的影响。试验结果表明:增大截面腹板高度能显著提高多室式钢管混凝土T形试件的抗弯承载力;力分别作用在翼缘或腹板时其承载能力有一定的差异;试件的破坏形态以整体弯曲为主。采用有限元方法对多室式钢管混凝土T形试件的弯矩一挠度曲线进行了全过程分析,与试验结果吻合较好。最后在参数分析的基础上提出了多室式钢管混凝土T形构件抗弯承载力的实用计算方法。

  3. Physical and Structural Characterization of a Monocrystalline Cu-13.7Al-4.2Ni Alloy Subjected to Thermal Cycling Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Cristina; Matlakhova, Lioudmila Aleksandrovna; Matlakhov, Anatoliy Nikolaevich; Shigue, Carlos Yujiro; Monteiro, Sérgio Neves

    2014-04-01

    A monocrystalline alloy with nominal 82wt pctCu-13.7wt pctAl-4.2wt pctNi composition and exhibiting reversible martensitic transformation (RMT) was subjected to multiple heating and cooling cycles within the RMT range of critical temperatures. Both untreated and cyclic treated alloy samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Vickers microhardness. The results indicated that the alloy presents a complex RMT behavior disclosing a sequence of transformation steps: β 1 ↔ R and R ↔ β'1 + γ'1 as well as possible β 1 ↔ β'1 and β'1 ↔ γ'1 direct reactions. The thermal cycling treatment inhibits the development of γ'1 martensite without much change in both the physical and microstructure characteristics. This suggests a good resistance of the alloy to irreversible structural changes.

  4. Structure-dependent size effects in CuTa/Cu nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C. [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xian Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xian Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2016-03-21

    CuTa monolayers with different Ta contents (34 at% and 37 at%) and CuTa/Cu multilayers with varying nanoscale Cu layer thickness (3–24 nm) were prepared by magnetron sputtering. Their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanoindentation testing. The microstructure of CuTa34 was pure amorphous phase while that of CuTa37 was amorphous phase embedded with nanoparticles. Adding Cu layers into the two different CuTa monolayers led to CuTa-Cu interfaces with different microstructures. For CuTa34/Cu, the interface was relatively straight and the Cu layers exhibited textured growth. For CuTa37/Cu, the interface was wavy and GBs (grain boundaries) were formed in the Cu layers. To investigate the influence of the two different microstructures on multilayer deformation, the residue indentation morphologies of CuTa/Cu were observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). For both CuTa34/Cu and CuTa37/Cu, SBs (shear bands) could be effectively inhibited if the Cu layers had a proper thickness. Dominant deformation mechanisms and size effects were proposed and discussed for CuTa/Cu thin films possessing different interfaces and Cu layer structures.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of pure and (Ce, Zr, Ag) doped mesoporous CuO-Fe2O3 as highly efficient and stable nanocatalysts for CO oxidation at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abd El-Aziz A.; Abd El-Wahab, Mohamed M. M.; Goda, Mohamed N.

    2016-12-01

    A series of single and mixed oxide nanocatalysts of mesoporous CuO-Fe2O3 with different CuO contents (1-50 wt.%) were prepared by a co-precipitation method and further promoted by trace amounts of CeO2, ZrO2 and Ag2O (0.1-0.5 wt.%) dopants. The original and calcined catalysts were characterized by TG, DTA, XRD, TEM, VSM, N2 sorption analysis, surface chemisorbed oxygen and DC electrical conductivity measurements. The catalytic performance of these nanocatalysts toward CO oxidation was studied using a conventional fixed bed flow type reactor. The results revealed that the addition of 1-20 wt.% CuO to Fe2O3 monotonically increases the specific surface area, the amount of surface chemisorbed oxygen, electrical conductivity and catalytic activity of the nanocatalysts. In addition, the catalytic activity indicated that Fe-Cu mixed oxide nanocatalyst promoted with the three dopants (CeO2, ZrO2 and Ag2O) exhibited the highest catalytic activity with a total conversion of CO into CO2 at 100 °C. Moreover, the activation energy of CO oxidation decreased from 38.4 to 23.1 kJmol-1 upon treating the catalyst containing 20 wt.% CuO with the three dopants. Finally the effects of various operational parameters were also studied.

  6. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeteman, M.A. (Centre de Genetique Medicale and INSERM U. 242, France); Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-02-21

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes.

  7. Effect of Small Amounts of Sb Addition on the Oxidation of Pure Cu at High Temperature%微量合金元素Sb对纯Cu高温氧化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利萍; 刘国军

    2014-01-01

    采用SEM、TG和XRD等研究了微量合金元素Sb (0.1 wt.%、0.4 wt.%、1.0wt.%)对纯铜在400℃、105 Pa的O2下抗氧化性能的影响.结果表明:Sb的添加,改善了纯Cu的抗氧化性;Sb含量为1.0 wt.%时效果最佳,其主要原因是添加的Sb在Cu2O/Cu-Sb合金界面形成的富Sb的杂质层,阻碍了Cu离子和氧离子扩散,降低了氧化速率.

  8. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...

  9. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions like alexia severity, and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia......Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...... in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits like agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however...

  10. Crystal electric field splitting of R{sup 3+}-ions in pure and Co- and Cu-doped RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R=Ho, Er, Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, U.; Allenspach, P.; Henggeler, W.; Zolliker, M.; Furrer, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    From the crystal-electric-field (CEF) splitting of the R{sup 3+}-ions, the CEF parameters of RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R=Ho, Er, Tm) were deduced. In order to get information about the influence of the variation of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level (E{sub F}), CEF spectroscopy measurements with Co- and Cu-doped ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C-samples were performed. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  11. Cu/γ-Al2O3的制备及其对纯甘油常压氢解制备1,2-丙二醇的催化性能%Preparation of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 Catalyst and Its Catalytic Performance in Hydrogenolysis of Pure Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol at Ambient Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安华良; 范立攀; 耿艳楼; 赵新强; 王延吉

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 catalyst prepared by incipient impregnation method were studied by means of H2-TPR ,XRD ,CO chemisorption ,N2 adsorption-desorption measurement . The catalytic performance of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 for glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1 ,2-propanediol (1 ,2-PDO) was evaluated .The results showed that the suitable Cu loading of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 was 15% ,and the suitable preparation conditions were reduction atmosphere of pure hydrogen ,temperature rising rate of 2℃ /min ,reduction temperature of 250℃ and reduction time of 2 h .Under the reaction conditions of pure glycerol ,atmospheric pressure ,n(H2 )/n(Glycerol)=100 ,Cu/γ-Al2O3 volume of 3 mL ,LHSV = 0.20 h-1 and reaction temperature of 190℃ ,the conversion of glycerol was 100% ,and the selectivity of 1 ,2-PDO was 92.9% .Furthermore ,the selectivity of 1 ,2-PDO was not less than 85% during the 36 h stability test ,demonstrating that Cu/γ-Al2 O3 catalyst exhibited a good stable activity . In Cu/γ-Al2 O3 catalyst Cu particles were highly dispersed on the surface of γ-Al2 O3 .The particle size and dispersion of Cu were the main factors influencing the catalytic performance of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 .The smaller the particle size and the higher the dispersion of Cu ,the better the catalytic performance of Cu/γ-Al2 O3 was .The conversion of glycerol to acetol required both acid sites and metal sites ,and the hydrogenation of acetol to 1 ,2-PDO was the rate controlling step of glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1 ,2-PDO .%采用 H2-T PR、XRD、CO化学吸附、N2吸附-脱附等方法表征了等体积浸渍法制备的Cu/γ-Al2 O3催化剂,并评价了其催化甘油氢解制备1,2-丙二醇(1,2-PDO )反应的性能。结果表明, Cu/γ-Al2 O3的适宜Cu负载量为15%(质量分数),适宜的制备条件为,采用纯 H2还原、升温速率2℃/min、还原温度250℃、还原时间2 h。在常压氢气、甘油液时空速0.20 h-1、氢气/甘油摩尔比100

  12. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  13. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  14. Speciation of Cu in MSWI bottom ash and its relation to Cu leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: stefanie.arickx@telenet.be; Gerven, T. van [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Boydens, E.; L' Hoest, P.; Blanpain, B. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be

    2008-12-15

    In Flanders, recycling of bottom ash is mainly inhibited by the high leaching of Cu. Although it has been proved that dissolved organic C plays a major role in the Cu leaching, the possible role of inorganic Cu mineral speciation has never been experimentally examined. In this study the speciation of Cu is investigated using a combination of optical microscopy and electron microprobe -WDX/EDX. Several Cu species were determined. Metallic Cu (with or without an oxide shell), CuO and Cu{sub 2}O were the most abundant. These particles were most likely present in wire-like structures. Copper also occurred as alloy (brass, bronze, zamak), and was found frequently together with typical elements such as Ca, Cl and S. Finally, small metallic Cu particles seemed to be trapped in or precipitated on oxides and silicates. Based on this Cu speciation study, pure Cu minerals were selected and leached as a function of time. The solubility after equilibrium of all studied Cu minerals never exceeded 20 {mu}g/L (which equals 10% of the total Cu leaching). The effect of heating (2 h at 400 deg. C) on the speciation of Cu was investigated using the same combination of techniques. Results show that metallic Cu seemed to be converted to Cu oxide (mostly CuO) and that the particles were more porous after heating. These conclusions were verified by XRD analysis of the heated pure Cu minerals. After heating, the Cu minerals were also leached as a function of time, to study the impact on Cu leaching. Results indicate that their leaching had slightly increased in comparison with the non-heated Cu minerals. However, the major decrease in Cu leaching in heated bottom ash, more than neutralizes this effect and thus can be attributed to the destruction of organic matter and not to the (small) change in Cu speciation.

  15. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  16. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  17. Purely tetrahedral quadruple systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Lijun

    2006-01-01

    An oriented tetrahedron is a set of four vertices and four cyclic triples with the property that any ordered pair of vertices is contained in exactly one of the cyclic triples. A tetrahedral quadruple system of order n (briefly TQS(n)) is a pair (X,B), where X is an nelement set and B is a set of oriented tetrahedra such that every cyclic triple on X is contained in a unique member of B. A TQS(n) (X, B) is pure if there do not exist two oriented tetrahedra with the same vertex set. In this paper, we show that there is a pure TQS(n) if and only if n≡2,4(mod 6),n>4,or n≡1,5(mod 12). One corollary is that there is a simple two-fold quadruple system of order n if and only if n≡2,4 (mod 6) and n>4, or n≡1, 5 (mod 12).Another corollary is that there is an overlarge set of pure Mendelsohn triple systems of order n for n≡1,3(mod 6),n>3, or n≡0,4 (mod 12).

  18. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  19. CHARACTERISATION OF Cr DOPED CuO NANOPARTICLES AND ITS PERFORMANCE IN SOLAR CELL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pure and Cr2+doped Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple precipitation method and subjected to photovoltaic activity by forming nanopowder –thin film as light absorbing  layer  on an  indigenously fabricated heterojunction by Doctor-Blade method.  Effect of concentration of the dopant (2, 4, and 6 mol%)  on the properties of CuO was analyzed from X-Ray Diffraction pattern (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDAX), UV-Vis studies and Photo...

  20. Magnetic Moment of $^{59}$Cu

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.

  1. PURE DRIVE GT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    在2004年奥林匹克赛事中,中国的李婷,孙甜甜取得了中国网球第一个金牌一女子双打冠军。忘记不了当时李婷挥动着她的BABOLAT(百保力)网拍Pure Drive Zylon 360°激动地拥抱着孙甜甜吵闹着,幸福地哭着的情景。

  2. Pure de Sitter Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Kallosh, Renata; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Using superconformal methods we derive an explicit de Sitter supergravity action invariant under spontaneously broken local ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry. The supergravity multiplet interacts with a nilpotent goldstino multiplet. We present a complete locally supersymmetric action including the graviton and the fermionic fields, gravitino and goldstino, no scalars. In the global limit when supergravity multiplet decouples, our action reproduces the Volkov-Akulov theory. In the unitary gauge where goldstino vanishes we recover pure supergravity with the positive cosmological constant. The classical equations of motion, with all fermions vanishing, have a maximally symmetric solution: de Sitter space.

  3. Paramagnetic susceptibility of the Zr62Cu22Al10Fe5Dy1 metallic glass subjected to high-pressure torsion deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. V.; Kourov, N. I.; Pushin, V. G.; Gunderov, D. V.; Boltynjuk, E. V.; Ubyivovk, E. V.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The Zr62Cu22Al10Fe5Dy1 bulk metallic glass is studied in the as-cast state and in the state after processing by high-pressure torsion at temperatures of 20 °C and 150 °C. According to the data from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the structural state of the samples depends weakly on the conducted processing. At the same time, magnetic measurements reveal well recordable changes in paramagnetic susceptibility induced by the processing of the samples. It is assumed that, because of high-pressure torsion deformation, there occurs a noticeable change in the material electronic structure, which leads to a change in the full susceptibility of the samples. The performed studies demonstrate that paramagnetic susceptibility may be an indicator of a change in the structural state of paramagnetic amorphous metallic substances.

  4. Pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.

  5. Pure Parsimony Xor Haplotyping

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given SNP. Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.

  6. Pure parsimony xor haplotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The haplotype resolution from xor-genotype data has been recently formulated as a new model for genetic studies. The xor-genotype data is a cheaply obtainable type of data distinguishing heterozygous from homozygous sites without identifying the homozygous alleles. In this paper, we propose a formulation based on a well-known model used in haplotype inference: pure parsimony. We exhibit exact solutions of the problem by providing polynomial time algorithms for some restricted cases and a fixed-parameter algorithm for the general case. These results are based on some interesting combinatorial properties of a graph representation of the solutions. Furthermore, we show that the problem has a polynomial time k-approximation, where k is the maximum number of xor-genotypes containing a given single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Finally, we propose a heuristic and produce an experimental analysis showing that it scales to real-world large instances taken from the HapMap project.

  7. Investigations of the corrosion fatigue behaviour at a super pure martensitic stainless steel X5CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH in comparison to the soft martensitic stainless steel X4CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR in chloride containing aqueous media. Pt. 2. Corrosion fatigue tests and crack initiation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Thomas, K.G.; Happle, T.; Wunderlich, R.

    1989-07-01

    The following report concerns the study of the corrosion fatigue behaviour of the soft martensitic steel X4CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR and the precipitation hardened X5CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH in sodium solution in the temperature range between 20/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C and the determination of their general corrosion properties and the mechanism of crack propagation. Their corrosion fatigue limits were compared with each other. A comparison was also made between an electro-slag-remelted soft martensitic steel and a charge without an ESR aftertreatment. Microfractographical fracture and crack path investigation were carried out for interpretation of the experimental results. It was observed that in both super pure steels (soft martensitic and precipitation hardened) the oxidic inclusions are not responsible for the crack initiation, as it was found in the non ESR treated steels. In the 17-4 PH steel copper containing inclusions in the crack initiation areas were observed. In concentrated sodium solution pitting corrosion was found at both steels. (orig.).

  8. Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Rebouças

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections

  9. Pure Redistribution and the Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study pure redistribution as a device to increase cooperation and efficiency in the provision of public goods. Experimental subjects play a two-stage game. The first stage is the standard linear public goods game. In the second stage, subjects can redistribute payoffs among other subjects...... cooperation in the provision of public goods...

  10. Investigation on CuO Dispersed PVA Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Divya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of inorganic nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of physical properties of polymers as well as the implementation of new features in polymer matrix. In the present work, we have made an attempt to disperse CuO nanoparticles in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and to understand the change in structural, optical and electrical properties of the polymer film. CuO nanoparticles were added in four different concentrations, viz. 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 wt%. A total of 5 films were prepared (including the pure PVA film, for comparison.The prepared films were subjected to XRD, FESEM, UV-Vis spectral, PL spectral and electrical analyses. The results obtained are reported.

  11. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  12. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Narasimha Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  13. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai

    2016-01-01

    Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  14. Magnetron sputtered Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for MEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Choudhary, Nitin [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Goyal, Rajendra N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Department of Chemistry (India); Viladkar, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Matai, I.; Gopinath, P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Centre for Nanotechnology (India); Chockalingam, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Department of Biotechnology (India); Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India)

    2013-03-15

    In the present study, for the first time, Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu/Si heterostructures were successfully grown using magnetron sputtering technique. Nanocrystalline copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N with thickness {approx}200 nm) thin films and copper nanodots were subsequently deposited on the surface of 2-{mu}m-thick NiTiCu shape memory thin films in order to improve the surface corrosion and nickel release properties of NiTiCu thin films. Interestingly, the phase transformation from martensite phase to austenite phase has been observed in Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructures with corresponding change in texture and surface morphology of top Cu{sub 3}N films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope images of the heterostructures reveals the formation of 20-nm-sized copper nanodots on NiTiCu surface at higher deposition temperature (450 Degree-Sign C) of Cu{sub 3}N. Cu{sub 3}N passivated NiTiCu films possess low corrosion current density with higher corrosion potential and, therefore, better corrosion resistance as compared to pure NiTiCu films. The concentration of Ni released from the Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu samples was observed to be much less than that of pure NiTiCu film. It can be reduced to the factor of about one-ninth after the surface passivation resulting in smooth, homogeneous and highly corrosion resistant surface. The antibacterial and cytotoxicity of pure and Cu{sub 3}N coated NiTiCu thin films were investigated through green fluorescent protein expressing E. coli bacteria and human embryonic kidney cells. The results show the strong antibacterial property and non cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructure. This work is of immense technological importance due to variety of BioMEMS applications.

  15. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...

  16. Hole transport in pure and doped hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peilin; Carter, Emily A.

    2012-07-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising candidate for use in photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical devices. Its poor conductivity is one major drawback. Doping hematite either p-type or n-type greatly enhances its measured conductivity and is required for potential p-n junctions in PVs. Here, we study hole transport in pure and doped hematite using an electrostatically embedded cluster model with ab initio quantum mechanics (unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory). Consistent with previous work, the model suggests that hole hopping is via oxygen anions for pure hematite. The activation energy for hole mobility is predicted to be at least 0.1 eV higher than the activation energy for electron mobility, consistent with the trend observed in experiments. We examine four dopants—magnesium(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(II/III) in direct cation substitution sites—to gain insight into the mechanism by which conductivity is improved. The activation energies are used to assess qualitative effects of different dopants. The hole carriers are predicted to be attracted to O anions near the dopants. The magnitude of the trapping effect is similar among the four dopants in their +2 oxidation states. The multivalent character of Mn doping facilitates local hole transport around Mn centers via a low-barrier O-Mn-O pathway, which suggests that higher hole mobility can be achieved with increasing Mn doping concentration, especially when a network of these low-barrier pathways is produced. Our results suggest that the experimentally observed conductivity increase in Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doped p-type hematite is mostly due to an increase in hole carriers rather than improved mobility, and that Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doping perform similarly, while the conductivity of Mn-doped hematite might be significantly improved in the high doping concentration limit.

  17. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti–Cu sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Zheng, Lanlan [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Liu, Jie [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dept. of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003 (China); Bai, Bing [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Institute of Dental Research, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti–Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti–Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti–Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti–2Cu and Ti–5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti–Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti–Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti–Cu samples and among the Ti–Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti–Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti–Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • The effect of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility has been investigated. • Cu content shows no influence on the cell proliferation. • Cu content shows no effect on the cell differentiation.

  18. Photoionizaton of Pure and Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    CERN Document Server

    Mudrich, M

    2014-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets, commonly regarded as the "nearly ideal spectroscopic matrix", are being actively studied for more than two decades now. While they mostly serve as cold, weakly perturbing and transparent medium for high-resolution spectroscopy of embedded molecules, their intrinsic quantum properties such as microscopic superfluidity still are subject-matter of current research. This article reviews recent work on pure and doped He nanodroplets using PI spectroscopy, an approach which has greatly advanced in the past years. While the notion of the ideal spectroscopic matrix mostly no longer holds in this context, photoionization techniques provide detailed insights into the photo-physical properties of pure and doped He nanodroplets and their relaxation dynamics following electronic excitation. Exploiting nowadays available high laser fields, even highly ionized states of matter on the nanoscale can be formed. Our particular focus lies on recent experimental progress including fs time-resolved spectroscop...

  19. Formation processes of CuCl and regenerated Cu crystals on bronze surfaces in neutral and acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Julin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: julinwang@126.com; Xu Chunchun [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Lv Guocheng [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The paper is devoted to investigating the formation of CuCl and regenerated Cu crystals on bronze. Electrochemical behaviour of bronze in simulated anoxic edaphic media and occluded cell (O.C.) solutions was studied with cycle voltammetry (CV) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Within potential range of -800 to +800 mV, oxidation occurred was largely a process in which Cu is oxidized to CuCl and the reduction process was a reverse of it. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the morphology of CuCl crystals, regenerated Cu crystals and corrosion interface at nm level. The deposition of regenerated Cu on simulated archaeological bronzes was simulated under experimental conditions for the first time. CuCl could be thoroughly reduced to pure Cu if reduction time interval were sufficiently prolonged. This provided a theoretical and experimental basis for getting rid of harmful CuCl patina from archaeological bronzes with electrochemical means.

  20. Relativity of pure states entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    Entanglement of any pure state of an N times N bi-partite quantum system may be characterized by the vector of coefficients arising by its Schmidt decomposition. We analyze various measures of entanglement derived from the generalized entropies of the vector of Schmidt coefficients. For N >= 3 they generate different ordering in the set of pure states and for some states their ordering depends on the measure of entanglement used. This odd-looking property is acceptable, since these incomparable states cannot be transformed to each other with unit efficiency by any local operation. In analogy to special relativity the set of pure states equivalent under local unitaries has a causal structure so that at each point the set splits into three parts: the 'Future', the 'Past' and the set of noncomparable states.

  1. "Pure" cutaneous histiocytosis-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, S L; Botero, F; Hurwitz, S; Pearson, H A

    1981-11-15

    The case histories of two young children who experienced skin rashes involving various areas of the body are reported. The diagnosis of pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X was established after extensive studies revealed no other organ involvement. The patients were treated with oral corticosteroids. Currently, both children are in good health, show no evidence of disease, and have been followed over a four-to-five-year period. Therapy with corticosteroids may not be indicated with pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X unless there is evidence of extracutaneous dissemination or rapid progression of the disease.

  2. Pure Spinors for General Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fre', Pietro

    2008-01-01

    We show the equivalence of the different types of pure spinor constraints geometrically derived from the Free Differential Algebras of N=2 d=10 supergravities. Firstly, we compute the general solutions of these constraints, using both a G_2 and an SO(8) covariant decomposition of the 10d chiral spinors. Secondly, we verify that the number of independent degrees of freedom is equal to that implied by the Poincare' pure spinor constraints so-far used for superstrings, namely twenty two. Thirdly, we show the equivalence between the FDA type IIA/B constraints among each other and with the Poincare' ones.

  3. Effect of Cu content and temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Brammertz, Guy; Buffière, Marie; Meuris, Marc; Vleugels, Jef; Poortmans, Jef

    2016-09-01

    The complexity involved in obtaining pure Kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film primarily arises due to its narrow region of stability, leading to the presence of unavoidable binary selenides of the constituent metals. This study offers an insight on the formation of Cu selenides when the amount of Cu is varied in the precursor from Cu poor to Cu rich. The amount of Cu selenides was found to decrease when the composition of CZTSe absorber approached Cu rich conditions but functional devices were not obtained. Detailed characterizations also showed that the Cu and Sn binary phases were present at the backside interface of CZTSe solar cells. However with an increase in the selenization temperature it was found that the amount of Cu selenides and other secondary phases could be drastically minimized or even eliminated leading to high efficiency devices.

  4. Effect of Cu content and temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahayaraj Sylvester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity involved in obtaining pure Kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe thin film primarily arises due to its narrow region of stability, leading to the presence of unavoidable binary selenides of the constituent metals. This study offers an insight on the formation of Cu selenides when the amount of Cu is varied in the precursor from Cu poor to Cu rich. The amount of Cu selenides was found to decrease when the composition of CZTSe absorber approached Cu rich conditions but functional devices were not obtained. Detailed characterizations also showed that the Cu and Sn binary phases were present at the backside interface of CZTSe solar cells. However with an increase in the selenization temperature it was found that the amount of Cu selenides and other secondary phases could be drastically minimized or even eliminated leading to high efficiency devices.

  5. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  6. Growth and characterization of pure and doped NLO L-arginine acetate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Praveen Kumar; V Manivannan; P Sagayaraj; J Madhavan

    2009-08-01

    Single crystals of pure, Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped L-arginine acetate (LAA) were grown successfully by slow evaporation technique. In order to improve the device characteristics of LAA crystals, metal dopants of Cu2+ and Mg2+ were incorporated into the parent crystals. The grown pure and doped crystals were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The pure and doped crystals were characterized by Fourier transform Raman (FT–Raman) and thermal studies. Absorptions of these grown crystals were analysed using UV–Vis–NIR studies, and it was found that these crystals possess minimum absorption in the entire visible region. Nonlinear optical studies of pure and doped crystals were carried out and it reveals that the dopants have increased the efficiency of LAA crystals.

  7. Numerical simulation on rapid melting and nonequilibrium solidification of pure metals and binary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠希东; 陈国良; 杨院生; 胡壮麒

    2002-01-01

    A heat and mass transfer modelling containing phase transformation dynamics is made for pure metals and binary alloys under pulsed laser processing. The nonequilibrium effects of processing parameters and physical properties are evaluated on the melting and solidification of pure metals (Al, Cu, Fe and Ni) and Al-Cu alloys. It is shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and physical properties of metals and the solute concentration of alloys have important effect on the interface temperature, melting and solidification velocity, melting depth and non-equilibrium partition coefficient. This situation is resulted from the interaction of heat transfer, redistribution of solute, solute trapping and growth kinetics.

  8. Manipulation of pure spin current in ferromagnetic metals independent of magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Huang, S. Y.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    Upon the injection of a pure spin current, a ferromagnet, similar to a nonmagnetic metal, also exhibits inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). We show in Co/Cu/YIG, where the thin Cu layer allows transmission of spin current from YIG into Co but decouples the two ferromagnets, that the interaction between ISHE and ferromagnetic ordering in Co can be unambiguously investigated. By switching on and off the pure spin current contribution, we demonstrate that the ISHE in Co is independent of the direction of the Co magnetization, which clearly suggests that the ISHE in Co is dominated not by the extrinsic impurity scatterings, but from the intrinsic origin.

  9. Novel CuCr2O4 embedded CuO nanocomposites for efficient photodegradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageshwari, K.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jinsub

    2015-10-01

    Novel photocatalyst based on CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites was synthesized for different Cr3+ concentration by reflux condensation method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue dyes (MB) under UV light irradiation. Phase evolution by X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic CuO and tetragonal CuCr2O4 as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the incorporation of Cr3+ in CuO lattice alters the morphology of CuO from microsphere to cluster shape. Photoluminescence spectra of CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. As expected, the CuCr2O4 loaded CuO showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for MO and MB dyes, and the kinetic studies suggest that the degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO-CuCr2O4 nanocomposites can be attributed to the presence of CuCr2O4 as an electron acceptor, which improves the effective charge separation in CuO.

  10. Manifolds of interconvertible pure states

    OpenAIRE

    Sinolecka, Magdalena M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    2001-01-01

    Local orbits of a pure state of an N x N bi-partite quantum system are analyzed. We compute their dimensions which depends on the degeneracy of the vector of coefficients arising by the Schmidt decomposition. In particular, the generic orbit has 2N^2 -N-1 dimensions, the set of separable states is 4(N-1) dimensional, while the manifold of maximally entangled states has N^2-1 dimensions.

  11. Manifolds of interconvertible pure states

    CERN Document Server

    Sinolecka, M M; Kus, M; Sinolecka, Magdalena M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    2002-01-01

    Local orbits of a pure state of an N x N bi-partite quantum system are analyzed. We compute their dimensions which depends on the degeneracy of the vector of coefficients arising by the Schmidt decomposition. In particular, the generic orbit has 2N^2 -N-1 dimensions, the set of separable states is 4(N-1) dimensional, while the manifold of maximally entangled states has N^2-1 dimensions.

  12. Multimedia programming with pure data

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A quick and comprehensive tutorial book for media designers to jump-start interactive multimedia production with computer graphics, digital audio, digital video, and interactivity, using the Pure Data graphical programming environment.An introductory book on multimedia programming for media artists/designers who like to work on interactivity in their projects, digital art/design students who like to learn the first multimedia programming technique, and audio-visual performers who like to customize their performance sets

  13. In situ quantitative study of microstructural evolution at the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joint during solid state aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); An, Rong, E-mail: anr@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-systems and Micro-structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Chunqing; Jiang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cu dissolution during reflowing was mainly occurred under the gaps between scallops. • Though IMC growth was diffusion-controlled, consumption of Cu substrate was not. • Growth of Cu{sub 3}Sn layer in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joint was on the both sides. • Ag and Cu lead to a thinner Cu{sub 3}Sn layer due to inhibit the diffusion of Sn into Cu. - Abstract: In situ microstructural evolution at the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joint during solid state aging was quantitatively studied by nanoindentation. The morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} gradually altered from scallop type to layer type. Though the growth of IMCs was diffusion-controlled, the consumption of Cu substrate was not linear with the square root of aging time. At the initial stage of solid state aging, the Cu atoms essential to the growth of IMCs were mainly from the supersaturated solder matrix. When the Cu atoms from supersaturated solder matrix were exhausted, the Cu atoms for the growth of IMCs were primarily from the Cu substrate. In addition, the IMCs formed at this state were principally used to fill up the gaps between scallops. After the gaps disappeared, the consumption of Cu substrate slowed down. Furthermore, the growth of Cu{sub 3}Sn layer in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joint was on the both sides with layer type. Since the Sn atoms were inhibited to diffuse into the Cu substrate by the alloying elements of Ag and Cu, the thickness of Cu{sub 3}Sn layer in SnAgCu/Cu solder joint was much thinner than that in pure Sn/Cu solder joint.

  14. Electrodeposited NiCu Alloy Catalysts for Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jieun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Sookil [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Hyun; Jang, Jong Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    NiCu alloys have been suggested as potential candidates for catalysts in glucose oxidation. In this study, NiCu alloys with different compositions were prepared on a glassy carbon substrate by changing the electrodeposition potential to examine the effect of Ni/Cu ratios in alloys on catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that NiCu alloys had higher catalytic activity than pure Ni and Cu catalysts. Especially, Ni{sub 59}Cu{sub 41} had superior catalytic activity, which was about twice that of Ni at a given oxidation potential. X-ray analyses showed that the oxidation state of Ni in NiCu alloys was increased with the content of Cu by lattice expansion. Ni components in alloys with higher oxidation state were more effective in the oxidation of glucose.

  15. ONE CASE REPORT OF PURE SENSORY GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨咏梅; 夏中信; 魏岗之

    2004-01-01

    @@ The existence of purely sensory form of GuillianBarre syndrome is still subject to controversy. We report the case of patient who was admitted in our hospital in October, 1999 and had acute sensory neuropathy which, due to its clinicial, cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiological characteristics, may be considered a sensory form of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

  16. Preparation for Ultra High Pure Indium Metal for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat V. Joshi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high pure Indium metal is extensively used in optoelectronic devices. Indium and its alloys become potential candidates in aerospace, defense and communication sectors. Purification of Indium has been done by Instrolec-200 Refiner followed by Directional Melting/ Freezing and Solidification Systems. Major targeted impurities are Metallic impurities Ag, Al, As, Bi, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Mg, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, and Zn. Purified Indium is characterized by analytical techniques Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry.

  17. Effect of CNTs dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhsan, Ali Samer, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Puteri Sri Melor Megat Bt, E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia); Raza, M. Rafi, E-mail: rafirazamalik@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Modified technique of metal injection molding (MIM) was used to fabricate multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Cu nanocomposites. The effect of adding different amount of CNTs (0-10 vol.%) on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fabricated nanocomposites is presented. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed homogenous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrices at different CNTs contents. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites showed extraordinary increase (76% higher than pure sintered Cu) with addition of 10 vol.% CNTs. As compared to the pure sintered Cu, increase in modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites sintered at 1050°C for 2.5 h was measured to be 48%. However, in case of 7.5 vol.% CNTs, Young's modulus was increased significantly about 51% compared to that of pure sintered Cu.

  18. Cytocompatibility of pure metals and experimental binary titanium alloys for implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Yo-Han; An, Ji-Hae; Song, Ho-Jun; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metal ingots (Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Nb, V, Zr) and 36 experimental titanium (Ti) alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of each alloying element. The cell viabilities for each test group were compared with that of CP-Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test. The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was as follows: Cu>Al>Ag>V>Mn>Cr>Zr>Nb>Mo>CP-Ti. The mean cell viabilities for pure Cu, Al, Ag, V, and Mn were 21.6%, 25.3%, 31.7%, 31.7%, and 32.7%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that for the control group (p<0.05). The mean cell viabilities for pure Zr and Cr were 74.1% and 60.6%, respectively (p<0.05). Pure Mo and Nb demonstrated good biocompatibility with mean cell viabilities of 93.3% and 93.0%, respectively. The mean cell viabilities for all the Ti-based alloy groups were higher than 80% except for Ti-20 Nb (79.6%) and Ti-10 V (66.9%). The Ti-10 Nb alloy exhibited the highest cell viability (124.8%), which was higher than that of CP-Ti. Based on agar overlay test, pure Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, and V were ranked as 'moderately cytotoxic', whereas the rest of the tested pure metals and all Ti alloys, except Ti-10 V (mild cytotoxicity), were ranked as 'noncytotoxic'. The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based alloy implant systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructure, impurity and metal cap effects on Cu electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.-K.; Gignac, L. G.; Ohm, J.; Breslin, C. M.; Huang, E.; Bonilla, G.; Liniger, E.; Rosenberg, R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Choi, S.; Simon, A. H. [IBM Microelectronic Division, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533 (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Electromigration (EM) lifetimes and void growth of pure Cu, Cu(Mn) alloy, and pure Cu damascene lines with a CoWP cap were measured as a function of grain structure (bamboo, near bamboo, and polycrystalline) and sample temperature. The bamboo grains in a bamboo-polycrystalline grained line play the key role in reducing Cu mass flow. The variation in Cu grain size distribution among the wafers was achieved by varying the metal line height and wafer annealing process step after electroplating Cu and before or after chemical mechanical polishing. The Cu grain size was found to have a large impact on Cu EM lifetime and activation energy, especially for the lines capped with CoWP. The EM activation energy for pure Cu with a CoWP cap from near-bamboo, bamboo-polycrystalline, mostly polycrystalline to polycrystalline only line grain structures was reduced from 2.2 ± 0.2 eV, to 1.7 ± 0.1 eV, to 1.5 ± 0.1 eV, to 0.72 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. The effect of Mn in Cu grain boundary diffusion was found to be dependent on Mn concentration in Cu. The depletion of Cu at the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) line is preceded by an incubation period. Unlike pure Cu lines with void growth at the cathode end and hillocks at the anode end of the line, the hillocks grew at a starting position roughly equal to the Blech critical length from the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) polycrystalline line. The effectiveness of Mn on Cu grain boundary migration can also be qualitatively accounted for by a simple trapping model. The free migration of Cu atoms at grain boundaries is reduced by the presence of Mn due to Cu-solute binding. A large binding energy of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV was observed.

  20. Universality in pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    If low-energy supersymmetry is realized in nature, the apparent discovery of a Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV suggests a supersymmetric mass spectrum in the TeV or multi-TeV range. Multi-TeV scalar masses are a necessary component of supersymmetric models with pure gravity mediation or in any model with strong moduli stabilization. Here, we show that full scalar mass universality remains viable as long as the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan{beta}, is relatively small (

  1. Toxicological evaluation of pure hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auñon-Calles, David; Canut, Lourdes; Visioli, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Of all the phenolic constituents of olives and extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol is currently being actively exploited as a potential supplement or preservative to be employed in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and food industry. In terms of safety profile, hydroxytyrosol has only been investigated as the predominant part of raw olive mill waste water extracts, due to the previous unavailability of appropriate quantities of the pure compound. We report the toxicological evaluation of hydroxytyrosol and, based on the results, propose a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 500mg/kg/d.

  2. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

    The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

  3. Pure dysarthria due to an insular infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Saiko; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo

    2010-06-01

    Cortical infarction presenting with pure dysarthria is rarely reported. Previous studies have reported pure dysarthria due to cortical stroke at the precentral gyrus or middle frontal gyrus. We report a 72-year-old man who developed pure dysarthria caused by an acute cortical infarction in the insular cortex. The role of the insula in language has been difficult to assess clinically because of the rarity of pure insular strokes. Our patient showed pure dysarthria without aphasia, indicating that pure dysarthria can be the sole manifestation of insular infarctions.

  4. Effect of Ga on the Wettability of CuGa10 on 304L Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silze, Frank; Wiehl, Gunther; Kaban, Ivan; Kühn, Uta; Eckert, Jürgen; Pauly, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the effect of Ga on the wetting behavior of the Cu-rich braze filler CuGa10 (wt pct, Cu90.8Ga9.2 at. pct) on the steel 304L was investigated. For this, the macroscopic and microscopic effects governing the wetting of pure Ga, pure Cu, and CuGa10 alloy (wt pct) on the austenitic steel were analyzed and compared. Contact angle and surface tension measurements were carried out by means of the sessile drop technique, and, in addition, the phase formation at the interface was determined. Pure liquid Ga spreads on 304L, which supposedly is related to the formation of intermetallic Fe-Ga phases growing into the liquid Ga. Depending on the annealing time, FeGa3 and Fe14.5Ga12 were identified. In contrast, CuGa10 as well as pure Cu shows secondary wetting on the steel surface. Especially, liquid Cu prefers spreading laterally and vertically along the grain boundaries of the steel substrate. In spite of rather similar mechanisms, CuGa10 wets 304L steel at lower rate than pure Cu above the liquidus temperature.

  5. The presence of embedded bacterial pure cultures in agar plates stimulate the culturability of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Johnsen, Kaare; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed Mohamad Abdel F

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods for bacterial cultivation recover only a small fraction of bacteria from all sorts of natural environments, and attempts have been made to improve the bacterial culturability. Here we describe the development of a cultivation method, based on the embedment of pure bacterial cu...

  6. Model answers in pure mathematics for a-level students

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, GA; Schofield, C W

    1967-01-01

    Model Answers in Pure Mathematics for A-Level Students provides a set of solutions that indicate what is required and expected in an Advanced Level examination in Pure Mathematics. This book serves as a guide to the length of answer required, layout of the solution, and methods of selecting the best approach to any particular type of math problem. This compilation intends to supplement, not replace, the normal textbook and provides a varied selection of questions for practice in addition to the worked solutions. The subjects covered in this text include algebra, trigonometry, coordinate geomet

  7. ABSOLUTELY E-PURE MODULES AND E-PURE SPLIT MODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hangyu

    2011-01-01

    We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.

  8. Pure optical dynamical color encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Fredy Barrera, John; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts.

  9. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, A.; Hollands, W.; Casgrain, A.; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, J.R.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and

  10. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, A.; Hollands, W.; Casgrain, A.; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, J.R.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and

  11. The neuroanatomy of pure apraxia of speech in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Jones, David T; Strand, Edythe A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    The left insula or Broca's area have been proposed as the neuroanatomical correlate for apraxia of speech (AOS) based on studies of patients with both AOS and aphasia due to stroke. Studies of neurodegenerative AOS suggest the premotor area and the supplementary motor areas as the anatomical correlates. The study objective was to determine the common infarction area in patients with pure AOS due to stroke. Patients with AOS and no or equivocal aphasia due to ischemic stroke were identified through a pre-existing database. Seven subjects were identified. Five had pure AOS, and two had equivocal aphasia. MRI lesion analysis revealed maximal overlap spanning the left premotor and motor cortices. While both neurodegenerative AOS and stroke induced pure AOS involve the premotor cortex, further studies are needed to establish whether stroke-induced AOS and neurodegenerative AOS share a common anatomic substrate.

  12. Dual Target Search is Neither Purely Simultaneous nor Purely Successive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Kyle R; Menneer, Tamaryn; Nomani, Mohammad S; Stroud, Michael J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-31

    Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both. Stroud et al.'s participants were not explicitly instructed to use any particular strategy. These data were revisited to determine which strategy was employed. Each fixated item was categorised according to whether its colour was more similar to one target or the other. Once an item similar to one target is fixated, the next fixated item is more likely to be similar to that target than the other, showing that at a given moment during search, one target is generally favoured. However, the search for one target is not completed before search for the other begins. Instead, there are often short runs of one or two fixations to distractors similar to one target, with each run followed by a switch to the other target. Thus, the results suggest that one target is more highly weighted than the other at any given time, but not to the extent that search is purely successive.

  13. Enhanced Photocatalytic Property of Cu Doped Sodium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianbin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Bingyang; Du, Yingge; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-09-29

    We investigate the photocatalytic activity of Cu doped NaNbO3 powder sample prepared by the modified polymer complex method. The photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution from methanol aqueous solution was improved by Cu 2.6 at% doping. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was enhanced in comparison with pure NaNbO3. Cu inctroduction improved the adsorption property of NaNbO3, judging from the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Moreover, the ultraviolet light excitation in Cu doped sample was found to accelerate the mineralized process.

  14. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌

    2004-01-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.

  15. Unusual physical and chemical properties of Cu in Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin; Rodriguez, José A; Hanson, Jonathan C; Gamarra, Daniel; Martínez-Arias, Arturo; Fernandez-García, Marcos

    2005-10-27

    The structural and electronic properties of Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) nano systems prepared by a reverse microemulsion method were characterized with synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. The Cu atoms embedded in ceria had an oxidation state higher than those of the cations in Cu(2)O or CuO. The lattice of the Ce(1)(-x)Cu(x)O(2) systems still adopted a fluorite-type structure, but it was highly distorted with multiple cation-oxygen distances with respect to the single cation-oxygen bond distance seen in pure ceria. The doping of CeO(2) with copper introduced a large strain into the oxide lattice and favored the formation of O vacancies, leading to a Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2-y) stoichiometry for our materials. Cu approached the planar geometry characteristic of Cu(II) oxides, but with a strongly perturbed local order. The chemical activities of the Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) nanoparticles were tested using the reactions with H(2) and O(2) as probes. During the reduction in hydrogen, an induction time was observed and became shorter after raising the reaction temperature. The fraction of copper that could be reduced in the Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) oxides also depended strongly on the reaction temperature. A comparison with data for the reduction of pure copper oxides indicated that the copper embedded in ceria was much more difficult to reduce. The reduction of the Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) nanoparticles was rather reversible, without the generation of a significant amount of CuO or Cu(2)O phases during reoxidation. This reversible process demonstrates the unusual structural and chemical properties of the Cu-doped ceria materials.

  16. Synthesis of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles by laser ablation in deionized water and their annealing transformation into CuO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    Nano-structured Cupric Oxide (CuO) has been synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of pure copper in water using Q-switched pulsed laser beam of 532 nm wavelength and, 5 nanosecond pulse duration and laser pulse energy of 100 mJ/pulse. In the initial unannealed colloidal suspension, the nanoparticles of Copper (Cu) and Cuprious oxide (Cu2O) were identified. Further the suspension was dried and annealed at different temperatures and we noticed the product (Cu/Cu2O) was converted predominantly into CuO at annealing temperature of 300 \\'C for 3 hours. As the annealing temperature was raised from 300 to 900 \\'C, the grain sizes of CuO reduced to the range of 9 to 26 nm. The structure and the morphology of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscope. Photoluminescence and UV absorption spectrometrystudies revealed that the band gap and other optical properties of nano-structured CuO were changed due to post annealing. Fourier transform spectrometry also confirmed the transformation of Cu/Cu2O into CuO. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

  17. Physics of pure and non-pure positron emitters for PET: a review and a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Maurizio; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-12-01

    With the increased interest in new PET tracers, gene-targeted therapy, immunoPET, and theranostics, other radioisotopes will be increasingly used in clinical PET scanners, in addition to (18)F. Some of the most interesting radioisotopes with prospective use in the new fields are not pure short-range β(+) emitters but can be associated with gamma emissions in coincidence with the annihilation radiation (prompt gamma), gamma-gamma cascades, intense Bremsstrahlung radiation, high-energy positrons that may escape out of the patient skin, and high-energy gamma rays that result in some e (+)/e (-) pair production. The high level of sophistication in data correction and excellent quantitative accuracy that has been reached for (18)F in recent years can be questioned by these effects. In this work, we review the physics and the scientific literature and evaluate the effect of these additional phenomena on the PET data for each of a series of radioisotopes: (11)C, (13)N, (15)O, (18)F, (64)Cu, (68)Ga, (76)Br, (82)Rb, (86)Y, (89)Zr, (90)Y, and (124)I. In particular, we discuss the present complications arising from the prompt gammas, and we review the scientific literature on prompt gamma correction. For some of the radioisotopes considered in this work, prompt gamma correction is definitely needed to assure acceptable image quality, and several approaches have been proposed in recent years. Bremsstrahlung photons and (176)Lu background were also evaluated.

  18. Hyperfine and magnetic properties of Fe-Cu clusters and Fe precipitates embedded in a Cu matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klautau, A B [Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil); Socolovsky, L M [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nogueira, R N [Faculdade Taboao da Serra, 06768-000, Taboao da Serra, SP (Brazil); Petrilli, H M, E-mail: aklautau@ufpa.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-16

    Using the first-principles real-space linear muffin-tin orbital method within the atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) we study hyperfine and local magnetic properties of substituted pure Fe and Fe-Cu clusters in an fcc Cu matrix. Spin and orbital contributions to magnetic moments, hyperfine fields and the Moessbauer isomer shifts at the Fe sites in Fe precipitates and Fe-Cu alloy clusters of sizes up to 60 Fe atoms embedded in the Cu matrix are calculated and the influence of the local environment on these properties is discussed.

  19. Selective synthesis of clinoatacamite Cu2(OH)3Cl and tenorite CuO nanoparticles by pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Malcho, Phillip; Andersen, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    , it directed the growth of Cu2(OH)3Cl to provide pure clinoatacamite without the presence of related poly- morphs. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible light spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission X......-ray microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was essential for characterization of closely related polymorphs of Cu2(OH)3Cl indistinguishable by XRD. A plausible mechanism has been proposed and discussed for the formation of the CuO and Cu2(OH)3Cl nanostructures....

  20. Bringing Planctomycetes into pure culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Lage

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924, although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, eleven genera with fourteen species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains and planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture dependent methods.

  1. Isomerically Pure Tetramethylrhodamine Voltage Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Parker E; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Al-Abdullatif, Sarah H; Miller, Evan W

    2016-07-27

    We present the design, synthesis, and application of a new family of fluorescent voltage indicators based on isomerically pure tetramethylrhodamines. These new Rhodamine Voltage Reporters, or RhoVRs, use photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) as a trigger for voltage sensing, display excitation and emission profiles in the green to orange region of the visible spectrum, demonstrate high sensitivity to membrane potential changes (up to 47% ΔF/F per 100 mV), and employ a tertiary amide derived from sarcosine, which aids in membrane localization and simultaneously simplifies the synthetic route to the voltage sensors. The most sensitive of the RhoVR dyes, RhoVR 1, features a methoxy-substituted diethylaniline donor and phenylenevinylene molecular wire at the 5'-position of the rhodamine aryl ring, exhibits the highest voltage sensitivity to date for red-shifted PeT-based voltage sensors, and is compatible with simultaneous imaging alongside green fluorescent protein-based indicators. The discoveries that sarcosine-based tertiary amides in the context of molecular-wire voltage indicators prevent dye internalization and 5'-substituted voltage indicators exhibit improved voltage sensitivity should be broadly applicable to other types of PeT-based voltage-sensitive fluorophores.

  2. Bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志康; 梁淑华; 薛旭

    2001-01-01

    The bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material was investigated. The results show that the fracture of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material often takes place at W-Cu/CuCr interface. Some alloying elements enhance the bond of W and CuCr alloy, which results in the increase of the strength of the W-Cu/CuCr interface. And the fracture of the WCu/CuCr integrated material occurs in the CuCr alloy part, not at the W-Cu/CuCr interface. Chromium in CuCr alloy part of the integrated material can improve Cr diffusing from the CuCr alloy to W-Cu composite and can be alloyed (near the W-Cu/CuCr interface) in the W-Cu composite. Thus the strength of W-Cu/CuCr interface is also increased.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of Cu-Pd ordered alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özdemir Kart

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to study the molecular dynamics of Cu-Pd ordered alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The thermal and mechanical properties of Cu, Pd pure metals and their ordered intermetallic alloys of Cu3Pd(L12 and CuPd3(L12 are studied by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The melting behavior of the metals considered in this work is studied by utilizing quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC many-body potential. The effects of temperature and concentration on the physical properties of Cu-Pd system are analyzed.Findings: A wide range of properties of Cu, Pd pure metals and their Cu3Pd and CuPd3 ordered intermetallics is presented. It was found that this potential is suitable to give the general characteristics of the melting process in these systems. Practical implications: The simulation results such as cohesive energy, density, elastic constants, bulk modulus, heat capacity, thermal expansion and melting points are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations.Originality/value: To the best our knowledge this work presents, for the first time, a wide range of physical properties of alloys focusing on Cu-Pd ordered compounds.

  4. A comparison of liking of pureed food between two groups of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive difficulties make consumer testing with older adults who have dysphagia extremely difficult. Using a healthier older adult population to predict liking scores of this subgroup of older adults could provide a reliable method of determining liking in this population. Forty-five adults older than 65 years who had not been diagnosed with dysphagia participated in a taste test at a local seniors' center. Twelve puree consumers were recruited from five long-term care homes in Ontario. All participants rated three commercial carrot purees and turkey purees for their liking of the appearance and flavor using a 5-point modified Cued Facial Scale. Significant differences between the groups indicate that a healthy group of older adults cannot replicate liking of puree consumers.

  5. Pure variation and organic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanvallon, Jérôme

    2012-09-01

    The fundamental problem posed by Darwin distinguishes his theory from any transformism of the past as well as any evolutionism to come: since variation is inherent to the living, it is a question of explaining, not at all why the living varies, but instead why the living does not vary in all directions to the point of constituting a continuum of forms varying ad infinitum. What limits and stabilizes this intrinsically unlimited variation, allowing certain forms to subsist and multiply to the detriment of others, is natural selection. This double principle of intrinsic variation/extrinsic selection constitutes a vector for the unification of reality that underlies Jean-Jacques Kupiec's ontophylogenesis as well as Deleuze and Guattari's global philosophy of Nature. Therefore, everything would potentially tend to incessantly vary. The work of Kupiec and others identifies an intrinsic random variation within ontogenesis itself. For Deleuze and Guattari, it is nothing but the figure, already selected by the organic stratum, of a more fundamental or pure variation. But, in fact, nothing really varies incessantly: everything undergoes a selective pressure according to which nothing subsists as such except what manages to endure through invariance (physical stratum) or reproduction (organic stratum). Thus, organic stratification only retains from variation what ensures and augments this reproduction. In this sense, every organism stratifies, i.e. submits to its imperative of subsistence and reproduction, a body without organs that varies in itself and always tends to escape the organism, for better (intensifications of life) or worse (cancerous pathologies). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikakhwa, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.

  7. Tame Kernels of Pure Cubic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun CHENG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the p-rank of the tame kernels of pure cubic fields.In particular,we prove that for a fixed positive integer m,there exist infinitely many pure cubic fields whose 3-rank of the tame kernel equal to m.As an application,we determine the 3-rank of their tame kernels for some special pure cubic fields.

  8. Dissipation-induced pure Gaussian state

    CERN Document Server

    Koga, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides some necessary and sufficient conditions for a general Markovian Gaussian master equation to have a unique pure steady state. The conditions are described by simple matrix equations, thus they can be easily applied to the so-called environment engineering for pure Gaussian state preparation. In particular, it is shown that for any given pure Gaussian state we can actually construct a dissipative process yielding that state as the unique steady state.

  9. Direct synthesis of RGO/Cu{sub 2}O composite films on Cu foil for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiangmao; Wang, Kun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Chongjun, E-mail: chongjunzhao@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia); Qian, Xiuzhen [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Shi [School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhen, E-mail: zhenl@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia); Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Graphical abstract: RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites were synthesized by simple hydrothermal treatment of copper foils with graphene oxide, in which the reduction of graphene oxide and the formation of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles simultaneously happened in one-pot reaction. These composites can be directly used as electrodes of supercapacitors with the highest specific capacitance of 98.5 F/g at 1 A g{sup −1}, which is much better than that of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O electrodes. -- Highlights: • The RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites were obtained by a friendly method in one step. • Improved capacitance performance is realized by the hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxides with Cu foils. • RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu-200 composites exhibit the largest specific capacitance of 98.5 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/cuprous oxide (RGO/Cu{sub 2}O) composite films were directly synthesized on the surface of copper foil substrates through a straight redox reaction between GO and Cu foil via a hydrothermal approach. Characterization of the resultant composites with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) confirms the formation of Cu{sub 2}O and reduction of GO, in which Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles were well covered by RGO. The resultant composites (referred to as RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu) were directly used as electrodes for supercapacitors, and their electrochemical performance was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. A specific capacitance of 98.5 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} was obtained, which is much higher than that of pure Cu{sub 2}O prepared under the same conditions, due to the presence of RGO.

  10. Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films with semi-spherical particles grown by electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jin You; Jadhav, Abhijit P.; Song, Guang; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo, E-mail: yskang@sogang.ac.kr

    2012-12-01

    Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films can be prepared on indium-doped tin oxide glass substrates by simple electrodeposition in a solution containing 0.1 M Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 3 M lactic acid at different pH values. At low pH (pH = 1.2), the uniform Cu films were obtained; when pH {>=} 7, the pure Cu{sub 2}O films can be deposited. Especially, at pH = 11, the deposited Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited cubic surface morphology exposing mainly {l_brace}100{r_brace} plane; in contrast, the films consisting of semi-spherical particles were obtained when the solution was being stirred for 2 weeks prior to use. The possible growth process and mechanism were comparatively discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films were prepared by facile electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition was preformed in electrolyte at different pH values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic Cu films were obtained at 1.2 pH with relatively high deposition potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-spherical Cu{sub 2}O films were obtained with solution at 11 pH and stirred for 2 weeks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible growth mechanism of semi-spherical Cu{sub 2}O films was discussed.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  12. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307,Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-13

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanoparticles.

  13. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  14. The Effect of Premixed Al-Cu Powder on the Stir Zone in Friction Stir Welding of AA3003-H18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnar, B.; Kazeminezhad, M.; Kokabi, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    In this research, 3-mm-thick AA3003-H18 non-heat-treatable aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). It was performed by adding pure Cu and premixed Cu-Al powders at various rotational speeds of 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm and constant traveling speeds of 100 mm/min. At first, the powder was filled into the gap (0.2 or 0.4 mm) between two aluminum alloy plates, and then the FSW process was performed in two passes. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and formation of intermetallic compounds were investigated in both cases of using pure Cu and premixed Al-Cu powders. The results of using pure Cu and premixed Al-Cu powders were compared in the stir zone at various rotational speeds. The copper particle distribution and formation of Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (Al2Cu and AlCu) in the stir zone were desirable using premixed Al-Cu powder into the gap. The hardness values were significantly increased by formation of Al-Cu intermetallic compounds in the stir zone and it was uniform throughout the stir zone when premixed Al-Cu powder was used. Also, longitudinal tensile strength from the stir zone was higher when premixed Al-Cu powder was used instead of pure Cu powder.

  15. DYNAMIC COMPACTION OF PURE COPPER POWDER USING PULSED MAGNETIC FORCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of pure Cu powder was carried out through a series of experiments using dynamic magnetic pulse compaction, and the effects of process parameters, such as discharge energy and compacting direction, on the homogeneity and the compaction density of compacted specimens were presented and discussed. The results indicated that the compaction density of specimens increased with the augment of discharge voltage and time. During unidirectional compaction, there was a density gradient along the loading direction in the compacted specimen, and the minimum compaction density was localized to the center of the bottom of the specimen. The larger the aspect ratio of a powder body, the higher the compaction density of the compacted specimen. And high conductivity drivers were beneficial to the increase of the compaction density. The iterative and the double direction compaction were efficient means to manufacture the homogeneous and high-density powder parts.

  16. The Expansion Postponement in Pure Type Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋方敏

    1997-01-01

    The expansion postponement problem in Pure Type Systems is an open problem raised by R.Pollack in 1992.In this paper,the author presents a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for this problem and a set of sufficient conditions for it.The author also gives some properties for pure typ systems without the expansion rule.

  17. Measuring the entanglement of bipartite pure states

    CERN Document Server

    Sancho, J M

    2000-01-01

    The problem of the experimental determination of the amount of entanglement of a bipartite pure state is addressed. We show that measuring a single observable does not suffice to determine the entanglement of a given unknown pure state of two particles. Possible minimal local measuring strategies are discussed and a comparison is made on the basis of their best achievable precision.

  18. Fundamentals of the pure spinor formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derive

  19. Reactions in Electrodeposited Cu/Sn and Cu/Ni/Sn Nanoscale Multilayers for Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pay Ying Chia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturization of electronic devices has led to the development of 3D IC packages which require ultra-small-scale interconnections. Such small interconnects can be completely converted into Cu-Sn based intermetallic compounds (IMCs after reflow. In an effort to improve IMC based interconnects, an attempt is made to add Ni to Cu-Sn-based IMCs. Multilayer interconnects consisting of stacks of Cu/Sn/Cu/Sn/Cu or Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Sn/Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Cu with Ni = 35 nm, 70 nm, and 150 nm were electrodeposited sequentially using copper pyrophosphate, tin methanesulfonic, and nickel Watts baths, respectively. These multilayer interconnects were investigated under room temperature aging conditions and for solid-liquid reactions, where the samples were subjected to 250 °C reflow for 60 s and also 300 °C for 3600 s. The progress of the reaction in the multilayers was monitored by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. FIB-milled samples were also prepared for investigation under room temperature aging conditions. Results show that by inserting a 70 nanometres thick Ni layer between copper and tin, premature reaction between Cu and Sn at room temperature can be avoided. During short reflow, the addition of Ni suppresses formation of Cu3Sn IMC. With increasing Ni thickness, Cu consumption is decreased and Ni starts acting as a barrier layer. On the other hand, during long reflow, two types of IMC were found in the Cu/Ni/Sn samples which are the (Cu,Ni6Sn5 and (Cu,Ni3Sn, respectively. Details of the reaction sequence and mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Adsorption and dehydrogenation of tetrahydroxybenzene on Cu(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bebensee, Fabian; Svane, K.; Bombis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of tetrahydroxybenzene (THB) on Cu(111) and Au(111) surfaces is studied using a combination of STM, XPS, and DFT. THB is deposited intact, but on Cu(111) it undergoes gradual dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups as a function of substrate temperature, yielding a pure dihydroxy......-benzoquinone phase at 370 K. Subtle changes to the adsorption structure upon dehydrogenation are explained from differences in molecule–surface bonding....

  1. Palladium-free electroless deposition of pure copper film on glass substrate using hydrazine as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, N.; Behboudnia, M.; Maleki, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    Thin copper films were fabricated on glass substrates by palladium-free electroless deposition, using hydrazine. The effects of modifying the deposition parameters like temperature, initial concentration and pH of electroless bath on the deposition rate and morphology of resulting films were studied and optimized. The film deposition is performed in two simple steps which shortens the pretreatment time and avoids applying expensive components and is environmentally benign. FESEM images show a uniform dispersion of Cu nanoparticles on the glass substrates in the first step. These nanoparticles act as an activator in the growth of homogeneous Cu thin film in the second step. The activation energy for the growth of Cu films was found to be 62 kJ/mol. EDX and XRD analysis demonstrates that the composition of the deposits was pure Cu with FCC crystal structure. The Cu films of 260 nm thickness showed a resistivity of about 2 × 10-6 Ω cm.

  2. Novel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} embedded CuO nanocomposites for efficient photodegradation of organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageshwari, K. [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); PG & Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamilnadu (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya59@gmail.com [PG & Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Jeong Yong [IBS, Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinsub, E-mail: jinsubpark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel CuO–CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Methyl orange and methylene blue dye degradation studied under UV light irradiation. • Nanocomposites characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, UV–vis DRS and PL. • CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} loading effectively enhanced the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Novel photocatalyst based on CuO–CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites was synthesized for different Cr{sup 3+} concentration by reflux condensation method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue dyes (MB) under UV light irradiation. Phase evolution by X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic CuO and tetragonal CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the incorporation of Cr{sup 3+} in CuO lattice alters the morphology of CuO from microsphere to cluster shape. Photoluminescence spectra of CuO–CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. As expected, the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} loaded CuO showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for MO and MB dyes, and the kinetic studies suggest that the degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites can be attributed to the presence of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} as an electron acceptor, which improves the effective charge separation in CuO.

  3. Entanglement dynamics of a pure bipartite system in dissipative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Azim, Tasnim; Suhail Zubairy, M [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-10-28

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two atoms. We find that in a vacuum reservoir the presence of the state where both atoms are in excited states is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for an infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure 2-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that the sudden death of entanglement always happens. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.

  4. A novel fabrication of Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} core-shell micro/nanocrystals from Cu{sub 2}O temples and enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junqi, E-mail: sfmlab@163.com; Sun, Long; Yan, Ying; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} core-shell crystals maintained the same morphology with template. • The crystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than the pure Cu{sub 2}O crystals. • The photocatalytic activity of different R crystals is diverse from each other. • A possible formation mechanism has been proposed. - Abstract: Uniform and monodispersed Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} core-shell micro/nanocrystals have been synthesized successfully at room temperature via a simple chemical etching reaction, using Cu{sub 2}O as sacrificial template. The structure and properties of the crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The photocatalytic activity of the Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} crystals was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of MeO (methyl orange) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under visible-light irradiation. The results show that the as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} crystals revealed core-shell structure, which maintained the same morphology with corresponding template and were composed of cuboctahedron Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} shell and active Cu{sub 2}O core. Due to the unique Cu{sub 2}O@Cu{sub 7}S{sub 4} core-shell structure, the crystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than that of the pure Cu{sub 2}O crystals, and the photocatalytic activity of different R crystals is diverse from each other. A possible formation mechanism has been proposed.

  5. Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays

    CERN Document Server

    Leistner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then we derive conditions in terms of tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give an analogous result for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves.

  6. Pure red cell aplasia and associated thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rosu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia is a rare cause of anemia, caused by an absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. It is usually a paraneoplastic syndrome, associated most commonly with large-cell granular lymphocyte leukemia but also thymoma. For patients who present both pure red cell aplasia and thymoma, thymectomy leads to an initial remission of the aplasia in 30% of cases. However, sustained remission may require the addition of medications such as corticosteroids, cyclospo­rine, or cyclophosphamide. We present a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with a thymoma in an otherwise healthy 80 year-old woman.

  7. Effect of Preparation and Storage Conditions on Physical and Chemical Properties of Puree, Puree Juices and Cloudy Juices Obtained from Pumpkin with Added Japanese Quince and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NAWIRSKA-OLSZAŃSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence it seems recommendable to blend pumpkin with other fruits. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety ‘Karowita’. The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical properties of pumpkin samples based on different storage conditions. Pumpkin puree, puree juice and cloudy juices containing Japanese quince and strawberries were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties initially and after three months storage at temperatures of 4 °C and 30 °C. Cloudy juices were prepared with pectolytic preparation. The extract dry matter in all the samples was at a similar level. Puree and puree juice had considerably higher viscosity than cloudy juices. The highest quantities of bioactive compounds were detected in slightly processed samples (puree, puree juice and cloudy juices stored at 4 °C. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in puree and puree juice after storage. However, in the remaining samples, there was observed a decrease in the content of the compounds. A considerable decrease in carotenoids took place in samples subjected to pressing, where the amount of assayed carotenoids in puree was 5.24 mg/100 g fresh matter (FM, 4.15 mg/100 g FM in puree juice, and 0.18-0.47 mg/100 g FM in cloudy juices. The pressing also caused a significant decrease in colour parameters. Three months of storage showed markedly decreased contents of carotenoids and vitamin C.

  8. Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L., E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Salinas, D. Hurtado [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Dominguez, A. Bustamante [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Najarro, D. Acosta [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, CP 01000 (Mexico); Khondaker, S.I. [NanoScience Technology Centre and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Mitrelias, T.; Barnes, C.H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Aguiar, J. Albino [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-Pe (Brazil); Majima, Y. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we study the crystallization and electrical resistivity of the formed oxides in a Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film after thermal oxidation by ex-situ annealing at different temperatures up to 1000 Degree-Sign C. Upon increasing the annealing temperature, from the X ray diffractogram the phase evolution Cu {yields} Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO was detected. Pure Cu{sub 2}O films are obtained at 200 Degree-Sign C, whereas uniform CuO films without structural surface defects such as terraces, kinks, porosity or cracks are obtained in the temperature range 300-550 Degree-Sign C. In both oxides, crystallization improves with annealing temperature. A resistivity phase diagram, which is obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented here. The resistivity was expected to increase linearly as a function of the annealing temperature due to evolution of oxides. However, anomalous decreases are observed at different temperatures ranges, this may be related to the improvement of the crystallization and crystallite size when the temperature increases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallization and electrical resistivity of oxides in a Cu films are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In annealing Cu films, the phase evolution Cu + Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O {yields} Cu{sub 2}O + CuO {yields} CuO occurs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A resistivity phase diagram, obtained from the current-voltage response, is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some decreases in the resistivity may be related to the crystallization.

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped CuO solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chong-fei; PAN Li-qing; ZHU Hao; QIU Hong-mei; WANG Feng-ping; WU Ping; QIU Hong; ZHANG Yue; J. Q. XIAO

    2005-01-01

    The CuO doped with 5%-20% Mn(molar fraction) solids were sintered from CuO and MnO2 powder at high temperature (1 273 K) for 8 h. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the solid crystallinity and to address the formation of secondary phases. It is found that it is difficult to achieve pure Cu1-xMnxO phase using standard solid phase reaction. However, sintering under a pressure of 27.7 MPa significantly reduces the undesirable second phase CuMn2O4, providing a route to achieve pure Cu1-xMnx O phase. SQUID magnetometry was employed to characterize the magnetic properties. Mn-doped CuO presents ferromagnetic characteristics below 70 K. Electrical transport properties were measured in a current-perpendicular-to-plane(CPP) geometry using the PPMS, which suggests variable-range hopping mechanism.

  10. Cathode Erosion of Graphite and Cu/C Materials in Airarcs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengyu; QIAO Shengru; LIU Yiwen; YANG Zhimao; WANG Yaping; GUO Yong

    2012-01-01

    Cathode erosion of graphite and Cu/C was studied in direct current arcs,which were ignited between two electrodes comprised of two kinds of carbon materials and a tungsten anode in air.The arced zones on the cathode surface were investigated by a scanning electron microscope.Also,the cathode erosion rates of the investigated materials were measured.The results show that two distinct zone can be seen on both cathodes.The eroded area was located at the zone just opposite to the anode and surrounded by a white zone.The arced surface on the Cu/C containing 9.3 % Cu is rougher than that of the pure graphite.Many particles with various sizes distributed on the Cu/C.The vaporization of Cu can lower the surface temperature and reduce the cathode erosion.Therefore,the cathode erosion rate of the Cu/C is lower than that of the pure graphite.

  11. Surface alloying of Cu with Ti by double glow discharge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁庆龙; 池成忠; 苏永安; 徐重; 唐宾

    2004-01-01

    The surface of pure copper alloyed with Ti using double glow discharge process was investigated. The morphology, structure and forming mechanism of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were analyzed. The microhardness and wear resistance of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were measured, and compared with those of pure copper. The results indicate that the surface of copper activated by Ar and Ti ions bombardment is favorable to absorption and diffusion of Ti element. In current experimental temperature, as the Ti content increases, the liquid phase occurs between the deposited layer and diffused layer, which makes the Ti ions and atoms easy to dissolve and the thickness of Cu-Ti alloying layer increase rapidly. After cooling, the structure of the alloying layer is composed of CuTi, Cu4 Ti and Cu(Ti) solid solution. The solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening effects of Ti result in high surface hardness and wear resistance.

  12. Atomic model of liquid pure Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a θ-θX-ray diffractometer, the liquid structure of pure Fewas investigated and the diffraction intensity, structure factor, pair distribution function as well as the coordination number and atomic distance were obtained. The experimental results showed that there was also a pre-peak on the curve of the structure factor of liquid pure Fe. The pre-peak is a mark of medium-range order in melts. According to the characteristics of pre-peak, an atomic model of liquid pure Fe is constructed, namely, the structure of liquid pure Fe is a combination of clusters consisting of bcc cells with shared vertexes and other atoms with random dense atom distribution.

  13. Entropy product measure for multipartite pure states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wancang; LIU Dan; PAN Feng; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    An entanglement measure for multipartite pure states is formulated using the product of the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrices of the constituents.Based on this new measure, all possible ways of the maximal entanglement of the triqubit pure states are studied in detail and all types of the maximal entanglement have been culate the degree of entanglement, and an improvement is given in the area near the zero entropy.

  14. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  15. Expander Graphs in Pure and Applied Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

  16. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined.

  17. The effect of thermal treatment on the atomic structure of core-shell PtCu nanoparticles in PtCu/C electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadchenko, V. V.; Belenov, S. V.; Shemet, D. B.; Volochaev, V. A.; Srabionyan, V. V.; Avakyan, L. A.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Guterman, V. E.; Bugaev, L. A.

    2017-08-01

    PtCu/C electrocatalysts with bimetallic PtCu nanoparticles were synthesized by successive chemical reduction of Cu2+ and Pt(IV) in a carbon suspension prepared based on an aqueous ethylene glycol solution. The atomic structure of as-prepared PtCu nanoparticles and nanoparticles subjected to thermal treatment at 350°C was examined using Pt L 3 and Cu K EXAFS spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results of joint analysis of TEM microphotographs, XRD profiles, and EXAFS spectra suggest that the synthesized electrocatalysts contain PtCu nanoparticles with a Cu core-Pt shell structure and copper oxides Cu2O and CuO. Thermal treatment of electrocatalysts at 350°C results in partial reduction of copper oxides and fusion of bimetallic nanoparticles with the formation of both homogeneous and ordered PtCu solid solutions.

  18. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals grown in silica gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Mathivanan; M Haris

    2013-07-01

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic analysis and thermal analysis have been done for crystals with = 0 for pure iron tartrate and with = 0.05 for copper-mixed iron tartrate crystals. A detailed comparison has been made between pure and doped crystals.

  19. Depth concentrations of deuterium ions implanted into some pure metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Kitowski, K.; Kulikauskas, V.; Wilczynska, T.; Hofman, A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    Pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25-keV deuterium ions at fluences in the range (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2. The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium ions were measured 10 days and three months after the implantation by using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Comparison of the obtained results allowed us to make conclusions about relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen gases in pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. Very high diffusion rates of implanted deuterium ions in V and Pd pure metals and Pd alloys were observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed formation of nanosized defects in implanted corundum and titanium.

  20. Corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in FeCl3 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jun-e; GUO Xing-peng; WANG Hai-ren; HUANG Jin-ying

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in FeCl3 solution was investigated mainly by in-situ AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The results of combined researches of AFM, SEM(Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDAX(Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray) show that in addition to uniform attack, pitting corrosion takes place also on pure aluminum surface in FeCl3solution at open-circuit potential, and impurity elements Fe and Cu are found enriched in corrosion product. In-situ AFM was also used to examine the initiation and development of pitting corrosion of pure aluminum induced by potentiodynamic sweep, and the repassivation of an active pit is observed. AFM tip scratching technique was used to produce a physical defect on metal surface,which is traced by in-situ AFM and it is found that the defect is likely to be preferentially attacked and evolve to pitting corrosion.

  1. Rehabilitation of pure alexia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think that pure alexia was an easy target for rehabilitation efforts. We review the literature on rehabilitation of pure alexia from 1990 to the present, and find that patients differ widely on several dimensions, such as alexia severity and associated deficits. Many patients reported to have pure alexia in the reviewed studies, have associated deficits such as agraphia or aphasia and thus do not strictly conform to the diagnosis. Few studies report clear and generalisable effects of training, none report control data, and in many cases the reported findings are not supported by statistics. We can, however, tentatively conclude that Multiple Oral Re-reading techniques may have some effect in mild pure alexia where diminished reading speed is the main problem, while Tacile-Kinesthetic training may improve letter identification in more severe cases of alexia. There is, however, still a great need for well-designed and controlled studies of rehabilitation of pure alexia. PMID:23808895

  2. CO-induced inversion of the layer sequence of a model CoCu catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, Greg; Xiang, Yizhi; Barbosa, Roland; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Experimental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the electronic and structural properties of CoCu catalysts before and after CO adsorption. DFT calculations show that, prior to CO adsorption, CoCu has a high tendency to self-assemble into a Co@Cu core-shell structure, which is in accordance with previous atom probe tomography (APT) results for CoCu-based systems and the known mutually low miscibility of Co and Cu. We demonstrate that Co and Cu are electronically immiscible using a density of states (DOS) analysis wherein neither metal's electronic structure is greatly perturbed by the other in "mixed" CoCu. However, CO adsorption on Co is in fact weakened in CoCu compared to CO adsorption on pure Co despite being electronically unchanged in the alloy. Differential charge density analysis suggests that this is likely due to a lower electron density made available to Co by Cu. CO adsorption at coverages up to 1.00 ML are then investigated on a Cu/Co(0001) model slab to demonstrate CO-induced segregation effects in CoCu. Accordingly, a large driving force for a Co surface enrichment is found. At high coverages, CO can completely invert the layer sequence of Co and Cu. This result is echoed by XPS evidence, which shows that the surface Co/Cu ratio of CoCu is much larger in the presence of CO than in H2.

  3. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Series of (Agx/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ {(Agx/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentrations (i.e. x=0~4.0 wt% of silver (Ag nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Agx/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive x-rays (EDX spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  4. Effect of Cu2O morphology on photocatalytic hydrogen generation and chemical stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihong; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Ziyu; Liu, Kejia; Gao, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Improving photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite is a challenge in generating hydrogen from water. In this paper, the TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid composite was prepared via a microsphere lithography technique, which possesses a remarkable performance of producing H2 under UV-vis light irradiation, in comparison with pure TiO2 film, Cu2O film and TiO2 film/Cu2O film. More interesting is that in TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid, photo-corrosion of Cu2O can be retarded. After deposition of Pt on its surface, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O microgrid in producing H2 is improved greatly.

  5. Preparation of Cu-Sn Layers on Polymer Substrate by Reduction-Diffusion Method Using Ionic Liquid Baths

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Kuniaki; Ito, Akira; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    A novel metallization of non-conductive epoxy substrate with Cu-Sn “speculum alloy, ” or “white bronze, ” was performed through successive electrochemical processes: (i) conventional electroless deposition of pure Cu layer and (ii) subsequent electrochemical alloying of the resulting pure Cu layer with Sn using an ionic liquid bath at 150°C, a medium-low temperature. Availability of the Sn quasi-reference electrode for the alloying was verified, and the resulting compact and adhesive Cu-Sn la...

  6. Ultrasensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on three-dimensional network of ZnO-CuO hierarchical nanocomposites by electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous ZnO–CuO hierarchical nanocomposites (HNCs) nonenzymatic glucose electrodes with different thicknesses were fabricated by coelectrospinning and compared with 3D mixed ZnO/CuO nanowires (NWs) and pure CuO NWs electrodes. The structural characterization revealed that the ZnO–CuO HNCs were composed of the ZnO and CuO mixed NWs trunk (~200 nm), whose outer surface was attached with small CuO nanoparticles (NPs). Moreover, a good synergetic effect between CuO and ZnO w...

  7. Mechanism for Cu2+ Sorption on Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-Hu; PENG Shu-Chuan; XU Hui-Fang; SHI Xiao-Li; HUANG Chuan-Hui

    2005-01-01

    A single-factor experiment of copper ion adsorption on pure palygorskite was carried out to understand the Cu2+ sorption of palygorskite-an important clay mineral in soil and sedimentary rock. In addition, pH of the solution and the surface microstructure of palygorskite were investigated before and after adsorption. The experimental results indicated that efficiency of Cu2+ removal was related to the oscillation rate of the specimen shaker, sorption time, initial pH value and the amount of adsorbent added. Palygorskite induced Cu2+ hydrolysis and interaction between copper hydroxide colloids and palygorskite surfaces, as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were the main contributions to palygorskite removal of Cu2+. This mechanism was different from adsorption at the mineral-water interface. It was proposed that surface hydrolysis of palygorskite raised the alkalinity of the palygorskite-water interface and suspension system. Thus, the induced pH of the solution was then high enough for Cu2+ hydrolysis on the mineral surface and in solution.

  8. Investigation of Surface Pre-Treatment Methods for Wafer-Level Cu-Cu Thermo-Compression Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Tanaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the yield of the wafer-level Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding method, certain surface pre-treatment methods for Cu are studied which can be exposed to the atmosphere before bonding. To inhibit re-oxidation under atmospheric conditions, the reduced pure Cu surface is treated by H2/Ar plasma, NH3 plasma and thiol solution, respectively, and is covered by Cu hydride, Cu nitride and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM accordingly. A pair of the treated wafers is then bonded by the thermo-compression bonding method, and evaluated by the tensile test. Results show that the bond strengths of the wafers treated by NH3 plasma and SAM are not sufficient due to the remaining surface protection layers such as Cu nitride and SAMs resulting from the pre-treatment. In contrast, the H2/Ar plasma–treated wafer showed the same strength as the one with formic acid vapor treatment, even when exposed to the atmosphere for 30 min. In the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS measurement of the H2/Ar plasma–treated Cu sample, the total number of the detected H2 was 3.1 times more than the citric acid–treated one. Results of the TDS measurement indicate that the modified Cu surface is terminated by chemisorbed hydrogen atoms, which leads to high bonding strength.

  9. Synergetic effects in CO adsorption on Cu-Pd(111) alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2001-01-01

    We present density functional calculations for the interaction of CO on different Cu-Pd(111) bulk and surface alloys. The modification of the adsorption properties with respect to hose of the adsorption on pure Cu(111) and Pd(111) is described in terms of changes in the adsorption sites...... and the change of the electronic structure occurring upon alloying. The presence of cooperative, synergetic. effects is found to be important specially for Cu-rich bulk alloys. In this case. a larger adsorption energy is found for the inactive component than for the pure inactive system. This activation induces...

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminium alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloy (AlA and pure copper (Cu were evaluated at variable tool rotational speeds from 150 to 900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 60 mm/min travel speed and constant tilt angle 2°. The interfacial microstructures of the joints were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu and Al2Cu3 intermetallic compounds have been observed at the interface and stir zone region of dissimilar Al/Cu FSWed joints. Variation in the grain size was observed in the stir zone depending upon the heat input value. Axial force, traverse force and torque value were analysed with variation in tool rotational speed. Residual stresses were measured at the stir zone by X-ray diffraction technique. Maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼75% of AlA strength for AlA–AlA joints has been obtained at 750 rpm and for Cu–Cu joint tensile strength of ∼100% of tensile strength of Cu was obtained at 300 rpm. However, for Cu–AlA joint when processed at 600 rpm tool rotational speed achieved maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼77% of AlA.

  11. Nokia PureView oversampling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Tero; Alakarhu, Juha; Salmelin, Eero; Partinen, Ari

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes Nokia's PureView oversampling imaging technology as well as the product, Nokia 808 PureView, featuring it. The Nokia PureView imaging technology is the combination of a large, super high resolution 41Mpix with high performance Carl Zeiss optics. Large sensor enables a pixel oversampling technique that reduces an image taken at full resolution into a lower resolution picture, thus achieving higher definition and light sensitivity. One oversampled super pixel in image file is formed by using many sensor pixels. A large sensor enables also a lossless zoom. If a user wants to use the lossless zoom, the sensor image is cropped. However, up-scaling is not needed as in traditional digital zooming usually used in mobile devices. Lossless zooming means image quality that does not have the digital zooming artifacts as well as no optical zooming artifacts like zoom lens system distortions. Zooming with PureView is also completely silent. PureView imaging technology is the result of many years of research and development and the tangible fruits of this work are exceptional image quality, lossless zoom, and superior low light performance.

  12. Structural anatomy of pure and hemianopic alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, A P; Spitsyna, G; Plant, G T; Wise, R J S

    2006-09-01

    The two most common types of acquired reading disorder resulting from damage to the territory of the dominant posterior cerebral artery are hemianopic and pure alexia. Patients with pronounced hemianopic alexia have a right homonymous hemianopia that encroaches into central or parafoveal vision; they read individual words well, but generate inefficient reading saccades when reading along a line of text. Patients with pure alexia also often have a hemianopia but are more disabled, making frequent errors on individual words; they have sustained damage to a brain region that supports efficient word identification. To investigate the differences in lesion site between hemianopic alexia and pure alexia groups, as rehabilitative techniques differ between the two conditions. High-resolution magnetic resonance images were obtained from seven patients with hemianopic alexia and from six patients with pure alexia caused by a left occipital stroke. The boundary of each lesion was defined and lesion volumes were then transformed into a standard stereotactic space so that regional comparisons could be made. The two patient groups did not differ in terms of damage to the medial left occipital lobe, but those with pure alexia had additional lateral damage to the posterior fusiform gyrus and adjacent tissue. Clinicians will be able to predict the type of reading disorder patients with left occipital lesions have from simple tests of reading speed and the distribution of damage to the left occipital lobe on brain imaging. This information will aid management decisions, including recommendations for reading rehabilitation.

  13. Pure plate bending in couple stress theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...

  14. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  15. Analysis of precipitation in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mei; Lin Guobiao; Wang Zidong; Zhang Maokui

    2008-01-01

    Precipites in Cu-0.42%Cr-0.21%Zr alloy were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). After the solid solution was performed at 980℃ for 2 h, water-quenched and aged at 450℃ for 20 h, the precipite had a bimodal distribution of precipitate size. The coarse precipitates are pure Cr and Cu5Zr, the dispersed fine precipitate is CrCu2(Zr, Mg) and pure Cr ranging from 1 to 50 nm. The coarse phases formed during solidification and were left undissolved during solid solution. The fine precipitates are the hardening precipitates that form due to decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution during aging.

  16. Analysis of precipitation in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zidong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Precipites in Cu-0.42%Cr-0.21%Zr alloy were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS and transmission electron microscope (TEM. After the solid solution was performed at 980 ℃ for 2 h, water-quenched and aged at 450 ℃ for 20 h, the precipite had a bimodal distribution of precipitate size. The coarse precipitates are pure Cr and Cu5Zr, the dispersed fine precipitate is CrCu2(Zr,Mg and pure Cr ranging from 1 to 50 nm. The coarse phases formed during solidifi cation and were left undissolved during solid solution. The fi ne precipitates are the hardening precipitates that form due to decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution during aging.

  17. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of commercial pure aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-zhong; ZHANG Xin-ming; CHEN Ming-an; LIU Zi-juan

    2006-01-01

    The flow stress feature and microstructure evolvement of a commercial pure aluminum were investigated by compression on Gleeble-1500 dynamic materials test machine. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the deformation microstructure of the commercial pure aluminum.The results show that the flow stress tends to be constant after a peak value and the dynamic recovery occurs when the deformation temperatures is 220 ℃ with the strain rate of 0.01 s-1; while the dynamic recrystallization occurs when the deformation temperature is higher than 380 ℃, and the flow stress exhibits a single peak at 460 ℃ with different strain rates from 0.001 s-1 to 1 s-1, and continuous dynamic recrystallization and geometric dynamic recrystallization occur during the hot compression of the commercial pure aluminum.

  18. Conclusive discrimination among N equidistant pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis; Hermann-Avigliano, Carla; Salazar, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    We find the allowed complex overlaps for N equidistant pure quantum states. The accessible overlaps define a petal-shaped area on the Argand plane. Each point inside the petal represents a set of N linearly independent pure states and each point on its contour represents a set of N linearly dependent pure states. We find the optimal probabilities of success of discriminating unambiguously in which of the N equidistant states the system is. We show that the phase of the involved overlap plays an important role in the probability of success. For a fixed overlap modulus, the success probability is highest for the set of states with an overlap with phase equal to zero. In this case, if the process fails, then the information about the prepared state is lost. For states with a phase different from zero, the information could be obtained with an error-minimizing measurement protocol.

  19. Controlled preparation of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Siyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Zhang, Shengsen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Fang, Yueping [College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The corncob-like Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanostructure with suitably exposed Ag surface exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nanocables and Cu{sub 2}O nanowires. - Highlights: • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs have been controllably prepared by a simple synthesis. • The possible formation mechanism of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O has been studied. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O exhibits noticeable improved photocurrent compared with the pure Cu{sub 2}O NWs. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O with suitably exposed Ag surface shows much higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Novel corncob-like nano-heterostructured Ag–Cu{sub 2}O photocatalyst has been controllably prepared by adjusting the synthetic parameters, and the possible formation mechanism has been also studied. The photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than both pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires and cable-like Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nano-composites. It was concluded that Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs with suitably exposed Ag surface not only effectively inhibit the recombination of electron–hole pairs but also suitably increase the active sites of electronic conduction, and thus increasing the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  20. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-12-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  1. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity in Cu nanoparticles covered Cu2O microspheres for degrading organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahui; Lin, Yuanjing; Xu, Jianping; He, Jie; Wang, Tianzhao; Yu, Guojun; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Du, Xiwen; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Rongkun

    2016-03-01

    Micron-sized Cu2O with different coverage of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on the sphere has been synthesized by a redox procedure. The absorption spectra show that Cu NPs induce the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the wavelength of ∼565 nm. Methylene blue (MB) photodegrading experiments under visible-light display that the Cu2O-Cu-H2O2 system exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity to Cu2O-H2O2 or pure H2O2 with an evident dependency on Cu coverage. The maximum photodegradation rate is 88% after visible-light irradiating for 60 min. The role of the Cu NPs is clarified through photodegradation experiments under 420 nm light irradiation, which is different from the SPR wavelength of Cu NPs (∼565 nm). By excluding the SPR effect, it proves that Cu SPR plays a key role in the photodegradation. Besides, a dark catalytic activity is observed stemming from the Fenton-like reaction with the aid of H2O2. The radical quenching experiments indicate that both •O2- and •OH radicals contribute to the photocatalysis, while the dark catalysis is only governed by the •OH radicals, leading to a lower activity comparing with the photocatalysis. Therefore, with introducing Cu NPs and H2O2, the Cu2O-based photocatalytic activity could be significantly improved due to the SPR effect and dark catalysis.

  2. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest; Fusion y caracterizacion de una aleacion Cu-Zn-Al-Ni de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana M, J.S

    2003-07-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  3. Comparison of Diesel Engine Characteristic Using Pure Coconut Oil, Pure Palm Oil, and Pure Jatropha Oil as Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman K. Reksowardojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine can be operated on either pure plant oil (PPO oil or biodiesel. Biodiesel production process is expensive due to many stages of processes, while PPO has a lower cost of production, lower energy consumption, and simpler process. There are several potential biofuel resources in Indonesia such as coconut, palm, and jatropha. They are tropical plants with large amonts of their quantity. Experiment was conducted in 17 hours engine running test (endurance test with various operating cycle conditions. Test fuels are pure coconut oil (PCO, pure palm oil (PPaO, pure jatropha oil (PJO, and diesel fuel (DF as a datum. Each PPO blends with diesel fuel with composition 50%-volume. As a result, PCO has higher BSFC (10% before endurance test in comparison with diesel fuel, also PPaO (13% and PJO (27% show a similar condition. Surprisingly, all PPO have BSFC almost similar with DF after endurance test due to decreasing of engine components friction. On the other hand, PPO produces more uncompleted combustion than DF. Phosporus content has major responsibility of deposit growth. PCO, PPaO, and PJO result more engine deposits in comparison with DF, which accounts for 139,7%, 232,9%, and 288,9% respectively. Based on wear analysis, PCO has the best antiwear property among test fuels, whereas the worst is DF.

  4. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qijin, E-mail: ijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fengyan [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Yan, Wei [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Randeniya, Lakshman [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (∼140 °C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147 s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  5. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  6. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s.

  7. Superconductivity of Cu/CuOx interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Cu and CuO has been subjected to shock-wave pressure of 350 kbar with following quenching of the vacuum-encapsulated product to 77 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 19 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the DC magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the granular interfacial layer formed between metallic Cu and its oxides due to the shock-wave treatment.

  8. Enhanced electrocatalytic performance of Pt monolayer on nanoporous PdCu alloy for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Linxi; Qiu, Huajun

    2012-10-01

    By selectively dealloying Al from PdxCu20-xAl80 ternary alloys in 1.0 M NaOH solution, nanoporous PdCu (np-PdCu) alloys with different Pd:Cu ratios are obtained. By a mild electrochemical dealloying treatment, the np-PdCu alloys are facilely converted into np-PdCu near-surface alloys with a nearly pure-Pd surface and PdCu alloy core. The np-PdCu near-surface alloys are then used as substrates to fabricate core-shell catalysts with a Pt monolayer as shell and np-PdCu as core by a Cu-underpotential deposition-Pt displacement strategy. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Pt monolayer on np-Pd1Cu1 (Pt/np-Pd1Cu1) exhibits the highest Pt surface-specific activity towards oxygen reduction, which is ˜5.8-fold that of state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. The Pt/np-Pd1Cu1 also shows much enhanced stability with ˜78% active surface retained after 10,000 cycles (0.6-1.2 V vs. RHE). Under the same condition, the active surface of Pt/C drops to ˜28%.

  9. About Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.

  10. New lithium copper borates with BO3 triangles: Li6CuB4O10, Li3CuB3O7, Li8Cu7B14O32, and Li2Cu9B12O28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratieva, N V; Bànki, M; Tsirlin, A A; Eckert, J; Ehrenberg, H; Mikhailova, D

    2013-12-16

    Crystal structures of three new lithium copper borates, Li3CuB3O7, Li8Cu7B14O32, and Li2Cu9B12O28, and a new Li6CuB4O10 polymorph were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In all of the structures, the boron cations form BO3 triangles, which are connected with each other and with copper polyhedra only via corners in Li6CuB4O10 and Li3CuB3O7 and via both corners and edges in Li8Cu7B14O32 and Li2Cu9B12O28. The Li3CuB3O7 and Li8Cu7B14O32 compounds were synthesized as pure samples with only trace amounts of impurities; hence, their magnetic properties could be investigated and analyzed in terms of underlying magnetic couplings. Other compositions always represented multiphase mixtures. Li3CuB3O7 features infinite Cu,O chains formed by Cu2O6 units consisting of edge-shared CuO4 squares. Together with two apical oxygen atoms with long interatomic Cu-O distances of 2.7-2.8 Å, the Cu2O6 units form chains extended along the a axis. These pseudochains are responsible for strong anisotropic thermal expansion behavior. The temperature dependence of the magnetization between 4 and 380 K for Li3CuB3O7 could be fit well by a spin-dimer model. The magnetic susceptibility of Li8Cu7B14O32 showed a more complex temperature dependence, with two different Curie-Weiss regimes in the temperature range of 2-380 K.

  11. Synthesis and optical properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by sulfurization of electrodeposited Cu-In layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Po-Feng [Program in Electrical and Communications Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung (China); Shi, Jen-Bin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Yang, Shui-Yuang [Department of Electronic Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung (China)

    2012-09-15

    The chalcopyrite CuInS{sub 2} thin film was fabricated at 500 C for 2 h by sulfurization of Cu-In layers (as precursors) that were sulfurized in a glass tube with pure sulfur powder. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and UV/Visible/NIR spectrophotometer. The study of UV/Visible/NIR absorption shows the band gap energy value of CuInS{sub 2} thin films is 1.5 eV. The XRD pattern shows the film is pure CuInS{sub 2}; no other peaks, such as CuS or CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} were observed. Furthermore, the surface of the CuInS{sub 2} film is compact characterized by FE-SEM, which also shows the disappearance of CuS on the surface at 500 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Pure word deafness and pure anarthria in a patient with frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, O; Suzuki, K; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Mori, E

    2007-04-01

    A 66-year-old right-handed man developed pure anarthria following pure word deafness. In addition to language disorders, his behavior gradually changed and finally included violence against his wife. Brain magnetic resonance imagings revealed atrophy of the left perisylvian area, which included the inferior half of the precentral gyrus and the upper portion of the superior temporal gyrus, consistent with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). It has been documented as either a disorder of expressive language or as an impaired understanding of word meaning. Unlike with pure anarthria, pure word deafness is not included in the clinical diagnostic current criteria for FTD. However, a large variety of language symptoms can appear in FTD according to the distribution of pathological changes in the frontotemporal cortices. This case suggests that pure word deafness could be a prodomal symptom of FTD.

  13. Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joint made by single-shot explosive welding technique using Cu intermediate plate. Cu chukanzai wo mochiita doji bakusetsuho ni yoru Al/Cu izai tsugite no setsugo kyodo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izuma, T.; Niwatsukino, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joints was tried by single-shot explosive welding technique using a Cu intermediate plate (Cu-IP). As the preliminary experiment, a relatively thin Al alloy plate (4 mm in thickness) and Cu plate (2.5 mm) were bonded by explosive welding to study the effect of bonding conditions on interfacial zone (IZ) structure and bonding strength. As a result, the thickness of IZs increased with an explosive mass involving reduction of bonding strengths, and the use of Cu-IP was effective in reducing the energy applied to IZ because the energy contributed to formation of IZ. As the fabrication experiment of practical Al/Cu transition joints, a pure Al plate and pure Cu plate of 20 mm in thickness and Cu-IPs of 1.0 and 1.5 mm were bonded by explosive welding. As a result, the IZ thickness was 20-70 [mu]m and 5 [mu]m without/with Cu-IP, respectively, and the joint showed the same tensile strength as the base Al plate, suggesting possible production of practical Al/Cu electrical transition joints. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.

  15. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  16. Pure science and the problem of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather

    2014-06-01

    How should we understand scientific progress? Kuhn famously discussed science as its own internally driven venture, structured by paradigms. He also famously had a problem describing progress in science, as problem-solving ability failed to provide a clear rubric across paradigm change--paradigm changes tossed out problems as well as solving them. I argue here that much of Kuhn's inability to articulate a clear view of scientific progress stems from his focus on pure science and a neglect of applied science. I trace the history of the distinction between pure and applied science, showing how the distinction came about, the rhetorical uses to which the distinction has been put, and how pure science came to be both more valued by scientists and philosophers. I argue that the distinction between pure and applied science does not stand up to philosophical scrutiny, and that once we relinquish it, we can provide Kuhn with a clear sense of scientific progress. It is not one, though, that will ultimately prove acceptable. For that, societal evaluations of scientific work are needed.

  17. Binomial Squares in Pure Cubic Number Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Let K = Q(\\omega) with \\omega^3 = m be a pure cubic number field. We show that the elements\\alpha \\in K^\\times whose squares have the form a - \\omega form a group isomorphic to the group of rational points on the elliptic curve E_m: y^2= x^3 - m.

  18. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics (NJPAP) is a journal dedicated to the ... Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in the tropics ... Activation energy of psuedobinary alloy of Al-Bi-Se mixed systems · EMAIL ...

  19. Evolution of Pure States into Mixed States

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J

    1993-01-01

    In the formulation of Banks, Peskin and Susskind, we show that one can construct evolution equations for the quantum mechanical density matrix $\\rho$ with operators which do not commute with hamiltonian which evolve pure states into mixed states, preserve the normalization and positivity of $\\rho$ and conserve energy. Furthermore, it seems to be different from a quantum mechanical system with random sources.

  20. Pure Gravitational Back-Reaction Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2013-01-01

    After discussing the various issues regarding and requirements on pure quantum gravitational observables in homogeneous-isotropic conditions, we construct a composite operator observable satisfying most of them. We also expand it to first order in the loop counting parameter and suggest it as a physical quantifier of gravitational back-reaction in an initially inflating cosmology.

  1. A fatal case of pure metaphyseal chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Moghadam, Reza Nafisi; Abrisham, Jalil

    2013-08-23

    The chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare cartilaginous tumour; it represents less than 1% of all bone tumours. It is mostly localised at the level of the epiphysis of long bones. We report a fatal case of pure metaphyseal CB of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy whose pulmonary metastases developed soon after operative therapy of the primary tumour.

  2. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Nielsen, J E; Fallentin, E

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...

  3. Exploring the simplest purely baryonic decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, C Q; Rodrigues, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We propose to search for purely baryonic decay processes at the LHCb experiment. In particular, we concentrate on the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn$, which is the simplest purely baryonic decay mode, with solely spin-1/2 baryons involved. We predict its decay branching ratio to be ${\\cal B}(\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn)=(2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2})\\times 10^{-6}$, which is sufficiently large to make the decay mode accessible to LHCb. Though not considered in general, purely baryonic decays could shed light on the puzzle of the baryon number asymmetry in the universe by means of a better understanding of the baryonic nature of our matter world. As such, they constitute a yet unexplored class of decay processes worth investigating. Our study can be extended to the purely baryonic decays of $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar p \\Lambda$, $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda \\bar p\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda\\bar \\Lambda\\Lambda$, as well as other similar anti-triplet $b$-baryon decays, such as $\\Xi_b^{0,-}$.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  5. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability.

  6. Underpotential deposition of Cu on Pt(001): Interface structure and the influence of adsorbed bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, C.A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L697ZE (United Kingdom); Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Using {ital in situ} x-ray diffraction, we studied the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper onto a Pt(001) electrode both in pure perchloric acid and in the presence of bromide anions. In pure perchloric acid, the Cu is deposited in pseudomorphic p(1{times}1) islands. In the presence of bromide anions, the strong Pt-Br interaction significantly broadens the potential range of Cu UPD. We propose that Br remains in the interface region throughout the UPD process, at first in a disordered Cu-Br phase and then, at more negative potential, forming a c(2{times}2) closed-packed monolayer on top of the completed p(1{times}1) Cu monolayer. The structures are compared to those found during Cu UPD onto Pt(111), and explained in terms of the metal-halide interactions and the Pt surface atomic geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Microstructure and Properties of Cu Coating Fabricated onto Diamond-Cu Substrate by Low-Temperature HVOF Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chun-ming; Deng, Chang-guang; Zhou, Ke-song

    2016-12-01

    Diamond-Cu composites have been considered to be the next generation of electronic packing materials. One of the key stumbles for such an application is the joining problem between diamond-Cu composites and other materials due to the poor wettability of the diamond particles in the composites. In order to overcome this hurdle, pure Cu powder was thermally sprayed onto diamond-Cu substrate by low-temperature high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying process. Microstructure and some fundamental properties of the coating obtained were systematically investigated, and morphologies of the single splat deposited on the diamond-Cu substrate were also observed. The splats obtained have good adhesion with the substrate as fine particles flattened sufficiently, while the coarse particles were significantly deformed. The coating was quite dense with porosity lower than 1%, oxygen content under 0.5% and thermal conductivity about 266 Wm-1 K-1 and still remained on the diamond-Cu substrate after 50 thermal shock cycles between 300 °C and water bath at room temperature. Meanwhile, the solderability of the coating was significantly improved. Therefore, Cu coating deposited on diamond-Cu substrate by low-temperature high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying process can be beneficial in electronic industry assisting with soldering and improved wettability for joining of other materials.

  8. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  9. Spatially Encoded Pseudo-Pure States for NMR Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum information processing by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy uses pseudo-pure states to mimic the evolution and observations on true pure states. A new method of preparing pseudo-pure states is described, which involves the selection of the spatially labeled states of an ancilla spin with which the spin system of interest is correlated. This permits a general procedure to be given for the preparation of pseudo-pure states on any number of spins, subject to the limitations imposed by the loss of signal from the selected subensemble. The preparation of a single pseudo-pure state is demonstrated by carbon and proton NMR on 13C-labeled alanine. With a judicious choice of magnetic field gradients, the method further allows encoding of up to 2^N pseudo-pure states in independent spatial modes in an N+1 spin system. Fast encoding and decoding schemes are demonstrated for the preparation of four such spatially labeled pseudo-pure states.

  10. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Myoung Youp Song; Young Jun Kwak; Seong Ho Lee; Hye Ryoung Park

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg were studied at 593 K under 12 bar H2. In order to increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive mechanical grinding, RMG) and its hydrogen storage properties were subsequently investigated. Pure Mg absorbed hydrogen very slowly. At the number of cycles () of 1, pure Mg absorbed 0.05 wt% H for 5 min, 0.08 wt% H for 10 min and 0.29 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H2. Activation was completed at the fifth cycle. At = 6, pure Mg absorbed 1.76 wt% H for 5 min, 2.17 wt% H for 10 min and 3.40 wt% H for 60 min. The activation of pure Mg after RMG was completed at the sixth cycle. At = 7, pure Mg after RMG absorbed 2.57 wt% H for 5 min, 3.21 wt% H for 10 min and 4.15 wt% H for 60 min.

  11. Effects of annealing process on electrical conductivity and mechanical property of Cu-Te alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Da-chuan; TANG Ke; SONG Ming-zhao; TU Ming-jing

    2006-01-01

    The effects of annealing process on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of Cu-Te alloys were studied via AG-10TA electronic universal machine, SB2230 digital electric bridge, SEM and EDS. The results show that recrystallization and precipitation occur simultaneously during the annealing process of Cu-Te alloys. Tellurium precipitates as Cu2Te second phase. The grain size increases with the increasing of annealing temperature and time. The electrical conductivity increases monotonously. The tensile strength of Cu-Te alloy is higher than that of pure copper.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOENGINEERED Cu DEFECTS ON ALUMINUM PITTING INITIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALL,F.D.; SON,K.A.; MISSERT,N.A.; BARBOUR,J.C.; MARTINEZ,M.A.; ZAVIDIL,K.R.; SULLIVAN,J.P.; GOPELAND,R.G.; CIESLAK,W.R.; BUCHHEIT,R.G.; ISAACS,H.S.

    1999-11-01

    Nanoengineering technologies have been used to generate well defined arrays of pure Cu islands within an Al thin film matrix in order to examine the impact of noble particle defects on the initiation of metastable pitting. The Cu particles form local galvanic cells with the surrounding Al matrix and drive metastable corrosion. Electrical isolation of the Cu particles from the Al occurs due to selective Al dissolution and appears to correlate to cessation of metastable events. Distributions of parameters related to the electrochemical signature of an event suggests that size and spacing of particles do not impact the signatures of individual events. However, event frequency data indicate that the propensity for a structure to induce localized events is linked to Cu island diameter and separation.

  13. Interfacial Reaction during Friction Stir Welding of Al and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, C.; Girard, M.; Huneau, B.; Sauvage, X.; Racineux, G.

    2011-08-01

    Commercially pure copper was joined to a 1050 aluminum alloy by friction stir welding. A specific configuration where the tool pin was fully located in the aluminum plate was chosen. In such a situation, there is no mechanical mixing between the two materials, but frictional heating gives rise to a significant thermally activated interdiffusion at the copper/aluminum interface. This gives rise to the formation of defect-free joints where the bonding is achieved by a very thin intermetallic layer at the Cu/Al interface. Nanoscaled grains within this bonding layer were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two phases were identified, namely, Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 phases. The nucleation and growth of these two phases are discussed and compared to the standard reactive interdiffusion reactions between Cu and Al.

  14. Cu-67 Photonuclear Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoitova, Valeriia; Foote, Davy; Harris, Jason; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Segebade, Christian R.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-06-01

    Cu-67 is considered as one of the most promising radioisotopes for cancer therapy with monoclonal antibodies. Current production schemes using high-flux reactors and cyclotrons do not meet potential market need. In this paper we discuss Cu-67 photonuclear production through the reaction Zn-68(γ,p)Cu-67. Computer simulations were done together with experiments to study and optimize Cu-67 yield in natural Zn target. The data confirms that the photonuclear method has potential to produce large quantities of the isotope with sufficient purity to be used in medical field.

  15. Black Hole Attractors and Pure Spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2006-02-21

    We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to {Sigma}f{sub k} = Im(C{Phi}), where {Phi} is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, {Phi} = {Omega} and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation.

  16. New Perspective of High-Pure Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery in the middle of 1950s of the semi-con ducting properties of crystalline silicon has led to the impetu ous development of electric power facilities, the sun-power industry, and particularly, the microelectronic industry. The increasing demand for the high-pure silicon requires the production of synthetic crystals. The raw material for the syn thetic crystals, the so-called technical, or metallurgical silicon, is obtained from quartzite and quartz of superior quality by means of carbon-thermal reduction of silicon using an electric arc discharge. The complexity of the technological process, high cost of the related facilities, worsening environmental pollution, and narrow-mindedness of a raw material company are attributed to the rise in price of the final product-silicon plates, resulting in the fall in the production of high-pure silicon, normally used in sun storage batteries.

  17. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  18. Pure and doped boron nitride nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Terrones

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available More than ten years ago, it was suggested theoretically that boron nitride (BN nanotubes could be produced. Soon after, various reports on their synthesis appeared and a new area of nanotube science was born. This review aims to cover the latest advances related to the synthesis of BN nanotubes. We show that these tubes can now be produced in larger amounts and, in particular, that the chemistry of BN tubes appears to be very important to the production of reinforced composites with insulating characteristics. From the theoretical standpoint, we also show that (BN-C heteronanotubes could have important implications for nanoelectronics. We believe that BN nanotubes (pure and doped could be used in the fabrication of novel devices in which pure carbon nanotubes do not perform very efficiently.

  19. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  20. Compact objects in pure Lovelock theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, Naresh; Chilambwe, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For static fluid interiors of compact objects in pure Lovelock gravity (involving ony one $N$th order term in the equation) we establish similarity in solutions for the critical odd and even $d=2N+1, 2N+2$ dimensions. It turns out that in critical odd $d=2N+1$ dimensions, there can exist no bound distribution with a finite radius, while in critical even $d=2N+2$ dimensions, all solutions have similar behavior. For exhibition of similarity we would compare star solutions for $N =1, 2$ in $d=4$ Einstein and $d=6$ in Gauss-Bonnet theory respectively. We also obtain the pure Lovelock analogue of the Finch-Skea model.

  1. Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.

    1997-11-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.

  2. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guihua; Gu Keren; Liang Shaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use ofCondensed Soybean Phospholipids (CSP) toproduce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology, the first step is tode-oil by continuous y delivered mater al, higheffective mixing CSP with acetone and circularextraction. The second step is to centrifugallyseparate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid intomiscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin withacetone. Then the mixing oil can be separatedinto crude oil and acetone by vaporization andcondensation. If the acetone contains too muchwater, it should be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be madeinto highly pure powdered soybean lecithin(acetone insoluble matter >95% ) under thefollowing conditions: vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃, time 20 minutes. Theproduction not only reaches the domestic andoversea quality index, but also has favorablehydrophilic property, which makes it becomenatural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  3. How Pure Components Control Polymer Blend Miscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane; Higgins, Julia

    2012-02-01

    We present insight into some intriguing relationships revealed by our recent studies of polymer mixture miscibility. Applying our simple lattice-based equation of state, we discuss some of the patterns observed over a sample of experimental blends. We focus on the question of how much key information can one determine from a knowledge of just the pure components only, and further, on the role of separate enthalpic and entropic contributions to the miscibility behavior. One interesting correlation connects the value of the difference in pure component energetic parameters with that of the mixed segment interactions, suggesting new possibilities for predictive modeling. We also show how in some cases these two parameter groupings act as separate controls determining the entropy and enthalpy of mixing. Also discussed are the different patterns exhibited for UCST-type and LCST-type blends, these being revealed in some cases by simple examination of the underlying microscopic parameters.

  4. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  5. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  6. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  7. Les Problemes de l'alexie pure (Problems of Pure Alexia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Helgard

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews studies done on alexia and describes experiments designed to distinguish qualitatively between pure alexia (marked by the absence of oral and written problems) and other forms of alexia. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  8. Global empirical potentials from purely rotational measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dattani, Nikesh S; Sun, Ming; Johnson, Erin R; Roy, Robert J Le; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of chirped-pulse FTMW technology has created a plethora of pure rotational spectra for molecules for which no vibrational information is known. The growing number of such spectra demands a way to build empirical potential energy surfaces for molecules, without relying on any vibrational measurements. Using ZnO as an example, we demonstrate a powerful technique for efficiently accomplishing this. We first measure eight new ultra-high precision ($\\pm2$ kHz) pure rotational transitions in the $X$-state of ZnO. Combining them with previous high-precision ($\\pm50$ kHz) pure rotational measurements of different transitions in the same system, we have data that spans the bottom 10\\% of the well. Despite not using any vibrational information, our empirical potentials are able to determine the size of the vibrational spacings and bond lengths, with precisions that are more than three and two orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than the most precise empirical values previously known, and the mo...

  9. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.

    2016-08-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  10. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  11. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Saha; Pradyut Ghosh

    2012-11-01

    Threaded complexes like pseudorotaxanes, rotaxanes based on Cu(I)/Cu(II) ions have shown to be promising for the construction of mechanically interlocked molecular-level architectures. In this short review, we focus on the synthetic strategies developed to construct pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes using Cu(I)/Cu(II) ions as template. Further, brief discussions on chemical and mechanical properties associated with some of the selected to Cu(I)/Cu(II) based pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes are presented.

  12. Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Synthesis, structural and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonal; Kaur, Japinder; Namgyal, Tsering; Sharma, Rimi

    2012-04-01

    Pure and Cu doped ZnO nanopowders (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 at% Cu) have been synthesized using co-precipitation method. Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis has shown the morphology of ZnO nanopowders to be quasi-spherical. Powder X-ray Diffraction studies have revealed the systematic doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice up to 10% Cu, though the peaks corresponding to CuO in 10% Cu are negligibly very small. Beyond this level, there was segregation of a secondary phase corresponding to the formation of CuO. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra have shown a broad absorption band at ∼490 cm-1 for all the samples, which corresponds to the stretching vibration of Zn-O bond. DC electrical resistivity has been found to decrease with increasing Cu content. The activation energy has also been observed to decrease with copper doping i.e. from ∼0.67 eV for pure ZnO to ∼0.41 eV for 30 at% Cu doped ZnO.

  13. Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Synthesis, structural and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Sonal, E-mail: sonal1174@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kaur, Japinder; Namgyal, Tsering; Sharma, Rimi [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2012-04-15

    Pure and Cu doped ZnO nanopowders (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 at% Cu) have been synthesized using co-precipitation method. Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis has shown the morphology of ZnO nanopowders to be quasi-spherical. Powder X-ray Diffraction studies have revealed the systematic doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice up to 10% Cu, though the peaks corresponding to CuO in 10% Cu are negligibly very small. Beyond this level, there was segregation of a secondary phase corresponding to the formation of CuO. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra have shown a broad absorption band at {approx}490 cm{sup -1} for all the samples, which corresponds to the stretching vibration of Zn-O bond. DC electrical resistivity has been found to decrease with increasing Cu content. The activation energy has also been observed to decrease with copper doping i.e. from {approx}0.67 eV for pure ZnO to {approx}0.41 eV for 30 at% Cu doped ZnO.

  14. First principles calculations of interlayer exchange coupling in bcc Fe/Cu/Fe structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, M.; Heninrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Schulthess, T.C.; Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The authors report on theoretical calculations of interlayer exchange coupling between two Fe layers separated by a modified Cu spacer. These calculations were motivated by experimental investigations of similar structures by the SFU group. The multilayer structures of interest have the general form: Fe/Cu(k)/Fe and Fe/Cu(m)/X(1)/Cu(n)/Fe where X indicates one AL (atomic layer) of foreign atoms X (Cr, Ag, or Fe) and k, m, n represent the number of atomic layers of Cu. The purpose of the experimental and theoretical work was to determine the effect of modifying the pure Cu spacer by replacing the central Cu atomic layer with the atomic layer of foreign atoms X. The first principles calculation were performed using the Layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (LKKR) method. The theoretical thickness dependence of the exchange coupling between two semi-infinite Fe layers was calculated for pure Cu spacer thicknesses in the range of 0 < k < 16. The effect of the foreign atoms X on the exchange coupling was investigated using the structure with 9 AL Cu spacer as a reference sample. The calculated changes in the exchange coupling are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  15. FTIR study of acetone oxime interaction with H-ZSM-5 and Cu-ZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Andrey V.; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.; Rebrov, Evgenii V.; Sazonova, N. N.

    2004-08-01

    Copper based catalysts are of great importance as catalysts for NO removal from exhaust industrial gases. Earlier authors have shown that NO reaction with acetone oxime (AO) is the rate determining step of NO catalytic reduction by propane over Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst at temperatures below 300oC. Aim of the present work is to clarify the peculiarities of acetone oxime coordination over surface of H-ZSM-5 zeolite and that doped with Cu(II) and Cu(I)-cations. We studied AO coordination in CCl4 solutions and then data obtained were used for analysis of spectra of AO adsorbed on pure zeolite and that dopped with Cu (I) and Cu (II) cations. It was shown that there are monomers and several associates of AO in CCl4 solution differing in size and type of bonding with their own characteristic bands in IR spectra. The spectrum of acetone oxime adsorbed on pure zeolite includes non symmetrical band at 1710 cm-1 due to AO strongly bonded with zeolite surface through H-bond. There are four AO adspecies on zeolite dopped with copper with two different types of AO coordination to Cu(I) or to Cu(II) cations: one with participation of O atom and another one with N atom. Complexes of AO with Cu(I) ions are much more stable then those with Cu(II) ions.

  16. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-01-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. ...

  17. Rapid hardening induced by electric pulse annealing in nanostructured pure aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Wei; Shen, Yao; Zhang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured pure aluminum was fabricated by heavy cold-rolling and then subjected to recovery annealing either by applying electric pulse annealing or by traditional air furnace annealing. Both annealing treatments resulted in an increase in yield strength due to the occurrence of a “dislocation...

  18. 76 FR 53408 - Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... weight primarily the element magnesium and produced by decomposing raw materials into magnesium metal... Department certifying that it did not export pure magnesium for consumption in the United States during the... period covered by the review, there were no entries, exports, or sales of the subject...

  19. 77 FR 32668 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United.... Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an interested party may submit a brief... party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 5049, February 1, 2012) of the subject five...

  20. Ultra-pure platelet isolation from canine whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichler, Shauna A; Bulla, Sandra C; Thomason, John; Lunsford, Kari V; Bulla, Camilo

    2013-07-17

    Several research applications involving platelets, such as proteomic and transcriptomic analysis, require samples with very low numbers of contaminating leukocytes, which have considerably higher RNA and protein content than platelets. We sought to develop a platelet purification protocol that would minimize contamination, involve minimal centrifugation steps, and yield highly pure platelet samples derived from low volume whole blood samples from healthy dogs. Using an optimized OptiPrep density gradient technique, platelet recovery was 51.56% with 99.99% platelet purity and leukocyte contamination of 100 leukocytes per 108 platelets, on average. Platelet samples were subjected to additional purification with CD45-labeled Dynabeads after density barrier centrifugation resulting in a 95-fold depletion of residual leukocytes. Platelets purified using these methods remained inactivated as assessed by Annexin V and P-selectin labeling with flow cytometry. The use of OptiPrep density gradient is a quick method for obtaining highly purified platelet samples from low volumes of canine whole blood with minimal contamination. Additional depletion of residual leukocytes can be achieved using CD45-labeled beads. These platelet samples can then be used for many downstream applications that require ultra-pure platelet samples such as RNA and protein analysis.

  1. The effect of ultrasonic impact treatment on surface roughening of commercially pure titanium during tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelskaya, Anna; Panin, Alexey; Kazachenok, Marina; Romanova, Varvara; Pochivalov, Yurii

    2016-11-01

    The effect of ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) on surface roughening of commercially pure titanium specimens under uniaxial tension was investigated. It was shown that the inhibition of the dislocation glide in the specimens subject to the preliminary UIT led smoothing of their surface profile at the meso-and microscale levels. Macroscopic roughening of the surface of the untreated specimens and specimens subjected to preliminary UIT was the same and was determined by the deformation of the underlying grains.

  2. ERD studies of D-ion depth distributions after implantation into some pure metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska, T.; Kitowski, K.; Hofman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a report on experimental results of depth distributions of deuterium ions implanted with 25 keV energy at a fluence interval of (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2 into samples of pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh). The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium and hydrogen atoms were measured within a few hours after implantation with the use of elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis. After three months the measurements were repeated. The comparison of the obtained results in both series of studies allowed us to make an important observation of the desorption rates of implanted deuterium atoms from pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. The maximum measured concentrations of deuterium atoms in pure Zr and Ti foils with relatively small desorption rate of deuterium atoms within three months after implantation were observed. Also a very high spreading of deuterium atom distributions was observed in all the measured pure metals and alloys. It can be explained by the large diffusion coefficients of deuterium and extremely fast kinetics.

  3. Optical tweezers formed by pure phase pupil filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Mei; Yun, Maojin

    2013-09-01

    The focusing properties of vector beams have attracted great attention and quickly became the subject of extensive worldwide research due to their applications in lithography, optical storage, microscopy, material processing, and optical trapping. Focusing properties of the radially polarized beam and generalized cylindrical vector beams in high numerical aperture system with designed pure phase filter are analyzed in detail by using vector Debye diffraction theory. By utilizing diffractive optical element to partly change the polarization of vector beams, the energy density of light field in the vicinity of focus is studied by the numerical analysis. Numerical simulation result shows that optical bubbles can be obtained by changing the composition and polarization of the incident beams. At last, optical tweezers are constituted by two optical bubbles around the focus.

  4. Enhanced formic acid oxidation on Cu-Pd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Zou, Shouzhong

    Developing catalysts with high activity and high resistance to surface poisoning remains a challenge in direct formic acid fuel cell research. In this work, copper-palladium nanoparticles were formed through a galvanic replacement process. After electrochemically selective dissolution of surface Cu, Pd-enriched Cu-Pd nanoparticles were formed. These particles exhibit much higher formic acid oxidation activities than that on pure Pd nanoparticles, and they are much more resistant to the surface poisoning. Possible mechanisms of catalytic activity enhancement are briefly discussed.

  5. Thin-layer chromatographic specification and separation of Cu(1+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+) cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Sahin; Akçay, Mehmet; Ergül, Soner

    2010-07-01

    The M(PyDTC)(2) (M: Cu, Co, or Ni) and CuPyDTC complexes, prepared by reactions of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate with metal nitrates, are examined for qualitative analysis, speciation, and mutual separation using thin-layer chromatography systems. These complexes and their mixtures are spotted to the activated and non-activated thin layers of silica gel 60GF(254) (Si-60GF(254)) with a 250-microm thickness. Toluene-dichloromethane mixtures (4:1, 1:1, 1:4 v/v) are used as mobile phases for running of the complexes. All of these chromatographic systems are successfully used for speciation of Cu(2+) and Cu(1+) cations. The best analytical separation for the qualitative analysis of corresponding metal cations and mutual separation of components in M(PyDTC)(2) and CuPyDTC complexes are obtained when using pure toluene-dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) on the activated layer. This study shows that it is possible to qualitatively analyze and satisfactorily separate a mixture of Cu(1+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+) cations on cited chromatographic systems. These results may be also said for the adaptability or validity on column chromatography.

  6. Cu-Zn disorder in Cu2ZnGeSe4: A complementary neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurieva, G.; Többens, D. M.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Schorr, S.

    2016-12-01

    The crystal structure of the quaternary compound semiconductor Cu2ZnGeSe4 (CZGSe) was investigated by the complementary use of neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The powder sample, which resulting from wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX) turned out to be single phase Cu-rich CZGSe, was synthesized by solid state reaction of the pure elements in an evacuated silica tube at 700 °C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the homogeneity and phase purity of the sample, in addition, the kesterite type structure was suggested. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data confirmed that the compound crystallizes in the tetragonal kesterite type structure. The refined site occupancy factors were used to determine the average neutron scattering lengths of the cation sites, giving insights into cation distribution and finally point defect types. Thus it has been shown, that additional to the CuZn-ZnCu anti-site defects in the lattice planes at z=¼ and ¾ (Cu-Zn disorder) also the off-stoichiometry type related point defects like Cui and CuZn occur in Cu-rich CZGSe.

  7. Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction of retrocaval ureter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo-qing; XU Li-wei; LI Xin-de; LI Gong-hui; YU Yan-lan; YU Da-min; ZHANG Zhi-gen

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital abnormality.Operative repair is always suggested in cases of significant functional obstruction.Laparoscopic procedures have been employed as the minimally invasive therapeutic option for retrocaval ureter.However,the laparoscopic techniques for retrocaval ureter might be technically challenging to some surgeons.The aim of this article was to present our experience and surgical techniques of pure transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy and ureteroureterostomy in nine patients with retrocaval ureter.Methods A total of nine patients of retrocaval ureter underwent pure laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy or ureteroureterostomy.The operation was performed with the patients placed in the 70-degree lateral decubitus position via a three port transperitoneal approach with two 10-mm and one 5-mm ports.The distal part of the dilated renal pelvis was transected at the ureteropelvic junction and the ureter was relocated anterior to the inferior vena cava.The tension-free pyeloureteral or ureteroureteral anastomosis was completed with the intracorporal freehand suturing and in situ knot-tying techniques combined with interrupted and continuous fashion.A double J ureteral stent was inserted in an antegrade manner during laparoscopy.Intravenous urography or computerized tomography and renal ultrasonography were performed after 3 months postoperatively.Results All operations were completed laparoscopically,and no open conversion was required.The mean operative time was 135 minutes (range,70-250 minutes),with minimal blood loss (less than 60 ml).No intra-operative complications or significant bleeding occurred.All patients presented mild postoperative pain and quick convalescence.The symptoms disappeared and hydronephrosis decreased substantially after surgery.Conclusions Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction for retrocaval ureter was associated with an excellent outcome,minimal invasiveness and short hospital stay.It is

  8. Needleless Electrospinning of Pure and Blended Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmelsmann, Nils; Homburg, Sarah Vanessa; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with bactericidal, fungicidal, hemostatic and other interesting properties. It can be used, e.g., in medical products, as a filter medium, in biotechnological purposes etc. For these possible applications, nanofiber mats with a large inner surface will be most efficient. This is why in a recent project, the electrospinning properties of pure chitosan as well as chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) were investigated. Using a needleless nanospinning process, the technology under examination can be upscaled from lab to industrial scale, enabling direct transfer of the gained experiences to the intended application.

  9. Pure spinor equations to lift gauged supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-31

    We rewrite the equations for ten-dimensional supersymmetry in a way formally identical to a necessary and sufficient G-structure system in N=2 gauged supergravity, where all four-dimensional quantities are replaced by combinations of pure spinors and fluxes in the internal space. This provides a way to look for lifts of BPS solutions without having to reduce or even rewrite the ten-dimensional action. In particular this avoids the problem of consistent truncation, and the introduction of unphysical gravitino multiplets.

  10. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  11. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  12. Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.

  13. Pure and Public, Popular and personal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In the article I reexamine the traditional aesthetical and political critiques of popular culture and reevaluate the social and communicative potential of bestselling cultural artifacts such as highly popular television series. First, I sketch the alleged aesthetic and social problems of popular...... and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...

  14. Pure seminoma: A review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Pure seminoma is a rare pathology of the young adult, often discovered in the early stages. Its prognosis is generally excellent and many therapeutic options are available, especially in stage I tumors. High cure rates can be achieved in several ways: standard treatment with radiotherapy is challenged by surveillance and chemotherapy. Toxicity issues and the patients' preferences should be considered when management decisions are made. This paper describes firstly the management of primary seminoma and its nodal involvement and, secondly, the various therapeutic options according to stage. PMID:21819630

  15. [XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis and XYY syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis is a disease related to Turner's syndrome. Patients of this disease are characterized by normal female external genitalia, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Recently, it has been reported that point mutations of the FSH receptor gene may be one of cause of this disease. The relationship between criminal behavior and XYY syndrome is still controversial. Increased incidence of disomic sperm in 47,XYY males has been reported by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Genetic counseling should be done when they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  16. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  17. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  18. Study on pure silica core optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An optimal refractive index profile of pure silica core optical fiber (PSCF) was designed, in combination with the characters of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. Techniques of preform fabrication by a new furnace round heating MCVD process and fiber drawing process were reviewed. Difficulties in doping fluorine in silica, widening the depressed-index cladding and maintaining the index of fiber core were discussed. Methods used to overcome these difficulties were given at the same time. Additionally, the optimal refractive index profiles of PSCF were presented.

  19. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  20. The Pure Virtual Braid Group Is Quadratic

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    If an augmented algebra K over Q is filtered by powers of its augmentation ideal I, the associated graded algebra gr_I K need not in general be quadratic: although it is generated in degree 1, its relations may not be generated by homogeneous relations of degree 2. In this paper we give a criterion which is equivalent to gr_I K being quadratic. We apply this criterion to the group algebra of the pure virtual braid group (also known as the quasi-triangular group), and show that the corresponding associated graded algebra is quadratic.

  1. Purely Four-dimensional Viable Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R; Pierce, A T; Harnik, Roni; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Anomaly mediation of supersymmetry breaking solves the supersymmetric flavor problem thanks to its ultraviolet-insensitivity. However, it suffers from two problems: sleptons have negative masses-squared, and there are likely bulk moduli that spoil the framework. Here, we present the first fully ultraviolet-insensitive model of anomaly mediation with positive slepton masses-squared in a purely four-dimensional framework. Our model is based on the additional D-term contributions to the sparticle masses of Arkani-Hamed, Kaplan, HM, and Nomura, and the conformal sequestering mechanism of Luty and Sundrum.

  2. Measure and integral with purely ordinal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    We develop a purely ordinal model for aggregation functionals for lattice valued functions, comprising as special cases quantiles, the Ky Fan metric and the Sugeno integral. For modeling findings of psychological experiments like the reflection effect in decision behaviour under risk or uncertainty, we introduce reflection lattices. These are complete linear lattices endowed with an order reversing bijection like the reflection at 0 on the real interval $[-1,1]$. Mathematically we investigate the lattice of non-void intervals in a complete linear lattice, then the class of monotone interval-valued functions and their inner product.

  3. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  4. Defective spatial imagery with pure Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Di Pietro, Marie; Ptak, Radek; Poglia, Davide; Schnider, Armin

    2004-01-01

    Gerstmann's syndrome comprises finger agnosia, peripheral agraphia, anarithmetia, and right-left confusion. We here report a single-case study of an 85-year-old ambidextrous man who exhibited pure Gerstmann's syndrome (i.e., without aphasia) 10 weeks after a stroke involving the angular gyrus in the left parietal lobe. We hypothesize that, in this case, the main cognitive denominator of Gerstmann's tetrad was a severe dysfunction in mental rotation and translation. This report provides further evidence for the spatial nature of Gerstmann's syndrome.

  5. Thermal conductivity enhancement in thermal grease containing different CuO structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Zhao, Junchang; Wang, Mingzhu; Hu, Yiheng; Chen, Lifei; Xie, Huaqing

    2015-01-01

    Different cupric oxide (CuO) structures have attracted intensive interest because of their promising applications in various fields. In this study, three kinds of CuO structures, namely, CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres, are synthesized by solution-based synthetic methods. The morphologies and crystal structures of these CuO structures are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. They are used as thermal conductive fillers to prepare silicone-based thermal greases, giving rise to great enhancement in thermal conductivity. Compared with pure silicone base, the thermal conductivities of thermal greases with CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres are 0.283, 0256, and 0.239 W/mK, respectively, at filler loading of 9 vol.%, which increases 139%, 116%, and 99%, respectively. These thermal greases present a slight descendent tendency in thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. These experimental data are compared with Nan's model prediction, indicating that the shape factor has a great influence on thermal conductivity improvement of thermal greases with different CuO structures. Meanwhile, due to large aspect ratio of CuO microdisks, they can form thermal networks more effectively than the other two structures, resulting in higher thermal conductivity enhancement.

  6. Thermosensitive Cu2O-PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors with tunable photocatalytic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, He; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Henzler, Katja; Ott, Andreas; Lin, Xianzhong; Möser, Jannik; Kochovski, Zdravko; Schnegg, Alexander; Dzubiella, Joachim; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile and novel method for the fabrication of Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors using Cu2O nanocubes as the core. The PNIPAM shell not only effectively protects the Cu2O nanocubes from oxidation, but also improves the colloidal stability of the system. The Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell microgels can work efficiently as photocatalyst for the decomposition of methyl orange under visible light. A significant enhancement in the catalytic activity has been observed for the core-shell microgels compared with the pure Cu2O nanocubes. Most importantly, the photocatalytic activity of the Cu2O nanocubes can be further tuned by the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell, as rationalized by our recent theory.

  7. Structures and electronic properties of Aun-1Cu and Aun (n≤9) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Yan; Li Xi-Bo; Tang Yong-Jian; R. Bruce King; Henry F. Schaefer III

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study on the structure and electronic properties of gold clusters doped each with one copper atom has been performed using the density functional theory. The average bond lengths in the Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) bimetallic clusters are shorter than those in the corresponding pure gold clusters. The ionization potentials of the bimetallic clusters Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) are larger than those of the corresponding homoatomic gold clusters except for Au5. The energy gaps of the Au-Cu binary clusters are narrower than those of the Aun clusters except AuCu and Au3Cu. No obvious even-odd effect exists in the variations of the electron affinities and ionization potentials for the Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) clusters, which is in contrast to the case of gold clusters Aun.

  8. Cubic-to-Tetragonal Phase Transitions in Ag–Cu Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Delogu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the structural behavior of nanorods with square cross section. The nanorods consist of pure Ag and Cu phases or of three Ag and Cu domains in the sequence Ag–Cu–Ag or Cu–Ag–Cu. Ag and Cu domains are separated by coherent interfaces. Depending on the side length and the size of individual domains, Ag and Cu can undergo a transition from the usual face-centered cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal one. Such transition can involve the whole nanorod, or only the Ag domains. In the latter case, the transition is accompanied by a loss of coherency at the Ag–Cu interfaces, with a consequent release of elastic energy. The observed behaviors are connected with the stresses developed at the nanorod surfaces.

  9. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  10. Oral Candidal Carriage in Subjects with Pure Vegetarian and Mixed Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Raj, A Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Sarode, Sachin; Sarode, Gargi

    2017-07-01

    Candida albicans being a part of the normal oral microbial flora is one of the most commonly isolated species from the oral cavity. Recent studies have shown a steady rise in the number of non C. albicans species, which are relatively resistant to common antifungal agents and are being recognized as potential pathogens. It is vital to ascertain the predisposing factors leading to such a shift in the oral candidal flora. To estimate the prevalence of candidal species among vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Clinical data including age, gender, and diet preference of 238 participants were noted. Participants with a history of systemic disorders, oral prosthesis, salivary gland disorders and habits such as smoking, alcoholism, and tobacco usage were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to gargle a 10 ml solution of phosphate buffered saline for one minute before depositing the same in a sterile container. The samples were cultured using Hicrome agar media. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software) version 10.5 and differences between individual groups were tested by Chi-square test. Among 238 samples, 127 (53.3%) samples were positive for Candida. The candidal prevalence in vegetarians (68.5%) was higher than non-vegetarians (40.7%). C. albicans was the most common species to be isolated in both vegetarians (35.1%) and non-vegetarians (39.2%). Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis showed a higher prevalence in vegetarians (30.5% and 10.1%, respectively) in comparison to non-vegetarians (8.4% and 2.3%, respectively). Candida krusei was isolated only from vegetarians (4.6%). Results indicate that diet plays a major role in oral candidal prevalence and species specificity which in turn may predispose the vegetarians toward these pathogenic organisms.

  11. Comments on the paper: Synthesis growth and characterization of copper mercury thiocyanate crystal [Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2015-01-01

    The unit cell parameters, infrared and UV-Vis spectral data reported in the paper by Vijayabhaskaran et al (Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343) cannot belong to the colourless crystalline compound formulated as copper mercury thiocyanate CuHg(SCN)4 as claimed by the authors.

  12. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan, E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 (China); Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu{sub 2}Se, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices.

  13. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageshwari, K. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); PG and Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Nataraj, D. [Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Pal, Tarasankar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya59@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Park, Jinsub, E-mail: jinsubpark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn{sup 2+} concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn{sup 2+} concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn{sup 2+} concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed.

  14. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many changes which have characterized the second demographic transition, shifts in fertility and union formation have attracted a great deal of interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to below-replacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens' "pure relationship" concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are morel likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  15. (Not so) pure Lovelock Kasner metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Camanho, Xián O; Molina, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational interaction is expected to be modified for very short distances. This is particularly important in situations in which the curvature of spacetime is large in general, such as close to the initial cosmological singularity. The gravitational dynamics is then captured by the higher curvature terms in the action, making it difficult to reliably extrapolate any prediction of general relativity. In this note we review pure Lovelock equations for Kasner-type metrics. These equations correspond to a single $N$th order Lovelock term in the action in $d=2N+1,\\,2N+2$ dimensions, and they capture the relevant gravitational dynamics when aproaching the big-bang singularity within the Lovelock family of theories. These are classified in several isotropy types. Some of these families correspond to degenerate classes of solutions, such that their dynamics is not completely determined by the equations of pure Lovelock gravity. Instead, these Kasner solutions become sensitive to the subleading terms in the Lo...

  16. LHC Signals of Pure Gravity Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldstein Brian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that natural supersymmetry at the weak scale is not realized in nature. This evidence comes from collider searches, a lack of new flavor changing neutral current effects, and now also the size of the measured Higgs mass. On the other hand, string theory suggests that supersymmetry might be present at some energy scale, and gauge coupling unification and dark matter imply that that energy scale may be relatively low. The simplest model to address all of these hints is arguably “pure gravity mediation”, in which the scalar superpartner masses are taken to be perhaps 100 TeV, with gauginos automatically acquiring loop factor suppressed masses of order TeV. The gauginos might then be the only superpartners accessible to the LHC. Unification and LSP dark matter are maintained (with a wino LSP at the cost of a 10−5 or 10−6 fine tuning. Here I will discuss the structure and LHC phenomenology of pure gravity mediation.

  17. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K. [Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Section of Neurogenetics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ``corpus-callosum index`` expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ``corpus-callosum index`` than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGuihua; GuKeren; LiangShaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use of Condensed Soybean Phospholipids(CSP)to produce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology,the first step is to de-oil by continuously delivered material,high effective mixing CSP with acetone and circular extraction.The second step is to centrifugally separate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid into miscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin with acetone.Then the mixing oil can be separated into crude oil and acetone by vaporization and condensation.If the acetone contains too much water,it shoud be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be made into highly pure powdered soybean lecithin (acetone insoluble matter >95%)under the following conditions:vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃,time 20 minutes.The production not only reaches the domestic and oversea quality index,but also has favorable hydrophilic property,which makes it become natural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  19. CuO/C microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.H., E-mail: drhuangxh@hotmail.com [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Wang, C.B.; Zhang, S.Y. [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhou, F., E-mail: fzhou@nuaa.edu.cn [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > CuO/C composite microspheres have been successfully prepared by calcining the CuCl{sub 2}/resorcinol-formaldehyde gel in argon atmosphere followed by a subsequent oxidation treatment using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. > CuO particles disperse homogenously inside the carbon aerogel microspheres. > Carbon aerogel microspheres have the abilities of alleviating the pulverization, suppressing the aggregation, and enhancing the conductivity of the CuO particles. Therefore, CuO/C composite microspheres exhibit better electrochemical performance than that of pure CuO. - Abstract: CuO/C microspheres are prepared by calcining CuCl{sub 2}/resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel in argon atmosphere followed by a subsequent oxidation process using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. The microstructure and morphology of materials are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transition electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon microspheres have an average diameter of about 2 {mu}m, and CuO particles with the sizes of 50-200 nm disperse in these microspheres. The electrochemical properties of CuO/C microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries are investigated by galvanostatic discharge-charge and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The results show that CuO/C microspheres deliver discharge and charge capacities of 470 and 440 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, and they also exhibit better rate capability than that of pure CuO. It is believed that the carbon microspheres play an important role in their electrochemical properties.

  20. Origin of the improved photocatalytic activity of Cu incorporated TiO{sub 2} for hydrogen generation from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qianqian [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Jiquan, E-mail: hjq@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guojing [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Jiang, Yabin; Lan, Hai; Guo, Wang [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Cao, Yongge [Beijing Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Functional Materials & Micro-nano Devices, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Cu incorporated TiO{sub 2} films were prepared under different atmosphere. • The optimal H{sub 2} generation rate is 2.80 μmol cm{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 56 times of pure TiO{sub 2}. • CuO is unstable and is reduced to Cu{sub 2}O or even to metallic Cu under irradiation. • Both Cu{sub 2}O and Cu are crucial factors for improving the photocatalytic activity. • Surface chemisorbed oxygen is another factor that influences the photoactivity. - Abstract: Cu incorporated TiO{sub 2} has been regarded as a low-cost photocatalyst with excellent photocatalytic performance for water splitting. Here we try to exploit the origin of its high reactivity by fabricating a series of Cu incorporated TiO{sub 2} films with the same Cu content under different atmosphere. Based on the comprehensive structure and surface characterizations, it is found that CuO is unstable and will be reduced to Cu{sub 2}O or even to metallic Cu under light irradiation during the photocatalytic reaction, and Cu{sub 2}O is an efficient co-catalyst that promotes the separation of photogenerated carriers while metallic Cu can further boost the photocatalytic activity. Besides, it is also noticed that the chemisorbed oxygen on the particle surface blocks the water splitting. By depositing TiO{sub 2} films under oxygen rich condition, oxygen vacancy is decreased greatly, which facilitates the removal of chemisorbed oxygen and the formation of metallic Cu during photocatalytic reaction, resulting in an ultra-high H{sub 2} evolution rate of 2.80 μmol cm{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is about 55 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2}.

  1. No effect of pure oxygen inhalation on headache induced by glyceryl trinitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, D.; Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Thomsen, L.L.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of hyperbaric oxygen has been used as an experimental treatment for migraine and pure oxygen is an established treatment for cluster headache. Intravenous glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is an established headache model. In the present study the possibility of decreasing the headache...... by inhalation of pure oxygen was explored in a double-blind crossover design in 18 healthy subjects. Inhalation of air served as placebo. The subjects received intravenous GTN (0.25 A mu g/kg/min) for 20 min. Headache was scored for 85 min. Sixteen of 18 (89%) subjects experienced GTN-induced headache after O-2......-inhalation and 17/18 (94%) experienced GTN-induced headache after air. The mean peak headache scores were 1.9 and 2.4, respectively, on a numerical scale of 0-10. Oxygen inhalation did not have effect on GTN-induced headache, most likely because the theoretical decrease in NO levels, due to faster metabolism...

  2. Void formation in Nb3Sn-Cu superconducting wire produced by the external tin process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Efron, A.; Gibson, E. D.; Cheng, C. C.

    1986-03-01

    The tin (Sn) diffusion step for producing Nb3Sn-Cu superconducting wire by the external Sn process was modeled in experiments where either pure Sn or a Cu-Sn alloy was plated on sheets of either pure Cu or a Cu-Sn bronze. Each stage of the three-stage solid-state diffusion process was evaluated and it was found that rows of voids are produced in stage I of the process. These voids coarsen in stages II and III and in the worst case they are observed to coalesce and cause complete spalling away of the Sn-rich diffusion layers. Methods for minimizing void formation and possible causes of the void formation are discussed.

  3. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Raghu Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, Andrapradesh 531162 (India); Amaranatha Reddy, D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Murali, G. [Department of BIN Fusion Technology & Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Ramu, S. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rahul Varma, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Vijayalakshmi, R.P., E-mail: vijayaraguru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}S nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. • Structural, band gap, magnetization and photocatalysis studies were carried out. • All the doped samples exhibited intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism. • Effect of magnetic properties on photocatalytic activity was analyzed. • CuS:Co nanoparticles may find applications in photocatalytic and spintronic devices. - Abstract: Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV–vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  4. Corrosion behavior of CuCrNiAl alloy in HCl solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of a CuCrNiAl alloy in HCl solutions was studied by means of metallograph, XRD, SEM/EDX and TEM methods. The results show that in low concentration of HCl solutions, Cu of CuCrNiAl alloy is more easily subject to corrsion than Cr; the dechromisation of the CuCrNiAl alloy occurs at a certain concentration of HCl solutions, at the same time Al of CuCrNiAl alloy is subject to corrosion also. The dechromisation corrosion occurs initially at the interface between Cr phase and Cu phase, then it gradually extends Cr phase until Cr phase is dissolved completely. It is also revealed that the tendency of dechromisaion of the CuCrNiAl alloy increases with the increase in concentration and temperature of HCl solutions.

  5. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  6. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  7. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Caused by Acute Hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Heon; Oh, Suk Joong; Hong, Soojung; Lee, Kyu Bek; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is characterized as a normocytic anemia associated with reticulocytopenia and the absence of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Pure red cell aplasia can be induced by various causes such as thymoma, connective tissue disease, viral infection, lymphoma, and adverse drug reactions. There have been only a few reports of pure red cell aplasia associated with acute viral hepatitis A. In Korea, no case of pure red cell aplasia caused by acute hepatitis A has yet been reported....

  8. Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Chien, C. L., E-mail: clchien@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-05-25

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5 nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.

  9. Separation of spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in Co/Cu/YIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and Anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) have been observed in Co/Cu/YIG (yttrium iron garnet) multi-layer structure, where the ferromagnetic insulator YIG acts as the pure spin injector and the ferromagnetic metal Co layer acts as the spin current detector. With the insertion of 5 nm Cu layer, the two ferromagnetic layers are decoupled, thus allowing unambiguous separation of the SSE and ANE contributions under the same experimental conditions in the same sample.

  10. Thermal Analysis of the Sn-Ag-Cu-In Solder Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopousek, J.; Palcut, Marián; Hodúlová, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The tin-based alloy Sn-1.5Ag-0.7Cu-9.5In (composition in wt.%) is a potential candidate for lead-free soldering at temperatures close to 200°C due to the significant amount of indium. Samples of Sn-1.5Ag-0.7Cu-9.5In were prepared by controlled melting of the pure elements, followed by quenching...

  11. Time-resolved photoresponse of nanometer-thick Nb/NiCu bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Latempa, R.; De Lisio, C.; Altucci, C.; D'Acunto, P.; Peluso, G.; Barone, A.; Taneda, T.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-07-01

    We present femtosecond optical time-resolved pump-probe investigations of superconducting hybrids structures consisting of Nb/NiCu bilayers with various thickness. Measurements performed on pure Nb and NiCu films are also given. The photoresponse experiments provide the quasiparticle relaxation times in bilayers of different thickness ratios. The study of the photoresponse as a function of the temperature reveals the spatial evolution of the superconductor order parameter across the bilayers.

  12. Hologram of a pure state black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend the Hamilton-Kabat-Lifschytz-Lowe (HKLL) holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local anti-de Sitter bulk scalar observables in the background of a large anti-de Sitter black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual conformal field theory which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and subhorizon bulk locality. First, we construct local bulk operators from the conformal field theory in the leading semiclassical limit, N →∞ . Then, we look at effects due to the finiteness of N , where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cutoffs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local, their departure from locality being nonperturbatively small in N . Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.

  13. Anomalous rectification in a purely electronic memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Pan, Ruobing; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Yang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Zhuge, Fei

    2016-10-01

    An anomalous rectification was observed in a purely electronic memristive device Ti/ZnO/Pt. It could be due to (1) an Ohmic or quasi-Ohmic contact at the ZnO/Pt interface and (2) a Schottky contact at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Ohmic contact originates from the reduction of ZnO occurring in the whole film instead of only at the Ti/ZnO interface. The Schottky contact may come from moisture adsorbed in the nanoporous ZnO. The conduction in the electroformed device is controlled by the carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites, inducing a poor rectification and high nonlinearity. Furthermore, a complementary resistive switching was achieved.

  14. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  15. Evolving spacetimes with purely radial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasre Esfahani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this study time-dependent and spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations in an anisotropic background with a purely radial tension are presented. There exist three classes of solutions,1 An open spacetime with a wormhole at its center. 2 A conical spacetime. 3 A closed spacetime. These inhomogeneous solutions are reduced to FRW spacetimes in matter-dominated era, asymptotically. Therefore, they can be used to describe local inhomogeneities that are not considered in the standard model. For the wormhole solution. it is explicity shown that the considered matter is non-exotic, that is, it does not violate the energy conditions. Also, static solutions are studied. There is only one static solution,a conical spacetime. In this case, the matter satisfies the energy condition critically.

  16. Pure White Cell Aplasia and Necrotizing Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure white cell aplasia (PWCA is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by the absence of neutrophil lineages in the bone marrow with intact megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. PWCA has been associated with autoimmune, drug-induced, and viral exposures. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old female who presented with severe proximal weakness without pain and was found to have PWCA with nonspecific inflammatory necrotizing myositis and acute liver injury on biopsies. These findings were associated with a recent course of azithromycin and her daily use of a statin. Myositis improved on prednisone but PWCA persisted. With intravenous immunoglobulin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapies, her symptoms and neutrophil counts improved and were sustained for months.

  17. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.pierobon@unipd.it [Università di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  18. Hologram of a pure state black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Shubho R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend the HKLL holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local AdS bulk scalar observables in the background of a large AdS black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual CFT which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and sub-horizon bulk locality. First we construct local bulk operators from the CFT in the leading semiclassical limit, $N\\rightarrow\\infty$. Then we look at effects due to the finiteness of $N$, where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cut-offs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local; their departure from locality being non-perturbatively small in $N$. Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.

  19. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  20. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ruobing [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  1. Bipedal nanowalker by pure physical mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Juan; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem; Liu, Ruchuan; van der Maarel, Johan RC; Wang, Zhisong

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nanowalkers are inspired by biomolecular counterparts from living cells, but remain far from comparable to the latter in design principles. The walkers reported to date mostly rely on chemical mechanisms to gain a direction; they all produce chemical wastes. Here we report a light-powered DNA bipedal walker based on a design principle derived from cellular walkers. The walker has two identical feet and the track has equal binding sites; yet the walker gains a direction by pure physical mechanisms that autonomously amplify an intra-site asymmetry into a ratchet effect. The nanowalker is free of any chemical waste. It has a distinct thermodynamic feature that it possesses the same equilibrium before and after operation, but generates a truly non-equilibrium distribution during operation. The demonstrated design principle exploits mechanical effects and is adaptable for use in other nanomachines.

  2. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined...

  3. Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nian-Quan; WANG Yu-Jian; ZHENG Yi-Zhuang; CAI Gen-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states.

  4. Trimethylaluminum and Oxygen Atomic Layer Deposition on Hydroxyl-Free Cu(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharachorlou, Amir; Detwiler, Michael D; Gu, Xiang-Kui; Mayr, Lukas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Greeley, Jeffrey; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Delgass, W Nicholas; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y

    2015-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina using trimethylaluminum (TMA) has technological importance in microelectronics. This process has demonstrated a high potential in applications of protective coatings on Cu surfaces for control of diffusion of Cu in Cu2S films in photovoltaic devices and sintering of Cu-based nanoparticles in liquid phase hydrogenation reactions. With this motivation in mind, the reaction between TMA and oxygen was investigated on Cu(111) and Cu2O/Cu(111) surfaces. TMA did not adsorb on the Cu(111) surface, a result consistent with density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicting that TMA adsorption and decomposition are thermodynamically unfavorable on pure Cu(111). On the other hand, TMA readily adsorbed on the Cu2O/Cu(111) surface at 473 K resulting in the reduction of some surface Cu(1+) to metallic copper (Cu(0)) and the formation of a copper aluminate, most likely CuAlO2. The reaction is limited by the amount of surface oxygen. After the first TMA half-cycle on Cu2O/Cu(111), two-dimensional (2D) islands of the aluminate were observed on the surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). According to DFT calculations, TMA decomposed completely on Cu2O/Cu(111). High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to distinguish between tetrahedrally (Altet) and octahedrally (Aloct) coordinated Al(3+) in surface adlayers. TMA dosing produced an aluminum oxide film, which contained more octahedrally coordinated Al(3+) (Altet/Aloct HREELS peak area ratio ≈ 0.3) than did dosing O2 (Altet/Aloct HREELS peak area ratio ≈ 0.5). After the first ALD cycle, TMA reacted with both Cu2O and aluminum oxide surfaces in the absence of hydroxyl groups until film closure by the fourth ALD cycle. Then, TMA continued to react with surface Al-O, forming stoichiometric Al2O3. O2 half-cycles at 623 K were more effective for carbon removal than O2 half-cycles at 473 K or water half-cycles at 623 K. The growth rate was approximately 3

  5. Social cognition in "pure" delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bömmer, Isabel; Brüne, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Introduction. Delusional disorders are characterised by monothematic, "encapsulated" and incorrigible false beliefs and misinterpretations of social signals. Due to the rarity of cases with "pure" delusional disorder (DD) in clinical settings most studies of social cognition in delusional patients have focused on patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study we sought to examine emotion recognition, theory of mind abilities, and pragmatic language comprehension in patients with delusional disorder. Methods. Social cognition was assessed in 21 patients recruited over a 3-year period who were diagnosed with delusional disorder, paranoid, erotomanic, or jealous type. In addition to an emotion recognition and theory of mind test battery, we included a novel German Proverb Test, which has been found indicative of subtle theory of mind deficits in schizophrenic patients. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). Patients' task performance was compared to a group of 22 healthy control persons paralleled for verbal intelligence, education, and age. Results. Patients with DD made significantly more perseverative errors in the WCST, they performed more poorly on the theory of mind tasks and the proverb test, but were unimpaired in basic emotion recognition abilities relative to controls. When executive functioning was co-varied out, the group differences in theory of mind disappeared, whereas the greater propensity of patients with DD to interpret proverbs literally remained significant. Conclusions. In "pure" DD the basic social cognitive abilities appear to be preserved. Difficulties in metaphorical speech comprehension and executive functioning could, however, indicate more subtle social cognitive deficits in these patients.

  6. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, E.; Carotenuto, G.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M. [Naples ' ' Federico II' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as by product of ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operative conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as promoter that has given the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 (grams hour/mol) of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as by product, that can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is exempt of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed in different operative conditions have been reported with the scope to individuate the best conditions. A carrier of H{sub 2} 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, that generally occurs during the dehydrogenation on other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 mol{sub H2} (gcat){sup -1}(h){sup -1} have been obtained for the explored temperature range 200-260 C. At last, the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  7. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of TiN-Coated Biomedical Ti-Cu Alloy Foam in Fluoride Containing Artificial Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilven

    2014-07-01

    Highly porous Ti-Cu alloy foams were produced by powder metallurgy method for implant applications. Ti-Cu alloys were prepared with 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt pct Cu contents in order to determine optimum Cu addition. Cu addition enhances sinterability, and the Ti-Cu compacts were sintered at lower temperatures and times than pure Ti. Specimens were coated with a TiN film to enhance wear and corrosion resistance. Sintered specimens were precipitation hardened (aged) in order to increase mechanical properties. Corrosion properties of foams were examined by electrochemical techniques, such as potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization resistance, and open-circuit potential measurement. Effect of Cu content, TiN coating, pH, and fluoride content of artificial saliva on electrochemical corrosion behavior of specimens was investigated.

  8. First-principles investigation of Cu-doped ZnS with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2017-01-01

    The band structure and electronic properties of Cu-doped wurtzite ZnS were investigated by density functional theory calculations. According to the formation energies, the substitutional Cu and S vacancy defects are stable among the examined doping species. Particularly, the hybridization of substitutional Cu 3d and S 3p orbitals narrows the band gap of substitutional Cu-doped ZnS (CuZn-ZnS), while the high effective mass ratio of photogenerated holes and electrons (mh∗/me∗) in the CuZn-ZnS is beneficial for the separation and migration of the photogenerated charge carriers. Lab-synthesized CuZn-ZnS sample exhibited enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic hydrogen production activity compared to pure ZnS.

  9. Magnetic dilution in the cadmium-doped spin ladder compound Cdx Cu1 - x (quinoxaline) Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Brian; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Both Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2) and Cu (quinoxaline) (Cl2) are examples of molecule-based magnets where the CuX4 dimers are linked into ladders by quinoxaline molecules, where X is either Cl or Br. The rung exchange occurs through the bridging halides while the rail exchange occurs through the quinoxaline rings. Introducing random rung interactions into the system [ Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2)1-x (Cl2)x ] has caused the spin gap to close, in contrast with the gapped pure spin ladder parents. Crystal growth of non-magnetic-doped molecular magnets, CdxCu1 - x (2 , 3 - dimethylpyrazine)Br2 , have been performed for several values of the nominal conentration, x, and have been confirmed. The magnetizations and susceptibilities of the magnetically diluted ladder assemblage are presented along with a comparison of the effects of dilution from the pure case (x=0).

  10. Study on pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wan-hai; Xu, Jing-yu; Wu, Ying-xiang; Ji, Chun-ning

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline spans may occur due to natural seabed irregularities or local scour of bed sediment. The pure in-line (IL) vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) analysis of the free spans is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions. An IL wake oscillator model which can describe the coupling of pipeline structure and fluctuating drag is introduced and employed. The coupled partial differential equations of structure and wake are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using two-mode Galerkin method. Some case studies are presented and thoroughly discussed in order to investigate the effects of internal fluid, axial force and boundary conditions on the pure IL VIV.

  11. Electrodeposition of PdCu alloy and its application in methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Ming-Wei [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Whang, Thou-Jen, E-mail: twhang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-01

    This study demonstrates a simple electrodeposition method to fabricate the palladium–copper alloy on an ITO coated glass (PdCu/ITO) and its application in methanol electro-oxidation. Our approaches involve the co-reduction of Pd and Cu using triethanolamine (TEA) as a complexing agent in the electroplating bath and a Pd redox replacement of Cu on the surface of the as-prepared PdCu alloy. The phase structures, alloy compositions and morphologies of catalysts are determined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the particle size of PdCu deposits shrink when the alloy is deposited in a TEA-contained solution. The electrocatalytic properties of PdCu alloys and Pd redox replacement modified PdCu alloys for methanol oxidation have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The PdCu alloy with atomic ratio of 20.5% Cu exhibits higher catalytic activity toward methanol oxidation compared with a pure Pd catalyst. PdCu alloys with smaller particle sizes associated with TEA agent and the surface confined Pd replacement are found to have enhanced catalytic performance in the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  12. Effects of interfacial transition layers on the electrical properties of individual Fe 30 Co 61 Cu 9 /Cu multilayer nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we accurately measure the electrical properties of individual Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires using nanomanipulators in in situ scanning electron microscopy to reveal that interfacial transition layers are influential in determining their transport behaviors. We investigate the morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of the Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires to characterize them at the nanoscale. We also compare the transport properties of these multilayered nanowires to those of individual pure Cu nanowires and to those of alloy Fe30Co61Cu9 nanowires. The multilayered nanowires with a 50 nm diameter had a remarkable resistivity of approximately 5.41 × 10-7 Ω m and a failure current density of 1.54 × 1011 A m-2. Detailed analysis of the electrical data reveals that interfacial transition layers influence the electrical properties of multilayered nanowires and are likely to have a strong impact on the life of nanodevices. This work contributes to a basic understanding of the electrical parameters of individual magnetic multilayered nanowires for their application as functional building blocks and interconnecting leads in nanodevices and nanoelectronics, and also provides a clear physical picture of a single multilayered nanowire which explains its electrical resistance and its source of giant magnetoresistance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  13. First principles calculations on Ni impurities in Cu clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo-Chavez, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: ricardo@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Pastor, G.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2005-07-15

    Structural and magnetic properties of small NiCu{sub N-1} clusters are determined in the framework of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT). Besides some changes in bond length, the calculated structures for N=<5 atoms are similar to those of pure Cu{sub N}. For the optimal NiCu{sub N-1} geometry the Ni ion occupies the most-coordinated atomic position and the ground-state corresponds to a minimum-spin configuration (S{sub z}=0 or 12). Interesting correlations between cluster structure and magnetism are revealed by varying the total spin. The possible consequences of electron correlations and finite-temperature effects are briefly discussed.

  14. Insight into CH4 dissociation on NiCu catalyst: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, Riguang; Yan, Ruixia; Li, Jingrui; Wang, Baojun; Xie, Kechang

    2012-08-01

    A density-functional theory method has been conducted to investigate the dissociation of CH4 on NiCu (1 1 1) surface. Two models: uniform surface slab model (Model A) and Cu-rich surface slab model (Model B) have been constructed to represent the NiCu (1 1 1) surface, in which the ratio of Ni/Cu is unit. The obtained results on the two models have been compared with those obtained on pure Ni (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1). It is found that the adsorption of CHx(x = 1-3) on Model B are weaker than on Model A. The rate-determining steps of CH4 dissociation on Model A and B both are the dissociation of CH, and the corresponding activation barriers are 1.37 and 1.63 eV, respectively. Obviously, it is approximately equal on Model A to that on pure Ni (1 1 1) [H. Liu, R. Zhang, R. Yan, B. Wang, K. Xie, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 8955], while it is lower by 0.58 eV on Model B compared to that on pure Cu (1 1 1). Therefore, the Cu-rich surface has better carbon-resistance ability than the uniform one. Those results well explain the experimental facts that NiCu/SiO2 has excellent catalytic performance and long-term stability [H.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Yu, L.-T. Tseng, P.-H. Liao, Catalysis Today 97 (2004) 173], however, there is serious carbon deposition on NiCu/MgO-Al2O3 in CO2 reforming of methane [J. Zhang, H. Wang, A. K. Dalai, Journal of Catalysis 249 (2007) 300].

  15. Properties and distribution of pure GA-sequences of mammalian genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Albrecht-Buehler

    Full Text Available The article describes DNA sequences of mammalian genomes that are longer than 50 bases, but consist exclusively of G's and A's ('pure GA-sequences'. Although their frequency of incidence should be 10(-16 or smaller, the chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, dog, cat, rat, and mouse contained many tens of thousands of them ubiquitously located along the chromosomes with a species-dependent density, reaching sizes of up to 1300 [b]. With the exception of a small number of poly-A-, poly-G-, poly-GA-, and poly-GAAA-sequences (combined <0.5%, all pure GA-sequences of the mammals tested were unique individuals, contained several repeated short GA-containing motifs, and shared a common hexa-nucleotide spectrum. At most 2% of the human GA-sequences were transcribed into mRNAs; all others were not coding for proteins. Although this could have made them less subject to natural selection, they contained many [corrected] times fewer point mutations than one should expect from the genome at large. As to the presence of other sequences with similarly restricted base contents, there were approximately as many pure TC-sequences as pure GA-sequences, but many fewer pure AC-, TA, and TG-sequences. There were practically no pure GC-sequences. The functions of pure GA-sequences are not known. Supported by a number of observations related to heat shock phenomena, the article speculates that they serve as genomic sign posts which may help guide polymerases and transcription factors to their proper targets, and/or as spatial linkers that help generate the 3-dimensional organization of chromatin.

  16. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  17. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  18. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  19. Template free-solvothermaly synthesized copper selenide (CuSe, Cu 2- xSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) hexagonal nanoplates from different precursors at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Singh, Kedar; Srivastava, O. N.

    2010-09-01

    Nonstoichiometric (Cu 2- xSe) and stoichiometric (CuSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates have been synthesized using different general and convenient copper sources, e.g. copper chloride, copper sulphate, copper nitrate, copper acetate, elemental copper with elemental selenium, friendly ethylene glycol and hydrazine hydrate in a defined amount of water at 100 °C within 12 h adopting the solvothermal method. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the product have been well studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDAX) techniques. The structural and compositional analysis revealed that the products were of pure phase with corresponding atomic ratios. SEM, TEM and HRTEM analyses revealed that the nanoplates were in the range 200-450 nm and the as-prepared products were uniform and highly crystallized. The nanoplates consisted of {0 0 1} facets of top-bottom surfaces and {1 1 0} facets of the other six side surfaces. This new approach encompasses many advantages over the conventional solvothermal method in terms of product quality (better morphology control with high yield) and reaction conditions (lower temperatures). Copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates obtained by the described method could be potential building blocks to construct functional devices and solar cell. This work may open up a new rationale on designing the solution synthesis of nanostructures for materials possessing similar intrinsic crystal symmetry. On the basis of the carefully controlled experiments mentioned herein, a plausible formation mechanism of the hexagonal nanoplates was suggested and discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on nonstoichiometric (Cu 2- xSe) as well as stoichiometric (CuSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates with

  20. Determination of hydrogen diffusion and permeation coefficients in pure copper at near room temperature by means of tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horinouchi, H., E-mail: horinouchi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shinohara, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tanabe, T.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •We have applied a tritium tracer technique for gaseous hydrogen permeation in Cu. •We have succeeded to get reliable data for hydrogen permeability in Cu. •Diffusivity are bending downward from the extrapolation of higher temperature. •Diffusivity are influenced by initial surface contamination which is removed by hydrogen. -- Abstract: Copper (Cu) and its alloys are candidate materials for heat sinks or cooling-tubes in a fusion reactor. Hence their tritium retention and permeation are very important safety concerns. Most data for diffusion and permeation of hydrogen in Cu so far available have been limited for rather higher temperatures and data for lower temperatures, in particular, for near room temperature (RT) are scarce. We have applied a tritium tracer technique for gaseous hydrogen permeation in pure Cu at near RT and succeeded to get reliable data for hydrogen permeation coefficients given by Φ = (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup −6} exp(−85 ± 2(kJ/mol)/RT), mol m{sup −1} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1/2}, which is reliable in very wide temperature range from 300 K to 1000 K. However, diffusion coefficients determined by the time-lag method are bending downward from the extrapolation of higher temperature data and are influenced by initial surface contamination which is removed by hydrogen loading.

  1. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakening as an aspect of Buddhist thought. The second section locates it in the history of Buddhist thought, demonstrating that it is not a modern conceptualization of the path, not one created in response to Euro–American religio-therapeutic culture. Locus of awakening is, instead, part of the continuity of the Buddhist tradition, and does not fall on one side or the other of the sometimes overdrawn dichotomy between Asian and American Buddhisms.

  2. Hyperbolic billiards of pure D=4 supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, M; Henneaux, Marc; Julia, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    We compute the billiards that emerge in the Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) limit for all pure supergravities in D=4 spacetime dimensions, as well as for D=4, N=4 supergravities coupled to k (N=4) Maxwell supermultiplets. We find that just as for the cases N=0 and N=8 investigated previously, these billiards can be identified with the fundamental Weyl chambers of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras. Hence, the dynamics is chaotic in the BKL limit. A new feature arises, however, which is that the relevant Kac-Moody algebra can be the Lorentzian extension of a twisted affine Kac-Moody algebra, while the N=0 and N=8 cases are untwisted. This occurs for N=5, N=3 and N=2. An understanding of this property is provided by showing that the data relevant for determining the billiards are the restricted root system and the maximal split subalgebra of the finite-dimensional real symmetry algebra characterizing the toroidal reduction to D=3 spacetime dimensions. To summarize: split symmetry controls chaos.

  3. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029

  4. Reexamination of pure qubit work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Max F; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-11-01

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyze the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process and the effect this has on the extractable work and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semiclassical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W=kTlog2 for a quasistatic process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case and is attained only in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time dependence in a joint system with a globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  5. Crystal Structure Refinement of Synthetic Pure Gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Baltušnikas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure calcium silicate hydrate – gyrolite was prepared under the saturated steam pressure at 473 K temperature in rotating autoclave. The crystal structure of synthetic gyrolite was investigated by X-ray diffraction and refined using Le Bail, Rietveld and crystal structure modelling methods. Background, peak shape parameters and verification of the space group were performed by the Le Bail full pattern decomposition. Peculiarities of interlayer sheet X of gyrolite unit cell were highlighted by Rietveld refinement. Possible atomic arrangement in interlayer sheet X was solved by global optimization method. Most likelihood crystal structure model of gyrolite was calculated by final Rietveld refinement. It was crystallographically showed, that cell parameters are: a = 0.9713(2 nm, b = 0.9715(2 nm, c = 2.2442(3 nm and alfa = 95.48(2 º, beta = 91.45(2 °, gamma = l20.05(3 °.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5460

  6. Non-universalities in pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and tan{beta}. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass (m{sub 3/2}>or similar 300 TeV) and a limited range in tan{beta}{approx_equal}1.7-2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in tan{beta} and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m{sub 3/2}. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scale and structures at the GUT and/or Planck scale. (orig.)

  7. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  8. Triplet Pairing in pure neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    We study the zero temperature BCS gaps for the triplet channel in pure neutron matter using Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) evolved interactions. We use the dependence of the results on the SRG resolution scale, as a tool to analyze medium and many-body corrections. In particular, we study the effects of including the three-body interactions at leading order, which appear at N2LO in the Chiral EFT, as well as that of the first-order self-energy corrections on the zero temperature gap. In addition we also extract the transition temperature as a function of densities and verify the BCS scaling of the zero temperature gaps to the transition temperature. We observe that the self-energy effects are very crucial in order to reduce the SRG resolution scale dependence of the results, while the three-body effects at the leading order do not change the two-body resolution scale dependence. On the other hand, the results depend strongly on the three-body cut-off, emphasizing the importance of the missing higher-o...

  9. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  10. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson,Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-02-04

    The photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of pure He droplets are investigated at photon energies between 24.6 eV (the ionization energy of He) and 28 eV. Time-of-flight mass spectra and photoelectron images were obtained at a series of molecular beam source temperatures and pressures to assess the effect of droplet size on the photoionization dynamics. At source temperatures below 16 K, the photoelectron images are dominated by fast electrons produced via direct ionization of He atoms, with a small contribution from very slow electrons with kinetic energies below 1 meV arising from an indirect mechanism. The fast photoelectrons have as much as 0.5 eV more kinetic energy than those from atomic He at the same photon energy. This result is interpreted and simulated within the context of a 'dimer model', in which one assumes vertical ionization from two nearest neighbor He atoms to the attractive region of the He2+ potential energy curve. Possible mechanism for the slow electrons, which were also seen at energies below IE(He), are discussed, including vibrational autoionizaton of Rydberg states comprising an electron weakly bound to the surface of a large HeN+ core.

  11. Shifting from preconceptions to pure wonderment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    The author reflects upon her role as a public health nurse striving to attain practice authenticity. Client assessment and nursing interventions were seemingly sufficient until she became curious about 'Who is this person sitting across from me?' and 'What are her experiences in the world as a lone parent living in poverty at the margins of society?' The author begins to think that she could shift from mere client investigation to pure wonderment about the Other by imagining herself as a researcher, an explorer of another's life world. Ultimately this process enables her to enhance the 'caring' in her practice with the knowledge gained of the perceptions and meanings impoverished clients assigned to their everyday lives. Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative competence serves as the reference map guiding exploration. The author uses Habermas' theoretical principles of intersubjective mutuality--the validity claims of comprehensibility, truth, sincerity, and legitimacy. Comprehensibility embodies understanding, an attitude of unconditional acceptance, and care respect of another's individual person and self-defined reality. Intersubjective mutuality also requires that one dwell in the moment with the Other, satisfied that communication is founded on truth. Sincerity implies fostering the Other's expression of authentic self apart from oppressive distracters. Lastly, legitimacy reconciles the author's altruistic pursuit to know the Other's ontological truth with the reality of the present world.

  12. Triplet pairing in pure neutron matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sarath; Ramanan, S.

    2016-12-01

    We study the zero-temperature BCS gaps for the triplet channel in pure neutron matter using similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolved interactions. We use the dependence of the results on the SRG resolution scale as a tool to analyze medium and many-body corrections. In particular, we study the effects of including the three-body interactions at leading order, which appear at next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) in the chiral effective field theory (EFT), as well as that of the first-order self-energy corrections on the zero-temperature gap. In addition we also extract the transition temperature as a function of densities and verify the BCS scaling of the zero-temperature gaps to the transition temperature. We observe that the self-energy effects are very crucial in order to reduce the SRG resolution scale dependence of the results, while the three-body effects at the leading order do not change the two-body resolution scale dependence. On the other hand, the results depend strongly on the three-body cutoff, emphasizing the importance of the missing higher-order three-body effects. We also observe that self-energy effects reduce the overall gap as well as shift the gap closure to lower densities.

  13. Twofold symmetries of the pure gravity action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2017-01-01

    We recast the action of pure gravity into a form that is invariant under a twofold Lorentz symmetry. To derive this representation, we construct a general parameterization of all theories equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert action up to a local field redefinition and gauge fixing. We then exploit this freedom to eliminate all interactions except those exhibiting two sets of independently contracted Lorentz indices. The resulting action is local, remarkably simple, and naturally expressed in a field basis analogous to the exponential parameterization of the nonlinear sigma model. The space of twofold Lorentz invariant field redefinitions then generates an infinite class of equivalent representations. By construction, all off-shell Feynman diagrams are twofold Lorentz invariant while all on-shell tree amplitudes are automatically twofold gauge invariant. We extend our results to curved spacetime and calculate the analogue of the Einstein equations. While these twofold invariances are hidden in the canonical approach of graviton perturbation theory, they are naturally expected given the double copy relations for scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity.

  14. Non-universalities in pure gravity mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason L.; Ibe, Masahiro; Olive, Keith A.; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-10-01

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and tan β. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass ( m 3/2≳300 TeV) and a limited range in tan β≃1.7-2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in tan β and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m 3/2. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scale and structures at the GUT and/or Planck scale.

  15. Non-Universalities in Pure Gravity Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jason L; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2013-01-01

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and \\tan\\beta. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass (m_{3/2}\\gtrsim 300\\,TeV) and a limited range in \\tan \\beta \\simeq 1.7--2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in \\tan \\beta and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m_{3/2}. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scal...

  16. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  17. Adsorption of Cu(II) to ferrihydrite and ferrihydrite-bacteria composites: Importance of the carboxyl group for Cu mobility in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ellen M.; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2012-09-01

    Bacterially associated iron (hydr)oxide composites are widespread in natural environments, and by analogy with isolated iron (hydr)oxides and bacteria, are important scavengers of dissolved trace-metals. We precipitated ferrihydrite via rapid Fe(III) hydrolysis in the absence and presence of the non-Fe metabolising, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, commonly found in natural waters, soils and sediments. We combined XRD, SEM, BET and Fe K-edge EXAFS to examine the mineralogy, morphology and crystallinity of the ferrihydrite composites. We find that the mineral fraction of the composites is unaltered in primary mineralogy, morphology and crystallinity compared to pure ferrihydrite. We then measured the adsorption of Cu to ferrihydrite and the ferrihydrite-B. subtilis composites as a function of pH and the ferrihydrite:bacteria mass ratio of the composites, and used EXAFS to determine the molecular mechanisms of Cu adsorption. We determine directly for the first time that Cu uptake by ferrihydrite-B. subtilis composites is the result of adsorption to both the ferrihydrite and B. subtilis fractions. Adsorption of Cu by the B. subtilis fraction results in significant Cu uptake in the low pH regime (pH ˜4, ˜20% of [Cu]total) and significantly enhanced Cu uptake in the mid pH regime. This composite sorption behaviour is in stark contrast to pure ferrihydrite, where Cu adsorption is negligible at low pH. Overall, for composites dominated by either ferrihydrite or B. subtilis, the bacterial fraction is exclusively responsible for Cu adsorption at low pH while the ferrihydrite fraction is predominantly responsible for adsorption at high pH. Furthermore, with an increased mass ratio of bacteria, the dominance of Cu adsorption to the bacterial fraction persists into the mid pH regime and extends significantly into the upper pH region. As such, the distribution of the total adsorbed Cu between the composite fractions is a function of both pH and the ferrihydrite

  18. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  19. Absorption Spectra of CuGaSe 2 and CuInSe 2 Semiconducting Nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2015-10-01

    The structural and optical properties of the chalcopyrite CunGanSe2n and CunInnSe2n nanoclusters (n = 2, 4, 6, and 8) are investigated as a function of the size using a combination of basin-hopping global optimization and time-dependent density functional theory. Although the lowest energy structures are found to show almost random geometries, the band gaps and absorption spectra still are subject to systematic blue shifts for decreasing cluster size in the case of CunGanSe2n, indicating strong electron confinement. The applicability of the nanoclusters in photovoltaics is discussed. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. CuS/MoS{sub 2} nanocomposite with high solar photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Nannan; Zhou, Yifeng, E-mail: yifengzhou@126.com; Nie, Wangyan; Song, Linyong; Chen, Pengpeng, E-mail: chenpp@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Environment-Friendly Polymer Materials, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-07-15

    Two-dimensional CuS/MoS{sub 2} heterostructure with high photocatalytic activity had been successfully obtained by a simple combination of wet chemical method and hydrothermal process. CuS nanosheets had been successfully grown on the two-dimensional MoS{sub 2} nanosheets uniformly and tightly. The obtained heterostructures were well characterized through X-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet–visible diffuse-reflectance spectra, and Zeta potential measurement. Photocatalytic performance of the CuS/MoS{sub 2} nanocomposite was evaluated toward the decomposition of methylene blue solution under natural light. The as-prepared nanocomposite showed remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with pure CuS and MoS{sub 2}. This could be attributed to the enhanced dyestuff absorption and charge transport after the conjugation between CuS and MoS{sub 2}.

  1. An optimized interatomic potential for Cu-Ni alloys with the embedded-atom method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Berk; Durukanoğlu, Sondan

    2014-01-22

    We have developed a semi-empirical and many-body type model potential using a modified charge density profile for Cu-Ni alloys based on the embedded-atom method (EAM) formalism with an improved optimization technique. The potential is determined by fitting to experimental and first-principles data for Cu, Ni and Cu-Ni binary compounds, such as lattice constants, cohesive energies, bulk modulus, elastic constants, diatomic bond lengths and bond energies. The generated potentials were tested by computing a variety of properties of pure elements and the alloy of Cu, Ni: the melting points, alloy mixing enthalpy, lattice specific heat, equilibrium lattice structures, vacancy formation and interstitial formation energies, and various diffusion barriers on the (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of Ag-Pd-Cu-based casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, L; Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1985-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and its correlation to alloy composition, structure, corrosion, as well as galvanic coupling was studied with 12 Ag-Pd-Cu-type alloys, one conventional type III gold alloy and pure Ag, Cu, and Pd. The agar overlay cell culture technique was used. Single phase binary CuPd alloys were only slightly cytotoxic below a Cu content of 30 wt%. The tested multiphase alloys were all toxic, but no correlation between toxicity and Cu content could be observed. Solid solution annealing increased the cytotoxicity of a multiphase alloy. Exposure of a single phase alloy to an artificial saliva for 1 week prior to the test decreased its cytotoxicity significantly. Galvanic coupling of the alloys through an outer copper wire decreased their cytotoxicity.

  3. A new Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D. L.; Michal, G. M.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Various applications exist where a high conductivity alloy with good strength and creep resistance are required. NASA LeRC has developed a Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy for these applications. The alloy is designed for use up to 700 C and shows exceptional strength, low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and creep resistance. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb also has a thermal conductivity of at least 72 percent that of pure Cu. Furthermore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy are very stable. In addition to the original application in combustion chambers, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb shows promise for welding electrodes, brazing fixtures, and other applications requiring high conductivity and strength at elevated temperatures.

  4. Growth of intermetallic phases in Al/Cu composites at various annealing temperatures during the ARB process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Shi, Ming-Shou; Wu, Weite

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of annealing temperatures on growth of intermetallic phases in Al/Cu composites during the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. Pure Al (AA1100) and pure Cu (C11000) were stacked into layered structures at 8 cycles as annealed at 300 °C and 400 °C using the ARB technique. Microstructural results indicate that the necking of layered structures occur after 300 °C annealing. Intermetallic phases grow and form a smashed morphology of Al and Cu when annealed at 400 °C. From the XRD and EDS analysis results, the intermetallic phases of Al2Cu (θ) and Al4Cu9 (γ2) formed over 6 cycles and the AlCu (η2) precipitated at 8 cycles after 300 °C annealing. Three phases (Al2Cu (θ), Al4Cu9 (γ2), and AlCu (η2)) were formed over 2 cycles after 400 °C annealing.

  5. One-step fabrication of BiOCl/CuS heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light responsive activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiufang, E-mail: wxfxbs159@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Molecule Design and Interface Process, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Hu, Hanmei; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Kehua; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Wensheng [Key Laboratory of Functional Molecule Design and Interface Process, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Wang, Runxia [Pharmacy Department, Anhui Medical College, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Fore the first time, a novel BiOCl/CuS nanocomposite with a heterojunction structure was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. The BiOCl/CuS heterojunctions were used as photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants, such as rhodamine B (RhB), under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The results reveal that the heterojunction structure composite exhibits markedly improved efficiency and high photostability for the RhB photodegradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and pure CuS. This is ascribed to the heterojunction structure with an efficient charge separation and transfer across the BiOCl/CuS junction. Moreover, the catalytic activity is related to the ratio of CuS to BiOCl in the nanocomposite, and the BiOCl/CuS heterojunction in a 0.5:1 mol ratio exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. According to experimental results, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiOCl/CuS photocatalyst is proposed to explain the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Novel BiOCl/CuS heterojunctions have been prepared firstly. • The heterojunction structure has with an efficient charge separation and transfer across the BiOCl/CuS junction. • The improved efficiency and high photostability for the dye photodegradation under visible light irradiation.

  6. Dissociated functional brain abnormalities of inhibition in boys with pure conduct disorder and in boys with pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Mohammed, Majeed; Scott, Steven; Giampietro, Vincent; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Inhibitory dysfunction may be a transdiagnostic etiopathophysiology of disruptive behavior disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including comorbidity with conduct disorder, showing frontal-striatal dysfunction. This study investigates differences and commonalities in functional neural networks mediating inhibitory control between medication-naive adolescents with pure conduct disorder and those with pure ADHD to identify biological markers that distinguish these clinically overlapping disorders. Event-related fMRI was used to compare brain activation of 13 boys with noncomorbid conduct disorder, 20 with noncomorbid ADHD, and 20 normal boys during an individually adjusted tracking stop task that measures the neural substrates of inhibition and stopping failure. During successful inhibition, only patients with ADHD showed reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to comparison subjects and patients with conduct disorder. During inhibition failures compared to go responses, both patient groups shared underactivation in the posterior cingulate gyrus in relation to comparison subjects. Patients with conduct disorder showed reduced activation in bilateral temporal-parietal regions compared to the other groups, which did not differ in this measure. Patients with pure ADHD or pure conduct disorder show qualitative differences in their brain abnormality patterns during inhibitory control. Inhibition-mediating prefrontal regions appear to be specifically reduced in ADHD, whereas posterior temporal-parietal, performance monitoring networks are specifically dysfunctional in conduct disorder. The findings provide pioneering evidence that distinct neurobiological abnormalities may be underlying the overlapping behavioral phenotype of the two disruptive disorders.

  7. PRR performance of Cu- and CuBr-vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. F.; Evtushenko, Gennadiy S.; Klimkin, Vladimir M.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Soldatov, Anatoly N.; Sukhanov, Viktor B.

    1998-06-01

    Results obtained from comparative analysis of the pulse repetition rate performance of Cu- and CuBr-vapor lasers operated at high pump pulse repetitions (approximately 100 kHz) are reported. For a CuBr laser with a 8 mm diameter discharge tube the laser pulse repetition rate as high as 270 kHz was realized.

  8. Cu Diffusion in Co/Cu/TiN Films for Cu Metallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua CHEN; Xinghui WU; Jinzhong XIANG; Zhenlai ZHOU; Heyun ZHAO; Liqiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Some information on how to use in-situ determined diffusion coefficient of Cu to make barrier layer of Cu metallization in ultra large scale integrations (ULSIs) was provided. Diffusion coefficients of Cu in Co at low temperature were determined to analyze Cu migration to Co surface layer. The diffusion depths were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile to investigate the diffusion effect of Cu in Co at different temperatures. The possible pretreatment temperature and time of barrier layer can be predicted according to the diffusion coefficients of Cu in Co.

  9. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  10. Peccei-Quinn symmetric pure gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [University of Tokyo, ICRR, Kashiwa (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), TODIAS, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Successful models of pure gravity mediation (PGM) with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking can be expressed with as few as two free parameters, which can be taken as the gravitinomass and tan β. These models easily support a 125-126 GeV Higgs mass at the expense of a scalar spectrum in the multi-TeV range and a much lighter wino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. In these models, it is also quite generic that the Higgs mixing mass parameter, μ, which is determined by the minimization of the Higgs potential is also in the multi-TeV range. For μ > 0, the thermal relic density of winos is too small to account for the darkmatter. The same is true for μ < 0 unless the gravitinomass is of order 500 TeV. Here, we consider the origin of a multi-TeV μ parameter arising from the breakdown of a Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. A coupling of the PQ-symmetry breaking field, P, to the MSSM Higgs doublets, naturally leads to a value of μ ∝ left angle P right angle {sup 2}/M{sub P} ∝ O(100) TeV and of the order that is required in PGM models. In this case, axions make up the dark matter or some fraction of the dark matter with the remainder made up from thermal or non-thermal winos. We also provide solutions to the problem of isocurvature fluctuations with axion dark matter in this context. (orig.)

  11. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fu, Xuekun; Pan, Haobo; Wan, Peng; Wang, Lei; Tan, Lili; Wang, Kehong; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications. PMID:27271057

  12. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fu, Xuekun; Pan, Haobo; Wan, Peng; Wang, Lei; Tan, Lili; Wang, Kehong; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke; Chu, Paul K

    2016-06-07

    A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications.

  13. Synthesis of stable ultra-small Cu nanoparticles for direct writing flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Chen, Minfang, E-mail: mfchentj@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-01-30

    In this study, pure Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized and the Cu nano-ink was prepared for direct writing on photo paper using a roller pen. The tri-sodium citrate was used as initial reducing-cum-surfactant agent followed by hydrazine as a second massive reducing agent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as extra surfactant agent. From the XRD, TEM, and HR-TEM analyses, the synthesized particles are confirmed to be Cu in spherical shape with sizes range of 2.5 ± 1.0 nm. By analyzing the FT-IR spectroscopy and TGA curves, it was found that the obtained particles capped with tri-sodium citrate and CTAB layers are stable to oxidation up to the temperature 228 °C. The reduced size and enhanced air-stability of the Cu NPs result in an improved particle density upon sintering, which is mainly responsible for the increased conductivity of the Cu patterns. The resistivity of Cu patterns sintered in Ar at 160 °C for 2 h is 7.2 ± 0.6 μΩ cm, which is 4.40 times the bulk Cu resistivity. The drawn Cu lines exhibited excellent integrity and good conductivity, which were experimentally tested. Moreover, a Cu electrode and a sample RFID antenna were successfully made.

  14. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Jabbar; Irfan Qasim; M Mumtaz; K Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Series of (Ag)x/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ) {(Ag)x/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentra-tions (i.e. x ¼ 0 ? 4.0 wt%) of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  15. Effects of advanced process approaches on electromigration degradation of Cu on-chip interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.

    2007-07-12

    This thesis provides a methodology for the investigation of electromigration (EM) in Cu-based interconnects. An experimental framework based on in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations was developed for that purpose. It is capable to visualize the EM-induced void formation and evolution in multi-level test structures in real time. Different types of interconnects were investigated. Furthermore, stressed and unstressed samples were studied applying advanced physical analysis techniques in order to obtain additional information about the microstructure of the interconnects as well as interfaces and grain boundaries. These data were correlated to the observed degradation phenomena. Correlations of the experimental results to recently established theoretical models were highlighted. Three types of Cu-based interconnects were studied. Pure Cu interconnects were compared to Al-alloyed (CuAl) and CoWP-coated interconnects. The latter two represent potential approaches that address EM-related reliability concerns. It was found that in such interconnects the dominant diffusion path is no longer the Cu/capping layer interface for interconnects as in pure Cu interconnects. Instead, void nucleation occurs at the bottom Cu/barrier interface with significant effects from grain boundaries. Moreover, the in-situ investigations revealed that the initial void nucleation does not occur at the cathode end of the lines but several micrometers away from it. The mean times-to-failure of CuAl and CoWP-coated interconnects were increased by at least one order of magnitude compared to Cu interconnects. The improvements were attributed to the presence of foreign metal atoms at the Cu/capping layer interface. Post-mortem EBSD investigations were used to reveal the microstructure of the tested samples. The data were correlated to the in-situ observations. (orig.)

  16. On the relation between hybrid and pure spinor string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, Sebastian [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we revisit Berkovits' pure spinor formalism in lower dimensions. We are particularly interested in relating a six-dimensional pure spinor action previously constructed in the literature to other superstring formalisms. In order to gain some insight into six-dimensional pure spinors, we first derive their action by gauge-fixing the classical six-dimensional Green-Schwarz action. We then consider a hybrid pure spinor construction in which the spacetime symmetries of six of the ten dimensions are described in pure spinor variables, while the remaining four dimensions are parameterized in terms of RNS variables. We relate this pure spinor formalism to the Berkovits-Vafa-Witten hybrid formalism of string theory on R{sup 6} x T{sup 4}. (orig.)

  17. Tailoring properties of commercially pure titanium by gradation extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Markus; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Selbmann, René; de Oliveira, Raoni Barreto; Coelho, Rodrigo Santiago; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) is of great importance in medical applications due to its attractive properties, such as high biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and relatively low density and suitable stiffness. Compared to the commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy, its lower strength has to be increased. The most attractive approach is to subject CP Ti to severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). The resulting decreased grain size in CP Ti yields a significant increase in hardness and strength. Common SPD-processes typically provide a uniform modification of the material. Their material efficiency and productivity are critical and limiting factors. A new approach is to tailor the material properties by using Gradation Extrusion, which produces a distinct gradient in microstructure and strength. The forming process combines a regular impact extrusion process and severe plastic deformation in the lateral area of the material. This efficient process can be integrated easily into forming process chains, for instance for dental implants. This paper presents the forming process and the applied die geometry. The results of numerical simulations are used to illustrate the potential of the process to modify and strengthen the titanium material. Experiments show that the material is successfully processed by gradation extrusion. By characterizing the hardness and its distribution within the formed parts the effects of the process are investigated.

  18. Factors contributing to the rheology of tomato puree

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum Iycopersicum) puree is created by homogenising the flesh of tomato fruits. The viscosity of this material and the fibrous content is of commercial interest. Tomato puree consists of suspended particles (consisting of whole cells, broken cells and cellular fragments) in an aqueous serum. The contribution of the non-soluble and soluble material to tomato puree rheology was studied with reference to the varying composition of solids and firmness of tomato fruit at four stages of ...

  19. Are all noisy quantum states obtained from pure ones?

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, L; Popescu, S

    2001-01-01

    We ask what type of mixed quantum states can arise when a number of separated parties start by sharing a pure quantum state and then this pure state becomes contaminated by noise. We show that not all mixed states arise in this way. This is even the case if the separated parties actively try to degrade their initial pure state by arbitrary local actions and classical communication.

  20. Synthesis of ZnO/CuO and TiO{sub 2}/CuO nanocomposites for light and ultrasound assisted degradation of a textile dye in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzakki, Afifah; Shabrany, Hesni; Saleh, Rosari, E-mail: rosari.saleh@gmail.com, E-mail: rosari.saleh@ui.ac.id [DepartemenFisika, Fakultas MIPA-Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Integrated Laboratory of Energy and Environment, Fakultas MIPA-Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    ZnO/CuO and TiO2/CuO nanocomposites with different Zn/Cu and Ti/Cu ratios were prepared using sol-gel method. The obtained composite samples were used as catalyst. Methylene blue was used as a model of textile dye to evaluate their photocatalytic, sonocatalytic and photosonocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X- ray analysis confirmed that only monoclinic CuO and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structures are present in ZnO/CuO nanocomposites, while in TiO2/CuO nanocomposites monoclinic CuO and anatase TiO2 structures were observed. The degradation of methylene blue indicated that the incorporation of CuO in ZnO/CuO and TiO2/CuO nanocomposites exhibited an appreciable higher photocatalytic activity, which was mainly attributed to the extended photoresponding range and more light energy could be utilized than pure ZnO and TiO2.

  1. Development of Cu Reinforced SiC Particulate Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harshpreet; Kumar, Lailesh; Nasimul Alam, Syed

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of Cu-SiCp composites developed by powder metallurgy route and an attempt has been made to make a comparison between the composites developed by using unmilled Cu powder and milled Cu powder. SiC particles as reinforcement was blended with unmilled and as-milled Cu powderwith reinforcement contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 vol. % by powder metallurgy route. The mechanical properties of pure Cu and the composites developed were studied after sintering at 900°C for 1 h. Density of the sintered composites were found out based on the Archimedes' principle. X-ray diffraction of all the composites was done in order to determine the various phases in the composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDS (electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy) was carried out for the microstructural analysis of the composites. Vickers microhardness tester was used to find out the hardness of the samples. Wear properties of the developed composites were also studied.

  2. Significance of Al doping for antiferromagnetic AFII ordering in YBa2Cu3-xAlxO6+#delta# materials: A single-crystal neutron-diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brecht, E.; Schmahl, W.W.; Fuess, H.

    1995-01-01

    the antiferromagnetic ordering pattern is different for the AFI and AFII phase, the ordered moments on the Cu sites are within the experimental error ([S](Cu(2)) approximate to 0.56 mu(B), [S](Cu(1)) approximate to 0 mu(B)) identical in the two phases. Comparison of Al-doped crystals with pure crystals of the same...

  3. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  4. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  5. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  6. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  7. Investigations of the corrosion fatigue behaviour at a super pure martensitic stainless steel (X 5 CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH) in comparison to the soft martensitic stainless steel X 4 CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR in chloride containing aqueous media. Pt. 1. Corrosion investigations and stress corrosion tests to optimize the heat treatment according to the stress corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Thomas, K.G.; Wunderlich, R.; Happle, T.

    1989-06-01

    The stress corrosion was investigated for all heat-treatments of the 17-4 PH in 22% NaCl(pH3) solution. The precipitation hardening steel was most resistant to stress corrosion in concentrated NaCl-solution after a three-stage heat-treatment. There was no improvement of corrosion fatigue resistance after metallurgical aftertreatment of soft martensitic steel compared to the untreated material. This is due to the instable passive behaviour of the material which led to crack initiation, especially during the 150/sup 0/C experiments, at chloride-induced places of pitting. The investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of both materials showed that the pH-value hardly influences corrosion resistance. An increase of the salt content leads to higher pitting induction. At temperatures of 80/sup 0/C in a saturated NaCl-solution the material showed no corrosion resistance. In potentiokinetic investigations, a direct transition from the active area to the pitting potential was observed. In accordance with both the corrosion fatigue and the stress corrosion cracking investigations, it was found that pitting at the martensite precipitator starts primarily around Cu-containing or oxidic inclusions. (orig./MM).

  8. Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Chang, Bei; Zhang, Yumei; Ma, Zheng; Allaker, Robert P.; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Formation of bacterial biofilms on dental implant material surfaces (titanium) may lead to the development of peri-implant diseases influencing the long term success of dental implants. In this study, a novel Cu-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) was designed and fabricated in order to efficiently kill bacteria and discourage formation of biofilms, and then inhibit bacterial infection and prevent implant failure, in comparison with pure Ti. Results from biofilm based gene expression studies, biofilm growth observation, bacterial viability measurements and morphological examination of bacteria, revealed antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities of Ti-Cu alloy against the oral specific bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Proliferation and adhesion assays with mesenchymal stem cells, and measurement of the mean daily amount of Cu ion release demonstrated Ti-Cu alloy to be biocompatible. In conclusion, Ti-Cu alloy is a promising dental implant material with antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities and acceptable biocompatibility.

  9. Characterization of W Coating on Cu Substrate Prepared by Double-Glow Discharge%Characterization of W Coating on Cu Substrate Prepared by Double-Glow Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福斌; 王正铎; 陈强; 蔡惠平

    2012-01-01

    In this study, tungsten (W) was coated on a copper (Cu) substrate by using doubleglow discharge technique using a pure W panel as the target and argon (Ar) as the discharge and sputtering gas. The crystal structure of the W coating was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed with cross-section images to investigate the penetration depth of W into the Cu body. Additionally, the properties of wearability resistance, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of the W coated Cu matrix were also measured. It is concluded that in double-glow plasma, W coated Cu can be facilely prepared. It is noticed that the treatment temperature heavily dominates the properties of the W-Cu composite.

  10. Studies on formation and structures of ultrafine Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels using positron quantum dot confinement in the precipitates by their positron affinity. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-034 (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, M; Suzuki, M; Tang, Z; Yubuta, K

    2003-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments on Fe-Cu model dilute alloys of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been performed after neutron irradiation in JMTR. Nanovoids whose inner surfaces were covered by Cu atoms were clearly observed. The nanovoids transformed to ultrafine Cu precipitates by dissociating their vacancies after annealing at around 400degC. The nanovoids and the ultrafine Cu precipitates are strongly suggested to be responsible for irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Effects of Ni, Mn and P addition on the nanovoid and Cu precipitate formations were also studied. The nanovoid formation was enhanced by Ni and P, but suppressed by Mn. The Cu precipitates after annealing around 400degC were almost free from these doping elements and hence were pure Cu in the chemical composition. Furthermore the Fermi surface of the 'embedded' Cu precipitates with a body centered cubic crystal structure was obtained from two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) ...

  11. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  12. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobin, E-mail: yaobinding@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Hebin [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Heqing, E-mail: tangheqing@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles were prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate. • Quenching experiments confirmed sulfate radicals as the major reactive radicals. • Carbamazepine was rapidly degraded by micro-CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate. • Feasibility of CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate was tested for treatment of actual water. - Abstract: Microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} particles (micro-CuFeO{sub 2}) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8 ± 0.6 μm. The micro-CuFeO{sub 2} efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·−), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu{sub 2}O and micro-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO{sub 2} can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu{sub 2}O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO{sub 2} was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems.

  13. CdTe detector efficiency calibration using thick targets of pure and stable compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Reis, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Quantitative PIXE measurements require perfectly calibrated set-ups. Cooled CdTe detectors have good efficiency for energies above those covered by Si(Li) detectors and turn on the possibility of studying K X-rays lines instead of L X-rays lines for medium and eventually heavy elements, which is an important advantage in various cases, if only limited resolution systems are available in the low energy range. In this work we present and discuss spectra from a CdTe semiconductor detector covering the energy region from Cu (K α1 = 8.047 keV) to U (K α1 = 98.439 keV). Pure thick samples were irradiated with proton beams at the ITN 3.0 MV Tandetron accelerator in the High Resolution High Energy PIXE set-up. Results and the application to the study of a Portuguese Ossa Morena region Dark Stone sample are presented in this work.

  14. Undrained response of reconstituted clay to cyclic pure principal stress rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佳佳; 周建; 龚晓南; 曹洋

    2015-01-01

    A series of monotonic and rotational shearing tests are carried out on reconstituted clay using a hollow cylinder apparatus under undrained condition. In the rotational shearing tests, the principal stress axes rotate cyclically with the magnitudes of the principal stresses keeping constant. The anisotropy of the reconstituted clay is analyzed from the monotonic shearing tests. Obvious pore pressure is induced by the principal stress rotation alone even with shear stress q0=5 kPa. Strain components also accumulate with increasing the number of cycles and increases suddenly at the onset of failure. The deviatoric shear strain of 7.5%can be taken as the failure criterion for clay subjected to the pure cyclic principal stress rotation. The intermediate principal stress parameter b plays a significant role in the development of pore pressure and strain. Specimens are weakened by cyclic rotational shearing as the shear modulus decreases with increasing the number of cycles, and the shear modulus reduces more quickly with larger b. Clear deviation between the directions of the principal plastic strain increment and the principal stress is observed during pure principal stress rotation. Both the coaxial and non-coaxial plastic mechanisms should be taken into consideration to simulate the deformation behavior of clay under pure principal stress rotation. The mechanism of the soil response to the pure principal stress rotation is discussed based on the experimental observations.

  15. Comparison of conventional and PureWave Crystal transducer in obstetric sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi Min; Chen, Min; Xiong, Yi; Chau, Macy Mo Ching; Li, Rosita Siu Hung; Lau, Tze Kin

    2009-07-01

    To compare the quality of ultrasound images acquired by the new PureWave Crystal transducer with those acquired by a conventional transducer in 'difficult' obstetric subjects. A predefined list of ultrasound images were obtained from 35 'difficult' obstetric patients using both conventional and new PureWave Crystal transducers by a sonographer. All images were rated using a three-point scale by an independent assessor. Both the sonographer and assessor were experienced in obstetric ultrasound and blinded to the type of transducers being used. A higher score represented better image quality. The scores of each pair of images obtained by the two different ultrasound transducers were compared. The scores for images obtained by the PureWave Crystal transducer were significant higher than those by a conventional transducer, among all 10 structures examined. The new transducer was rated to enable higher diagnostic confidence (82.9%), and produced better image quality for the near field image (94.3%), the far field image (88.6%) and overall (94.3%). Ultrasound transducer incorporating the PureWave Crystal technology produces significantly better image quality for diagnostic purpose in difficult obstetric patients.

  16. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  17. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  18. The study of antioxidant activity of multicomponent vegetable puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Trushechkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the antioxidant activity of multicomponent vegetable puree, consisting of 20 % of eggplant, 20 % of zucchini, 16 % of bell peppers, 15 % of tomatoes, 14 % of carrots, 10 % of onions and 5 % of garlic. These results showed an increase in concentration of the antioxidant activity of puree and, consequently, increase its quality.

  19. Surface complexation modeling of Cu(II adsorption on mixtures of hydrous ferric oxide and kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Melinda S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of surface complexation models (SCMs to natural sediments and soils is hindered by a lack of consistent models and data for large suites of metals and minerals of interest. Furthermore, the surface complexation approach has mostly been developed and tested for single solid systems. Few studies have extended the SCM approach to systems containing multiple solids. Results Cu adsorption was measured on pure hydrous ferric oxide (HFO, pure kaolinite (from two sources and in systems containing mixtures of HFO and kaolinite over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, sorbate/sorbent ratios and, for the mixed solid systems, using a range of kaolinite/HFO ratios. Cu adsorption data measured for the HFO and kaolinite systems was used to derive diffuse layer surface complexation models (DLMs describing Cu adsorption. Cu adsorption on HFO is reasonably well described using a 1-site or 2-site DLM. Adsorption of Cu on kaolinite could be described using a simple 1-site DLM with formation of a monodentate Cu complex on a variable charge surface site. However, for consistency with models derived for weaker sorbing cations, a 2-site DLM with a variable charge and a permanent charge site was also developed. Conclusion Component additivity predictions of speciation in mixed mineral systems based on DLM parameters derived for the pure mineral systems were in good agreement with measured data. Discrepancies between the model predictions and measured data were similar to those observed for the calibrated pure mineral systems. The results suggest that quantifying specific interactions between HFO and kaolinite in speciation models may not be necessary. However, before the component additivity approach can be applied to natural sediments and soils, the effects of aging must be further studied and methods must be developed to estimate reactive surface areas of solid constituents in natural samples.

  20. The Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomic Radius Difference for Liquid Cu%原子半径差对液态金属Cu的分子动力学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍

    2011-01-01

    Two metal systems of pure Cu and CuCu'( Cu'represents atoms which radius is 10% larger than normal size Cu, the number ratio of Cu:Cu' = 3:1 ) have been studied by moleclar dynamics simulations. It is found that the glass transition temperature of CuCu'is larger than Cu from the radial distribution function. In addition, the number of Cu'atoms around the Cu is more than Cu in the system of CuCu', the degree of atomic ordering of the CuCu'system is better than that of Cu. The results show that larger of atomic radius difference make for the better glass forming ability.%运用分子动力学模拟方法,对Cu和CuCu'(Cu'的原子半径比Cu的大10%,两者的原子数比例为3∶1)两种金属体系进行了模拟研究.通过对径向分布函数的分析,发现CuCu'的玻璃转变温度比Cu高;另外,在CuCu'体系中铜原子周围的Cu'原子数目的分布多于铜原子,CuCu'体系的有序度高于Cu体系,说明合金中原子半径差的增大有利于非晶的形成.

  1. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin to aromatic compounds over Cu-doped porous metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Warner, Genoa R.; Beach, Evan S.; Anastas, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in methanol with an added pressure of H-2, using a porous metal oxide catalyst (PMO) derived from a Cu-doped hydrotalcite-like precursor. The Cu-PMO was effective in converting

  2. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin to aromatic compounds over Cu-doped porous metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Warner, Genoa R.; Beach, Evan S.; Anastas, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in methanol with an added pressure of H-2, using a porous metal oxide catalyst (PMO) derived from a Cu-doped hydrotalcite-like precursor. The Cu-PMO was effective in converting

  3. Keeping consumers safe: food providers' perspectives on pureed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Twelve focus groups were conducted in five sites with 80 allied health providers to identify their perspectives on providing pureed food to consumers. Thematic care analysis was completed to summarize and interpret these data. Providers' greatest concern was keeping consumers safe, and the right texture was prioritized over sensory appeal and acceptance. Providers recognized that these foods impacted the quality of life of consumers and worked to rationalize these diets with residents/patients and their families. In addition, offering foods they knew to be poorly accepted affected their self-concept as providers. As a result of these challenges, they did whatever they could in the kitchen and tableside to promote intake of pureed foods. Those in the "food chain" of pureed food provision suggested several ways to further improve these products. Greater communication between those who assist consumers with eating and those who produce the pureed food they consume is needed to promote acceptable pureed products.

  4. Behavior of CaO and Calcium in pure Magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HA Seong-Ho; LEE Jin-Kyu; JO Hyung-Ho; JUNG Seung-Boo; KIM Shae K.

    2006-01-01

    Mg alloys exhibit a number of good properties such as low density, good castability and high specific strength.However, molten Mg and Mg alloys are ignited without the melt protective gases during melting and casting process due to their high reactivity.The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of Ca and CaO on pure Mg through microstructure observation, ignition test and phase analysis.With increasing Ca and CaO contents, the ignition resistance of Ca or CaO added pure Mg is increased and the grains are refined.As results of XRD and EDS, CaO is reduced to Ca in CaO added pure Mg.Mg2Ca phase is formed even in 0.1 wt.%CaO added pure Mg by reduction mechanism, while Mg2Ca phase is formed over 1.35 wt.% Ca added pure Mg.

  5. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  6. Study on synthesis of ultrafine Cu-Ag core-shell powders with high electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Yuhsien [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dayeh University, 168 University Rd., Dacun, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Department of Research and Development, Oriental Happy Enterprise Co., No. 27, Xin' ai Rd., South Dist., Tainan 702, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Yang Chihhao [Department of Research and Development, Oriental Happy Enterprise Co., No. 27, Xin' ai Rd., South Dist., Tainan 702, Taiwan (China); Chen Kuanting, E-mail: pengyuhsien@hotmail.com [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Da-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Popuri, Srinivasa R. [Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus 11000 (Barbados); Lee, Ching-Hwa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dayeh University, 168 University Rd., Dacun, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Tang, Bo-Shin [Department of Research and Development, Oriental Happy Enterprise Co., No. 27, Xin' ai Rd., South Dist., Tainan 702, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This synthesis method is relatively facile, novel and eco-friendly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxic agents were not used for chelating agent, reductant or dispersant in our method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction can under room temperature for energy saving purpose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu-Ag core-shell powders with homogeneous cover-silver layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistivity of Cu-Ag core-shell powders has the same value as the pure silver. - Abstract: Cu-Ag composite powders with high electrical conductivity were synthesized by electroless plating of silver sulfate, copper powders with eco-friendly sodium citrate as reducing agent, dispersant and chelating agent in an aqueous system. The influences of sodium citrate/Ag ratio on Ag coatings of Cu powders were investigated. Ag was formed a dense coating on the surface of Cu powders at a molar ratio of sodium citrate/Ag = 0.07/1. SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu powders. SEM-EDX also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag shells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that without Cu or Ag atoms in the surface were oxidized. The resistivity measurements of Cu-Ag paste shows that they have closer resistivity as the pure silver paste's after 250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min heat-treatment (2.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm) and 350 Degree-Sign C for 30 min heat-treatment (1.425 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm).

  7. Angle-integrated photoemission studies of ruthocuprate Eu_2-xCe_xRuSr_2Cu_2O_10, Gd_2RuSr_2Cu_2O_10 and Eu_1.5Nb_1-xRu_xCu_2O_10 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, B.; Hirai, Y.; Rast, Simon; Felner, I.; Asaf, U.; Onellion, M.

    2000-03-01

    We report on both resonant photoemission and fixed photon energy studies of the conduction band and core levels for several ruthocuprate systems. The pure Ru-containing compounds exhibit ferromagnetic order, with metallic behavior and superconductivity depending on the rare earth and oxygen content. We report on as-prepared, hydrogen loaded, and oxygen-annealed polycrystalline samples. The Nb-Ru series changes from purely superconducting to both ferromagnetic and superconducting (Ru). The resonant photoemission measurements of the conduction band across the Ru4p, Cu3p, and Eu4d core levels allow us to determine the location and contribution of Ru, Cu and rare earth related states in the conduction band. The O1s, Cu2p, Ru3p, Ce4d, and Gd4d and several Nb core levels allow us to determine the valence of Ru and Nb, and the metallicity of the Ru/Nb, rare earth, and CuO2 planes.

  8. Structural, optical and room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Fe-doped CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Basith, N.; Judith Vijaya, J.; John Kennedy, L.; Bououdina, M.

    2013-09-01

    Pure CuO and Fe-doped CuO nanostructures with different weight ratios (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 at wt% of Fe) were synthesized via the microwave combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD patterns refined by the Rietveld method indicated the formation of single-phase monoclinic structure and also confirmed that Fe ions successfully incorporated into CuO crystal lattice by occupying Cu ionic sites. Interestingly, the morphology was found to change considerably from nanoflowers to nano-rod and disk-shaped then to nanoparticles with the variation of Fe content. The optical band gap calculated using DRS was found to be 2.8 eV for pure CuO and increases up to 3.4 eV with increasing ‘Fe’ content. Photoluminescence measurements also confirm these results. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained nanostructures are found to be room temperature ferromagnetism (RTF) with an optimum value of saturation magnetization at 2.0 wt% of Fe-doped CuO, i.e. 1.2960×10-3 emu/g.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of tenorite (CuO nanoparticles from smelting furnace dust(SFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darezereshki E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenorite (CuO nanoparticles were prepared from a dilute CuSO4 solution. The solution was obtained by leaching (pH=1.5 of smelting furnace dust of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex, Iran. The recovery of copper from the acidic sulphate solution was carried out by solvent extraction using Lix 984-N. Tenorite nanoparticles were synthesized by direct thermal decomposition of Langite [Cu4(OH6SO4(H2O2] as a precursor which was calcinated in air for 2 h at 750°C. The Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameter of the spherical pure CuO nanoparticles and their crystallite size were estimated to be 92 nm and 40nm, respectively. The simplicity of the present method suggests its potential application at industrial scale as a cheap and convenient way to produce pure CuO nanoparticles from dilute CuSO4 solutions obtained from leaching of smelting furnace dust.

  10. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  11. Distribution of SiCp in Al and Al-Cu Alloy Centrifugally Cast with Electromagnetic Stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang ZHANG; Haifang SHI; Huameng FU

    2004-01-01

    The SiCp/(Al-Cu) alloy and pure Al matrix composites have been prepared by the centrifugal casting with electromagnetic stirring. There are two particle-depleted zones formed in the samples without electro-magnetic stirring.Electromagnetic stirring may result in a homogeneous distribution of fine SiC particles in the Al-Cu alloy, whereas it has little effect on the segregation in pure Al matrix. The results also show that the particle segregation is influenced by particle size and the coarse particles are more readily segregated than the fine ones.

  12. The effect of immersion time in a benzotriazole solution on anodic behaviour of AgCu50 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Grekulović, Vesna; Rajčić-Vujasinović, Mirjana; Stević, Zoran; id_orcid 0000-0002-1867-9360

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of silver ,copper and AgCu50 alloy after their immersion in 0.01 mol/dm3 benzotriazole solution for 30, 360, 720 i 1440 minutes, was investigated in 0.1 mol/dm3 NaOH using the cyclic voltammetry method. Currents on cyclic voltammograms for both, pure silver, pure copper and AgCu50 alloy recorded after imemersion in the benzotriazole solution are lower than the corresponding currents obtained without the contact of the metals with BTA. During the immersion of electrode...

  13. Temperature-dependent self-assembly of NC–Ph{sub 5}–CN molecules on Cu(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivetta, Marina, E-mail: marina.pivetta@epfl.ch; Pacchioni, Giulia E.; Fernandes, Edgar; Brune, Harald [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-03-14

    We present the results of temperature-dependent self-assembly of dicarbonitrile-pentaphenyl molecules (NC–Ph{sub 5}–CN) on Cu(111). Our low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study reveals the formation of metal-organic and purely organic structures, depending on the substrate temperature during deposition (160–300 K), which determines the availability of Cu adatoms at the surface. We use tip functionalization with CO to obtain submolecular resolution and image the coordination atoms, enabling unequivocal identification of metal-coordinated nodes and purely organic ones. Moreover, we discuss the somewhat surprising structure obtained for deposition and measurement at 300 K.

  14. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    . The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and TEM images of pure ZnO nanocrystals. Photocatalytic testing procedures and degradation curves. SEM and TEM images, SAED pattern and EDS spectra and maps of parts of Cu-ZnO hybrid samples. A schematic image of coincident lattice matching between Cu and Zn

  15. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  16. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Lili; Li, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xu, Sheng [Gao Hong Coating Technology Co., Ltd, Huzhou 313000 (China); Ke, Peiling [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m{sup 2} for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m{sup 2} for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness.

  17. A Survey of Subject and Logical Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亮

    1999-01-01

    @@ This paper discusses Subject and Logical Subject of the English language. The grammar rules complied by some grammarians will be focused on and induced in a fuller account of the survey, aiming simply at a common- sense justification of traditional sentence analysis. Subject, a familiar grammatical term, is one of the most basic to thetraditional of grammatical analysis. It reports the concept of the subject and its history conducted with learners of English who are involved in making further English programme in the education with deep grammar explorations. Both the teachers and the students face many problems in this area, which need to be made clear and definite. The non- finite verbs have their specific rules or objective laws stipulated or summed up by grammarians. These areas of intellectual inquiry ,like most other fields of language study, have represented profoundly intelligent and important investigation in to the English deep grammars.

  18. Heteroepitaxial Cu2O thin film solar cell on metallic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Huang, Po-Shun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Goyal, Amit

    2015-11-06

    Heteroepitaxial, single-crystal-like Cu2O films on inexpensive, flexible, metallic substrates can potentially be used as absorber layers for fabrication of low-cost, high-performance, non-toxic, earth-abundant solar cells. Here, we report epitaxial growth of Cu2O films on low cost, flexible, textured metallic substrates. Cu2O films were deposited on the metallic templates via pulsed laser deposition under various processing conditions to study the influence of processing parameters on the structural and electronic properties of the films. It is found that pure, epitaxial Cu2O phase without any trace of CuO phase is only formed in a limited deposition window of P(O2) - temperature. The (00l) single-oriented, highly textured, Cu2O films deposited under optimum P(O2) - temperature conditions exhibit excellent electronic properties with carrier mobility in the range of 40-60 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and carrier concentration over 10(16) cm(-3). The power conversion efficiency of 1.65% is demonstrated from a proof-of-concept Cu2O solar cell based on epitaxial Cu2O film prepared on the textured metal substrate.

  19. Effect of metal oxidation state on FRET: a Cu(I) silent but selectively Cu(II) responsive fluorescent reporter and its bioimaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Siddhartha; Sen, Buddhadeb; Lohar, Somenath; Mukherjee, Manjira; Banerjee, Samya; Chattopadhyay, Pabitra

    2015-01-28

    Copper(II) and copper(I) complexes of a newly designed and crystallographically characterized Schiff base (HL) derived from rhodamine hydrazide and cinnamaldehyde were isolated in pure form formulated as [Cu(L)(NO3)] (L-Cu) (1) and [Cu(HL)(CH3CN)(H2O)]ClO4 (HL-Cu) (2), and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic tools. Interestingly, complex 1 but not 2 offers red fluorescence in solution state, and eventually HL behaves as a Cu(II) ions selective FRET based fluorosensor in HEPES buffer (1 mM, acetonitrile-water: 1/5, v/v) at 25 °C at biological pH with almost no interference of other competitive ions. The dependency of the FRET process on the +2 oxidation state of copper has been nicely supported by exhaustive experimental studies comprising electronic, fluorimetric, NMR titration, and theoretical calculations. The sensing ability of HL has been evaluated by the LOD value towards Cu(II) ions (83.7 nM) and short responsive time (5-10 s). Even the discrimination of copper(I) and copper(II) has also been done using only UV-Vis spectroscopic study. The efficacy of this bio-friendly probe has been determined by employing HL to detect the intercellular distribution of Cu(II) ions in HeLa cells by developing image under fluorescence microscope.

  20. Pure or Compound Dualism? Considering Afresh the Prospects of Pure Substance Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ryan Farris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance dualism has received much attention from philosophers and theologians in contemporary literature. Whilst it may have been fashionable in the recent past to dismiss substance dualism as an unviable and academically absurd position to hold, this is no longer the case. My contention is not so much the merits of substance dualism in general, but a more specified variation of substance dualism. My specific contribution to the literature in this article is that I argue for the viability of pure substance dualism as a more satisfactory option in contrast to compound or composite varieties of substance dualism. I put forth one argument and tease out the implications that make compound dualism less than satisfactory. I conclude that, minimally, more work is required on compound variations of dualism to make it a more appealing and a philosophically satisfactory option.

  1. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  2. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Sadia; Tahir, Arifa; Asim, Tayyaba; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-11-09

    Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  3. Design of Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 nanocomponent photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation using water-soluble Erythrosin B dye sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Piyong; Wang, Tingting; Zeng, Heping

    2017-01-01

    Cu-Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) decorated porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) (Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4) photocatalysts were prepared. When investment of copper source materials in the experiment increased to 7 wt%, the highest H2 evolution rate (400 μmol g-1 h-1) was obtained under visible light irradiation in triethanolamine solution. This is about triple of pure g-C3N4 (140 μmol g-1 h-1). Moreover, various amount of Erythrosin B dye was added into Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 photoreaction solution and a significant enhancement of H2 production rate was achieved. The highest H2 production rate was 5000 μmol g-1 h-1 with 5 mg Erythrosin B in photoreaction system. Erythrosin B dye sensitized Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 presented stable photocatalytic H2 evolution ability and no noticeable degradation or change of photocatalyst were detected after six recycles. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of Erythrosin B dye sensitized Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 for the enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution is proposed.

  4. MICROBIAL AND CLINICOCYTOLOGICAL STUDY IN COPPER - T (CU - T USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study clinical , microbial and cytolopathological changes in Cu - T users in tertiary care hospital and to ascertain the safety of Cu - T with reference to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. METHODOLOGY: We carried out a 2 month prospective analysis during a period of 02/06/2008 to 02/08/20 08 in Tertiary care hospital and medical college in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. We included Study subjects as all Cu - T users irrespective of duration of use and Control subjects as all women other than contraceptive users. Sample size was est imated. The detailed history was obtained. Each subject underwent per speculum examination to look for thread , or expulsion of Cu - T , condition of vagina and cervix and discharge. Vaginal discharge was collected and sent for PH testing , wet mount , KOH mount , Gram staining and culture on Mac Conkey and blood agar. Cervical scraping was taken and subjected to Papanicolaou staining. Reporting was done by cytologist according to Bethesda classification. Data was analysed by using appropriate software . RESULTS: M aximum study subjects were in the age group of 21 - 25 years (58%. 75% of subjects were para1. Majority of women had excessive vaginal discharge (41% and pain in lower abdomen (33% as chief complaints , followed by backache (18% and itching (15%. 27% wom en had menorrhagia which accounts for about 1/5 th of removal of Cu - bearing IUDs. Cervical erosions were significantly higher in Cu - T users (P=0.038. Cytological findings were predominantly inflammatory and comparable in both groups. There was insignifican t increase in Trichomonas and fungal infection but significant increase in bacterial infection. Benign reactive and reparative changes were seen with their increased incidence in longer duration of use. However the results were comparable to that in genera l population (P=0.917. Microbial findings showed insignificant qualitative alteration in vaginal flora with

  5. Creation of Cu2O@TiO2 composite photocatalysts with p-n heterojunctions formed on exposed Cu2O facets, their energy band alignment study, and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under illumination with visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingmei; Yang, Weiyi; Sun, Wuzhu; Li, Qi; Shang, Jian Ku

    2015-01-28

    The creation of photocatalysts with controlled facets has become an important approach to enhance their activity. However, how the formation of heterojunctions on exposed facets could affect their photocatalytic performance ranking had not yet been investigated. In this study, Cu2O@TiO2 core-shell structures were created, and Cu2O/TiO2 p-n heterojunctions were formed on various exposed facets of Cu2O cubes, Cu2O cuboctahedra, and Cu2O octahedra, respectively. These Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra demonstrated an enhanced photocatalytic degradation effect on Methylene Blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) under visible light illumination, because of the enhanced charge carrier separation by the formation of Cu2O@TiO2 p-n heterojunctions. It was further found that their photocatalytic performance was also facet-dependent as pure Cu2O polyhedra, while the photocatalytic performance ranking of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different with that of their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores. By the combination of optical property measurement and XPS analysis, the energy band alignments of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra were determined, which demonstrated that Cu2O@TiO2 octahedra had the highest band offset for the separation of charge carriers. Thus, the charge-carrier-separation-driven force in Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different from their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores, which resulted in their different surface photovoltage spectrum (SPS) responses and different photocatalytic performance rankings.

  6. Mitochondria-selective reduction of [sup 62]Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(N[sup 4]-methylthiosemicarbazone)([sup 62]Cu-PTSM) in the murine brain; A novel radiopharmaceutical for brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Wada, Kouichi; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Yokoyama, Akira (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    The retention mechanism of [sup 62]Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(N[sup 4]-methylthiosemicarbazone)([sup 62]Cu-PTSM) in the murine brain was evaluated. For this purpose, stable Cu-PTSM was subjected to electron spin resonance spectrometry (ESR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to determine the valence state, coordination structure and tissue metabolism. In murine brain homogenate, ESR and HPLC analysis indicated the reduction and cleavage of Cu(II)-PTSM to Cu(I). This virtually irreversible reduction was specifically initiated by the mitochondrial enzymatic system in the murine brain. (author).

  7. Laser deposition of (Cu + Mo) alloying reinforcements on AA1200 substrate for corrosion improvement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor corrosion performance of aluminium alloys in marine environment has been a subject of intensive research recently. Aluminium substrate was alloyed with a combination of two metallic powders (Cu + Mo) using an Nd: YAG solid state laser...

  8. Study of Room Temperature H2S Gas Sensing Behavior of CuO-modified BSST Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Baviskar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of (Ba0.1Sr0.9(Sn0.5Ti0.5O3 referred as BSST, were prepared by screen-printing technique. The preparation, characterization and gas sensing properties of pure and CuO-BSST mixed oxide semiconductors have been investigated. The mixed oxides were obtained by dipping the pure BSST thick films into 0.01 M aqueous solution of CuCl2, for different intervals of time. Pure BSST was observed to be less sensitive to H2S gas. However, mixed oxides of CuO and BSST were observed to be highly sensitive to H2S gas. Upon exposure to H2S gas, the barrier height of CuO-BSST intergranular regions decreases markedly due to the chemical transformation of CuO into well conducting CuS leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The crucial gas response was found to H2S gas at room temperature and no cross sensitivity was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The effects of microstructure and doping concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery of the sensor in the presence of H2S gas were studied and discussed.

  9. [The left central gyral lesion and pure anarthria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, M; Odashima, K; Fujii, T; Suzuki, K; Saitou, J; Yamadori, A

    2000-05-01

    We report a very rare case of pure anarthria with lesion analysis. A 44-year-old right-handed man suffered from a cerebral infarction with a mild right hemiparesis and speech disturbance. An MRI of the brain 1.5 months post onset revealed a lesion confined to the left central gyrus. One month after the onset, his spontaneous speech was dysprosodic and laborious. It was contaminated with dysarthria and phonological paraphasias. However, language comprehension, repetition and naming abilities were normal. Most remarkably he showed no impairment in writing with his left hand. Over the following months, his difficulties in verbal output showed general amelioration, but the isolated impairment in the domain of articulation characterized by dysprosody, dysarthria, and phonological paraphasia persisted. As for the symptomatology of pure anarthria resulting from precentral gyral lesions, there have been controversies about its pureness. Some argue that the so called pure anarthria always shows some degree of writing disturbances, albeit mild in degree. Others maintain there certainly exists the pure type without any signs of agraphia. In the present case lesions were limited to the central gyrus but spared the lowest opercular portion. The previous reports of pure anarthria that had mild agraphia all had lesions involving the opercular portion. We conclude the sparing of this area is most likely related with sparing of writing capacity in pure anarthria.

  10. First-Principles Study of Thermodynamical and Elastic Properties of η'-(Cu,Co)6Sn5 Ternary Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuechao; Zhao, Xiuchen; Zheng, Bing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2016-10-01

    First-principles calculations were made to investigate the formation energy and elastic properties of η'-Cu6Sn5-based intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with different amounts of Co substitutional atom concentrations. The possible Co substitutional sites in η'-Cu6Sn5 structures are examined. The formation energy of substitutional Co in η'-Cu6Sn5 is reduced with increasing Co concentration. The effect of Co on the elastic modulus and ductility of η'-Cu6Sn5 dramatically increased the elastic properties of Cu-Sn IMCs in the range 0-27.27 at.%. Cu4Co2Sn5 has the highest Young's modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus with a maximum Poisson's ratio of 0.32 with 18.18 at.% Co concentration. Ductility for these compounds is further analyzed by calculating the ratio of B/ G and Cauchy's stress ( C 12 - C 44) and the results indicate that η'-Cu6Sn5 with Co substitutions should have a better ductility than the pure η'-Cu6Sn5 structure. The electronic structures of Co-substituted η'-Cu6Sn5 are analyzed and the increasing hybridization between Co- d and Sn- p accounts for the improved phase stability and elastic modulus of η'-Cu6Sn5 with Co addition up to 18.18 at.%.

  11. Solution-processed highly efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells by dissolution of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Wangen; Tian, Qingwen; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-01-14

    Solution deposition approaches play an important role in reducing the manufacturing cost of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells. Here, we present a novel precursor-based solution approach to fabricate highly efficient CZTSe solar cells. In this approach, low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders were simultaneously dissolved in the solution of thioglycolic acid and ethanolamine, forming a homogeneous CZTSe precursor solution to deposit CZTSe nanocrystal thin films. Based on high-quality CZTSe absorber layer, pure selenide CZTSe solar cell with a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.02% has been achieved without antireflection coating.

  12. Interfacial Cu+ promoted surface reactivity: Carbon monoxide oxidation reaction over polycrystalline copper-titania catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Pappoe, Naa Adokaley; Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Liu, Zongyuan; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Heckler, Ilana; Stacchiola, Dario; Rodriguez, José A.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the catalytic carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation (CO + 0.5O2 → CO2) reaction using a powder catalyst composed of both copper (5 wt.% loading) and titania (CuOx-TiO2). Our study was focused on revealing the role of Cu, and the interaction between Cu and TiO2, by systematic comparison between two nanocatalysts, CuOx-TiO2 and pure CuOx. We interrogated these catalysts under in situ conditions using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to probe the structure and electronic properties of the catalyst at all stages of the reaction and simultaneously probe the surface states or intermediates of this reaction. With the aid of several ex situ characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the local catalyst morphology and structure were also studied. Our results show that a CuOx-TiO2 system is more active than bulk CuOx for the CO oxidation reaction due to its lower onset temperature and better stability at higher temperatures. Our results also suggest that surface Cu+ species observed in the CuOx-TiO2 interface are likely to be a key player in the CO oxidation mechanism, while implicating that the stabilization of this species is probably associated with the oxide-oxide interface. Both in situ DRIFTS and XAFS measurements reveal that there is likely to be a Cu(Ti)-O mixed oxide at this interface. We discuss the nature of this Cu(Ti)-O interface and interpret its role on the CO oxidation reaction.

  13. Cu-Sn Bimetallic Catalyst for Selective Aqueous Electroreduction of CO2 to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Sarfraz, Saad

    2016-03-23

    We report a selective and stable electrocatalyst utilizing non-noble metals consisting of Cu and Sn for the efficient and selective reduction of CO2 to CO over a wide potential range. The bimetallic electrode was prepared through the electrodeposition of Sn species on the surface of oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu). The Cu surface, when decorated with an optimal amount of Sn, resulted in a Faradaic efficiency (FE) for CO greater than 90% and a current density of −1.0 mA cm−2 at −0.6 V vs. RHE, compared to the CO FE of 63% and −2.1 mA cm−2 for OD-Cu. Excess Sn on the surface caused H2 evolution with a decreased current density. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggests the formation of Cu-Sn alloy. Auger electron spectroscopy of the sample surface exhibits zero-valent Cu and Sn after the electrodeposition step. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that replacing a single Cu atom with a Sn atom leaves the d-band orbitals mostly unperturbed, signifying no dramatic shifts in the bulk electronic structure. However, the Sn atom discomposes the multi-fold sites on pure Cu, disfavoring the adsorption of H and leaving the adsorption of CO relatively unperturbed. Our catalytic results along with DFT calculations indicate that the presence of Sn on reduced OD-Cu diminishes the hydrogenation capability—i.e., the selectivity towards H2 and HCOOH—while hardly affecting the CO productivity. While the pristine monometallic surfaces (both Cu and Sn) fail to selectively reduce CO2, the Cu-Sn bimetallic electrocatalyst generates a surface that inhibits adsorbed H*, resulting in improved CO FE. This study presents a strategy to provide a low-cost non-noble metals that can be utilized as a highly selective electrocatalyst for the efficient aqueous reduction of CO2.

  14. Potential environmental applications of pure zeolitic material synthesized from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Ayora, C.; Alastuey, A.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Janssen-Jurkovicova, M. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera'

    2001-07-01

    A pure 4A/X (60/40) zeolite product was synthesized from silica extracts of the Meirama fly ash in northwestern Spain. A high cation-exchange capacity (4.7 meq/g) was obtained for the zeolitic material. The potential application of this coal fly ash conversion product for decontamination of high heavy metal waters was evaluated using three high heavy metal waters from acid mine drainage around the pyrite Huelva belt. The results were compared with those obtained with an equivalent pure commercial synthetic zeolite. A considerable reduction in the heavy metal content was attained (Zn from 174 to {lt} 0.1 mg/L, Cu from 36 to 0.1 mg/L, Fe from 444 to 0.8 mg/L, Mn from 74 to {lt} 0.1 mg/L, Pb from 1.5 to {lt} 0.1 mg/L, and Cd from 0.4 to {lt} 0.1 mg/L), even in high Ca and Fe waters using zeolite doses from 5 to 30 mg/L. Both precipitation and cation-exchange processes accounted for the reduction in the pollutant concentration in the treated waters. Leachable hazardous elements from coal fly ash, such as Mo, B, As, V, and Cr, were not fixed in the synthesis of pure zeolites from the silica extracts. Consequently, they did not restrict the potential applications of this material as an ion exchanger, unlike the zeolitic material obtained from fly ash by direct alkaline conversion.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE PUREES AND DRINKS BY LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to investigate the possibility for development of vegetable purees and drinks by lactic acid fermentation. It was found that by the direct lactic acid fermentation of Lb.plantarum strain 226/1 the vitamin composition of vegetable purees is preserved and the biological value is increased. Drinks, prepared from fermented vegetable purees were remarkable with the pleasant lactic acid taste, the sucrose-acid composition was stable and balanced and they can be used both in the rational and in the dietary nutrition.

  16. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  17. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  18. Brain networks of novelty-driven involuntary and cued voluntary auditory attention shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Samantha; Belliveau, John W; Tengshe, Chinmayi; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, we need a capacity to flexibly shift attention between alternative sound sources. However, relatively little work has been done to elucidate the mechanisms of attention shifting in the auditory domain. Here, we used a mixed event-related/sparse-sampling fMRI approach to investigate this essential cognitive function. In each 10-sec trial, subjects were instructed to wait for an auditory "cue" signaling the location where a subsequent "target" sound was likely to be presented. The target was occasionally replaced by an unexpected "novel" sound in the uncued ear, to trigger involuntary attention shifting. To maximize the attention effects, cues, targets, and novels were embedded within dichotic 800-Hz vs. 1500-Hz pure-tone "standard" trains. The sound of clustered fMRI acquisition (starting at t = 7.82 sec) served as a controlled trial-end signal. Our approach revealed notable activation differences between the conditions. Cued voluntary attention shifting activated the superior intra--parietal sulcus (IPS), whereas novelty-triggered involuntary orienting activated the inferior IPS and certain subareas of the precuneus. Clearly more widespread activations were observed during voluntary than involuntary orienting in the premotor cortex, including the frontal eye fields. Moreover, we found -evidence for a frontoinsular-cingular attentional control network, consisting of the anterior insula, inferior frontal cortex, and medial frontal cortices, which were activated during both target discrimination and voluntary attention shifting. Finally, novels and targets activated much wider areas of superior temporal auditory cortices than shifting cues.

  19. ON THE PRIMARY-SYNTHETIC UNITY OF APPERCEPTION IN THE CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research focuses on the primary-synthetic unity of apperception, as it appears in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, in a larger framework called transcendental idealism. Descartes’ philosophy may be considered the first step towards transcendental idealism: the first occurrence of the idea of an epistemic subject. The essence of the epistemic subject through the method of systematic doubt is that of being a thinking corpus: I exist because I think. In the System of Transcendental Idealism, Schelling starts with a classical question of Western metaphysics: knowledge means an accord between something that is objective and something that is subjective. From here, the following question arises: what is the conjunction between the objective datum and the subjective one, or how can both of them be put together, so that no contradiction should arise? When the subjective takes priority, we are talking about transcendental philosophy, a philosophy which holds as central to itself the epistemic subject; and starting from it, we can accomplish the accord between subject and object, within knowledge. For all this mechanism described above to work, we need an organon, which is above the mediated knowledge, meaning it is direct. According to Shelling, this instrument is the intellectual insight. Returning to Kant, the transcendental subject depends on perceptiveness; therefore the transcendental subject cannot have intellectual insights. The primary-synthetic unity of apperception belongs to the intellect and includes perceptiveness and the categories. This unity creates an accord between “I think” and “my representations”. “I think” is the essence of the epistemic subject. Representations must be associated with the exterior objects. The subject-object accord, created by Schelling by the means of intellectual insight, is achieved, in Kant’s view, through the unity of apperception.

  20. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  1. Group ib organometallic chemistry. XXXIV. Thermal behaviour and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarypropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Koten, G. van; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1,2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi2CU4Br2 and Z-Vi2Cu4R2 [Vi = (2-Me2NC6H4)C=C(Me)-(C6H4Me-4), R = 2-Me2NC6H4 or 4-MeC6H4CC] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were formed on thermolysis of (Z-ViCu2OTf)η

  2. Controllable conversion of plasmonic Cu2-xS nanoparticles to Au2S by cation exchange and electron beam induced transformation of Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dewei; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Self-doped Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) were converted into monodisperse Cu2-xS-Au2S NCs of tunable composition, including pure Au2S, by cation exchange. The near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was dampened and red-shifted with increasing Au content. Cation exchange was accompanied by elimination of cation vacancies and a change in crystal structure. Partially exchanged Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell structures evolved to dumbbell-like structures under electron irradiation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  3. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity of TiO2 thin film with hierarchical Cu doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Liu, Yun Wang, Xinli Peng, Yabin Li, Zhichao Liu, Chengcheng Liu, Jing Ya and Yizhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic Cu–TiO2 thin films with a gradient in the Cu concentration were prepared on glass by layer-by-layer dip-coating from TiO2 precursors. The effects of the Cu doping on the structure and properties of TiO2 self-cleaning thin films are discussed. The Cu gradient markedly affects the hydrophilicity of the films, with the water contact angle significantly reduced compared with those of the pure or uniformly doped TiO2 thin films. This enhanced hydrophilicity is explained by the more efficient absorption of the solar light and by the reduced recombination of photoexcited electrons and holes in the TiO2 films containing a gradient of Cu dopants.

  4. Depositing of CuS nanocrystals upon the graphene scaffold and their photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongbin [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Lixin, E-mail: edwardzlx@163.com [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Jiu, Hongfang [College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Li, Na; Sun, Yixin [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A series of copper sulfide nanocrystals/graphene nanocomposites (CuS/GR) with different weight ratios of GR were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal approach by using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the source of sulfur and solvent. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to determine the properties of the samples. The results show that the CuS nanocrystals with an average size of 16 nm almost overspread on the GR graphene scaffold. The samples exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in degrading the methylene blue (MB) compared with pure CuS. This work shows that CuS/GR nanocomposites would be promising in dye wastewater treatment as Fenton-like reagents.

  5. Depositing of CuS nanocrystals upon the graphene scaffold and their photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lixin; Jiu, Hongfang; Li, Na; Sun, Yixin

    2014-06-01

    A series of copper sulfide nanocrystals/graphene nanocomposites (CuS/GR) with different weight ratios of GR were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal approach by using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the source of sulfur and solvent. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to determine the properties of the samples. The results show that the CuS nanocrystals with an average size of 16 nm almost overspread on the GR graphene scaffold. The samples exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in degrading the methylene blue (MB) compared with pure CuS. This work shows that CuS/GR nanocomposites would be promising in dye wastewater treatment as Fenton-like reagents.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity in Cu nanoparticles covered Cu{sub 2}O microspheres for degrading organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yahui, E-mail: chengyahui@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Electronics and Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Lin, Yuanjing [Department of Electronics and Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Jianping [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); He, Jie; Wang, Tianzhao; Yu, Guojun; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng [Department of Electronics and Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Lan [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Du, Xiwen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Weichao [Department of Electronics and Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Hui, E-mail: liuhui@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Electronics and Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zheng, Rongkun [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu NPs introduce the SPR and result in an increase of visible light absorption. • The photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu improves greatly due to the SPR effect. • A dark catalytic activity is observed stemming from the Fenton-like reaction. • The • O{sub 2}{sup −} and • OH radicals contribute to the photocatalytic process. • The • OH radicals contribute to the dark catalytic process. - Abstract: Micron-sized Cu{sub 2}O with different coverage of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on the sphere has been synthesized by a redox procedure. The absorption spectra show that Cu NPs induce the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the wavelength of ∼565 nm. Methylene blue (MB) photodegrading experiments under visible-light display that the Cu{sub 2}O–Cu–H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity to Cu{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or pure H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with an evident dependency on Cu coverage. The maximum photodegradation rate is 88% after visible-light irradiating for 60 min. The role of the Cu NPs is clarified through photodegradation experiments under 420 nm light irradiation, which is different from the SPR wavelength of Cu NPs (∼565 nm). By excluding the SPR effect, it proves that Cu SPR plays a key role in the photodegradation. Besides, a dark catalytic activity is observed stemming from the Fenton-like reaction with the aid of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The radical quenching experiments indicate that both • O{sub 2}{sup −} and • OH radicals contribute to the photocatalysis, while the dark catalysis is only governed by the • OH radicals, leading to a lower activity comparing with the photocatalysis. Therefore, with introducing Cu NPs and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the Cu{sub 2}O-based photocatalytic activity could be significantly improved due to the SPR effect and dark catalysis.

  7. Magnetic ordering in PrBa2Cu3-yAlyO6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longmore, A.; Boothroyd, A.T.; Chen, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetic ordering in single crystals of PrBa2CU3O6+x has been investigated by elastic neutron scattering over the full range of temperatures for reduced and oxygenated crystals. The crystals were grown in alumina crucibles and therefore contained dissolved aluminum on the Cu(1) site. Both...... in each case. The Pr Neel temperatures were suppressed compared with those reported for nominally pure samples, We have observed a very small 3D-ordered moment on the Cu(1) site in the second type of Cu antiferromagnetic ordering (in the reduced crystal), but an ordered Cu(1) moment may not necessarily...

  8. Silicon purification using a Cu-Si alloy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. C.; Tejedor, P.; Olson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Production of 99.9999% pure silicon from 98% pure metallurgical grade (MG) silicon by a vapor transport filtration process (VTP) is described. The VTF process is a cold wall version of an HCl chemical vapor transport technique using a Si:Cu3Si alloy as the silicon source. The concentration, origin, and behavior of the various impurities involved in the process were determined by chemically analyzing alloys of different purity, the slag formed during the alloying process, and the purified silicon. Atomic absorption, emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, spark source mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used for these analyses. The influence of the Cl/H ratio and the deposition temperature on the transport rate was also investigated.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Cu{sup 2+} substituted magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A. L. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Velasquez, A. A., E-mail: avelas26@eafit.edu.co [Universidad EAFIT, Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (Colombia); Urquijo, J. P. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Baggio, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Samples of magnetite, both pure and doped with divalent copper, Fe{sub 3 - x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4}, with x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 atm.%, were synthesized hydrothermally. The samples were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. The analyses made by the above techniques showed that as the Cu{sup 2+} concentration increases, a simultaneous reduction in the magnetic and structural parameters takes place, namely: magnetic hyperfine interactions at octahedral sites, particle size and lattice constant. Degradation in the particles morphology as well as a distribution of their size were also observed. Our study points two important effects of Cu{sup 2+} in magnetite, the first one is its incorporation within the structure, replacing Fe{sup 2+} ions and decreasing both the magnetic hyperfine interactions at octahedral sites and the bulk magnetization, the second one is the contraction of the crystalline lattice of magnetite, because incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} within the structure, generation of vacancies or both simultaneous effects.

  10. Atomistic simulations of Mg-Cu metallic glasses: Mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2004-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms of plastic deformation in amorphous metals are far from being understood. We have derived potential parameters for molecular dynamics simulations of Mg-Cu amorphous alloys using the Effective Medium Theory. We have simulated the formation of alloys by cooling from the melt......, and have used these glassy configurations to carry out simulations of plastic deformation. These involved different compositions, temperatures (including zero), and types of deformation (uniaxial strain/pure shear), and yielded stress-strain curves and values of flow stress. Separate simulations were...

  11. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li

    2000-12-01

    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were compared with the wear loss in air. The experiment showed that the pure mechanical wear losses and friction coefficients obtained by the three methods were close to each other and can be used to calculate the various wear components in the study of the interaction of corrosion and wear, but the measurements in distilled water for pure iron and 1045 steel are not recommended due to their corrosion.

  12. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  13. Gravitation, Electromagnetism and the Cosmological Constant in Purely Affine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    The Eddington Lagrangian in the purely affine formulation of general relativity generates the Einstein equations with the cosmological constant. The Ferraris-Kijowski purely affine Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, which has the form of the Maxwell Lagrangian with the metric tensor replaced by the symmetrized Ricci tensor, is dynamically equivalent to the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian in the metric formulation. We show that the sum of the two affine Lagrangians is dynamically inequivalent to the sum of the analogous Lagrangians in the metric-affine/metric formulation. We also show that such a construction is valid only for weak electromagnetic fields. Therefore the purely affine formulation that combines gravitation, electromagnetism and the cosmological constant cannot be a simple sum of terms corresponding to separate fields. Consequently, this formulation of electromagnetism seems to be unphysical, unlike the purely metric and metric-affine pictures, unless the electromagnetic field couples to the cosmological constant.

  14. The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, C M; Stein, D L [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States)], E-mail: newman@cims.nyu.edu, E-mail: daniel.stein@nyu.edu

    2008-06-18

    Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t {yields} {infinity}. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)

  15. Pure compared with mixed serous endometrial carcinoma: two different entities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Ham, M.A. van; Wiersma van Tilburg, J.M.; Zomer, S.F.; Bol, M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To analyze whether mixed compared with pure uterine papillary serous carcinoma histology affects clinical outcome, and to assess uterine papillary serous carcinoma for its association with the precursor lesion endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma. METHODS: : A multi-institution observa

  16. Phase Semantics for a Pure Noncommutative Linear Propositional Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Mingsheng

    1999-01-01

    We use a many-sorted language to remove commutativity from phasesemantics of linear logic and show that pure noncommutativeintuitionistic linear propositional logic plus two classical rulesenjoys the soundness and completeness with respect to completelynoncommutative phase semantics.

  17. Partial Hermitian Conjugate Separability Criteria for Pure Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin; WU Hua; LI Yan-Song; LONG Gui-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We propose a criterion for the separability of quantum pure states using the concept of a partial Hermitian conjugate.It is equivalent to the usual positive partial transposition criteria,with a simple physical interpretation.

  18. Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    (TSS) at which tomato puree could be preserved for at least one year. Material and methods. The vegetative material used .... The microbiological analysis was made at each stage. ... and this denotes the adaptability of packaging material and.

  19. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    N–Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N–Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, wh...

  20. Visible light degradation of textile effluent using nanostructured TiO2/Ag/CuO photocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, N.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A

    2016-01-01

    TiO2, Ag and CuO nanomaterials, and nanostructured TiO2/Ag/CuO photocatalytic materials coupled in different weight percentages were synthesized. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic degrading capabilities of the pure, as well as the nanostructured TiO2/Ag/CuO photocatalytic materials were tested on the dye effluent collected from the textile industries. The samples collected during the photocatalytic degradatio...

  1. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  2. Homoepitaxial electrodeposition on Cu(001) in different electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druenkler, Arne; Golks, Frederik; Gruender, Yvonne; Kaminski, Daniel; Krug, Klaus; Stettner, Jochim; Magnussen, Olaf M. [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Cu electrodeposition is used for the defect-free filling of trenches with dimensions <100nm on ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) microchips. Multicomponent electrolytes containing organic additives are used cause a faster growth at the bottom of the trench than at the upper walls resulting in void free filling of the trench. Even though the influence of the additives combination on the shape evolution of the Cu deposit was subject of numerous studies, their precise role during the elementary steps of the deposition is largely not understood. Surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) is ideal for the investigation of electrochemical metal deposition on atomic scale, as buried interfaces and structural information of the interface are accessible. In a first step the potential dependent interface structure of Cu(001) was investigated in copper free electrolyte. Furthermore, kinetic growth investigations in HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution are presented. Electrodeposition studies of Cu(001) in CuSO{sub 4} containing HCl indicated step flow growth over a wide potential regime. In a Cu containing electrolyte mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HCl evidence for a transition from 2D- to 3D-growth is found.

  3. General and Optimal Scheme for Local Conversion of Pure States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Rui-Bo; CHEN Li-Bing; WANG Fa-Qiang; LU Yi-Qun

    2008-01-01

    We present general and optimal schemes for local conversion of pure states, via one specific example. First, we give the general solution of the doubly stochastic matrix. Then, we find the general and optimal positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) to realize the local conversion of pure states. Lastly, the physical realization of the POVM is discussed. We show that our scheme has a more general and better effect than other schemes.

  4. Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia successfully treated with cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El Omri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia is a rare hematological disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with absent or markedly reduced megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. We report a case of a 25-year-old male diagnosed as acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia. Treatment with prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin failed, but he was successfully treated with cyclosporine, with complete remission after 90 days and normal platelet count maintained thereafter.

  5. Enhanced catalytic properties of Pt-based electrode by doped Cu and Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dehuai; Yang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Novel PtCuCeO x composite membrane electrode materials were fabricated on the surface of graphite fibrous cloth by ion beam sputtering (IBS). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) were used to analyze the influence of doped Cu and Ce on the membrane electrocatalysis performance in a tri-electrode system. The phase composition, surface structure, interfacial structure and catalytic performance of PtCuCeO x membrane were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM&STEM). The results indicate that surface particles of membrane electrode are made up of PtCu alloy grains and a few CeO x grains, and the interface structure of oxide metal is formed between them. The crystal plane spacing between PtCu alloy grain is reduced by about 1.11% after the corrosion, which helps increase the electron density on Pt atom. As a result, the catalysis capability of PtCu alloy is enhanced. When the content of Ce is less than or equal to 0.28 wt.%, CeO x exists in the form of amorphous. It is exciting to demonstrate that the existence of CeO x enhances the dispersion of PtCuCeO x catalyst particles. The experimental results reveal that the synthesized material possesses the best electrochemical activity surface area (ESA) and exchange current density (i 0). Compared to pure Pt catalyst, this PtCuCeO x catalyst contains much less Pt content (only 42% of Pt catalyst). However, the electrochemical performance is enhanced by 71.8% compared with pure Pt.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of Ag-Cu alloy in alkaline media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grekulović Vesna J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the investigation of electrochemical behaviour of Ag-Cu alloy containing 50 mass% Ag and 50 mass% Cu are presented in this paper. Pure silver and copper were investigated, too. Working electrodes were prepared by metallurgical process. 1 mol dm-3 and 0.5 mol dm-3 solutions of NaOH are chosen as the electrolyte. On the cyclic voltammograms, some current waves corresponding to number and quantity of phases present in the investigated electrodes appeared and they can be used for characterization of investigated alloy. On the voltammogram recorded for pure silver, two anodic and two cathodic peaks appeared. First peak consisted of two joined current waves which can be ascribed to the formation of the two different types of silver(I oxide, Ag2O. Second peak should correspond to the formation of silver(II oxide, AgO. Voltammogram obtained for pure copper exhibits one broad current wave corresponding to the formation of copper oxides, followed by a wide potential area in which copper is completely passive. At 0.4 V vs. SCE, current starts to increase again due to oxygen evolution and probably due to simultaneous dissolution of copper with formation of CuO22- as a product. In alkaline solutions copper has no significant influence on the shape and current values of the voltammograms recorded for Ag-Cu alloy; however, it has an influence only on the anodic and cathodic peak potentials, which are shifted to more negative values in comparison to Ag. It could mean an easier formation of oxides and their harder reduction. Comparing voltammograms recorded for Ag-Cu alloy in 0.5 moldm-3 NaOH and in 1 moldm-3 NaOH solutions, one can see that current waves appear at more positive potentials on the voltammograms obtained in the solution of lower concentration and with much higher current densities than those on the voltammograms obtained in the solution of higher concentration.

  7. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  8. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  9. Subject in first person--subject in third person: subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, R

    2001-09-01

    In this article, the author traces the history of the concepts of subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity in different psychoanalytic theories in the last decades. She argues that the uniqueness of these concepts and their different implications were not emphasized enough. The author discusses the various implications and contexts of the concept of subject in psychoanalytic theory proper and to relate as to: (1). The need to distinguish between the concepts of subject and subjectivity; (2). The mutual interdependence of the subject and his subjectivity and the intersubjective domain (both in the development of the individual and in theoretical thought pertaining to it). Her point of departure is from the position of the subject as a free creature, the centrality of the experiencing individual, from his/her perspective--the subject in the first person. She tries to explain the paradox implicit in the experiential dimension, the place of the other as participant, as both negating and recognizing--the subject in the third person. She suggests the interdependency of the first-person experience of subjectivity on the intersubjective dimension.

  10. Fabrication of folic acid sensor based on the Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, N.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sudhan, N.; Sekar, C.; Leonardi, S. G.; Cannilla, C.; Neri, G.

    2014-07-01

    A novel folic acid biosensor has been fabricated using Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method. Powder XRD and TEM studies confirmed that both the pure and Cu doped SnO2 (Cu: 0, 10, 20wt%) crystallized in tetragonal rutile-type structure with spherical morphology. The average crystallite size of pure SnO2 was estimated to be around 16 nm. Upon doping, the crystallite sizes decreased to 9 nm and 5 nm for 10 and 20wt% Cu doped SnO2 respectively. XPS studies confirmed the electronic state of Sn and Cu to be 4+ and 2+ respectively. Cu (20wt%) doped SnO2 NPs are proved to be a good sensing element for the determination of folic acid (FA). Cu-SnO2 NPs (20wt%) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited the lowest detection limit of 0.024 nM over a wide folic acid concentration range of 1.0 × 10-10 to 6.7 × 10-5 M at physiological pH of 7.0. The fabricated sensor is highly selective towards the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100 fold excess of common interferent ascorbic acid. The sensor proved to be useful for the estimation of FA content in pharmaceutical sample with satisfactory recovery.

  11. Studies on Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of an Organic Magnet with Metallic Mn2+ and Cu2+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-Guo; PENG Guang-Xiong

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the non-pure organic ferromagnetic compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 with pbaOH = 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propylenebis (oxamato) are studied by using the density-functional theory with local-spin-density approximation. The density of states, total energy, and the spin magnetic moment are calculated. The calculations reveal that the compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H20)3 has a stable metal-ferromagnetic ground state, and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is 2.208 μB, and the spin magnetic moment is mainly from Mn ion and Cu ion. An antiferromagnetic order is expected and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of d-electrons of Cu and Mn passes through the antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent C, O, and N atoms along the path linking the atoms Cu and Mn.

  12. Modeling of surface melting and resolidification for pure metals and binary alloys: Effect of non-equilibrium kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.X.; Matthys, E.F. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A one-dimensional model including non-equilibrium phenomena was developed for surface melting and resolidification of both pure metals and binary alloys substrates. Non-equilibrium kinetics from crystal growth theory are introduced in the model to treat both non-equilibrium melting and resolidification. The modelled problem involves a moving boundary with both heat and solute diffusions and is solved by an implicit control volume integral method with solid/liquid interface immobilization by coordinate transformation. For illustration of the model applicability, the authors have analyzed laser surface melting of pure metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Ti) and dilute Al-Cu alloys, and some typical results are presented. The computation results show large solid overheating and melt undercooling which result from the high heat flux and the slow kinetics. The melt undercooling is maintained during most of the resolidification process and so is the high solidification rate. Complex interface velocity variations during the earlier stages of resolidification were obtained and result from interactions between various physical mechanisms. A strong effect of the solute on the interface velocity was also predicted.

  13. Cu isotope variability in Bavariás largest Cu-Zn deposit in Kupferberg (NE Bavaria, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Debaille, Vinciane; Debouge, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Kupferberg, a small town c. 15 km northeast of Kulmbach, owns its existence to Bavaria's largest Cu-Zn deposit, which was mined intermittently from the 13th to the 19th century. The deposit is located in the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan basement in northeastern Bavaria. It is positioned between the allochthonous Münchberg metamorphic complex in the east and a major northwest-southeast tending regional fault zone, the "Franconian Lineament", in the west. The deposit is hosted by an Early Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary succession of the Randschiefer Formation (RF) and consists of a northwest-southeast directed string of several stratiform, sulfide-rich ore lenses. These lenses show a remarkably simple mineralogy dominated by quartz, carbonate, pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and chlorite. The genesis of the Cu-Zn mineralization has remained speculative. A purely syngenetic model, supported by the generally laminated appearance of the ore, has to be questioned because of the ore lenses occurring in different tectonic units. Urban & Vaché (1972) proposed supergene enrichment between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary as most critical. To test such a supergene versus hypogene Cu-mineralization, we investigated the Cu isotopic composition of primary and secondary Cu phases as well as the trace element distribution in three pyrite generations. The pyrite generation that is coeval with the principal Cu-mineralization in the form of chalcopyrite has Co/Ni ratios (on average 35) typical of hydrothermal, possibly metamorphic, formation. Chalcopyrite, present at highly variable modal proportions, yielded a narrow range in δ65Cu from -0.26 to 0.36 ‰Ḃoth the absolute values and the narrow range are similar to the δ65Cu range known for hydrothermal chalcopyrite in crustal rocks (Markl et al. 2006). Metamorphism has been shown to further restrict the range in δ65Cu (Ikehata et al. 2011) - an effect that might be applicable to Kupferberg. In

  14. Manufacturing and testing of W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up for EAST by HIP and HRP technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Qin, Sigui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Wang, Wanjing; Qi, Pan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Roccella, Selanna; Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Liu, Guohui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: liqiang577@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2013-10-15

    ITER-like W/Cu mono-block plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be used in vertical target regions of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) divertor. The first W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up with five W mono-blocks has been manufactured successfully by technological combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and hot radial pressing (HRP). The joining of a W mono-block and a pure copper interlayer was achieved by means of HIP technology and the bonding strength was over 150 MPa. The good bonding between the pure copper interlayer and a CuCrZr cooling tube was obtained by means of HRP technology. In order to understand deeply the process of HRP, the stress distribution of the mock-up during HRP process was simulated using ANSYS code. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing (NDT) of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces was performed, showing that excellent bonding of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces. The thermal cycle fatigue testing of the mock-up has been carried out by means of an e-beam device in Southwest Institute of Physics, Chengdu (SWIP) and the mock-up withstood 1000 cycles of heat loads up to 8.4 MW/m{sup 2} with the cooling water of 2 m/s, 20 °C, 0.2 MPa.

  15. Preparation of flower-like CuS by solvothermal method for photocatalytic, UV protection and EMI shielding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiao-Sai; Shen, Yong, E-mail: shenyong@sues.edu.cn; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Li-Ming; Lu, Li-sha; Zhang, Ya-ting

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The flower-like CuS was synthesized by a facil solvothermal method. • The as-prepared flower-like CuS showed better solar light-driven photocatalytic activity. • The as-prepared CuS could act as a novel UV blocker. • The flower-like CuS potentially hold promise as electromagnetic shielding material. - Abstract: The flower-like CuS hierarchical structures were synthesized by solvothermal method. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–vis optical absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that the as-prepared flower-like CuS with the diameter of 1–5 um was pure hexagonal phase CuS and had well-defined flower-like structures. (1) The as-prepared CuS was proved to possess high photocatalytic performance with band gap of 1.45 eV. The degradation rate of Methylene blue (MB) was up to, 98.26%, 100% after 30 min under UV and visible irradiation. (2)The UPF of cotton fabric treated with CuS reached up to 174 compared with the original untreated fabric with the UPF 20.62. (3) The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of CuS coating was up to 27–31 dB when the content of CuS increased to 28.6%wt in the frequency of 300 KHz–3 GHz. Furthermore, the influence of reaction conditions on the morphology of the as-prepared CuS was investigated systematically and the possible formation mechanism of the CuS hierarchical structure was also proposed.

  16. How Ego-threats Facilitate Contracts Based on Subjective Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander; Walzl, Markus

    We show that individuals' desire to protect their self-esteem against ego-threatening feedback can mitigate moral hazard in environments with purely subjective performance evaluations. In line with evidence from social psychology we assume that agents' react aggressively to evaluations...

  17. Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Ian H.; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, researchers have developed a number of empirical and theoretical models for the correlation and prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure fluids and mixtures treated as pseudo-pure fluids. In this paper, a survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of the...... are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex....

  18. The effect of electron beam treatment on hydrogen sorption ability of commercially pure titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, Alexey V.; Kazachenok, Marina S. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); Kretova, Oksana M., E-mail: oksikom@bk.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Perevalova, Olga B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F. [Institute of High Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lider, Andrey M.; Stepanova, Olga M.; Kroening, Michael H. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    The surface morphology and the microstructure of commercially pure titanium specimens subjected to electron beam treatment with energy density varying from 12 to 25 J/cm{sup 2} were studied using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Lamellar α-phase structure of a thin surface layer of the specimens resulted from the treatment was shown to have a great effect on hydrogen sorption ability of the material as well as on hydrogen arrangement in titanium crystal lattice.

  19. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  20. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  1. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped CuCrO2 nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Linyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (Cu1-xMnxCrO2 (0≤x≤6 at% and Cu(Cr1-yMnyO2 (0≤y≤6 at% nanopowders were prepared by combining solid-state reaction and ball milling.It is found that all the samples have a pure 3R-CuCrO2 delafossite structure.The lattice expansion supports the Mn entrance into the Cu and Cr sublattices,respectively,in (Cu1-xMnxCrO2 and Cu(Cr1-yMnyO2,which is further proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to some degree.Room-temperature ferromagnetism is achieved in B-site Mn-doped samples,originating from the hole-mediated Cr3+-Mn3+ double-exchange interaction.The saturation magnetization of this CuMO2 delafossite (M=Cr,Mn is about an order of magnitude higher than literature values,and gradually decreases with the Mn addition due to the combined influence of the number of the M-M pairs,the M-M distances and the hole density.

  2. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Cu doped ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-10-14

    Copper doped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural properties of as-synthesized nanomaterials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study their optical properties. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes in water was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that there is an optimum Cu doping level which leads to the highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures, as compared to pure ZnO nanostructures. A mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the combined effects of improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers due to optimal Cu doping in ZnO nanostructures and the formation of ZnO-CuO nanoheterojunctions.

  3. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuS-GeO2-TiO2 Composite Coating Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xinyu; Zhang, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The ITO (indium tin oxide) conductive glass-matrix CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating was generated via EPD (electrophoretic deposition) and followed by a sintering treatment at 450°C for 40 minutes. Characterizations of the CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating were taken by SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), UV-Vis DRS (ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Results showed that CuS and GeO2 had dispersed in this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating (mass percentages for CuS and GeO2 were 1.23% and 2.79%, respectively). The electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization) of this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode were performed in pH = 9.51 Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution containing 0.50 mol/L CH3OH under the conditions of visible light, ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm), and dark (without light irradiation as control), respectively. Electrochemical studies indicated that this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode had better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2 electrode in the electrocatalysis of methanol under visible light. PMID:27055277

  4. Influence of Cerium and Yttrium on Cu-Cr-Zr Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Testing results shows that alloying with Ce and Y improves the hardness and softens temperature of cold worked Cu-Cr-Zr alloys obviously, while the conductivity was fluctuant with the variation of RE content. Observation and analysis indicate that micro-dosage RE elements helps to refine microstructure and morphology of Cu-Cr-Zr-RE alloys, suppress microstructure coarsening and improves homogeneous level of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys. Alloying with 0.01% Ce causes about 1% IACS increment of conductivity, and reduces about 2%~3.5% IACS conductivity after alloying with 0.03%~0.04% RE (Ce or Ce+Y) for Cu-Cr-Zr alloys. The microstructure of as-cast Cu-Cr-Zr alloy is refined after alloying with 0.01% Ce while the plasticity is improved slightly. Alloying with 0.01%~0.04% RE improves the softening temperature of deformed Cu-Cr-Zr alloys about 20~40 K; hardness is also improved about 20~35 HV. Test data indicate that alloying with Ce+Y raises softening temperature and hardness of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys more notably than alloying with pure Ce.

  5. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  6. An alternative improved method for the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrix for the fabrication of Cu/CNTs composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Maneet; Singhal, S. K.; Sharma, Indu; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-02-01

    Copper has a wide range of applications due to its excellent properties (high thermal and electrical conductivity). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used as a reinforcing material due to their superior properties. Copper/Carbon nanotube (Cu/CNTs) composites show enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties as compared to pure Cu and Cu composites. Hence, Cu/CNTs composites have tremendous applications. Cu/CNTs are being developed for use as antifungal and antimicrobial agents, which can lead to their further use in biomedical devices and implant materials. The versatility of this material is such that Cu/CNTs are being developed for use in ultra-large scale integrated circuits for use in the latest integrated circuits and semiconductor chips. The composite material is being used as heat sinks for various industries. Cu/CNTs are now also being employed as catalysts for various industrial reactions. Fuel cell electrodes based on Cu/CNTs are being developed to replace expensive Pt/Pd-based electrodes, currently being used. Another application in the energy sector is the use of Cu/CNTs in direct methanol fuel cells and in methanol gas reforming for H2 production. These extensive applications provided motivation for the current work. However, these applications can only be realized if a stable and uniform Cu/CNTs composite powder can be made. The challenges in fabricating Cu/CNTs composites are: (1) homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrix, (2) interfacial bonding between CNTs and Cu matrix and (3) retention of structural integrity of CNTs. Powder metallurgy (PM) has been widely used, but dispersion of Cu/CNTs remains an issue. We employed the molecular level mixing method (MLM), coupled with high energy ball milling (BM) to overcome above mentioned issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is a new process for the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in copper and has been reported for the first time. To produce a homogenous mixture of Cu and CNTs, a

  7. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  8. Low energy ion beam modification of Cu/Ni/Si(100) surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Parida; V R Rmedicherla; D K Mishra; S Choudhary; V Solanki; Shikha Varma

    2014-12-01

    Cu/Ni bilayer has been prepared by thermal evaporation of pure Cu and Ni metals onto Si(100) surface in high vacuum; it was sputtered using argon ion beam in ultra-high vacuum. The ion beam-induced surface and interface modification was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The deposited sample exhibits the formation of CuO nano-structures of size 40 nm on Cu surface and after sputtering with argon ion beam at a fluence of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, the surface exhibits a mound structure with an average size of about 100 nm. Interestingly, with sputtering at higher fluence of 2.4 × 1016 ions/cm2, the surface exhibits broad pits of sizes ranging from 100 to 300 nm with an average depth of 10 nm. Bottom surface of these pits contains Ni atoms. The Cu 23/2 peak exhibits a shift of 0.3 eV towards high binding energy and also a large asymmetry of 0.11 after sputtering at high fluence compared with pure copper. These changes are attributed to Cu–Ni interactions at the interface.

  9. Facile synthesis of ZnO/CuInS2 nanorod arrays for photocatalytic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yawei; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xing, Yonglei; Yin, Xingtian; Du, Yaping

    2016-11-05

    Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate were homogeneously coated with visible light active CuInS2 quantum dots by using a controllable electrophoretic deposition strategy. Compared with the pure ZnO nanorod arrays, the formation of high-quality ZnO/CuInS2 heterojunction with well-matched band energy alignment expanded the light absorption from ultraviolet to visible region and facilitated efficient charge separation and transportation, thus yielding remarkable enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activities for methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol degradation. The ZnO/CuInS2 film with the deposition duration of 80min showed the highest degradation rate and photocurrent density (0.95mA/cm(2)), which was almost 6.33 times higher than that of the pure ZnO nanorod arrays film. The CuInS2 QDs sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays film was proved to be a superior structure for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic applications due to the optimized CuInS2 loading and well-maintained one-dimensional nanostructure.

  10. Generation of Useful Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen during Photocatalytic Decomposition of Acetic Acid on CuO/Rutile Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented studies have focused on a photocatalytic generation of useful hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, from acetic acid under N2 atmosphere. CuO-loaded rutile, as well as unmodified rutile and anatase-phase TiO2 photocatalysts were applied in the experiments. The efficiency of the catalysts towards methane generation changed in the following order: Cu-TiO2 (10% Cu > crude TiO2≈Cu-TiO2 (20% Cu > Cu-TiO2 (5% Cu > rutile. The amount of CH4 produced in the presence of the catalyst containing 10 wt% of Cu was higher for ca. 33% than in case of pure rutile. The concentration of ethane was 14–16 times lower than the amount of methane, regardless of the catalyst used. Low concentrations of hydrogen were also detected in the gaseous mixtures. After 5 hours of the process conducted with the catalyst containing 5–20 wt% of Cu the concentration of hydrogen amounted to 0.06–0.14 vol.%, respectively.

  11. Tribological properties of the synthesis of Cu-BTA composite nanoparticles via the thermal decomposition application in lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, M. J.; Hsu, F. C.; Guo, J. B.; Huang, K. D.; Peng, D. X.

    2013-11-01

    This project investigated the tribological properties of Cu-benzotriazole (BTA) composite nanoparticles as lubricant additives. BTA functions as a stabilizer for the Cu nanoparticles and as a protector from oxidation of the Cu nanoparticles in various test circumstances. Tribological experiments were conducted using a pin-on-disk (ASTM G99) test for the wear scar diameter, friction coefficient, and morphology of worn surfaces. Furthermore, the dispersivity of these Cu-BTA nanoparticles in liquid paraffin oil was measured using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The experiment results revealed the dispersion capability of the benzotriazole-capped Cu nanoparticles and indicated the dispersing stability in liquid paraffin oil for the BTA-capped surface of Cu nanoparticles. The testing results demonstrate that the Cu-BTA nanoparticle used as an additive in liquid paraffin oil at an appropriate concentration exhibits better tribological properties than those of pure paraffin oil. Moreover, Cu-BTA functioning as an additive has different anti-wear abilities due to its small size effect. Finally, the repair ability of Cu-BTA nanoparticles on the worn surfaces was observed using SEM and EDS.

  12. Origin of the improved photocatalytic activity of Cu incorporated TiO2 for hydrogen generation from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qianqian; Huang, Jiquan; Li, Guojing; Jiang, Yabin; Lan, Hai; Guo, Wang; Cao, Yongge

    2016-09-01

    Cu incorporated TiO2 has been regarded as a low-cost photocatalyst with excellent photocatalytic performance for water splitting. Here we try to exploit the origin of its high reactivity by fabricating a series of Cu incorporated TiO2 films with the same Cu content under different atmosphere. Based on the comprehensive structure and surface characterizations, it is found that CuO is unstable and will be reduced to Cu2O or even to metallic Cu under light irradiation during the photocatalytic reaction, and Cu2O is an efficient co-catalyst that promotes the separation of photogenerated carriers while metallic Cu can further boost the photocatalytic activity. Besides, it is also noticed that the chemisorbed oxygen on the particle surface blocks the water splitting. By depositing TiO2 films under oxygen rich condition, oxygen vacancy is decreased greatly, which facilitates the removal of chemisorbed oxygen and the formation of metallic Cu during photocatalytic reaction, resulting in an ultra-high H2 evolution rate of 2.80 μmol cm-2 h-1, which is about 55 times higher than that of pure TiO2.

  13. Preparation of flower-like CuS by solvothermal method for photocatalytic, UV protection and EMI shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Sai; Shen, Yong; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Li-Ming; Lu, Li-sha; Zhang, Ya-ting

    2016-11-01

    The flower-like CuS hierarchical structures were synthesized by solvothermal method. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that the as-prepared flower-like CuS with the diameter of 1-5 um was pure hexagonal phase CuS and had well-defined flower-like structures. (1) The as-prepared CuS was proved to possess high photocatalytic performance with band gap of 1.45 eV. The degradation rate of Methylene blue (MB) was up to, 98.26%, 100% after 30 min under UV and visible irradiation. (2)The UPF of cotton fabric treated with CuS reached up to 174 compared with the original untreated fabric with the UPF 20.62. (3) The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of CuS coating was up to 27-31 dB when the content of CuS increased to 28.6%wt in the frequency of 300 KHz-3 GHz. Furthermore, the influence of reaction conditions on the morphology of the as-prepared CuS was investigated systematically and the possible formation mechanism of the CuS hierarchical structure was also proposed.

  14. Thermal plasma properties for Ar-Al, Ar-Fe and Ar-Cu mixtures used in welding plasmas processes: I. Net emission coefficients at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressault, Y.; Gleizes, A.

    2013-10-01

    This article is devoted to the calculation of the net emission coefficient (NEC) of Ar-Al, Ar-Fe and Ar-Cu mixtures at atmospheric pressure for arc welding processes. The results are given in data tables for temperatures between 3 kK and 30 kK, for five plasma thicknesses (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 mm) and ten concentrations of metallic vapours (pure gas, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and pure metal vapours in mass proportions). The results are in good agreement with most of the works published on the subject for such mixtures. They highlight the influence of three parameters on the radiation of the plasma: the NEC is directly related to temperature and inversely related to plasma radius and is highly sensitive to the presence of metal vapours. Finally, numerical data are supplied in tables in order to develop accurate computational modelling of welding arc and to estimate both qualitatively and quantitatively the influence of each metallic vapour on the size and on the shape of the weld pool.

  15. Medical applications of Cu, Zn, and S isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, Francis; Télouk, Philippe; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Oger, Philippe; Bonaventura, Paola; Miossec, Pierre; Fujii, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    This review examines recent applications of stable copper, zinc and sulfur isotopes to medical cases and notably cancer. The distribution of the natural stable isotopes of a particular element among coexisting molecular species varies as a function of the bond strength, the ionic charge, and the coordination, and it also changes with kinetics. Ab initio calculations show that compounds in which a metal binds to oxygen- (sulfate, phosphate, lactate) and nitrogen-bearing moieties (histidine) favor heavy isotopes, whereas bonds with sulfur (cysteine, methionine) favor light isotopes. Oxidized cations (e.g., Cu(ii)) and low coordination numbers are expected to favor heavy isotopes relative to their reduced counterparts (Cu(i)) and high coordination numbers. Here we discuss the first observations of Cu, Zn, and S isotopic variations, three elements closely related along multiple biological pathways, with emphasis on serum samples of healthy volunteers and of cancer patients. It was found that heavy isotopes of Zn and to an even greater extent Cu are enriched in erythrocytes relative to serum, while the difference is small for sulfur. Isotopic variations related to age and sex are relatively small. The (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratio in the serum of patients with colon, breast, and liver cancer is conspicuously low relative to healthy subjects. The characteristic time over which Cu isotopes may change with disease progression (a few weeks) is consistent with both the turnover time of the element and albumin half-life. A parallel effect on sulfur isotopes is detected in a few un-medicated patients. Copper in liver tumor tissue is isotopically heavy. In contrast, Zn in breast cancer tumors is isotopically lighter than in healthy breast tissue. (66)Zn/(64)Zn is very similar in the serum of cancer patients and in controls. Possible reasons for Cu isotope variations may be related to the cytosolic storage of Cu lactate (Warburg effect), release of intracellular copper from cysteine

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Cu-Matrix Composites Manufactured Using Cu Powder Coated with Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, T.; Baranowski, M.; Sobczak, N.; Homa, M.; Leśniewski, W.

    2016-08-01

    Compact Cu matrix composites reinforced with graphene were prepared by thermochemical processes and cold isostatic pressing. Thermophysical properties were investigated using laser flash analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dilatometry. From the results of the measurements, it follows that within the entire investigated temperature range, both the thermal diffusivity and the calculated values therefrom of the thermal conductivity of copper-graphene composites change according to the temperature changes. Above 500 °C, abnormal decrease of the thermal diffusivity was registered for sample prepared from pure copper powder. In this case, the elevated temperature of test could cause sintering of copper particles, which were not coated by graphene. The as-received composites had higher thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity at the room temperature in comparison to the material obtained by standard pressing of pure copper powder. However, the production methods of some samples could cause their partial sintering. Based on the study, it could not be concluded that graphene only has impacts on the thermophysical properties.

  17. The Subject of Exemption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault’s understa...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated.......This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault...

  18. Pure alexia for kana. Characterization of alexia with lesions of the inferior occipital cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Terao, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Momose, Toshimitsu; Tsuji, Shoji; Mannen, Toru

    2008-05-15

    To characterize reading impairments caused by lesions in the posterior occipital cortices. We gave six patients with these lesions reading and writing tests and located a critical site for alexia using MRI and SPECT. The patients read three-character kana (Japanese syllabograms) nonwords, and five-character kana nonwords significantly or at a near significant level more poorly and slowly than normal subjects, whereas they read kanji (Japanese morphograms) almost correctly but more slowly. Letter-by-letter reading with a single-kana character identification impairment (in five patients), a word-length effect, kinesthetic facilitation, a lexicality effect, and minor to mild agraphia for kanji (in three patients) were observed. These deficits were characteristic of pure alexia. Alexia disappeared within a few months except in one patient who had extensive hypoperfusion in the left occipital lobe. A shared lesion was located in the left posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri (Area 18/19) on MRI, and there was blood flow reduction around this area on SPECT. This area coincided with the activation site for kana word covert reading in our previous study. These results suggest that pure alexia particularly for kana, or more generally pure alexia for letters, is caused by a lesion in the posterior inferior occipital cortex, characterized primarily by impaired kana character or letter identification, with relatively preserved kanji or word recognition.

  19. Identification of Bacillus anthracis PurE inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anna; Wolf, Nina M; Zhu, Tian; Johnson, Michael E; Deng, Jiangping; Cook, James L; Fung, Leslie W-M

    2015-04-01

    N(5)-carboxy-amino-imidazole ribonucleotide (N(5)-CAIR) mutase (PurE), a bacterial enzyme in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, has been suggested to be a target for antimicrobial agent development. We have optimized a thermal shift method for high-throughput screening of compounds binding to Bacillus anthracis PurE. We used a low ionic strength buffer condition to accentuate the thermal shift stabilization induced by compound binding to Bacillus anthracis PurE. The compounds identified were then subjected to computational docking to the active site to further select compounds likely to be inhibitors. A UV-based enzymatic activity assay was then used to select inhibitory compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were subsequently obtained for the inhibitory compounds against Bacillus anthracis (ΔANR strain), Escherichia coli (BW25113 strain, wild-type and ΔTolC), Francisella tularensis, Staphylococcus aureus (both methicillin susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains) and Yersinia pestis. Several compounds exhibited excellent (0.05-0.15μg/mL) MIC values against Bacillus anthracis. A common core structure was identified for the compounds exhibiting low MIC values. The difference in concentrations for inhibition and MIC suggest that another enzyme(s) is also targeted by the compounds that we identified.

  20. Molecular simulation investigation into the performance of Cu-BTC metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide-methane separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Sevillano, J.J.; Caro-Pérez, A.; Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular simulation study for Cu-BTC metal-organic frameworks as carbon dioxide-methane separation devices. For this study we have computed adsorption and diffusion of methane and carbon dioxide in the structure, both as pure components and mixtures over the full range of bulk gas compo