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Sample records for pulsed protostellar jet

  1. Radio polarization study in protostellar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, Mariana; Araudo, Anabella T; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed associated with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with, e.g., active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts or microquasars to weakly- or non-relativistic flows as those observed e.g. in supernovae and supernova remnants. Recent observations of polarization in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow to measure directly the jet and interstellar magnetic field structure and intensity, thus giving insights on the jet ejection mechanism itself. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non polarized (thermal-X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as models with toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities ~ 1000km/s ...

  2. [Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Hardee, Philip

    1996-01-01

    NASA grant NAG 5 2866, funded by the Astrophysics Theory Program, enabled the study the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets. In collaboration with co-investigator Philip Hardee, the PI derived the analytic dispersion relation for the instability in including a cooling term in the energy equation which was modeled as one of two different power laws. Numerical solutions to this dispersion relation over a wide range of perturbation frequencies, and for a variety of parameter values characterizing the jet (such as Mach number, and density ratio) were found It was found that the growth rates and wavelengths associated with unstable roots of the dispersion relation in cooling jets are significantly different than those associated with adiabatic jets, which have been studied previously. In collaboration with graduate student Jianjun Xu (funded as a research associate under this grant), hydrodynamical simulations were used to follow the growth of the instability into the nonlinear regime. It was found that asymmetric surface waves lead to large amplitude, sinusoidal distortions of the jet, and ultimately to disruption Asymmetric body waves, on the other hand, result in the formation of shocks in the jet beam in the nonlinear regime. In cooling jets, these shocks lead to the formation of dense knots and filaments of gas within the jet. For sufficiently high perturbation frequencies, however, the jet cannot respond and it remains symmetric. Applying these results to observed systems, such as the Herbig-Haro jets HH34, HH111 and HH47 which have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we predicted that some of the asymmetric structures observed in these systems could be attributed to the K-H modes, but that perturbations on timescales associated with the inner disk (about 1 year) would be too rapid to cause disruption. Moreover, it was discovered that weak shock 'spurs' in the ambient gas produced by ripples in the jet surface due to nonlinear, modes of

  3. A STUDY OF RADIO POLARIZATION IN PROTOSTELLAR JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cécere, Mariana [Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Velázquez, Pablo F.; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-543, CP: 04510, D.F., México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella T. [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2016-01-10

    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed in connection with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or microquasars, to weakly or non-relativistic flows such as those observed in supernova remnants. Recent observations of synchrotron emission in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow us to determine the jet and/or interstellar magnetic field structure, thus giving insights into the jet ejection and collimation mechanisms. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non-polarized (thermal X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as a toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities of ∼1000 km s{sup −1} and ∼10 times lighter than the environment can produce internal knots with significant synchrotron emission and thermal X-rays in the shocked region of the leading bow shock moving in a dense medium. While models with a purely toroidal magnetic field show a very large degree of polarization, models with a helical magnetic field show lower values and a decrease of the degree of polarization, in agreement with observations of protostellar jets.

  4. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels

    2016-01-01

    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  5. Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Protostellar Jets and Turbulent Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S; Federrath, Christoph; Bate, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    We presents results from Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and dynamo amplification of the magnetic field in the presence of Mach 10 magnetised turbulence. Our star formation simulations have produced, for the first time ever, highly collimated magnetised protostellar jets from the first hydrostatic core phase. Up to 40% of the initial core mass may be ejected through this outflow. The primary difficulty in performing these simulations is maintaining the divergence free constraint of the magnetic field, and to address this issue, we have developed a new divergence cleaning method which has allowed us to stably follow the evolution of these protostellar jets for long periods. The simulations performed of supersonic MHD turbulence are able to exponentially amplify magnetic energy by up to 10 orders of magnitude via turbulent dynamo. To reduce numerical dissipation, a new shock detection algorithm is utilised which is able to track magnetic shocks throughout ...

  6. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    CERN Document Server

    Djupvik, Anlaug Amanda; Zinnecker, Hans; Barzdis, Arturs; Rastorgueva-Foi, Elizaveta; Petersen, Linus R

    2016-01-01

    Context. To investigate the dynamical properties of protostellar jets. Aims. Determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods. Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 $\\mu$m line of molecular hydrogen, v=1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam over a time-scale of 10 years, are used to determine proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H$_2$ column densities towards these knots. Results. We measure the proper motion of 31 knots over different time scales (2, 4, 6, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km/s for the 10 year base-line, but for shorter time-scales a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km/s is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overla...

  7. Revealing the Jets in the BHR 71 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Tobin, John J.; Gusdorf, Antoine; Arce, Hector G.; Tafalla, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The BHR 71 low-mass protostellar binary system powers two highly collimated outflows, with the outflow from the primary (IRS1) producing shock-induced chemical activity only seen in a handful of other outflows (notably L1157, but also L1448 and IRAS04166). This may represent a very short phase in the outflow process that we don’t yet understand. The shocks are likely caused by jets with velocities > 50 km/s impacting on the ambient material, but unlike in the other outflows mentioned above, no such jet has yet been identified in BHR 71, although hints are found in low-resolution Herschel water observations. We report on ALMA observations of SiO toward both protostars within BHR 71, with surprising results.

  8. Protostellar jets the best laboratories for investigating astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouveia dal Pino, E M

    1995-01-01

    Highly collimated supersonic jets are observed to emerge from a wide variety of astrophysical objects, ranging from Active Nuclei of Galaxies (AGN's) to Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) within our own Galaxy. Despite their different physical scales (in size, velocity, and amount of energy transported), they have strong morphological similarities. Thanks to the proximity and relatively small timescales, which permit direct observations of evolutionary changes, YSO jets are, perhaps, the best laboratories for cosmic jet investigation. In this lecture, the formation, structure, and evolution of the YSO jets are reviewed with the help of observational information, MHD and purely hydrodynamical modeling, and numerical simulations. Possible applications of the models to AGN jets are also addressed.

  9. A Protostellar Jet Emanating from a Hypercompact HII Region

    CERN Document Server

    Guzmán, Andrés E; Rodríguez, Luis F; Contreras, Yanett; Dougados, Catherine; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677 made using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 5, 9, 17, and 19 GHz. These observations provide definite evidence that the outer and inner pairs of radio lobes consist of shock ionized material being excited by an underlying collimated and fast protostellar jet emanating from a hypercompact HII region. By comparing with images taken 6 yr earlier at 5 and 9 GHz using the same telescope, we assess the proper motions of the radio sources. The outer West and East lobes exhibit proper motions of $64\\pm12$ and $48\\pm13$ milliarcsec yr$^{-1}$, indicating velocities projected in the plane of the sky and receding from G345.4938+01.4677 of $520$ and $390$ km s$^{-1}$, respectively. The internal radio lobes also display proper motion signals consistently receding from the HMYSO, with magnitudes of $17\\pm11$ and $35\\pm10$ milliarcsec yr$^{-1}$ for the inner West and East lobes, respectively. The morphology ...

  10. Formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in magnetized protostellar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ustamujic, S; Bonito, R; Miceli, M; de Castro, A I Gómez; López-Santiago, J

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of protostellar jets show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary. They are interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physics that guides the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in protostellar jets, the role of the magnetic field in determining the location, stability, and detectability in X-rays of these shocks, and the physical properties of the shocked plasma. We performed a set of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations modelling supersonic jets ramming into a magnetized medium and explored different configurations of the magnetic field. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. We compared the model results with observations, via the emission measure and the X-ray luminosity synthesized from the simulations. Our model explains the formation of X-ray emitting stat...

  11. Principal Component Analysis of computed emission lines from proto-stellar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A H; De Colle, F; Vasconcelos, M J

    2015-01-01

    A very important issue concerning protostellar jets is the mechanism behind their formation. Obtaining information on the region at the base of a jet can shed light into the subject and some years ago this has been done through a search for a rotational signature at the jet line spectrum. The existence of such signatures, however, remains controversial. In order to contribute to the clarification of this issue, in this paper we show that the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can potentially help to distinguish between rotation and precession effects in protostellar jet images. We apply the PCA to synthetic spectro-imaging datacubes generated as an output of numerical simulations of protostellar jets. In this way we generate a benchmark to which a PCA diagnostics of real observations can be confronted. Using the computed emission line profiles for [O I]6300A and [S II]6716A, we recover and analyze the effects of rotation and precession in tomograms generated by PCA. We show that different combinations of the ...

  12. INVESTIGATING PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PROTOSTELLAR JETS: THE TRIPLE RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCE IN SERPENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, Adriana; Valotto, Carlos [Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, (IATE-UNC), X5000BGR Córdoba (Argentina); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (IRyA-UNAM), 58089 Morelia, México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Anglada, Guillem [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Martí, Josep [Dept. de Física, EPS de Jaén, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, A3-402, E-23071 Jaén (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    While most protostellar jets present free–free emission at radio wavelengths, synchrotron emission has also been proposed to be present in a handful of these objects. The presence of nonthermal emission has been inferred by negative spectral indices at centimeter wavelengths. In one case (the HH 80-81 jet arising from a massive protostar), its synchrotron nature was confirmed by the detection of linearly polarized radio emission. One of the main consequences of these results is that synchrotron emission implies the presence of relativistic particles among the nonrelativistic material of these jets. Therefore, an acceleration mechanism should be taking place. The most probable scenario is that particles are accelerated when the jets strongly impact against the dense envelope surrounding the protostar. Here we present an analysis of radio observations obtained with the Very Large Array of the triple radio source in the Serpens star-forming region. This object is known to be a radio jet arising from an intermediate-mass protostar. It is also one of the first protostellar jets where the presence of nonthermal emission was proposed. We analyze the dynamics of the jet and the nature of the emission and discuss these issues in the context of the physical parameters of the jet and the particle acceleration phenomenon.

  13. X-ray emission from protostellar jet HH 154: the first evidence of a diamond shock?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonito, R; Miceli, M; Peres, G; Micela, G; Favata, F

    2011-01-01

    X-ray emission from about ten protostellar jets has been discovered and it appears as a feature common to the most energetic jets. Although X-ray emission seems to originate from shocks internal to jets, the mechanism forming these shocks remains controversial. One of the best studied X-ray jet is HH 154 that has been observed by Chandra over a time base of about 10 years. We analyze the Chandra observations of HH 154 by investigating the evolution of its X-ray source. We show that the X-ray emission consists of a bright stationary component and a faint elongated component. We interpret the observations by developing a hydrodynamic model describing a protostellar jet originating from a nozzle and compare the X-ray emission synthesized from the model with the X-ray observations. The model takes into account the thermal conduction and radiative losses and shows that the jet/nozzle leads to the formation of a diamond shock at the nozzle exit. The shock is stationary over the period covered by our simulations and...

  14. The diagnostic potential of Fe lines applied to protostellar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; Antoniucci, S; Alcala', J M; Bacciotti, F; Bonito, R; Podio, L; Stelzer, B; Whelan, E T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the diagnostic capabilities of the iron lines for tracing the physical conditions of the shock-excited gas in jets driven by pre-main sequence stars. We have analyzed the 300-2500 nm X-shooter spectra of two jets driven by the pre-main sequence stars ESO-Halpha 574 and Par-Lup 3-4. Both spectra are very rich in [FeII] lines over the whole spectral range; in addition, lines from [FeIII] are detected in the ESO-H\\alpha 574 spectrum. NLTE codes along with codes for the ionization equilibrium are used to derive the gas excitation conditions of electron temperature and density, and fractional ionization. The iron gas-phase abundance is provided by comparing the iron lines emissivity with that of [OI] 630 nm. The [FeII] lines indicate ESO-Halpha 574 jet is, on average, colder (T_e = 9000 K), less dense (n_e = 2 10^4 cm^-3) and more ionized (x_e = 0.7) than the Par-Lup 3-4 jet (T_e = 13000 K, n_e = 6 10^4 cm^-3, x_e < 0.4), even if the existence of a higher density component (n_e = 2 10^5 cm^-3) is...

  15. Protostellar Jet and Outflow in the Collapsing Cloud Core

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the driving mechanism of outflows and jets in star formation process using resistive MHD nested grid simulations. We found two distinct flows in the collapsing cloud core: Low-velocity outflows (sim 5 km/s) with a wide opening angle, driven from the first adiabatic core, and high-velocity jets (sim 50 km/s) with good collimation, driven from the protostar. High-velocity jets are enclosed by low-velocity outflow. The difference in the degree of collimation between the two flows is caused by the strength of the magnetic field and configuration of the magnetic field lines. The magnetic field around an adiabatic core is strong and has an hourglass configuration. Therefore, the low-velocity outflow from the adiabatic core are driven mainly by the magnetocentrifugal mechanism and guided by the hourglass-like field lines. In contrast, the magnetic field around the protostar is weak and has a straight configuration owing to Ohmic dissipation in the high-density gas region. Therefore, high-velocity jet ...

  16. The diagnostic potential of Fe lines applied to protostellar jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Antoniucci, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Alcalá, J. M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bacciotti, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Podio, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Whelan, E. T. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universität, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2013-11-20

    We investigate the diagnostic capabilities of iron lines for tracing the physical conditions of shock-excited gas in jets driven by pre-main sequence stars. We have analyzed the 3000-25000 Å, X-shooter spectra of two jets driven by the pre-main sequence stars ESO-Hα 574 and Par-Lup 3-4. Both spectra are very rich in [Fe II] lines over the whole spectral range; in addition, lines from [Fe III] are detected in the ESO-Hα 574 spectrum. Non-local thermal equilibrium codes solving the equations of the statistical equilibrium along with codes for the ionization equilibrium are used to derive the gas excitation conditions of electron temperature and density and fractional ionization. An estimate of the iron gas-phase abundance is provided by comparing the iron lines emissivity with that of neutral oxygen at 6300 Å. The [Fe II] line analysis indicates that the jet driven by ESO-Hα 574 is, on average, colder (T {sub e} ∼ 9000 K), less dense (n {sub e} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}), and more ionized (x {sub e} ∼ 0.7) than the Par-Lup 3-4 jet (T {sub e} ∼ 13,000 K, n {sub e} ∼ 6 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, x {sub e} < 0.4), even if the existence of a higher density component (n {sub e} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) is probed by the [Fe III] and [Fe II] ultra-violet lines. The physical conditions derived from the iron lines are compared with shock models suggesting that the shock at work in ESO-Hα 574 is faster and likely more energetic than the Par-Lup 3-4 shock. This latter feature is confirmed by the high percentage of gas-phase iron measured in ESO-Hα 574 (50%-60% of its solar abundance in comparison with less than 30% in Par-Lup 3-4), which testifies that the ESO-Hα 574 shock is powerful enough to partially destroy the dust present inside the jet. This work demonstrates that a multiline Fe analysis can be effectively used to probe the excitation and ionization conditions of the gas in a jet without any assumption on ionic abundances. The main

  17. First Evidence of a Precessing Jet Excavating a Protostellar Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Ybarra, J E; Haisch, K E; Jarrett, T H; Sahai, R; Weinberger, A J; Ybarra, Jason E.; Barsony, Mary; Haisch, Karl E.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2006-01-01

    We present new, sensitive, near-infrared images of the Class I protostar, Elias 29, in the Ophiuchus cloud core. To explore the relationship between the infall envelope and the outflow, narrowband H2 1-0 S(1), Br-gamma, and narrowband K-continuum filters were used to image the source with the Wide-Field Infrared Camera on the Hale 5m telescope and with Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade 6.5 m telescope. The source appears as a bipolar, scattered light nebula, with a wide opening angle in all filters, as is typical for late-stage protostars. However, the pure H2 emission-line images point to the presence of a heretofore undetected precessing jet. It is argued that high-velocity, narrow, precessing jets provide the mechanism for creating the observed wide-angled outflow cavity in this source.

  18. Protostellar jets and magnetised turbulence with smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an integral component of the formation of stars. During my thesis work, I built new methods to model magnetic fields in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics which enforce the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field and reduce numerical dissipation of the magnetic field. Using these methods, we have performed simulations of isolated protostar formation, studying the production of jets and outflows of material and their effect on transporting angular momentum away from the protostar and reducing the efficiency of star formation. A major code comparison project on the small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification of magnetic fields was performed, using conditions representative of molecular clouds, the formation site of stars. The results were compared against results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and qualitative behaviour. I will outline the numerical methods developed, and present the results from our protostar and molecular cloud simulations.

  19. HST/WFC3 Imaging of Protostellar Jets in Carina: [Fe II] Emission Tracing Massive Jets from Intermediate Mass Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We present narrowband WFC3-UVIS and -IR images of four externally irradiated protostellar jets in the Carina nebula: HH666, HH901, HH902, and HH1066. These massive jets are unusual because they are bathed in UV radiation from dozens of nearby O stars, but despite the strong incident ionizing radiation, portions of the jet remain neutral. Near-IR [Fe II] images reveal dense, neutral gas that was not seen in previous studies of H-alpha emission. We show that near-IR [Fe II] emitting gas must be self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons, regardless of its excitation mechanism (shocks, FUV radiation, or both). High densities are required for the survival of Fe+ amid the strong Lyman continuum from Tr14, raising estimates of the mass-loss rates by an order of magnitude. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates onto their driving protostars, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (IM; ~2-8 Msun) stars. Indeed, the IR driving sources of two of these outflows have luminosities that...

  20. Kinematics of the Envelope and Two Bipolar Jets in the Class 0 Protostellar System L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Woojin; Stephens, Ian W; Looney, Leslie W

    2015-01-01

    A massive envelope and a strong bipolar outflow are the two main structures characterizing the youngest protostellar systems. In order to understand the physical properties of a bipolar outflow and the relationship with those of the envelope, we obtained a mosaic map covering the whole bipolar outflow of the youngest protostellar system L1157 with about $5"$ angular resolution in CO J=2-1 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. By utilizing these observations of the whole bipolar outflow, we estimate its physical properties and show that they are consistent with multiple jets. We also constrain a preferred precession direction. In addition, we observed the central envelope structure with $2"$ resolution in the $\\lambda=1.3$ and 3 mm continua and various molecular lines: C$^{17}$O, C$^{18}$O, $^{13}$CO, CS, CN, N$_2$H$^+$, CH$_3$OH, H$_2$O, SO, and SO$_2$. All the CO isotopes and CS, CN, and N$_2$H$^+$ have been detected and imaged. We marginally detected the features that can be in...

  1. A High-Resolution Very Large Array Observation of a Protostar in OMC-3: Shock-induced X-ray Emission by a Protostellar Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, M; Kobayashi, N; Saitó, M; Tsuboi, Y; Chandler, C J

    2004-01-01

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A-configuration, we have obtained a high-resolution 3.6 cm map of a hard X-ray source detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in a protostellar clump in Orion molecular cloud 3. Two radio continuum sources were detected in the vicinity of the X-ray source, both of which have NIR counterparts. We conclude that these VLA sources are free-free emission produced by shocks in protostellar jets from the NIR class I protostars. Using the centimeter data, we determined the power and orientation of the protostellar jets. The center position of the X-ray emission was found to be ~1--2" offset from the exciting sources of the jets, and the displacement is in the direction of the jets and molecular outflows. We discuss the nature of the X-ray emission as the shock-excited plasma at the shock front where the jet propagates through interstellar medium at a speed of ~1000 km/s.

  2. Measuring Magnetic Fields from Water Masers in the Synchrotron Protostellar Jet in W3(H$_2$O)

    CERN Document Server

    Goddi, C; Moscadelli, L; Imai, H; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Sanna, A

    2016-01-01

    We report full polarimetric VLBA observations of water masers towards the Turner-Welch Object in the W3(OH) high-mass star forming complex. This object drives a synchrotron jet, which is quite exceptional for a high-mass protostar, and is associated with a strongly polarized water maser source, W3(H$_2$O), making it an optimal target to investigate the role of magnetic fields on the innermost scales of protostellar disk-jet systems. The linearly polarized emission from water masers provides clues on the orientation of the local magnetic field, while the measurement of the Zeeman splitting from circular polarization provides its strength. The water masers trace a bipolar, biconical outflow at the center of the synchrotron jet. Although on scales of a few thousand AU the magnetic field inferred from the masers is on average orientated along the flow axis, on smaller scales (10s to 100s of AU), we have revealed a misalignment between the magnetic field and the velocity vectors, which arises from the compression ...

  3. Physical Attributes of Pulse Jet Mixer Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2013-07-07

    Vessels mixed using pulse jet mixers that produce a periodic, rather than steady, flow present challenges with respect to modeling slurry mixing. A PJM is a cylindrical tank within the mixed tank that has a conical bottom with an orifice through which process fluid cyclically enters and is expelled forcefully by pressurizing the air space above the liquid in the PJM. Between pulses, some of the solids settle from the slurry, which nominally is a failure in mixing, but during the pulses (if operated to attain bottom clearing conditions), all of the solids are resuspended and made available for processing or transfer. Overall, mixing is successful if the solids are processed and removed from the vessel as needed when averaged over repeated PJM cycles. This paper describes the physics of pulse jet mixing process based on physical observation during experiments and analysis of experimental concentration profile data obtained during the mixing cycle.

  4. Measuring magnetic fields from water masers in the synchrotron protostellar jet in W3(H2O)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddi, C.; Surcis, G.; Moscadelli, L.; Imai, H.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Sanna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Magnetic fields are invoked to launch, drive, and shape jets in both low- and high-mass protostars, but observational data on the spatial scales required to assess their role in the protostellar mass-loss process is still scarce. Aims: The Turner-Welch (TW) object in the W3(OH) high-mass star-forming complex drives a synchrotron jet, which is quite exceptional for a high-mass protostar, and is associated with a strongly polarized H2O maser source, W3(H2O), making it an optimal target to investigate the role of magnetic fields on the innermost scales of protostellar disk-jet systems. Methods: We report full polarimetric VLBA observations of H2O masers towards W3(H2O). Their linearly polarized emission provides clues on the orientation of the local magnetic field (on the plane of the sky), while the measurement of the Zeeman splitting provides its strength (along the line-of-sight). The linear scales probed by H2O masers are tens to hundreds of AU (at the W3(H2O) distance, 2 kpc), inaccessible to other star-formation tracers. Results: We identified a total of 148 individual maser features and we measured their physical properties. Out of 148, we measured linear polarization in 34 features, with a fractional percentage varying in the range 0.9-42%, making W3(H2O) the highest-polarized H2O maser source observed with VLBI known in the Galaxy. The H2O masers trace a bipolar, biconical outflow at the center of the synchrotron jet. Although on scales of a few thousand AU the magnetic field inferred from the masers is on average orientated along the flow axis, on smaller scales (10s to 100s of AU), we have revealed a misalignment between the magnetic field and the velocity vectors, which arises from the compression of the field component along the shock front. We also detected circularly polarized emission toward ten maser features, with a fractional percentage varying in the range 0.2-1.6%. In the gas shocked by the synchrotron jet, we estimate a total field

  5. Anatomy of the internal bow shocks in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostellar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, M.; Su, Y.-N.; Shang, H.; Johnstone, D.; Zhang, Q.; Santiago-García, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, N.; Wang, L.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Highly collimated jets and wide-angle outflows are two related components of the mass-ejection activity associated with stellar birth. Despite decades of research, the relation between these two components remains poorly understood. Aims: We study the relation between the jet and the outflow in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostar. This Taurus protostar drives a molecular jet that contains multiple emission peaks symmetrically located from the central source. The protostar also drives a wide-angle outflow consisting of two conical shells. Methods: We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer to observe two fields along the IRAS 04166+2706 jet. The fields were centered on a pair of emission peaks that correspond to the same ejection event. The observations were carried out in CO(2-1), SiO(5-4), and SO(JN = 65-54). Results: Both ALMA fields present spatial distributions that are approximately elliptical and have their minor axes aligned with the jet direction. As the velocity increases, the emission in each field moves gradually across the elliptical region. This systematic pattern indicates that the emitting gas in each field lies in a disk-like structure that is perpendicular to the jet axis and whose gas is expanding away from the jet. A small degree of curvature in the first-moment maps indicates that the disks are slightly curved in the manner expected for bow shocks moving away from the IRAS source. A simple geometrical model confirms that this scenario fits the main emission features. Conclusions: The emission peaks in the IRAS 04166+2706 jet likely represent internal bow shocks where material is being ejected laterally away from the jet axis. While the linear momentum of the ejected gas is dominated by the component in the jet direction, the sideways component is not negligible, and can potentially affect the distribution of gas in the surrounding outflow and core.

  6. Modelling X-ray emitting stationary shocks in magnetized protostellar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustamujic, S.; Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; López-Santiago, J.

    2017-03-01

    The early stages of a star birth are characterized by a variety of mass ejection phenomena, including outflows and collimated jets that are strongly related to the accretion process developed in the context of the star-disc interaction. Jets move through the ambient medium producing complex structures observed at different wavelengths. In particular, X-ray observations show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary. They are interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physical properties of the shocked plasma and the role of magnetic fields on the collimation of the jet and the formation of a stationary shock. We performed 2.5D MHD simulations modelling the propagation of a jet ramming with a supersonic speed into an initially isothermal and homogeneous magnetized medium and compared the results with observations.

  7. Anatomy of the internal bow shocks in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostellar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Tafalla, M; Shang, H; Johnstone, D; Zhang, Q; Santiago-Garcia, J; Lee, C -F; Hirano, N; Wang, L -Y

    2016-01-01

    $Aims.$ We study the relation between the jet and the outflow in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostar. This Taurus protostar drives a molecular jet that contains multiple emission peaks symmetrically located from the central source. The protostar also drives a wide-angle outflow consisting of two conical shells. $Methods.$ We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer to observe two fields along the IRAS 04166+2706 jet. The fields were centered on a pair of emission peaks that correspond to the same ejection event, and were observed in CO(2-1), SiO(5-4), and SO(65-54). $ Results.$ Both ALMA fields present spatial distributions that are approximately elliptical and have their minor axes aligned with the jet direction. As the velocity increases, the emission in each field moves gradually across the elliptical region. This systematic pattern indicates that the emitting gas in each field lies in a disk-like structure that is perpendicular to the jet axis and is expanding away from t...

  8. Protostellar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

  9. MHD simulations of protostellar jets: formation and stability of shock diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    The early stages of a star birth are characterised by a variety of mass ejection phenomena, including outflows and collimated jets, that are strongly related with the accretion process developed in the context of the star-disc interaction. After been ejected, jets move through the ambient medium, interacting and producing shocks and complex structures that are observed at different wavelength bands. In particular, X-ray observations show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary and have been interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physical properties of the shocked plasma and the role of the magnetic field on the collimation performing 2.5D MHD simulations, including the effects of the thermal conduction and the radiative losses. We modelled the propagation of a jet ramming with a supersonic speed into an initially isothermal and homogeneous magnetized medium. We studied the physics that guides the formation of a stationary shock (for instance a shock diamond) and compared the results with observations, via the emission measure distribution vs. temperature and the luminosity synthesised from the simulations.

  10. A highly-collimated SiO jet in the HH212 protostellar outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Gueth, F; Cesaroni, R; Bacciotti, F; Le Floc'h, B; McCaughrean, M J

    2006-01-01

    We mapped the HH212 Class 0 outflow in SiO(2--1, 5--4) and continuum using the PdBI in its extended configurations. The unprecedented angular resolution (down to 0.34") allows accurate comparison with a new, deep H2 image obtained at the VLT. The SiO emission is confined to a highly-collimated bipolar jet (width 0.35") along the outflow axis. The jet can be traced down to within 500 AU of the protostar, in a region that is heavily obscured in H2 images. Where both species are detected, SiO shows the same overall kinematics and structure as H2, indicating that both molecules are tracing the same material. We find that the high-velocity SiO gas near the protostar is not tracing a wide-angle wind but is already confined to a flow inside a narrow cone of half-opening angle < 6 deg.

  11. HiRes deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostellar jets and outflows: New data on the evolution of the outflow morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Thompson, T., E-mail: velusamy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: timthompson3@verizon.net [1947C East Huntington Drive, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough database of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however, its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85 m mirror. Here, we use a high-resolution deconvolution algorithm, 'HiRes,' to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful for detecting (1) wide-angle outflows seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details of H{sub 2} emission in jets and bow shocks, and (3) compact features in MIPS 24 μm images as protostar/disk and atomic/ionic line emission associated with the jets. The HiRes FITS image data of such a large homogeneous sample presented here will be useful to the community in studying these protostellar objects. To illustrate the utility of this HiRes sample, we show how the opening angle of the wide-angle outflows in 31 sources, all observed in the HiRes-processed Spitzer images, correlates with age. Our data suggest a power-law fit to opening angle versus age with an exponent of ∼0.32 and 0.02, respectively, for ages ≤8000 yr and ≥8000 yr.

  12. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy

  13. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  14. Studies on Pulse Jet Engine by Wind Tunnel Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Nakano; Michael Zeutzius; Hideo Miyanishi; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko

    2001-01-01

    Simple design and efficiency make pulse jet engines attractive for aeronautical short-term operation applications. An active control system extends the operating range and reduces the fuel consumption considerably so that this old technology might gain a new interest. The results on wind tunnel experiments have been reported together with the impact of combustion mode (pulse or steady) on system performance.

  15. Effects of multi-jet coupling on propulsive performance in underwater pulsed jets

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of pulsed jets for underwater propulsion, the effect of multiple-jet interactions remains poorly understood. We experimentally investigate how interactions between neighboring jets in a pulsed-jet thruster affect the thruster's propulsive performance. Using high-speed fluorescence imaging, we investigate the mutual influence of two pulsed jets under conditions relevant to low-speed maneuvering in a vehicle ($Re\\approx350,$ $L/D\\leq2$). Thrust production and propulsive efficiency are evaluated for different nozzle spacings using a new force estimation technique based on the fluorescence data. This analysis reveals that, compared to non-interacting jets, the efficiency and thrust generated by the pair of interacting jets can fall by as much as 10\\% when the jets are brought into close proximity. Empirically, the thrust $T$ falls off with the non-dimensional jet spacing $\\widetilde{\\Delta}$ as $T=T_\\infty(1-Co \\widetilde{\\Delta}^{-6})$ for a thrust coupling coefficient $Co=2.04 \\pm 0.11.$ ...

  16. Measurements of a single pulse impinging jet. A CFD reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovo Mirko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports three sets of measurements of a single pulse impinging jet. The purpose is to serve as a reference for CFD validation. A gas injector generates a single pulse jet at Re ~90000. The jet impinges on a temperature controlled flat target at different angles (0º, 30º, 45º and 60º. The jet velocity field is measured with PIV. The evolution of the jet velocity profile in time is reported at two different locations (suitable as CFD inlet conditions. At the same locations also turbulence quantities are reported. The impingement wall temperature is measured with fast responding thermocouples and infrared camera. These give high time and space resolution respectively. Results are reported in a format suitable for comparison with CFD simulations. The results show that the heat transfer effects are highest for the jet impinging normally on the target. Target inclination has remarkable effects on the jet penetration rate and repeatability. Even small target inclinations result creates a preferential direction for the jet flow and cause a shift in the position of the stagnation region.

  17. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  18. Studies on Pulse Jet Engine by Wind Tunnel Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Nakano

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple design and efficiency make pulse jet engines attractive for aeronautical short-term operation applications. An active control system extends the operating range and reduces the fuel consumption considerably so that this old technology might gain a new interest. The results on wind tunnel experiments have been reported together with the impact of combustion mode (pulse or steady on system performance.

  19. ALMA observations of the Th 28 protostellar disk. A new example of counter-rotation between disk and optical jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvet, F.; Dougados, C.; Cabrit, S.; Hales, A.; Pinte, C.; Ménard, F.; Bacciotti, F.; Coffey, D.; Mardones, D.; Bronfman, L.; Gueth, F.

    2016-12-01

    Aims: Recently, differences in Doppler shifts across the base of four close classical T Tauri star jets have been detected with the HST in optical and near-ultraviolet (NUV) emission lines, and these Doppler shifts were interpreted as rotation signatures under the assumption of steady state flow. To support this interpretation, it is necessary that the underlying disks rotate in the same sense. Agreement between disk rotation and jet rotation determined from optical lines has been verified in two cases and rejected in one case. Meanwhile, the near-ultraviolet lines, which may trace faster and more collimated inner spines of the jet than optical lines, either agree or show no clear indication. We propose to perform this test on the fourth system, Th 28. Methods: We present ALMA high angular resolution Band 7 continuum, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(2-1) observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star Th 28. Results: The sub-arcsecond angular resolution (0.46''× 0.37'') and high sensitivity reached enable us to detect, in CO and continuum, clear signatures of a disk in Keplerian rotation around Th 28. The 12CO emission is clearly resolved, allowing us to derive estimates of disk position angle and inclination. The large velocity separation of the peaks in 12CO, combined with the resolved extent of the emission, indicate a central stellar mass in the range 1-2 M⊙. The rotation sense of the disk is well detected in both 13CO and 12CO emission lines, and this direction is opposite to that implied by the transverse Doppler shifts measured in the optical lines of the jet. Conclusions: The Th 28 system is now the second system, among the four investigated so far, where counter-rotation between the disk and the optical jet is detected. These findings imply either that optical transverse velocity gradients detected with HST do not trace jet rotation or that modeling the flow with the steady assumption is not valid. In both cases jet rotation studies that rely solely

  20. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from jets characteristic of pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell break through? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored.

  1. Development of A Pulse Radio-Frequency Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Guo; Zhao, Ling-Li; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A small pulse plasma jet was driven by new developed radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 6.78 MHz. In contrast to the conventional RF 13.56 MHz atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), the power supply was highly simplified by eliminating the matching unit of the RF power supply and using a new circuit, moreover, a pulse controller was added to the circuit to produce the pulse discharge. The plasma jet was operated in a capacitively coupled manner and exhibited low power requirement of 5 W at atmospheric pressure using argon as a carrier gas. The pulse plasma plume temperature remained at less than 45 °C for an extended period of operation without using water to cool the electrodes. Optical emission spectrum measured at a wide range of 200-1000 nm indicated various excited species which were helpful in applying the plasma jet for surface sterilization to human skin or other sensitive materials. Institude of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, China.

  2. Experimental investigation of jet pulse control on flexible vibrating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Grigorios; Papanicolaou, Panos; Zacharopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of applying on-line fluid jet pulses to actively control the vibrations of flexible structures subjected to harmonic and earthquake-like base excitations provided by a shake table is explored. The operating principles and capabilities of the control system applied have been investigated in a simplified small-scale laboratory model that is a mass attached at the top free end of a vertical flexible slender beam with rectangular cross-section, the other end of which is mounted on an electrodynamic shaker. A pair of opposite jets placed on the mass at the top of the cantilever beam applied the appropriate forces by ejecting pressurized air pulses controlled by on/off solenoid electro-valves via in house developed control software, in order to control the vibration caused by harmonic, periodic and random excitations at pre-selected frequency content provided by the shaker. The dynamics of the structure was monitored by accelerometers and the jet impulses by pressure sensors. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of Jet Pulse Control Systems (JPCS). It was verified that the measured root mean square (RMS) vibration levels of the controlled structure from harmonic and earthquake base excitations, could be reduced by approximately 50% and 33% respectively.

  3. ALMA observations of the Th 28 protostellar disk - A new exemple of counter-rotation between disk and optical jet

    CERN Document Server

    Louvet, F; Cabrit, S; Hales, A; Pinte, C; Menard, F; Bacciotti, F; Coffey, D; Mardones, D; Bronfman, L; Gueth, F

    2016-01-01

    Differences in Doppler shifts across the base of four close classical T-Tauri star jets have been detected with the HST in optical and NUV emission lines, and interpreted as rotation signatures under the assumption of steady state flow. To support this interpretation, it is necessary that the underlying disks rotate in the same sense. Agreement between disk rotation and jet rotation determined from optical lines has been verified in two cases and rejected in one. We propose here to perform this test on the fourth system, Th 28. We present ALMA high angular resolution Band 7 continuum, 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) observations of the circumstellar disk around the T-Tauri star Th 28. The sub-arcsecond angular resolution (0.46"x0.37") and high-sensitivity reached enable us to detect in CO and continuum clear signatures of a disk in Keplerian rotation around Th28. The 12CO emission allows us to derive estimates of disk position angle and inclination. The large velocity separation of the peaks in 12CO combined with the...

  4. Hypersonic Buckshot: Astrophysical Jets as Heterogeneous Collimated Plasmoids

    CERN Document Server

    Yirak, Kristopher; Cunningham, Andrew J; Mitran, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    Herbig-Haro (HH) jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or ``pulsed'' variations of conditions at the jet source. Simulations based on this scenario result in knots extending across the jet diameter. Observations and recent high energy density laboratory experiments shed new light on structures below this scale and indicate they may be important for understanding the fundamentals of jet dynamics. In this paper we offer an alternative to ``pulsed'' models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations we explore the possibility that jets are chains of sub-radial clumps propagating through a moving inter-clump medium. Our models explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small ($r\\rho_{jet}$) spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth inter-clump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by $\\sim15$%. We find the consequences of shiftin...

  5. Multiple Pulses from Plasma Jets onto Liquid Covered Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are being studied in the treatment of biological surfaces that are often covered by a thin layer of liquid. The plume of the plasma jet contains neutral radicals and charged species that solvate into the liquid and eventually form terminal species that reach the tissue below. The contribution of neutral and charged species to reactivity in the liquid is sensitive to whether the active plasma plume touches the liquid. In this paper, we discuss results from modeling the production of the aqueous species formed from the interaction of the plume of plasma jets over multiple pulses with the water layer, and the fluences of the species to the underlying tissue. The model used in this study, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species and electron energy, Poisson's equation for the electric potential, and Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. Radiation transport includes photoionization of O2 and H2O in the gas and liquid phases and photodissocation of H2Oaq in the liquid. Multiple pulses when the plasma plume touches and does not touch the liquid will be examined. Two regimes of hydrodynamics will be discussed - low repetition rates where the neutral radicals are blown away before the next discharge pulse, and high repetition rate when the plasma plume interacts with neutral radicals from previous pulses. The density of aqueous ions produced in the liquid layer is strongly dependent on whether the plasma effluent touches or does not touch the water surface. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and NSF.

  6. Characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator to dissecting soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator applied, in particular, to dissect soft tissues. Results of experiments, by making use of high speed recording of optical visualization and varying nozzle diameter, actuator time interval, and their effects on dissection performance are presented. Jet penetration characteristics are compared with continuous water jet and hence potential assessment of pulsed water jets to clinical applications is performed.

  7. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell

  8. HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SUCK-IN PULSED JET IN WELL DRILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-he; DU Yu-kun; NI Hong-jian; MA Lin

    2011-01-01

    The development of new drilling methods is important for the exploration and production of oil fields. The pulsed jet is a drilling technology of high potentiality. This article proposes a new concept of suck-in pulsed jet with self-excited oscillation, by which a full use of the hydraulic power can be made in the annular space. A hydrodynamic analysis of suck-in pulsed jet with self-excited oscillation is carried out by numerical simulations and rock-breaking experiments. It is shown that with the jet, a negative pressure zone will be formed in the oscillation cavity to ensure automatic sucking of enough annular fluids and the formation of an efficient pulsed jet. The rock-breaking and pressure testing results have verified the reliability of the numerical simulation. The research provides a basis for the development of the pulsed jet drilling technology.

  9. Vacuum Ultraviolet Xenon Excimer Light Source Excited by a Pulsed Jet Discharge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eiji FUTAGAMI; Toshiaki TAKADA; Junji KAWANAKA; Shoichi KUBODERA; Wataru SASAKI; Kou KUROSAWA; Kenichi MITSUHASHI; Tatsushi IGARASHI

    1995-01-01

      We have developed a new xenon excimer light source in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). The use of a pulsed gas jet discharge realized efficient cluster excitation and spatially localized emission in VUV with an extremely long pulse duration...

  10. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the..., concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, to the Department of Energy. In... Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing (PJM) at the Waste Treatment...

  11. 76 FR 13397 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the... Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2, concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste... Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

  12. Characteristics of High Speed Electro-thermal Jet Activated by Pulsed DC Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jichul Shin

    2010-01-01

    Experimental study of synthetic jet produced by pulsed direct current (DC) discharge is presented.High velocity jet is activated electro-thermally by high frequency pulsed DC discharge in small cavity.A cavity of 2.38 mm diameter cylinder bounded by circular electrode is made in a ceramic plate and a small orifice of 1.78 mm diameter is drilled in the middle of cavity.High frequency pulsed DC discharge instantaneously heats air in the cavity and produces high velocity jet at the exit of the orifice.Schlieren imaging at high framing rate of 100 kHz reveals the presence of supersonic precursor shock followed by the jet emerging from the orifice.The jet velocity reaches as high as about 300 m/s.Jet with smaller cavity volume produces lesser effect and jet velocity reaches maximum at certain cavity volume with given discharge current and orifice size.As duty time of pulse increases from 5 to 20 μs at fixed frequency of 5 kHz,the jet velocity also increases and becomes nearly constant with further increase in duty time.At fixed duty time of 20 μs,higher frequency pulsing of 10 kHz produces degradation of the jet as the discharge pulse continues.The jet developed in this study is demonstrated to be strong enough to penetrate deep into supersonic boundary layer and to produce a bow shock when the jet is issued into Math 3 supersonic flow.

  13. [The pulsed water jet for selective removal of bone cement during revision arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honl, Matthias; Schwieger, Karsten; Carrero, Volker; Rentzsch, Reemt; Dierk, Oliver; Dries, Sebastian; Pude, Frank; Bluhm, Andrea; Hille, Ekkehard; Louis, Hartmut; Morlock, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Conventional tools used in prosthetic revision surgery have a limited range of action within the narrow cement mantle. Water jet cutting technology permits tiny and precisely controlled cuts, and may therefore be an alternative method of bone cement removal. Our study compares the cutting performance on bone cement (PMMA) and bone of a pulsed water jet and a continuous water jet. The aim of the study was to establish whether selective removal of PMMA is possible. 55 bone specimens (bovine femora) and 32 specimens of PMMA were cut with a continuous and a pulsed water jet at different pressures (40 MPa, 60 MPa) and pulse frequencies (0Hz, 50Hz, 250Hz). To ensure comparability of the results, the depths of cut were related to the hydraulic power of that part of the jet actually impinging on the material. While for PMMA the power-related depth of cut increased significantly with the pulse frequency, this did not apply to bone. The cuts produced in bone were sharp-edged. Since PMMA is more brittle than bone, the water jet caused cracks that enlarged further until particles of bone broke away. Although selective removal of PMMA without doing damage to the bone was not possible at the investigated settings of the jet parameters, the results do show that a pulsed water jet can cut bone cement much more effectively than bone. This is an important advantage over conventional non-selective tools for the removal of bone cement.

  14. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  15. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  16. Emission lines from rotating proto-stellar jets with variable velocity profiles. I. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the non-magnetic case

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A H; Raga, A C; Vasconcelos, M J; De Colle, F

    2005-01-01

    Using the Yguazu-a three-dimensional hydrodynamic code, we have computed a set of numerical simulations of heavy, supersonic, radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence). In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile, in agreement with some recent observational evidence found in jets from T Tauri stars which seems to support the presence of a rotation velocity pattern inside the jet beam, near the jet production region. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the H, [O I]6300, [S II]6716 and [N II]6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of di...

  17. THEORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-EXCITED OSCILLATION PULSED JET NOZZLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhenfang; Li Jun; Chen Deshu; Deng Xiaogang; Tang Chuanlin; Zhang Fenghua

    2003-01-01

    Comparing with usual continuous jet nozzle, the self-excited oscillation pulsed jet nozzle SEOPJN) can make jet generate a higher peak of pressure and larger scouring volume. And it can make jet increase the effective standoff distance, too. The basic theories of the SEOPJN are introduced.Some experimental results are shown. According to the results, using tricorn bits assembled the SEOPJN to drill oil well, the ROP increases by 8%~77%, and the rates of the footage for tricorn bit increases by 6.7%~44.0%.

  18. From salps to robots: estimating thrust in propulsive pulsed jets using wake kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Both animals and robots can achieve high maneuverability underwater by using pulsed jets for propulsion. However, in cases where multiple jets are required, it remains unclear how jet placement and timing will affect propulsive performance. In recent experiments, we demonstrate how vortex interactions reduce thrust production for simultaneously pulsed jets. Our results rely on force estimates using high-speed laser fluorescence imaging of the jet wakes. By combining measurements of wake kinematics with analytical models, we are able to estimate force production from just the fluorescence videos. In this talk, I will discuss the force estimation technique, and how this approach helped to reveal design strategies that would benefit from the wake interactions. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  19. Study of the expansion characteristics of a pulsed plasma jet in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuewei; Yu, Yonggang; Mang, Shanshan; Xue, Xiaochun

    2017-04-01

    In the background of electrothermal-chemical (ETC) emission, an investigation has been conducted on the characteristics of a freely expanding pulsed plasma jet in air. The evolutionary process of the plasma jet is experimentally investigated using a piezoelectric pressure sensor and a digital high-speed video system. The variation relation in the extended volume, axial displacement and radial displacement of the pulsed plasma jet in atmosphere with time under different discharge voltages and jet breaking pressures is obtained. Based on experiments, a two-dimensional axisymmetric unsteady model is established to analyze the characteristics of the two-phase interface and the variation of flow-field parameters resulting from a pulsed plasma jet into air at a pressure of 1.5-3.5 MPa under three nozzle diameters (3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, respectively). The images of the plasma jet reveal a changing shape process, from a quasi-ellipsoid to a conical head and an elongated cylindrical tail. The axial displacement of the jet is always larger than that along the radial direction. The extended volume reveals a single peak distribution with time. Compared to the experiment, the numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental data. The parameters of the jet field mutate at the nozzle exit with a decrease in the parameter pulse near the nozzle, and become more and more gradual and close to environmental parameters. Increasing the injection pressure and nozzle diameter can increase the parameters of the flow field such as the expansion volume of the pulsed plasma jet, the size of the Mach disk and the pressure. In addition, the turbulent mixing in the expansion process is also enhanced.

  20. Dynamic effects of high-pressure pulsed water jet in low-permeability coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hong; ZHOU Dong-ping; LU Yi-yu; KANG Yong; ZHAO Yu; WANG Xiao-chuan

    2009-01-01

    Mine gas extraction in China is difficult due to the characteristics such as mi-cro-porosity, low-permeability and high adsorption of coal seams. The pulsed mechanism of a high-pressure pulsed water jet was studied through theoretical analysis, experiment and field measurement. The results show that high-pressure pulsed water jet has three dynamic properties. What's more, the three dynamic effects can be found in low-perme-ability coal seams. A new pulsed water jet with 200-1 000 Hz oscillation frequency and peak pressure 2.5 times than average pressure was introduced. During bubble collapsing, sound vibration and instantaneous high pressures over 100 MPa enhanced the cutting ability of the high-pressure jet. Through high-pressure pulsed water jet drilling and slotting, the exposure area of coal bodies was greatly enlarged and pressure of the coal seams rapidly decreased. Therefore, the permeability of coal seams was improved and gas ab-sorption rate also decreased. Application results show that gas adsorption rate decreased by 30%-40% and the penetrability coefficient increased 100 times. This proves that high-pressure pulsed water is more efficient than other conventional methods.

  1. Characterization of Density Profile of Cylindrical Pulsed Gas Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Quan-Zhi; LI Yu-Tong; ZhANG Jie; ZHENG Jun; LI Han-Ming; PENG Xiao-Yu; LI Kun

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigated the characteristics of argon and helium gas jets produced by a cylindrical nozzle under pressures from I to 6 Mpa using a femtosecond laser interferometry. A radial parabolic distribution and an axial exponential distribution of the gas jet density profiles are identified. The results show that the density increases linearly with the backing pressure.

  2. [Usefulness of pulsed water jet in dissecting sphenoid ridge meningioma while preserving arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujimura, Miki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-11-01

    We report the utility of a pulsed water jet device in meningioma surgery. The presented case is that of a 61-year-old woman with left visual disturbance. MRI demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced mass with intratumoral hemorrhage, indicating sphenoid ridge meningioma on her left side. The tumor invaded the cavernous sinus and left optic canal, engulfing the internal carotid artery in the carotid cistern and encased middle cerebral arteries. During the operation, the pulsed water jet device was useful for dissecting the tumor away from the arteries since it was safe in light of preserving parent arteries. The jet did not cause any vascular injury and did not induce vasospasm as shown by postoperative symptomatology and MRIs. With the aid of pulsed water jet, we could achieve total resection of the tumor except for the piece within the cavernous sinus. The patient had no new neurological deficits after the operation. We consider the pulsed water jet as a useful device, especially when the need to dissect meningioma from parent arteries exists. The jet can help neurosurgeons simultaneously achieve tumor resection and preservation of blood vessels.

  3. Observations of a pulse driven cool polar jet by SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Abhishek K

    2011-01-01

    Context. We observe a solar jet at north polar coronal hole (NPCH) using SDO AIA 304 {\\deg}A image data on 3 August 2010. The jet rises obliquely above the solar limb and then retraces its propagation path to fall back. Aims. We numerically model this observed solar jet by implementing a realistic (VAL-C) model of solar temperature. Methods. We solve two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically to simulate the observed solar jet. We consider a localized velocity pulse that is essentially parallel to the background magnetic field lines and initially launched at the top of the solar photosphere. The pulse steepens into a shock at higher altitudes, which triggers plasma perturbations that exhibit the observed features of the jet. The typical direction of the pulse also clearly exhibits the leading front of the moving jet. Results. Our numerical simulations reveal that a large amplitude initial velocity pulse launched at the top of the solar photosphere produces in general the observed properti...

  4. Environment and Protostellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yichen

    2014-01-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of resulting star and planetary systems. Here we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focussing on low-mass, Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), to very high pressures that may be found in the densest Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) or in the Galactic Center (GC). We present unified analytic and numerical models for collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution and bipolar outflows, coupled to radiative transfer (RT) calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting...

  5. The Protostellar Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella

    2011-01-01

    The protostellar luminosity function (PLF) is the present-day luminosity function of the protostars in a region of star formation. It is determined using the protostellar mass function (PMF) in combination with a stellar evolutionary model that provides the luminosity as a function of instantaneous and final stellar mass. As in McKee & Offner (2010), we consider three main accretion models: the Isothermal Sphere model, the Turbulent Core model, and an approximation of the Competitive Accretion model. We also consider the effect of an accretion rate that tapers off linearly in time and an accelerating star formation rate. For each model, we characterize the luminosity distribution using the mean, median, maximum, ratio of the median to the mean, standard deviation of the logarithm of the luminosity, and the fraction of very low luminosity objects. We compare the models with bolometric luminosities observed in local star forming regions and find that models with an approximately constant accretion time, suc...

  6. A laser-induced pulsed water jet for layer-selective submucosal dissection of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T; Sato, C; Yamada, M; Nakagawa, A; Yamamoto, H; Fujishima, F; Tominaga, T; Satomi, S; Ohuchi, N

    2016-10-01

    Background and aims: Conventional water jet devices have been used for injecting fluid to lift up lesions during endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection procedures. However, these devices cannot dissect the submucosal layer effectively. Here we aim to elucidate the dissection capability of a laser-induced pulsed water jet and to clarify the mechanism of dissection with layer selectivity. Materials (Subjects) and methods: Pulsed water jets were ejected from a stainless nozzle by accelerating saline using the energy of a pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The impact force (strength) of the jet was evaluated using a force meter. Injection of the pulsed jet into the submucosal layer was documented by high-speed imaging. The physical properties of the swine esophagus were evaluated by measuring the breaking strength. Submucosal dissection of the swine esophagus was performed and the resection bed was evaluated histologically. Results: Submucosal dissection of the esophagus was accomplished at an impact force of 1.11-1.47 N/pulse (laser energy: 1.1-1.5 J/pulse; standoff distance: 60 mm). Histological specimens showed clear dissection at the submucosal layer without thermal injury. The mean static breaking strength of the submucosa (0.11 ± 0.04 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the mucosa (1.32 ± 0.18 MPa), and propria muscle (1.45 ± 0.16 MPa). Conclusions: The pulsed water jet device showed potential for achieving selective submucosal dissection. It could achieve mucosal, submucosal, and muscle layer selectivity owing to the varied breaking strengths.

  7. Study of the Behaviour of a Pulsed Liquid Jet Target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C D

    2000-01-01

    This Web document describes laboratory tests of a water jet using a Nordson piston pump (Model 25B 16:1, Nordson Corp. Ohio, USA) and 5 mm diameter Nordson needle valve (A7A-LBS) - a high-tech water pistol! These tests are a preliminary stage in the development of a mercury-jet pion-production target for a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring [Refs.1,2]. Click on pictures for enlarged images.

  8. New insights on the propagation of pulsed atmospheric plasma streams: From single jet to multi jet arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, E.; Darny, T.; Dozias, S.; Iseni, S.; Pouvesle, J. M. [GREMI, UMR 7344, CNRS/Université d' Orléans, BP 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure plasma propagation inside long dielectric tubes is analyzed for the first time through nonintrusive and nonperturbative time resolved bi-directional electric field (EF) measurements. This study unveils that plasma propagation occurs in a region where longitudinal EF exists ahead the ionization front position usually revealed from plasma emission with ICCD measurement. The ionization front propagation induces the sudden rise of a radial EF component. Both of these EF components have an amplitude of several kV/cm for helium or neon plasmas and are preserved almost constant along a few tens of cm inside a capillary. All these experimental measurements are in excellent agreement with previous model calculations. The key roles of the voltage pulse polarity and of the target nature on the helium flow patterns when plasma jet is emerging in ambient air are documented from Schlieren visualization. The second part of this work is then dedicated to the development of multi jet systems, using two different setups, based on a single plasma source. Plasma splitting in dielectric tubes drilled with sub millimetric orifices, but also plasma transfer across metallic tubes equipped with such orifices are reported and analyzed from ICCD imaging and time resolved EF measurements. This allows for the design and the feasibility validation of plasma jet arrays but also emphasizes the necessity to account for voltage pulse polarity, target potential status, consecutive helium flow modulation, and electrostatic influence between the produced secondary jets.

  9. Numerical and experimental study of pulse-jet cleaning in fabric filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Andersen, B.; Nielsen, N. F.; Walther, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    for many years by experimental investigation and to a limited extent by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The majority of the studies have focused on high-pressure cleaning systems, and the CFD models presented are so far two-dimensional (2D). In the work presented here, pulse-jet cleaning of low......Pulse-jet cleaning and understanding of the complex physics are essential when designing fabric filters used for air pollution control. Today, low-pressure cleaning is of particular interest due to demand for reduced compressed air consumption. Pulse-jet cleaned fabric filters have been studied......-pressure fabric filters (2 bar) is studied using a full three-dimensional (3D) CFD model. Experimental results obtained in a pilot-scale test filter with 28 bags, in length of 10 m and in general full-scale dimensions of the cleaning system are used to verify the reliability of the present CFD model...

  10. Analysis and reconstruction of a pulsed jet in crossflow by multi-plane snapshot POD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, Romain; Thomas, Lionel; David, Laurent [Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (LEA), SP2MI, Teleport 2, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope Chasseneui (France)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to study a pulsed jet in crossflow where the velocity fields are extracted from stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) results. The studied pulsed jet is characterized by a frequency f=1 Hz, a Reynolds number Re{sub j}= 500 (based on the mean jet velocity U{sub j}=1.67 cm/s and a mean velocity ratio of R=1). Pulsed jet and continuous jet are compared via mean velocity field trajectory and Q criterion. POD results of instantaneous, phase-averaged and fluctuating velocity fields are presented and compared in this paper. Snapshot POD applied on one plane allows us to distinguish an organization of the first spatial eigenmodes. A distinction between natural modes and pulsed modes is achieved with the results obtained by the pulsed and unforced jet. Secondly, the correlation tensor is established with four parallel planes (multi-plane snapshot POD) for the evaluation of volume spatial modes. These resulting modes are interpolated and the volume velocity field is reconstructed with a minimal number of modes for all the times of the pulsation period. These reconstructions are compared to orthogonal measurements to the transverse jet in order to validate the obtained three-dimensional velocity fields. Finally, this POD approach for the 3D flow field reconstruction from experimental data issued from planes parallel to the flow seems capable to extract relevant information from a complex three-dimensional flow and can be an alternative to tomo-PIV for large volume of measurement. (orig.)

  11. Analysis and reconstruction of a pulsed jet in crossflow by multi-plane snapshot POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Romain; Thomas, Lionel; David, Laurent

    2009-10-01

    In this work, snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to study a pulsed jet in crossflow where the velocity fields are extracted from stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) results. The studied pulsed jet is characterized by a frequency f = 1 Hz, a Reynolds number Re j = 500 (based on the mean jet velocity {overline{U}j} = 1.67 cm/s and a mean velocity ratio of R = 1). Pulsed jet and continuous jet are compared via mean velocity field trajectory and Q criterion. POD results of instantaneous, phase-averaged and fluctuating velocity fields are presented and compared in this paper. Snapshot POD applied on one plane allows us to distinguish an organization of the first spatial eigenmodes. A distinction between “natural modes” and “pulsed modes” is achieved with the results obtained by the pulsed and unforced jet. Secondly, the correlation tensor is established with four parallel planes (multi-plane snapshot POD) for the evaluation of volume spatial modes. These resulting modes are interpolated and the volume velocity field is reconstructed with a minimal number of modes for all the times of the pulsation period. These reconstructions are compared to orthogonal measurements to the transverse jet in order to validate the obtained three-dimensional velocity fields. Finally, this POD approach for the 3D flow field reconstruction from experimental data issued from planes parallel to the flow seems capable to extract relevant information from a complex three-dimensional flow and can be an alternative to tomo-PIV for large volume of measurement.

  12. Numerical Simulations of the pulsed Jet of MWC 560

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, M; Schmid, H M; Stute, Matthias; Camenzind, Max; Schmid, Hans Martin

    2002-01-01

    MWC 560 (= V694 Mon) is the only known Symbiotic Star system in which the jet axis is practically parallel to the line of sight. Therefore this system is predestinated to study the dynamical evolution and the propagation of stellar jets. Spectroscopic monitoring done by Schmid et al. (2001) showed that the outflow is seen as absorption features in the continuum of the accretion disk and the accreting white dwarf, the emission line spectrum of the accretion disk and the spectrum of the red giant. We present the first numerical simulations of the jet of this particular object using the NIRVANA code (Ziegler & Yorke 1997) in order to reproduce the velocity structures seen in the observational data. This code solves the equations of hydrodynamics and was modified to calculate radiative losses due to non-equilibrium cooling by line-emission (Thiele 2000).

  13. ASTROPHYSICAL JETS AS HYPERSONIC BUCKSHOT: LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbig-Haro (HH jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or "pulsed" variations of conditions at the jet source. In this contribution we offer an alternative to "pulsed" models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments we explore the possibility that jets are chains of sub-radial clumps propagating through a moving inter-clump medium. Our simulations explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small (r ¿jet spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth inter-clump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by ¿ 15%. We find the consequences of shifting from homogeneous to heterogeneous flows are significant as clumps interact with each other and with the inter-clump medium in a variety of ways. We also present new experiments that, for the first time, directly address issues of magnetized astrophysical jets. Our experiments explore the propagation and stability of super-magnetosonic, radiatively cooled, and magnetically dominated bubbles with internal, narrow jets. The results are scalable to astrophysical environments via the similarity of dimensionl ss numbers controlling the dynamics in both settings. These experiments show the jets are subject to kink mode instabilities which quickly fragment the jet into narrow chains of hypersonic knots, providing support for the "clumpy jet" paradigm.

  14. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  15. The interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He jets

    CERN Document Server

    Shihab, M; Redmer, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He jets using 2d/3v relativistic Particle-in-Cell simulations (XOOPIC). Of particular interest are laser intensities $(10^{15}-10^{20})$ W/cm$^2$, pulse lengths $\\le 100$ fs, and the frequency regime $\\sim 800$ nm for which the jets are initially transparent and subsequently not homogeneously ionized. Pulses $\\ge 10^{16}$ W/cm$^2$ are found to drive ionization along the jet and outside the laser spot, the ionization-front propagates along the jet at a fraction of the speed of light. Within the ionized region, there is a highly transient field, which may be interpreted as two-surface wave decay and as a result of the charge-neutralizing disturbance at the jet-vacuum interface. The ionized region has solid-like densities and temperatures of few to hundreds of eV, i.e., warm and hot dense matter regimes. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy densities as found, e.g., in shock-wave experiments and inertial confinement fusion...

  16. Mixing characteristics of pulsed air-assist liquid jet into an internal subsonic cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inchul; Kang, Youngsu; Koo, Jaye

    2010-04-01

    Penetration depth, spray dispersion angle, droplet sizes in breakup processes and atomization processes are very important parameters in combustor of air-breathing engine. These processes will enhance air/fuel mixing inside the combustor. Experimental results from the pulsed air-assist liquid jet injected into a cross-flow are investigated. And experiments were conducted to a range of cross-flow velocities from 42˜136 m/s. Air is injected with 0˜300kPa, with air-assist pulsation frequency of 0˜20Hz. Pulsation frequency was modulated by solenoid valve. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer(PDPA) was utilized to quantitatively measuring droplet characteristics. High-speed CCD camera was used to obtain injected spray structure. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will offer rapid mixing and good liquid jet penetration. Air-assist makes a very fine droplet which generated mist-like spray. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will introduce additional supplementary turbulent mixing and control of penetration depth into a cross-flow field. The results show that pulsation frequency has an effect on penetration, transverse velocities and droplet sizes. The experimental data generated in these studies are used for a development of active control strategies to optimize the liquid jet penetration in subsonic cross-flow conditions and predict combustion low frequency instability.

  17. Applying Hanford Tank Mixing Data to Define Pulse Jet Mixer Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Holton, Langdon K.

    2015-12-07

    Pulse jet mixed (PJM) process vessels are being developed for storing, blending, and chemical processing of nuclear waste slurries at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to be built at Hanford, Washington. These waste slurries exhibit variable process feed characteristics including Newtonian to non-Newtonian rheologies over a range of solids loadings. Waste feed to the WTP from the Hanford Tank Farms will be accomplished via the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) system which includes million-gallon underground storage double-shell tanks (DSTs) with dual-opposed jet mixer pumps. Experience using WFD type jet mixer pumps to mobilize actual Hanford waste in DSTs may be used to establish design threshold criteria of interest to pulse jet mixed process vessel operation. This paper describes a method to evaluate the pulse jet mixed vessel capability to process waste based on information obtained during mobilizing and suspending waste by the WFD system jet mixer pumps in a DST. Calculations of jet velocity and wall shear stress in a specific pulse jet mixed process vessel were performed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The CFD-modelled process vessel consists of a 4.9-m- (16-ft-) diameter tank with a 2:1 semi-elliptical head, a single, 10-cm (4-in.) downward facing 60-degree conical nozzle, and a 0.61-m (24-in.) inside diameter PJM. The PJM is located at 70% of the vessel radius with the nozzle stand-off-distance 14 cm (6 in.) above the vessel head. The CFD modeled fluid velocity and wall shear stress can be used to estimate vessel waste-processing performance by comparison to available actual WFD system process data. Test data from the operation of jet mixer pumps in the 23-m (75-ft) diameter DSTs have demonstrated mobilization, solid particles in a sediment matrix were moved from their initial location, and suspension, mobilized solid particles were moved to a higher elevation in the vessel than their initial location, of waste solids

  18. Experimental Study of Twin Pulse Jet Engines for Power Plant Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Nakano; Shigeru Matsuo; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Shen Yu

    2003-01-01

    The total efficiency of power plants depends on the energy conversion in a combustor and a turbine. Considerably higher energy transfer rates can be obtained from a pulsed combustion, but unsteady flow of a single jet combustor reduces the turbine efficiency.Therefore, two pulse combustors were set in parallel and connected to a settling chamber that supplies a flow with constant pressure to the turbine.The aim of investigations presented here is a demonstration of technical feasibility for industrial applications and to show the benefits obtained from the pulse combustors.

  19. On the Forming Mechanism of the Cleaning Airflow of Pulse-jet Fabric Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiying, Cai; Wenge, Hao; Cong, Zhang; Jiaqi, Yu; Ting, Wang

    2017-04-05

    To reveal the formation mechanism of a pulse-jet airflow's cleaning effect in a filter bag, a theoretical model is built by using the theory of gas jet and unitary adiabatic flow according to given specifications and dimensions of the bags and resistance characteristics of the cloth and dust layer. It is about the relationship between cleaning system structure and operating parameters. The model follows the principle that the flow and kinetic energy of jet flow injected into a filter bag should be consistent with the flow of cleaning airflow in the bag and the pressure drop flowing through the filter cloth and dust layer. The purpose of the model is to achieve the peak pressure of cleaning airflow, which dominates the effect of the pulse-jet cleaning process. The cleaning system structure includes air pressure in the nozzle, structure and size of nozzle, exit velocity of nozzle, jet distance and diameter of jet cross-section. Based on the condition of cleaning system structure and operating parameters established by using the theoretical model, Fluent software is applied to carry out a numerical simulation of the jet airflow field at the nozzle's outlet, jet airflow field between nozzle and bag top, and cleaning airflow field in the filter bag. Experimental results are used to verify the reliability of the theoretical model. They are obtained in a pilot-scale test filter with a single bag, in length of 2m and in general full-scale dimensions of the cleaning system. The results show that when any rectification measure is not installed at the bag opening, the cross-sectional area covered by jet gas is hardly sufficient to cover the entire area of the bag opening. A large portion of the gases injected into the filter bag will overflow reversely upward from the edge due to pressure differences between the upper area and lower area inside the bag opening. This led to a serious shortage of the cleaning airflow and a limited increase in static pressure. When a venturi

  20. Nature of shocks revealed by SOFIA OI observations in the Cepheus e protostellar outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusdorf, A.; Anderl, S.; Lefloch, B.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Protostellar jets and outflows are key features of the star-formation process, and primary processes of the feedback of young stars on the interstellar medium. Understanding the underlying shocks is necessary to explain how jet and outflow systems are launched, and to quantify their chem...

  1. Experimental application of pulsed laser-induced water jet for endoscopic submucosal dissection: mechanical investigation and preliminary experiment in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chiaki; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamada, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Sato, Akira; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji; Satomi, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    A current drawback of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early-stage gastrointestinal tumors is the lack of instruments that can safely assist with this procedure. We have developed a pulsed jet device that can be incorporated into a gastrointestinal endoscope. Here, we investigated the mechanical profile of the pulsed jet device and demonstrated the usefulness of this instrument in esophageal ESD in swine. The device comprises a 5-Fr catheter, a 14-mm long stainless steel tube for generating the pulsed water jet, a nozzle and an optical quartz fiber. The pulsed water jet was generated at pulse rates of 3 Hz by irradiating the physiological saline (4°C) within the stainless steel tube with an holmium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at 1.1 J/pulse. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated using a force meter. The device was used only for the part of submucosal dissection in the swine ESD model. Tissues removed using the pulsed jet device and a conventional electrocautery device, and the esophagus, were histologically examined to assess thermal damage. The peak impact force was observed at a stand-off distance of 40 mm (1.1 J/pulse). ESD using the pulsed jet device was successful, as the tissue specimens showed precise dissection of the submucosal layer. The extent of thermal injury was significantly lower in the dissected bed using the pulsed jet device. The results showed that the present endoscopic pulsed jet system is a useful alternative for a safe ESD with minimum tissue injury. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on the Recovering Boundary Layer Downstream of a Reflected Shock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus

    2015-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.

  3. Bluff body drag manipulation using pulsed jets and Coanda effect

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, Diogo; Noack, Bernd R; Spohn, Andreas; Ruiz, Tony

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effects of unsteady forcing on the wake and drag of a square back blunt body. In combination with a Coanda effect, shear-layer forcing by periodic blowing of wall bounded jets allows to recover over 30 % of the base pressure. The actuation frequency is an order of magnitude higher than the natural shear-layer instabilities. High frequency Coanda blowing leads to a thinner time-averaged wake. The effect of this form shaping is analyzed by pressure taps on the rear side of the model in combination with PIV measurements. Velocity components of the mean field indicate a pressure recovery and favorable mean curvature effects across the separated shear layers in the region close to the rear end of the blunt body when actuation is applied. The wake dynamics further downstream, however, remains very similar to the unforced oscillatory wake mode.

  4. Radiation from high-intensity ultrashort-laser-pulse and gas-jet magnetized plasma interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorranian, Davoud; Starodubtsev, Mikhail; Kawakami, Hiromichi; Ito, Hiroaki; Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi

    2003-08-01

    Using a gas-jet flow, via the interaction between an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse and plasma in the presence of a perpendicular external dc magnetic field, the short pulse radiation from a magnetized plasma wakefield has been observed. Different nozzles are used in order to generate different densities and gas profiles. The neutral density of the gas-jet flow measured with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is found to be proportional to back pressure of the gas jet in the range of 1 to 8 atm. Strength of the applied dc magnetic field varies from 0 to 8 kG at the interaction region. The frequency of the emitted radiation with the pulse width of 200 ps (detection limit) is in the millimeter wave range. Polarization and spatial distributions of the experimental data are measured to be in good agreement with the theory based on the V(p)xB radiation scheme, where V(p) is the phase velocity of the electron plasma wave and B is the steady magnetic field intensity. Characteristics of the radiation are extensively studied as a function of plasma density and magnetic field strength. These experiments should contribute to the development of a new kind of millimeter wavelength radiation source that is tunable in frequency, pulse duration, and intensity.

  5. Robust lateral pulse jet control of an atmospheric rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley Thomas

    Uncontrolled direct fire rockets exhibit high impact point dispersion, even at relatively short range, and as such have been employed as area weapons on the battlefield. In order to reduce the dispersion of a direct fire rocket, feedback control is employed to fire short-duration solid rocket pulses mounted near the nose of the projectile and acting perpendicular to the projectile axis of symmetry. The feedback law is developed by first determining a piece wise linear model of the projectile swerving motion, subsequently using this linear model to predict the projectile impact point both with and without control, and using the results to command pulses at appropriate times to drive the impact point closer to the specified target. Candidate optimal control laws are formed using rules based on decision grids, and a global control strategy search algorithm. The global search control law proves to be prohibitively computationally expensive for on-line implementation. The performance of the baseline control law is found to be comparable to the rule based and global search optimal control laws. The control gains of the baseline control law are optimized in the presence of parametric plant uncertainty using a Monte Carlo simulation. Performance of the system in the presence of parametric plant uncertainty using the optimized gains is deemed comparable to performance of the baseline controller with no plant uncertainty. The level of uncertainty of several plant parameters is varied in order to compare robustness of the controller when optimized with uncertainty viz. without uncertainty.

  6. A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for precision spectroscopy at the HITRAP facility at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, D. [Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe Universität, Max von Laue Straße 1, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stiebing, K.E., E-mail: stiebing@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe Universität, Max von Laue Straße 1, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Winters, D.F.A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Varentsov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR), Darmstadt (Germany); Warczak, A.; Malarz, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultät der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743, Jena (Germany)

    2014-11-11

    A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for experiments at the HITRAP facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt has been designed and built as a multi-purpose installation for key experiments on fundamental atomic physics in strong fields. This setup is currently installed at the Institut für Kernphysik of Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (IKF), in order to explore its operation prior to its installation at the HITRAP facility. Design and performance of the target are described. The measured target densities of 5.9×10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3} for helium and 8.1×10{sup 12} atoms/cm³ for argon at the stagnation pressure of 30 bar match the required values. The target-beam diameter of 0.9 mm and the pulsed operation mode (jet built-up-time ≤15 ms) are well suited for the use at HITRAP.

  7. Pulsed microwave-driven argon plasma jet with distinctive plume patterns resonantly excited by surface plasmon polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆权; 殷志祥; 夏广庆; 洪伶俐; 胡业林; 刘明海; 胡希伟

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric lower-power pulsed microwave argon cold plasma jets are obtained by using coaxial transmission line resonators in ambient air. The plasma jet plumes are generated at the end of a metal wire placed in the middle of the dielec-tric tubes. The electromagnetic model analyses and simulation results suggest that the discharges are excited resonantly by the enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons. Moreover, for conquering the defect of atmospheric argon filamentation discharges excited by 2.45-GHz continued microwave, the distinctive patterns of the plasma jet plumes can be maintained by applying different gas flow rates of argon gas, frequencies of pulsed modulator, duty cycles of pulsed microwave, peak values of input microwave power, and even by using different materials of dielectric tubes. In addition, the emission spectrum, the plume temperature, and other plasma parameters are measured, which shows that the proposed pulsed microwave plasma jets can be adjusted for plasma biomedical applications.

  8. Turbulent structure and emissions of strongly-pulsed jet diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeau, Mathieu

    This current research project studied the turbulent flame structure, the fuel/air mixing, the combustion characteristics of a nonpremixed pulsed (unsteady) and unpulsed (steady) flame configuration for both normal- and microgravity conditions, as well as the flame emissions in normal gravity. The unsteady flames were fully-modulated, with the fuel flow completely shut off between injection pulses using an externally controlled valve, resulting in the generation of compact puff-like flame structures. Conducting experiments in normal and microgravity environments enabled separate control over the relevant Richardson and Reynolds numbers to clarify the influence of buoyancy on the flame behavior, mixing, and structure. Experiments were performed in normal gravity in the laboratory at the University of Washington and in microgravity using the NASA GRC 2.2-second Drop Tower facility. High-speed imaging, as well as temperature and emissions probes were used to determine the large-scale structure dynamics, the details of the flame structure and oxidizer entrainment, the combustion temperatures, and the exhaust emissions of the pulsed and steady flames. Of particular interest was the impact of changes in flame structure due to pulsing on the combustion characteristics of this system. The turbulent flame puff celerity (i.e., the bulk velocity of the puffs) was strongly impacted by the jet-off time, increasing markedly as the time between pulses was decreased, which caused the degree of puff interaction to increase and the strongly-pulsed flame to more closely resemble a steady flame. This increase occurred for all values of injection time as well as for constant fuelling rate and in both the presence and absence of buoyancy. The removal of positive buoyancy in microgravity resulted in a decrease in the flame puff celerity in all cases, amounting to as much as 40%, for both constant jet injection velocity and constant fuelling rate. The mean flame length of the strongly-pulsed

  9. Model calibration for pressure drop in a pulse-jet cleaned fabric filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John L.; David, Leith

    A model based on Darcy's law allows prediction of pressure drop in a pulse-jet cleaned fabric filter. The model considers the effects of filtration velocity, dust areal density added during one filtration cycle, and pulse pressure. Data used to calibrate the model were collected in experiments with three fabric surface treatments and three dusts conducted at three filtration velocities, for a total of 27 different experimental conditions. The fabric used was polyester felt with untreated, singed, or PTFE-laminated surface. The dusts used were granite, limestone and fly ash. Filtration velocities were 50,75 and 100 mm s -1. Dust areal density added during one filtration cycle was constant, as was pulse pressure. Under these conditions, fabric surface treatment alone largely determined the values for two of the three constants in the model; the third constant depends on pressure drop characteristics of the venturi at the top of each filter bag.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed humid Ar plasma jet in air: shielding, discharge characteristics and atomic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Luo, Yuchen; Xiong, Qing; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-10-01

    Gas phase non-equilibrium plasmas jets containing water vapor are of growing interest for many applications. In this manuscript, we report a detailed study of an atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulsed Ar  +  0.26% H2O plasma jet. The plasma jet operates in an atmospheric pressure air surrounding but is shielded with a coaxial argon flow to limit the air diffusion into the jet effluent core. The jet impinges on a metal plate electrode and produces a stable plasma filament (transient spark) between the needle electrode in the jet and the metal plate. The stable plasma filament is characterized by spatially and time resolved electrical and optical diagnostics. This includes Rayleigh scattering, Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer lines and two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TaLIF) to obtain the gas temperature, the electron density and the atomic hydrogen density respectively. Electron densities and atomic hydrogen densities up to 5 × 1022 m-3 and 2 × 1022 m-3 have been measured. This shows that atomic hydrogen is one of the main species in high density Ar-H2O plasmas. The gas temperature does not exceed 550 K in the core of the plasma. To enable in situ calibration of the H TaLIF at atmospheric pressure a previously published O density calibration scheme is extended to include a correction for the line profiles by including overlap integrals as required by H TaLIF. The line width of H TaLIF, due to collision broadening has the same trend as the neutral density obtained by Rayleigh scattering. This suggests the possibility to use this technique to in situ probe neutral gas densities.

  11. Use of Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet in Brain and Spinal Cord Cavernous Malformations Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiki; Takahashi, Yoko; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-09-01

    A piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. It can potentially resect intra-axial lesions while preserving neurological function. To report our first experience of applying an ADPJ system to brain and spinal cord cavernous malformations. Four patients (2 women and 2 men, mean age 44.5 years) with brain (n = 3) and spinal cord (n = 1) cavernous malformations were enrolled in the study. All surgeries were performed with the aid of the ADPJ system. Postoperative neurological function and radiological findings were evaluated. The ADPJ system was useful in dissecting boundaries between the lesion and surrounding brain/spinal cord tissues. The pulsed water jet provided a clear surgical view and helped surgeons follow the margins. Water jet dissection peeled off the brain and spinal cord tissues from the lesion wall. Surrounding gliotic tissue was preserved. As a consequence, the cavernous malformations were successfully removed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed total removal of lesions in all cases. Preoperative neurological symptoms completely resolved in 2 patients. The others experienced partial recovery. No patients developed new postoperative neurological deficits; facial palsy temporarily worsened in 1 patient who underwent a suprafacial colliculus approach for the brainstem lesion. The ADPJ provided a clear surgical field and enabled surgeons to dissect boundaries between lesions and surrounding brain and spinal cord gliotic tissue. The ADPJ system is a feasible option for cavernous malformation surgery, enabling successful tumor removal and preservation of neurological function.

  12. Drag reduction on the 25 slant angle Ahmed reference body using pulsed jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Pierric [CNAM, Institut AeroTechnique (IAT), Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Amandolese, Xavier [CNAM, Aerodynamics Department, Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Aider, Jean-Luc [UMR 7636, CNRS, ESPCI ParisTech, PMMH Laboratory, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    This paper highlights steady and unsteady measurements and flow control results obtained on an Ahmed model with slant angle of 25 in wind tunnel. On this high-drag configuration characterized by a large separation bubble along with energetic streamwise vortices, time-averaged and time-dependent results without control are first presented. The influence of rear-end periodic forcing on the drag coefficient is then investigated using electrically operated magnetic valves in an open-loop control scheme. Four distinct configurations of flow control have been tested: rectangular pulsed jets aligned with the spanwise direction or in winglets configuration on the roof end and rectangular jets or a large open slot at the top of the rear slant. For each configuration, the influence of the forcing parameters (non-dimensional frequency, injected momentum) on the drag coefficient has been studied, along with their impact on the static pressure on both the rear slant and vertical base of the model. Depending on the type and location of pulsed jets actuation, the maximum drag reduction is obtained for increasing injected momentum or well-defined optimal pulsation frequencies. (orig.)

  13. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D L; Walsh, J L; Iza, F; Kong, M G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shama, G [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  14. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D. L.; Walsh, J. L.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  15. Pulsed laser-induced liquid jet: evolution from shock/bubble interaction to neurosurgical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Kumabe, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Hirano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohtani, K.; Nakano, T.; Sato, C.; Yamada, M.; Washio, T.; Arafune, T.; Teppei, T.; Atsushi, K.; Satomi, S.; Takayama, K.; Tominaga, T.

    2016-11-01

    The high-speed liquid (water) jet has distinctive characteristics in surgical applications, such as tissue dissection without thermal damage and small blood vessel preservation, that make it advantageous over more conventional instruments. The continuous pressurized jet has been used since the first medical application of water jets to liver surgery in the 1980s, but exhibited drawbacks partly related to the excess water supply required and unsuitability for application to microsurgical instruments intended for deep, narrow lesions (endoscopic instrumentation and catheters) due to limitations in miniaturization of the device. To solve these issues, we initiated work on the pulsed micro-liquid jet. The idea of the pulsed micro-liquid jet originated from the observation of tissue damage by shock/bubble interactions during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and evolved into experimental application for recanalization of cerebral embolisms in the 1990s. The original method of generating the liquid jet was based on air bubble formation and microexplosives as the shock wave source, and as such could not be applied clinically. The air bubble was replaced by a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser-induced bubble. Finally, the system was simplified and the liquid jet was generated via irradiation from the Ho:YAG laser within a liquid-filled tubular structure. A series of investigations revealed that this pulsed laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ) system has equivalent dissection and blood vessel preservation characteristics, but the amount of liquid usage has been reduced to less than 2 μ l per shot and can easily be incorporated into microsurgical, endoscopic, and catheter devices. As a first step in human clinical studies, we have applied the LILJ system for the treatment of skull base tumors through the transsphenoidal approach in 9 patients (7 pituitary adenomas and 2 chordomas), supratentorial glioma (all high grade glioma) in 8 patients, including one with

  16. Pulsed laser-induced liquid jet: evolution from shock/bubble interaction to neurosurgical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Kumabe, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Hirano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohtani, K.; Nakano, T.; Sato, C.; Yamada, M.; Washio, T.; Arafune, T.; Teppei, T.; Atsushi, K.; Satomi, S.; Takayama, K.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-speed liquid (water) jet has distinctive characteristics in surgical applications, such as tissue dissection without thermal damage and small blood vessel preservation, that make it advantageous over more conventional instruments. The continuous pressurized jet has been used since the first medical application of water jets to liver surgery in the 1980s, but exhibited drawbacks partly related to the excess water supply required and unsuitability for application to microsurgical instruments intended for deep, narrow lesions (endoscopic instrumentation and catheters) due to limitations in miniaturization of the device. To solve these issues, we initiated work on the pulsed micro-liquid jet. The idea of the pulsed micro-liquid jet originated from the observation of tissue damage by shock/bubble interactions during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and evolved into experimental application for recanalization of cerebral embolisms in the 1990s. The original method of generating the liquid jet was based on air bubble formation and microexplosives as the shock wave source, and as such could not be applied clinically. The air bubble was replaced by a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser-induced bubble. Finally, the system was simplified and the liquid jet was generated via irradiation from the Ho:YAG laser within a liquid-filled tubular structure. A series of investigations revealed that this pulsed laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ) system has equivalent dissection and blood vessel preservation characteristics, but the amount of liquid usage has been reduced to less than 2 μ l per shot and can easily be incorporated into microsurgical, endoscopic, and catheter devices. As a first step in human clinical studies, we have applied the LILJ system for the treatment of skull base tumors through the transsphenoidal approach in 9 patients (7 pituitary adenomas and 2 chordomas), supratentorial glioma (all high grade glioma) in 8 patients, including one with

  17. Demonstration and Optimization of BNFL's Pulsed Jet Mixing and RFD Sampling Systems Using NCAW Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JR Bontha; GR Golcar; N Hannigan

    2000-08-29

    The BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment and vitrification of the Hanford High Level Tank waste includes the use of several hundred Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs) for sampling and transferring the radioactive slurries and Pulsed Jet mixers to homogenize or suspend the tank contents. The Pulsed Jet mixing and the RFD sampling devices represent very simple and efficient methods to mix and sample slurries, respectively, using compressed air to achieve the desired operation. The equipment has no moving parts, which makes them very suitable for mixing and sampling highly radioactive wastes. However, the effectiveness of the mixing and sampling systems are yet to be demonstrated when dealing with Hanford slurries, which exhibit a wide range of physical and theological properties. This report describes the results of the testing of BNFL's Pulsed Jet mixing and RFD sampling systems in a 13-ft ID and 15-ft height dish-bottomed tank at Battelle's 336 building high-bay facility using AZ-101/102 simulants containing up to 36-wt% insoluble solids. The specific objectives of the work were to: Demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pulsed Jet mixing system to thoroughly homogenize Hanford-type slurries over a range of solids loading; Minimize/optimize air usage by changing sequencing of the Pulsed Jet mixers or by altering cycle times; and Demonstrate that the RFD sampler can obtain representative samples of the slurry up to the maximum RPP-WTP baseline concentration of 25-wt%.

  18. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-06-29

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables.

  19. New Application of Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet for Spinal Cord Dissection: An Experimental Study in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiki; Wenting, Jia; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Endo, Hidenori; Sagae, Yuto; Iwasaki, Masaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-03-01

    Background Surgery for intramedullary tumors is technically demanding because it requires surgical resection along with functional preservation of the spinal cord. The water jet dissector is an emerging tool in neurologic surgeries and a novel tool in spinal cord surgeries. This article evaluates the usefulness and safety of water jet dissection in an experimental study. Methods A pulsed water jet was applied to dissect the posterior median sulcus of the spinal cords of seven anesthetized pigs. In four pigs, the water jet was delivered on the dorsal spinal cord at different input voltages (5, 10, and 15 V) and for durations of either 15 or 30 seconds. The depth and dissected areas were measured histologically and compared. In three separate pigs, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded before and after dissection (10 V for 30 seconds) to evaluate the function of the dorsal column sensory pathway. Results Increased pressure and duration of exposure to the pulsed water jet led to deeper and wider dissection of the dorsal spinal cord. Application of the water jet at 5 or 10 V allowed precise dissection along the dorsal columns along with the preservation of microvasculature. During SEP monitoring, responses were maintained after application of the water jet to the posterior column at 10 V for 30 seconds. Conclusions The pulsed water jet is a feasible option for spinal cord dissection. Characteristics of this water jet may help surgeons achieve complete resection of intramedullary tumors along with preserving satisfactory postoperative neurologic functions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Liquid mixing enhanced by pulse width modulation in a Y-shaped jet configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Zhong, Shan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, mixing between two fluid streams, which are injected into a planar mixing channel via a Y-shaped confluence section at the same volume flow rate, is studied experimentally. The injection of the two fluid streams is controlled by two separate solenoid valves, which are operated with a phase difference of 180°, using pulse width modulation. The experiments are conducted using water at a mean Reynolds number between 83 and 250, a range of pulsation frequencies and two duty cycles (25 and 50%). Both particle-image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence technique are used to visualize the flow patterns and to quantify the mixing degree in the mixing channel. This experiment shows that the pulsation of each jet produces vortical structures, which promotes mixing via vortex entrainment and vortex breakup, and at the same time the mixing is also greatly enhanced by sequential segmentation produced by a 180° out-of-phase pulsation of the two jets. This mixing enhancement method is effective at a Reynolds number greater than 125 with a mixing degree of 0.9 being achieved. For the Reynolds numbers studied in the present experiments, an optimal frequency exists, which corresponds to a Strouhal number in the range of 0.5-2. Furthermore, at a given mean Reynolds number a lower duty cycle is found to produce a better mixing due to the resultant higher instantaneous Reynolds number in the jet flow. It is also found that pulsation of only one jet can produce a similar mixing effect.

  1. Gravitoturbulence in magnetised protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Riols, A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disk evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive MHD simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravito-turbulent state, characterised by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter $Q~10$. This result has potential implications for disk structure, vertical thickness, ionisation, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disk. Though our focus is on...

  2. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  3. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  4. Modeling studies of a turbulent pulsed jet flame using LES/PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    The combustion field in a pulsed turbulent piloted jet flame is studied using an advanced large eddy simulation (LES) / probability density function (PDF) method. Measurement data with a joint OH-PLIF/OH* chemiluminescence/LDV system are available including the temporal series of the axial velocity and planar OH images. A time-dependent inflow condition is specified based on the measurement data. A direct comparison of the mean and rms velocities from the calculations and from the measurement shows a satisfactory prediction of the flow fields by using the employed modeling methods. The predicted OH mass fractions are compared qualitatively with the measured OH images at selected temporal and spatial locations. The comparison shows a good agreement. Conditional quantities and flame index are extracted from the simulations to examine the bimodal and multi-regime combustion dynamics in the flame. This paper is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1336075.

  5. Pulsed microwave-driven argon plasma jet with distinctive plume patterns resonantly excited by surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Quan; Yin, Zhi-Xiang; Xia, Guang-Qing; Hong, Ling-Li; Hu, Ye-Lin; Liu, Ming-Hai; Hu, Xi-Wei; A. Kudryavtsev, A.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric lower-power pulsed microwave argon cold plasma jets are obtained by using coaxial transmission line resonators in ambient air. The plasma jet plumes are generated at the end of a metal wire placed in the middle of the dielectric tubes. The electromagnetic model analyses and simulation results suggest that the discharges are excited resonantly by the enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons. Moreover, for conquering the defect of atmospheric argon filamentation discharges excited by 2.45-GHz of continued microwave, the distinctive patterns of the plasma jet plumes can be maintained by applying different gas flow rates of argon gas, frequencies of pulsed modulator, duty cycles of pulsed microwave, peak values of input microwave power, and even by using different materials of dielectric tubes. In addition, the emission spectrum, the plume temperature, and other plasma parameters are measured, which shows that the proposed pulsed microwave plasma jets can be adjusted for plasma biomedical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11105002 and 61170172), the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant Nos. 1408085QA16 and 1408085ME101), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M551788), and the Open-end Fund of State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology (HUST), China (Grant No. GZ1301).

  6. Structural Dynamics of a Pulsed-Jet Propulsion System for Underwater Soft Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Renda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entails the study of the pulsed-jet propulsion inspired by cephalopods in the frame of underwater bioinspired robotics. This propulsion routine involves a sequence of consecutive cycles of inflation and collapse of an elastic bladder, which, in the robotics artefact developed by the authors, is enabled by a cable-driven actuation of a deformable shell composed of rubber-like materials. In the present work an all-comprehensive formulation is derived by resorting to a coupled approach that comprises of a model of the structural dynamics of the cephalopod-like elastic bladder and a model of the pulsed-jet thrust production. The bladder, or mantle, is modelled by means of geometrically exact, axisymmetric, nonlinear shell theory, which yields an accurate estimation of the forces involved in driving the deformation of the structure in water. By coupling these results with those from a standard thrust model, the behaviour of the vehicle propelling itself in water is derived. The constitutive laws of the shell are also exploited as control laws with the scope of replicating the muscle activation routine observed in cephalopods. The model is employed to test various shapes, material properties and actuation routines of the mantle. The results are compared in terms of speed performance in order to identify suitable design guidelines. Altogether, the model is tested in more than 50 configurations, eventually providing useful insight for the development of more advanced vehicles and bringing evidence of its reliability in studying the dynamics of both man-made cephalopod-inspired robots and live specimens.

  7. Structural Dynamics of a Pulsed-Jet Propulsion System for Underwater Soft Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Renda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entails the study of the pulsed-jet propulsion inspired by cephalopods in the frame of underwater bioinspired robotics. This propulsion routine involves a sequence of consecutive cycles of inflation and collapse of an elastic bladder, which, in the robotics artefact developed by the authors, is enabled by a cable-driven actuation of a deformable shell composed of rubber-like materials. In the present work an all-comprehensive formulation is derived by resorting to a coupled approach that comprises of a model of the structural dynamics of the cephalopod-like elastic bladder and a model of the pulsed-jet thrust production. The bladder, or mantle, is modelled by means of geometrically exact, axisymmetric, nonlinear shell theory, which yields an accurate estimation of the forces involved in driving the deformation of the structure in water. By coupling these results with those from a standard thrust model, the behaviour of the vehicle propelling itself in water is derived. The constitutive laws of the shell are also exploited as control laws with the scope of replicating the muscle activation routine observed in cephalopods. The model is employed to test various shapes, material properties and actuation routines of the mantle. The results are compared in terms of speed performance in order to identify suitable design guidelines. Altogether, the model is tested in more than 50 configurations, eventually providing useful insight for the development of more advanced vehicles and bringing evidence of its reliability in studying the dynamics of both man-made cephalopod-inspired robots and live specimens.

  8. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2013-11-02

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  9. The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2014-05-28

    The CO and NOx exhaust emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally in a coflow swirl combustor. Measurements of emissions were performed on the combustor centerline using standard emission analyzers combined with an aspirated sampling probe located downstream of the visible flame tip. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, which is consistent with the quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels by up to a factor of 2.5, suggesting more rapid and compete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the coflow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off times. The swirled coflow air can, in some cases, increase the NO emissions due to a longer combustion residence time due to the flow recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time. However, the NO emissions do not successfully correlate with the global residence time. For some specific cases, a compact flame with a simultaneous decrease in both CO and NO emissions compared to the steady flames was observed. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Characterization of cluster/monomer ratio in pulsed supersonic gas jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Mike

    2008-11-01

    While Rayleigh scatter and interferometry are standard methods for determining average cluster size and total atomic density, respectively, in cluster gas jets, determination of cluster mass fraction has required additional input from gasdynamic simulations. Here we determine cluster mass fraction experimentally with fs-time-resolved measurement of refractive index using frequency domain interferometery (FDI) after ionization and heating by a pump pulse. The essence of this method is that the negative index contribution of monomer plasma appears immediately after ionization by the pump, whereas the positive contribution of clustered plasma becomes significant only after clusters expand to a Mie resonance condition, enabling separation of monomer and cluster densities in the time domain. This method allows us to investigate various influences (nozzle geometry, temperature, etc.) on cluster fraction, which varies widely in nominally identical gas jets, and is a critical parameter in realizing phase-matched harmonic generation at high laser intensity, which would lead to an efficient table-top soft X-ray source.

  11. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando

    2010-11-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

  12. A Sub-microsecond Pulsed Plasma Jet for Endodontic Biofilm Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Schaudinn, Christoph; Jaramillo, David E.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Costerton, J. William

    A pulsed, tapered cylindrical plasma jet, several centimeter long and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on bovine dentins. Resultant colony-forming unit counts were associated with changes in bacterial cell morphology observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following the treatment and control. Treatment of dentin discs cultivated with E. faecalis monolayer biofilms with the plasma (average power ≈ 1 W) for 5 min resulted in 92.4% kill (P < 0.0001). Severe disruption of the cell membranes was observed for the plasma treatment group, while the morphology of the cells remained intact for the negative control group. In addition, a pilot ex vivo test was conducted to examine the bactericidal effect of the plasma against saliva-derived biofilms cultivated in human root canals. Conspicuous biofilm disruption and cleared dentinal surfaces were observed in the canal after the plasma treatment for 5 min. We ­conclude that this non-thermal pulsed plasma-based technology is a potential ­alternative or supplement to existing protocols for root canal disinfection.

  13. Protostellar accretion traced with chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Dunham, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    . Our aim is to characterise protostellar accretion histories towards individual sources by utilising sublimation and freeze-out chemistry of CO. Methods. A sample of 24 embedded protostars are observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in context of the large program "Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems...... and their Evolution with the SMA" (MASSES). The size of the C18O-emitting region, where CO has sublimated into the gas-phase, is measured towards each source and compared to the expected size of the region given the current luminosity. The SMA observations also include 1.3 mm continuum data, which are used...

  14. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  15. Protostellar Outflow Heating in a Growing Massive Protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Hua-bai; Zhang, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here we present the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H2O and class I CH3OH masers. Multiple NH3 transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH3 (3,3) emission are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH3 (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may n...

  16. The interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, M.; Bornath, Th; Redmer, R.

    2017-04-01

    We study the interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets, i.e., slabs, using 2D3V relativistic particle-in-cell simulations. Of particular interest are laser intensities ({10}15{--}{10}20) W cm‑2, pulse lengths ≤100 fs, and the wave length regime ∼800 nm for which the slabs are initially transparent and subsequently inhomogeneously ionized. Pulses ≥slant {10}16 W cm‑2 are found to drive ionization along the slab and outside the laser spot, the ionization front propagates along the slab at a considerable fraction of the speed of light. Within the ionized region, there is a highly transient field which is a result of the charge-neutralizing disturbance at the slab-vacuum interface and which may be interpreted in terms of a two-surface-wave decay. The ionized region is predicted to reach solid-like densities and temperatures of few to hundreds of eV, i.e., it belongs to warm and hot dense matter regimes. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy densities as found, e.g., in shock-wave experiments and inertial confinement fusion studies. The temporal evolution of the ionization is studied considering theoretically a pump–probe x-ray Thomson scattering scheme. We observe plasmon and non-collective modes that are generated in the slab, and their amplitude is proportional to the ionized volume. Our theoretical findings could be tested at free-electron laser facilities such as FLASH and the European XFEL (Hamburg) and the LCLS (Stanford).

  17. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semerok, A., E-mail: alexandre.semerok@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dutouquet, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA, F-60550 Verneuil En Halatte (France)

    2014-09-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm.

  18. Effects of the pulse width on the reactive species production and DNA damage in cancer cells exposed to atmospheric pressure microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Kang, Tae Hong; Chung, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions were investigated using an atmospheric pressure dc microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jet. We investigated the effects of the electrical parameters such as applied voltage and pulse width (determined by the pulse frequency and duty ratio) on the production of reactive species in the gas/liquid phases and on the DNA damage responses in the cancer cells. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were estimated inside the plasma-treated liquids using a chemical probe method, and the nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. Importantly, the more concentration of OH resulted in the more DNA base oxidation and breaks in human lung cancer A549 cells. The data are very suggestive that there is strong correlation between the production of OH in the plasmas/liquids and the DNA damage.

  19. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  20. Delayed Feedback Control of 2D Roll-Cell by Pulsed Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Kakuji

    1998-11-01

    Experimental study and numerical experiments were conducted to examine applicability of Pyragas' delayed feedback(DFB) control theory for active control of fluid flow. Although many attempts of turbulence active control have been made, most of those experimental studies experience "out of control" state in the case of using larger feedback gain. In the present study, we assume this "out of control" state as Chaos, and apply chaos control theory to prevent the flow field from falling into "out of control" state. Experiments were carried out for low Reynolds number oil flow in a rectangle thin container, whose aspect ratio is 6:1:0.5. Two pulsed jets were used as actuator in order to keep the circulation of the flow in container constant. Fluid flow was observed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technology and the flow state was estimated by moving least square (MLS) method. As a result, we found that Pyragas control was effective to prevent chaos for active control fo fluid flow. Numerical simulations were also carried out by using the coupled map lattice(CML). CML is known as a simple model with the essential feature of spatio-temporal chaos. DFB control was applied for CML to examine possibility of active control of turbulence. Simulating results show that the present method can stabilize the whole system of CML.

  1. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-07-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilities: pretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste feed from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into 1) a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and 2) a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJMs) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. This technology was selected for use in so-called “black cell” regions of the WTP, where maintenance capability will not be available for the operating life of the WTP. PJM technology was selected for use in these regions because it has no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. This report contains the results of single and multiple PJM overblow tests conducted in a large, ~13 ft-diameter × 15-ft-tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. These single and multiple PJM overblow tests were conducted using water and a clay simulant to bound the lower and upper rheological properties of the waste streams anticipated to be processed in the WTP. Hydrodynamic pressures were measured at a number of locations in the test vessel using an array of nine pressure sensors and four hydrophones. These measurements were made under normal and limiting vessel operating conditions (i.e., maximum PJM fluid emptying velocity, maximum and minimum vessel

  2. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2008-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilities: pretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste feed from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into 1) a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and 2) a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJMs) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. This technology was selected for use in so-called “black cell” regions of the WTP, where maintenance capability will not be available for the operating life of the WTP. PJM technology was selected for use in these regions because it has no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. This report contains the results of single and multiple PJM overblow tests conducted in a large, ~13 ft-diameter × 15-ft-tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. These single and multiple PJM overblow tests were conducted using water and a clay simulant to bound the lower and upper rheological properties of the waste streams anticipated to be processed in the WTP. Hydrodynamic pressures were measured at a number of locations in the test vessel using an array of nine pressure sensors and four hydrophones. These measurements were made under normal and limiting vessel operating conditions (i.e., maximum PJM fluid emptying velocity, maximum and minimum vessel

  3. How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Vailati; Luca Zinnato; Roberto Cerbino

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimen...

  4. Nonaxisymmetric evolution in protostellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, multigridded hydrodynamical simulation of the collapse of an axisymmetric, rotating, 1 solar mass protostellar cloud, which forms a resolved, hydrotastic disk. The code includes the effects of physical viscosity, radiative transfer and radiative acceleration but not magnetic fields. We examine how the disk is affected by the inclusion of turbulent viscosity by comparing a viscous simulation with an inviscid model evolved from the same initial conditions, and we derive a disk evolutionary timescale on the order of 300,000 years if alpha = 0.01. Effects arising from non-axisymmetric gravitational instabilities in the protostellar disk are followed with a three-dimensional SPH code, starting from the two-dimensional structure. We find that the disk is prone to a series of spiral instabilities with primary azimulthal mode number m = 1 and m = 2. The torques induced by these nonaxisymmetric structures elicit material transport of angular momentum and mass through the disk, readjusting the surface density profile toward more stable configurations. We present a series of analyses which characterize both the development and the likely source of the instabilities. We speculate that an evolving disk which maintains a minimum Toomre Q-value approximately 1.4 will have a total evolutionary span of several times 10(exp 5) years, comparable to, but somewhat shorter than the evolutionary timescale resulting from viscous turbulence alone. We compare the evolution resulting from nonaxisymmetric instabilities with solutions of a one-dimensional viscous diffusion equation applied to the initial surface density and temperature profile. We find that an effective alpha-value of 0.03 is a good fit to the results of the simulation. However, the effective alpha will depend on the minimum Q in the disk at the time the instability is activated. We argue that the major fraction of the transport characterized by the value of alpha is due to the action of

  5. Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, S

    2011-01-01

    We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using 3-D radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well-coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magneto-rotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers heat by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically-thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically-thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model, and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations i...

  6. Protostellar Outflows in L1340

    CERN Document Server

    Walawender, Josh; Smutko, Michael; O'Linger-Luscusk, JoAnn; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    We have searched the L1340 A, B, and C clouds for shocks from protostellar outflows using the H$_2$ 2.122 $\\mu$m near-IR line as a shock tracer. Substantial outflow activity has been found in each of the three regions of the cloud (L1340 A, L1340 B, & L1340 C). We find 42 distinct shock complexes (16 in L1340 A, 11 in L1340 B, and 15 in L1340 C). We were able to link 17 of those shock complexes in to 12 distinct outflows and identify candidate source stars for each. We examine the properties (A$_{V}$, T$_{bol}$, and L$_{bol}$) of the source protostars and compare that to the properties of the general population of Class 0/I and flat SED protostars and find that there is an indication, albeit at low statistical significance, that the outflow driving protostars are drawn from a population with lower A$_{V}$, higher L$_{bol}$, and lower T$_{bol}$ than the general population of protostars.

  7. Numerical study of jets produced by conical wire arrays on the Magpie pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchi, M.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; de Grouchy, P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bott, S. C.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work is to model the jets produced by conical wire arrays on the MAGPIE generator, and to design and test new setups to strengthen the link between laboratory and astrophysical jets. We performed the modelling with direct three-dimensional magneto-hydro-dynamic numerical simulations using the code GORGON. We applied our code to the typical MAGPIE setup and we successfully reproduced the experiments. We found that a minimum resolution of ˜100 μm is required to retrieve the unstable character of the jet. We investigated the effect of changing the number of wires and found that arrays with less wires produce more unstable jets, and that this effect has magnetic origin. Finally, we studied the behaviour of the conical array together with a conical shield on top of it to reduce the presence of unwanted low density plasma flows. The resulting jet is shorter and less dense.

  8. Numerical study of jets produced by conical wire arrays on the Magpie pulsed power generator

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, M; Ciardi, A; Suzuki-Vidal, F; Hall, G N; de Grouchy, P; Lebedev, S V; Bott, S C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to model the jets produced by conical wire arrays on the MAGPIE generator, and to design and test new setups to strengthen the link between laboratory and astrophysical jets. We performed the modelling with direct three-dimensional magneto-hydro-dynamic numerical simulations using the code GORGON. We applied our code to the typical MAGPIE setup and we successfully reproduced the experiments. We found that a minimum resolution of approximately 100 is required to retrieve the unstable character of the jet. We investigated the effect of changing the number of wires and found that arrays with less wires produce more unstable jets, and that this effect has magnetic origin. Finally, we studied the behaviour of the conical array together with a conical shield on top of it to reduce the presence of unwanted low density plasma flows. The resulting jet is shorter and less dense.

  9. Global Models for Embedded, Accreting Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Most analytic work to date on protostellar disks has focused on disks in isolation from their environments. However, observations are now beginning to probe the earliest, most embedded phases of star formation, during which disks are rapidly accreting from their parent cores and cannot be modeled in isolation. We present a simple, one-zone model of protostellar accretion disks with high mass infall rates. Our model combines a self-consistent calculation of disk temperatures with an approximate treatment of angular momentum transport via several mechanisms. We use this model to survey the properties of protostellar disks across a wide range of stellar masses and evolutionary times, and make predictions for disks' masses, sizes, spiral structure, and fragmentation that will be directly testable by future large-scale surveys of deeply embedded disks. We define a dimensionless accretion-rotation parameter which, in conjunction with the disk's temperature, controls the disk evolution. We track the dominant mode of...

  10. Bremsstrahlung {gamma}-ray generation by electrons from gas jets irradiated by laser pulses for radiographic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Zhidkov, Alexei; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196, Japan and Photon Pioneers Center in Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Electron generation from a gas jet irradiated by low energy femtosecond laser pulses is studied experimentally as a promising source of radiation for radioisotope-free {gamma}-ray imaging systems. The calculated yield of {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2 MeV range, produced by low-average-power lasers and gas targets, exceeds the yields from solid tape targets up to 60 times. In addition, an effect of quasi-mono energetic electrons on {gamma}-ray imaging is also discussed.

  11. Bremsstrahlung γ-ray generation by electrons from gas jets irradiated by laser pulses for radiographic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Zhidkov, Alexei; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    2012-07-01

    Electron generation from a gas jet irradiated by low energy femtosecond laser pulses is studied experimentally as a promising source of radiation for radioisotope-free γ-ray imaging systems. The calculated yield of γ-rays in the 0.5-2 MeV range, produced by low-average-power lasers and gas targets, exceeds the yields from solid tape targets up to 60 times. In addition, an effect of quasi-mono energetic electrons on γ-ray imaging is also discussed.

  12. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  13. Heating of protostellar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, R. R.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2017-07-01

    The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is believed to be the mechanism responsible for a magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence that could lead to the accretion observed in protoplanetary disks. The need of a minimum amount of ionization in protostellar accretion disks is necessary for the MRI to take place. There are in the literature several studies that include the damping of Alfvén waves as an additional heating source besides the viscous heating mechanism in a geometrically thin and optically thick disk. The damping of the waves transfers energy to the disk increasing the temperature and consequently its ionization fraction, making possible the presence of the MRI in a large part of the disk. We analyzed the contribution of non-ideal effects such as Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion for the disk heating and compare these heating rates with those obtained by damping of Alfvén waves. In order to study these non-ideal effects, we have estimated the radiation emission of each effect through the energy conservation equation, and associated each emission with a black body radiation, which enabled us to assign a temperature contribution of each effect. Using the ATHENA code we were able to simulate the disk at different radial distances, and estimate the electric current density needed to calculate the radiation emission associated with each effect. Once we have those data, we were able to compare the results with other heating sources, like viscosity and Alfvén waves damping, and we concluded that the Ohmic and ambipolar diffusions do not heat the disk in any significant way.

  14. Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Di; Cui Wei; Li Yinghong; Li Fanyu; Jia Min; Sun Quan; Zhang Bailing

    2015-01-01

    The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being stud-ied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both exper-imentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after chang-ing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heat-ing efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 · 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma syn-thetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.

  15. Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Di

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being studied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after changing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heating efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 × 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma synthetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.

  16. How archer fish achieve a powerful impact: hydrodynamic instability of a pulsed jet in Toxotes jaculatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati, Alberto; Zinnato, Luca; Cerbino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy.

  17. How archer fish achieve a powerful impact: hydrodynamic instability of a pulsed jet in Toxotes jaculatrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vailati

    Full Text Available Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy.

  18. Demonstration of ITER relevant LHCD operation: large distance coupling in JET and long pulse operation in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Delpech, L.; Goniche, M.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian, F.; Litaudon, X.; Maget, P.; Martin, G.; Mazon, D.; Peysson, Y.; Prou, M.; Rimini, F.G.; VanHoutte, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Baranov, Y.; Erents, S.K.; Lomas, P.J.; Mailloux, J.; McDonald, D.C.; Stamp, M. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Granucci, G. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Silva, C. [Association Euratom-IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is one of the most efficient methods for off-axis non-inductive current drive in tokamaks and is therefore used for shaping the plasma current profile in advanced tokamak scenarios. Its usefulness has been demonstrated in the advanced scenario experiments in JET, but the question has remained about the possibility of coupling lower hybrid (LH) waves in ITER. This paper reports on recent results obtained in JET and Tore-Supra, that both demonstrate operation of LHCD systems in ITER relevant regimes: -) LH coupling on ELMs (edge localized mode) plasmas up to 11 cm distance between the launcher and the separatrix in JET, and -) steady state, full non-inductive LHCD operation during 6 minutes in Tore Supra. The foreseen upgrade of the Tore Supra LHCD system will allow the extension of operating domain to higher power and higher performance, and will demonstrate the long pulse and coupling capability of a passive multijunction (PAM) launcher, as foreseen for ITER.

  19. Microcutting of living brain slices by a pulsed ultrafine water jet which allows simultaneous electrophysiological recordings (micromingotome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmann, E J; Köhling, R; Lücke, A; Straub, H; Wittkowski, W; Elger, C E; Wiemann, M; Bingmann, D

    1998-07-01

    Up to now microsurgical dissections in living nervous tissue (e.g. in slices or cell cultures) are performed either by micro-scalpels or by laser beams. As an alternative technique, a device for cutting with an ultrafine pulsed water jet was developed to allow precise, visually controled dissections in neuronal circuits even during electrophysiological recordings. Water is ejected by pressure (20-30 bar) from patch pipettes with tip diameters of 10-12 microm. By means of a piezo-element the pipette and the water jet are forced to oscillate vertically with a frequency of 200-400 Hz with an adjustable amplitude. These oscillations facilitate the transsection of neuronal connections even in thick slice preparations. Best results were obtained when the tip of the pipette was about 500 microm above the surface of the submerged slice tissue. This micromingotome offers the following advantages: (i) histological studies show that the water jet cleans the cutting surface, thus avoiding debris and its uncontrolable effects on cells underneath; (ii) the arrangement enables ongoing electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices during the cutting procedure and thus facilitates studies of the functions of neuronal connections; (iii) the device allows even disconnection in cultured nervous tissue overgrowing polyamid grids with 50 microm wide meshes.

  20. Characteristics of Spherical Shock Wave and Circular Pulse Jet Generated by Discharge of Propagating Shock Wave at Open End of Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsukasa Irie; Tsuyoshi Yasunobu; Hideo Kashimura; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kazuyasu Matsuo

    2003-01-01

    When the shock wave propagating in the straight circular tube reaches at the open end, the impulsive wave is generated by the emission of a shock wave from an open end, and unsteady pulse jet is formed near the open end behind the impulsive wave under the specific condition. The pulse jet transits to spherical shock wave with the increase in the strength of shock wave. The strength is dependent on the Mach number of shock wave, which attenuates by propagation distance from the open end. In this study, the mechanism of generating the unsteady pulse jet, the characteristics of the pressure distribution in the flow field and the emission of shock wave from straight circular tube which has the infinite flange at open end are analyzed numerically by the TVD method. Strength of spherical shock wave, relation of shock wave Mach number, distance decay of spherical shock wave and directional characteristics are clarified.

  1. Ventricle wall dissection and vascular preservation with the pulsed water jet device: novel tissue dissector for flexible neuroendoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Endo, Toshiki; Fujimura, Miki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-03-01

    Neuroendoscopic surgery allows minimally invasive surgery, but lacks effective methods to control bleeding. Water jet dissection with continuous flow has been used in liver and kidney surgery since the 1980s, and is effective for tissue manipulation with vascular preservation, but involves some potential risks, such as elevation of intracranial pressure during application in the ventricles. The authors previously reported the efficacy of the actuator-driven pulsed water jet device (ADPJ) to dissect soft tissue with vascular preservation in microscopic neurosurgery. This feasibility study investigated the use of the ADPJ to reduce the amount of water usage, leading to more safety with sustained efficacy. A small-diameter pulsed water jet device was developed for use with the flexible neuroendoscope. To identify the optimal conditions for the water jet, the flow rate, water pressure, and distance between the nozzle and target were analyzed in an in vitro study by using a gelatin brain phantom. A ventricle model was used to monitor the internal pressure and temperature. For ex vivo experiments the porcine brain was harvested and ventricle walls were exposed, and subsequently immersed into physiological saline. For in vivo experiments the cortex was microsurgically resected to make the small cortico-ventricle window, and then the endoscope was introduced to dissect ventricle walls. In the in vitro experiments, water pressure was approximately 6.5 bar at 0.5 mm from the ADPJ nozzle and was maintained at 1 mm, but dropped rapidly toward 50% at 2 mm, and became 10% at 3.5 mm. The ADPJ required less water to achieve the same dissection depth compared with the continuous-flow water jet. With the ventricle model, the internal pressure and temperature were well controlled at the baseline, with open water drainage. These results indicated that the ADPJ can be safely applied within the ventricles. The ADPJ was introduced into a flexible endoscope and the ventricle walls were

  2. Temporal and spatial profiles of emission intensities in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by microsecond pulse: Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Cheng; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, Yuan [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Weidong [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Saint Peter' s University, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Naidis, George V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-28

    A needle-circular electrode structure helium plasma jet driven by microsecond pulsed power is studied. Spatially resolved emission results show that the emission intensity of He(3{sup 3}S{sub 1}) line decreases monotonically along the axial direction, while those of N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}Π{sub u}), N{sub 2}{sup +}(B{sup 2}∑{sup +}{sub u}), and O(3p{sup 5}P) reach their maxima at 3 cm, 2.6 cm, and 1.4 cm, respectively. The plasma plume of the four species shows different characteristics: The N{sub 2} emission plume travels at a fast speed along the entire plasma jet; the N{sub 2}{sup +} emission plume is composed of a bright head and relatively weak tail and travels a shorter distance than the N{sub 2} emission plume; the He emission plume travels at a slower speed for only a very short distance; propagation of the O emission plume is not observed. Results of calculation of radiation fluxes emitted by positive streamers propagating along helium plasma jets are presented. It is shown, in agreement with the results of the present experiment and with other available experimental data, that the intensities of radiation of N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}Π{sub u}) molecules and He(3{sup 3}S{sub 1}) atoms vary with time (along the plasma jet) quite differently. The factors resulting in this difference are discussed.

  3. EVALUATION OF FOAMING/ANTIFOAMING IN WTP TANKS EQUIPPED WITH PULSE JET MIXERS AND AIR SPARGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES, TIMOTHYM.

    2004-09-01

    has no significant effect on pH or chemical composition of the slurry. The rheology is also not impacted by air sparging. The primary effect of air sparging is the removal of water by the dry air passing through the column and exiting in a saturated condition. This effect can be mitigated by adding water back to the column or vessel during sparging. Therefore, an initial charge of 350 mg/L antifoam (Dow Q2-3183A) followed by small batch additions of 70 mg/LQ2-3183A every 24 hours is recommended for use in WTP tanks equipped with air spargers and pulse jets based upon the testing done in this study. However, this recommendation is based upon a limited set of antifoam degradation data developed for the WTP evaporator R and T program. Therefore, additional investigation into refining the kinetic behavior of Q2 antifoam under radiation dose is recommended.

  4. Disinfection of Staphylococcus Aureus by pulsed non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Shahgoli, Farhad

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of low-temperature atmospheric plasma jet on non-pathogenic bacteria's colonies. In this regard, Germicidal effect of time and distance of ICP He and He/N2 plasma jet on Staphylococcus Aureus were reported. The gas discharges were generated by a 40 KHz high voltage power supply which led to the inductively coupled plasma. The results showed that He/N2 enhance the sterilization time in comparison of He plasma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study which has compared the effect of sterilization of ICP Helium and Helium-Nitrogen plasma in listed conditions. Also, the distance dependence showed that the germicidal effect was not linear the distance of electrode and sample. The protein leakage test and SEM of bacteria morphology confirmed the sterilization effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  5. Numerical and experimental study on a pulsed-dc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Pei, X. K.; Lu, X. P.; Liu, D. W.

    2014-06-01

    A numerical and experimental study of plasma jet propagation in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure, helium jet in ambient air is presented. A self-consistent, multi-species, two-dimensional axially symmetric plasma model with detailed finite-rate chemistry of helium-air mixture composition is used to provide insights into the propagation of the plasma jet. The obtained simulation results suggest that the sheath forms near the dielectric tube inner surface and shields the plasma channel from the tube surface. The strong electric field at the edge of the dielectric field enhances the ionization in the air mixing layer; therefore, the streamer head becomes ring-shaped when the streamer runs out of the tube. The avalanche-to-streamer transition is the main mechanism of streamer advancement. Penning ionization dominates the ionization reactions and increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma channel. The simulation results are supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  6. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  7. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  8. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  9. Study on improving performance of airlift device by self-excited oscillation pulsed jet used in mining under water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; CAI Shu-peng; TANG Chuan-lin

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of the nozzle of self-excited oscillation pulsed jet (SEOPJ) as the breaker and loosing device for the air-lift pump was researched.The dynamic characteristics of the SEOPJ to crush the hard clay and loose the layer of ore deposit were explored experimentally under the submerged condition.The results show that the SEOPJ not only effectively breaks the hard clay or loose the particles of sand on the placer bed,but also produces fluctuating uplift force acting on particles of sand.The oscillating cross flow caused by the SEOPJ makes particles of sand move to the end of the suction pipe easily.Energy efficency of the airlift and concentration of the solids for the solid-liquid mixture sucked by the air-lift pump are increased obviously with the breaker of SEOPJ.

  10. Study on improving performance of airlift device by self-excited oscillation pulsed jet used in mining under water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; CAI Shu-peng; TANG Chuan-lin

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of the nozzle of self-excited oscillation pulsed jet (SEOPJ) as the breaker and loosing device for the air-lift pump was researched. The dynamic characteris-tics of the SEOPJ to crush the hard clay and loose the layer of ore deposit were explored experimentally under the submerged condition. The results show that the SEOPJ not only effectively breaks the hard clay or loose the particles of sand on the placer bed, but also produces fluctuating uplift force acting on particles of sand. The oscillating cross flow caused by the SEOPJ makes particles of sand move to the end of the suction pipe easily. Energy efficency of the airlift and concentration of the solids for the solid-liquid mixture sucked by the air-lift pump are increased obviously with the breaker of SEOPJ.

  11. Pulsed X-ray radiography of a gas jet target for laser-matter interaction experiments with the use of a CCD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, R. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Bartnik, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: hfiedorowicz@wat.edu.pl; Jarocki, R. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Kostecki, J. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); MikoIajczyk, J. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szczurek, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Foeldes, I.B. [KFKI-Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Association EURATOM, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged, Pf.: 406 (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Characterization of gas jet targets has been carried out using pulsed X-ray radiography. A laser-plasma X-ray source was applied for backlighting of the targets to obtain X-ray shadowgraphs registered with a CCD detector. From the shadowgraphs, characteristics of the targets were determined.

  12. Protostellar outflows with Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD)

    CERN Document Server

    Bürzle, Florian; Stasyszyn, Federico; Dolag, Klaus; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    The protostellar collapse of a molecular cloud core is usually accompanied by outflow phenomena. The latter are thought to be driven by magnetorotational processes from the central parts of the protostellar disc. While several 3D AMR/nested grid studies of outflow phenomena in collapsing magnetically supercritical dense cores have been reported in the literature, so far no such simulation has been performed using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. This is mainly due to intrinsic numerical difficulties in handling magnetohydrodynamics within SPH, which only recently were partly resolved. In this work, we use an approach where we evolve the magnetic field via the induction equation, augmented with stability correction and divergence cleaning schemes. We consider the collapse of a rotating core of one solar mass, threaded by a weak magnetic field initially parallel to the rotation axis so that the core is magnetically supercritical. We show, that Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) is a...

  13. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  14. Early dust evolution in protostellar accretion disks

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We investigate dust dynamics and evolution during the formation of a protostellar accretion disk around intermediate mass stars via 2D numerical simulations. Using three different detailed dust models, compact spherical particles, fractal BPCA grains, and BCCA grains, we find that even during the early collapse and the first 10,000 yr of dynamical disk evolution, the initial dust size distribution is strongly modified. Close to the disk's midplane coagulation produces dust particles of sizes ...

  15. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  16. The formation of molecules in protostellar winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassgold, A.E.; Mamon, G.A.; Huggins, P.J. (New York University, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The production and destruction processes for molecules in very fast protostellar winds are analyzed and modeled with a one-dimensional chemical kinetics code. Radial density and temperature distributions suggested by protostellar theory are explored as are a range of mass-loss rates. The efficiency of in situ formation of heavy molecules is found to be high if the wind temperature falls sufficiently rapidly, as indicated by theory. The degree of molecular conversion is a strong function of the mass-loss rate and of density gradients associated with the acceleration and collimation of the wind. Even in cases where essentially all of the heavy atoms are processed into molecules, a significant fraction of atomic hydrogen remains so that hghly molecular, protostellar winds are able to emit the 21-cm line. Although CO has a substantial abundance in most models relevant to very young protostars, high abundances of other molecules such as SiO and H2O signify more complete association characteristic of winds containing regions of very high density. Although the models apply only to regions close to the protostar, they are in qualitative accord with recent observations at much larger distances of both atomic and molecular emission from extremely high-velocity flow. 57 refs.

  17. The formation of molecules in protostellar winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Huggins, P. J.

    1991-05-01

    The production and destruction processes for molecules in very fast protostellar winds are analyzed and modeled with a one-dimensional chemical kinetics code. Radial density and temperature distributions suggested by protostellar theory are explored as are a range of mass-loss rates. The efficiency of in situ formation of heavy molecules is found to be high if the wind temperature falls sufficiently rapidly, as indicated by theory. The degree of molecular conversion is a strong function of the mass-loss rate and of density gradients associated with the acceleration and collimation of the wind. Even in cases where essentially all of the heavy atoms are processed into molecules, a significant fraction of atomic hydrogen remains so that highly molecular, protostellar winds are able to emit the 21-cm line. Although CO has a substantial abundance in most models relevant to very young protostars, high abundances of other molecules such as SiO and H2O signify more complete association characteristic of winds containing regions of very high density. Although the models apply only to regions close to the protostar, they are in qualitative accord with recent observations at much larger distances of both atomic and molecular emission from extremely high-velocity flow.

  18. The formation of molecules in protostellar winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Huggins, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The production and destruction processes for molecules in very fast protostellar winds are analyzed and modeled with a one-dimensional chemical kinetics code. Radial density and temperature distributions suggested by protostellar theory are explored as are a range of mass-loss rates. The efficiency of in situ formation of heavy molecules is found to be high if the wind temperature falls sufficiently rapidly, as indicated by theory. The degree of molecular conversion is a strong function of the mass-loss rate and of density gradients associated with the acceleration and collimation of the wind. Even in cases where essentially all of the heavy atoms are processed into molecules, a significant fraction of atomic hydrogen remains so that hghly molecular, protostellar winds are able to emit the 21-cm line. Although CO has a substantial abundance in most models relevant to very young protostars, high abundances of other molecules such as SiO and H2O signify more complete association characteristic of winds containing regions of very high density. Although the models apply only to regions close to the protostar, they are in qualitative accord with recent observations at much larger distances of both atomic and molecular emission from extremely high-velocity flow.

  19. Schlieren study of a sonic jet injected into a supersonic cross flow using high-current pulsed LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Giskes, Ella; Segerink, Frans B; Venner, Cornelis H

    2016-01-01

    In the research of supersonic flows, flow visualization continues to be an important tool, and even today it is difficult to create high quality images. In this study we present a low-cost and easy-to use Schlieren setup. The setup makes use of LEDs, pulsed with high currents to increase the optical output to sufficient levels, exploiting the advantages of LED light over conventional light sources. As a test-case we study the interaction of a Mach 1.7 cross flow and a transverse underexpanded jet, which is commonly studied considering the mixing and combustion in scramjet engines. Using 130 nanosecond LED light pulses, we captured the flow structures sharply and in great detail. We observed a large-gradient wave, which was seen in numerical studies but hitherto not reported in experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that time-correlated images can be obtained with this Schlieren setup, so that also flow unsteadiness can be studied, such as the movement of shock waves and vortices.

  20. Mini-Jet Controlled Turbulent Round Air Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜诚; 米建春; 周裕; 詹杰

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets.The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000.It is found that once the continuous minijets are replaced with pulsed ones,the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet.For example,the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two(or four)pulsed mini-jets blowing,compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass flow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.%We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets. The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000. It is found that once the continuous mini-jets are replaced with pulsed ones, the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet. For example, the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two (or four) pulsed mini-jets blowing, compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass Sow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.

  1. Influence of selected fixed parameters on pulse-jet fabric filter operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, K. T.

    The effect of (a) fixing the time interval between cleaning pulses or (b) fixing the maximum pressure drop at which cleaning is started, on the performance of the fabric filter was investigated. A maximum pressure drop value of 2500 Pa: (a) minimized the effect of the filter medium resistance; (b) reduced the energy consumption by the filter; (c) minimized the dust emission from the fabric filter to the surrounding atmosphere.

  2. The dissection profile and mechanism of tissue-selective dissection of the piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet as a surgical instrument: laboratory investigation using Swine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masato; Nakano, Toru; Sato, Chiaki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Nakanishi, Chikashi; Sakurai, Tadashi; Miyata, Go; Tominaga, Teiji; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    The water jet technique dissects tissue while sparing cord-like structures such as blood vessels. The mechanism of such tissue-selective dissection has been unknown. The novel piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system can achieve dissection with remarkably reduced water consumption compared to the conventional water jet; however, the system's characteristics and dissection capabilities on any organ have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to characterize the physical properties of the novel ADPJ system, evaluate the dissection ability in swine organs, and reveal the mechanism of tissue-selective dissection. The pulsed water jet system comprised a pump chamber driven by a piezo actuator, a stainless steel tube, and a nozzle. The peak pressure of the pulsed water jet was measured through a sensing hole using a pressure sensor. The pulsed water jet technique was applied on swine liver in order to dissect tissue on a moving table using one-way linear ejection at a constant speed. The dissection depth was measured with light microscopy and evaluated histologically. The physical properties of swine liver were evaluated by breaking strength tests using tabletop universal testing instruments. The liver parenchyma was also cut with three currently available surgical devices to compare the histological findings. The peak pressure of the pulsed water jet positively correlated with the input voltage (R(2) = 0.9982, p dissection depth. The dissection depth negatively correlated with the breaking strength of the liver parenchyma (R(2) = 0.6694, p dissected, preserving the hepatic veins and Glisson's sheaths in contrast to what is commonly observed with electrocautery or ultrasonic instruments. The dissection depth of liver tissue is well controlled by input voltage and is influenced by the moving velocity and the physical properties of the organ. We showed that the device can be used to assure liver resection with tissue selectivity due to tissue

  3. Molecular Structure and Chirality Determination from Pulsed-Jet Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Perez, Cristobal; Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks; Lehmann, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy has been used for many years as one of the most accurate methods to determine gas-phase structures of molecules and small molecular clusters. In the last years two pioneering works ushered in a new era applications. First, by exploiting the reduced measurement time and the high sensitivity, the development of chirped-pulse CP-FTMW spectrometers enabled the full structural determination of molecules of increasing size as well as molecular clusters. Second, and more recently, Patterson et al. showed that rotational spectroscopy can also be used for enantiomer-specific detection. Here we present an experimental approach that combines both in a single spectrometer. This set-up is capable to rapidly obtain the full heavy-atom substitution structure using the CP-FTMW features. The inclusion of an extra set of broadband horns allows for a chirality-sensitive measurement of the sample. The measurement we implement is a three-wave mixing experiment that uses time-separated pulses to optimally create the chiral coherence - an approach that was proposed recently. Using samples of R-, S- and racemic Solketal, the physical properties of the three-wave mixing experiment were studied. This involved the measurement of the corresponding nutation curves (molecular signal intensity vs excitation pulse duration) to demonstrate the optimal pulse sequence. The phase stability of the chiral signal, required to assign the absolute stereochemistry, has been studied as a function of the measurement signal-to-noise ratio using a "phasogram" method. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. D. Patterson, M. Schnell, J. M. Doyle, Nature 2013, 497, 475-477. D. Patterson, J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013, 111, 023008. V. A. Shubert, D. Schmitz, D. Patterson, J. M. Doyle, M. Schnell, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 1152-1155. J.-U. Grabow, Angew. Chem. 2013, 125, 11914

  4. Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the person's heart is pumping. Pulse ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  5. Doping He droplets by laser ablation with a pulsed supersonic jet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzy, R.; Singer, M.; Izadnia, S.; LaForge, A. C., E-mail: aaron.laforge@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Stienkemeier, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Laser ablation offers the possibility to study a rich number of atoms, molecules, and clusters in the gas phase. By attaching laser ablated materials to helium nanodroplets, one can gain highly resolved spectra of isolated species in a cold, weakly perturbed system. Here, we present a new setup for doping pulsed helium nanodroplet beams by means of laser ablation. In comparison to more well-established techniques using a continuous nozzle, pulsed nozzles show significant differences in the doping efficiency depending on certain experimental parameters (e.g., position of the ablation plume with respect to the droplet formation, nozzle design, and expansion conditions). In particular, we demonstrate that when the ablation region overlaps with the droplet formation region, one also creates a supersonic beam of helium atoms seeded with the sample material. The processes are characterized using a surface ionization detector. The overall doping signal is compared to that of conventional oven cell doping showing very similar dependence on helium stagnation conditions, indicating a comparable doping process. Finally, the ablated material was spectroscopically studied via laser induced fluorescence.

  6. Multiphoton ionization of jet-cooled nickelocene with tunable nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketkov, Sergey Yu.; Selzle, Heinrich L.; Schlag, Edward W.; Titova, Sofia N.

    2003-08-01

    Efficient multiphoton ionization of nickelocene molecules in a supersonically cooled molecular beam has been performed for the first time with a nanosecond tunable dye laser operating in the 35,000-cm -1 region which corresponds to the lowest Rydberg transition observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum. The time-of-flight mass spectra obtained show strong signals of intact molecular ions Cp 2Ni + (Cp=η 5-C 5H 5) and weaker peaks of fragment ions CpNi +. The conditions have been found for generation of Cp 2Ni + as the only ionic product of multiphoton excitation. The ion signal dependence on the laser intensity and the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum measured at the mass of Cp 2Ni + testify for saturation of absorption and/or ionization steps at the laser pulse intensities used (2-6 MW cm -2). Possible mechanisms of multiphoton processes resulting in formation of the ions observed are discussed.

  7. Jet formation in spallation of metal film from substrate under action of femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inogamov, N. A., E-mail: nailinogamov@googlemail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V. V. [Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that during ablation by an ultrashort laser pulse, the main contribution to ablation of the substance is determined not by evaporation, but by the thermomechanical spallation of the substance. For identical metals and pulse parameters, the type of spallation is determined by film thickness d{sub f}. An important gauge is metal heating depth d{sub T} at the two-temperature stage, at which electron temperature is higher than ion temperature. We compare cases with d{sub f} < d{sub T} (thin film) and d{sub f} ≫ d{sub T} (bulk target). Radius R{sub L} of the spot of heating by an optical laser is the next (after d{sub f}) important geometrical parameter. The morphology of film bulging in cases where d{sub f} < d{sub T} on the substrate (blistering) changes upon a change in radius R{sub L} in the range from diffraction limit R{sub L} ∼ λ to high values of R{sub L} ≫ λ, where λ ∼ 1 μm is the wavelength of optical laser radiation. When d{sub f} < d{sub T}, R{sub L} ∼ λ, and F{sub abs} > F{sub m}, gold film deposited on the glass target acquires a cupola-shaped blister with a miniature frozen nanojet in the form of a tip on the circular top of the cupola (F{sub abs} and F{sub m} are the absorbed energy and the melting threshold of the film per unit surface area of the film). A new physical mechanism leading to the formation of the nanojet is proposed.

  8. An experimental study on discharge characteristics in a pulsed-dc atmospheric pressure CH3OH/Ar plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Muyang; Liu, Sanqiu; Yang, Congying; Pei, Xuekai; Lu, Xinpei; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-10-01

    Recently, C/H/Ar plasma discharges found enormous potential and possibility in carbonaceous compounds conversion and production. In this work, a pulsed-dc CH3OH/Ar plasma jet generated at atmospheric pressure is investigated by means of optical and electrical diagnosis concerning the variation of its basic parameters, absolute concentration of OH radicals, and plasma temperature with different CH3OH/Ar volume ratios, in the core region of discharge with needle-to-ring electrode configuration. The voltage-current characteristics are also measured at different CH3OH/Ar ratios. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) results here show that only small amounts of added methanol vapor to argon plasma (about 0.05% CH3OH/Ar volume ratio) is favorable for the production of OH radicals. The optical emission lines of CH, CN, and C2 radicals have been detected in the CH3OH/Ar plasma. And, the plasma temperatures increase with successive amount of added methanol vapor to the growth plasma. Moreover, qualitative discussions are presented regarding the mechanisms for methanol dissociation and effect of the CH3OH component on the Ar plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure.

  9. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  10. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, P. K.; McDonnell, A. G.; Prabhakar, R.; Yeo, L. Y.; Friend, J.

    2011-02-01

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (lsim10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities—water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  11. Multiphoton ionization of jet-cooled nickelocene with tunable nanosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketkov, Sergey Yu.; Selzle, Heinrich L.; Schlag, Edward W.; Titova, Sofia

    2003-08-15

    Efficient multiphoton ionization of nickelocene molecules in a supersonically cooled molecular beam has been performed for the first time with a nanosecond tunable dye laser operating in the 35,000-cm{sup -1} region which corresponds to the lowest Rydberg transition observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum. The time-of-flight mass spectra obtained show strong signals of intact molecular ions Cp{sub 2}Ni{sup +} (Cp={eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) and weaker peaks of fragment ions CpNi{sup +}. The conditions have been found for generation of Cp{sub 2}Ni{sup +} as the only ionic product of multiphoton excitation. The ion signal dependence on the laser intensity and the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum measured at the mass of Cp{sub 2}Ni{sup +} testify for saturation of absorption and/or ionization steps at the laser pulse intensities used (2-6 MW cm{sup -2}). Possible mechanisms of multiphoton processes resulting in formation of the ions observed are discussed.

  12. Specific features of the radial distributions of plasma parameters in the initial segment of a supersonic jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchina, A. S.; Efimov, A. V.; Chinnov, V. F.; Ageev, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Results are presented from spectroscopic studies of the initial segment of a supersonic plasma jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge with an ablative carbon-containing polymer wall. Specific features of the spatial distributions of the electron density and intensities of spectral components caused, in particular, by the high electron temperature in the central zone, much exceeding the normal temperature, as well as by the high nonisobaricity of the initial segment of the supersonic jet, are revealed. Measurements of the radiative properties of the hot jet core (the intensity and profile of the Hα and Hβ Balmer lines and the relative intensities of C II lines) with high temporal (1-50 μs) and spatial (30-50 μm) resolutions made it possible to determine general features of the pressure and temperature distributions near the central shock. The presence of molecular components exhibiting their emission properties at the periphery of the plasma jet allowed the authors to estimate the parameters of the plasma in the jet region where "detached" shock waves form.

  13. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  14. The Piezo Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet System for Minimizing Renal Damage after Off-Clamp Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shinji; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Ito, Akihiro; Abe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Arai, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal cell carcinoma, postoperative renal dysfunction might be caused by surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to clarify the technical safety and renal damage after off-clamp laparoscopic PN (LPN) with a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system. Eight swine underwent off-clamp LPN with this surgical device, while off-clamp open PN was also performed with radio knife or soft coagulation. The length of the removed kidney was 40 mm, and the renal parenchyma was dissected until the renal calyx became clearly visible. The degree of renal degeneration from the resection surface was compared by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunostaining for 1-methyladenosine, a sensitive marker for the ischemic tissue damage. The mRNA levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal), a biomarker for acute kidney injury, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Off-clamp LPN with ADPJ system was successfully performed while preserving fine blood vessels and the renal calix with little bleeding. In contrast to other devices, the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system showed only marginal degree of ischemic changes. Indeed, the expression level of Ngal mRNA was lower in the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system than that with soft coagulation (p = 0.02). Furthermore, using the excised specimens of renal cell carcinoma, we measured the breaking strength at each site of the human kidney, suggesting the applicability of this ADPJ to clinical trials. In conclusion, off-clamp LPN with the ADPJ system could be safely performed with attenuated renal damage.

  15. Magnetic fields in early protostellar disk formation

    CERN Document Server

    González-Casanova, Diego F; Lazarian, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian & Vishniac (1999) model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called "magnetic braking catastrophe". In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M$_\\odot$ protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, "reconnection diffusion", removes the magnetic flux from the disk, the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the a...

  16. Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Wasserman, Ira

    2015-01-01

    We model the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc using an \\alpha-dynamo and perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of a T Tauri star. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter $\\alpha_d$ the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate ${\\sigma} \\propto {\\Omega}_K \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ , before saturating to a value $\\propto \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ . The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}/\\rm{yr}$ for T Tauri stars. For large values of $\\alpha_d$ magnetic loops are generated over the entire disc. These quickly come to dominate the disc dynamics and cause the disc to break up due to the magnetic pressure.

  17. Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Wardle, M; Salmeron, Raquel; Konigl, Arieh; Wardle, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs can take place either radially, through turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), or vertically, through the torque exerted by a large-scale magnetic field that threads the disc. Using semi-analytic and numerical results, we construct a model of steady-state discs that includes vertical transport by a centrifugally driven wind as well as MRI-induced turbulence. We present approximate criteria for the occurrence of either one of these mechanisms in an ambipolar diffusion-dominated disc. We derive ``strong field'' solutions in which the angular momentum transport is purely vertical and ``weak field'' solutions that are the stratified-disc analogues of the previously studied MRI channel modes; the latter are transformed into accretion solutions with predominantly radial angular-momentum transport when we implement a turbulent-stress prescription based on published results of numerical simulations. We also analyze ``intermediate field strength'...

  18. Numerical Study on Performance Parameter of Pulsed Liquid Jet Pump%脉冲液体射流泵性能参数的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲花; 张川; 宁盼华; 干超

    2011-01-01

    定量分析脉冲液体射流泵时均值基本性能方程中的最优工作参数、动量修正系数、时均惯性力与时均惯性水头的变化规律及其对性能的影响,结果表明脉冲射流可以使流体在喉管出口处得到更充分的混合,并且改善射流泵的最优工作参数和范围.%The optimal operating parameters, momentum correction factor, time-average inertia force and time-average inertia head of pulsed liquid jet pump are quantitatively studied based on the time-average basic performance equation, and the impacts on performance are also analyzed. The calculation shows that the pulsed jet can make the fluid to be more fully mixed in the outlet of throat tube and improve the optimal operating parameters and range of liquid jet pump.

  19. Jet-cleaning experiment and simulation of a pulse-jet cartridge filter%脉冲喷吹滤筒除尘器喷吹清灰实验与数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彩云; 陈海焱; 李波

    2012-01-01

    通过喷吹实验台对φ147×1 000 mm滤筒的脉冲喷吹清灰过程进行了实验测试,运用数据采集系统得到了滤筒表面压力峰值的动态变化曲线图;并利用CFD模拟滤筒的清灰过程,计算过程采用非稳态计算方法,得到了不同喷吹时刻滤筒表面的压力峰值.在喷吹压力一定的条件下,沿滤筒长度方向上,正压力峰值到达时间是逐渐增加的;滤筒内压力峰值并非随着喷吹时间的增加而不断增大,当喷吹时间大于60 ms时,随着喷吹时间的增加压力峰值有下降趋势.模拟得到的压力峰值曲线与实验曲线变化趋势一致.%By testing the jet-cleaning process of a filter cartridge of 0147 x 1 000 mm in size on a jet experiment platform, obtains a dynamic change curve of peak pressure by means of a data collection system. Adopting CFD to simulate the jet-cleaning process of the filter using an unsteady calculation method, gains the peak pressures at different pulse-jet times. The occurring time of positive peak pressure is gradually increasing along the length direction of the cartridge under a given jet pressure. The increase of the peak pressure in cartridge does not increase with the jet time and the peak pressure has a decrease trend when the jet time is longer than 60 ms. The variation trend of the peak pressure curve from simulation is accordant with the one from the experiment.

  20. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  1. Evaluation of Yields of γ-Rays Produced by Electrons from Gas Jets Irradiated by Low-Energy Laser Pulses: Towards “Virtual Radioisotopes”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Zhidkov, Alexei; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    2011-04-01

    Electron generation from a gas jet irradiated by low-energy femtosecond laser pulses is studied as a promising source of ˜1 MeV radiation for radioisotope-free γ-ray imaging systems: “virtual radioisotopes”. The yield of γ-rays in the 0.5-2 MeV range produced by low-average-power lasers and gas targets exceeds the yields from solid tape targets up to 2 orders of magnitude; it can be competitive with the yield from conventional radioisotopes used in industrial applications.

  2. Characteristics of nanosecond-pulse atmospheric pressure plasma jet%纳秒脉冲放电等离子体射流特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛铮; 邵涛; 章程; 方志; 李春霞; 张东东; 严萍

    2012-01-01

    In the experiments, with the use of a single needle electrode, atmospheric pressure plasma jets are excited by a repetitive unipolar nanosecond-pulse generator, with working gases such as helium, argon, nitrogen and air. The results show that the jet length increases with the rise of applied voltages as the flow rate of working gas increases, the length of jet becomes gradually longer and then reduces gradually to saturation after a certain flow rate due to turbulence. In addition, the plasma jets of different working gases have very different appearances. Helium and argon gas jets are needle-like, and the longest jet length is o-ver 7 cm: whereas in nitrogen and in air, the jet is no more than 2 cm long, of brush-like mode.%采用单针式电极,使用单极性重复频率脉冲电源,在常压氦气、氩气、氮气和空气中得到等离子体射流,并改变电压、流量和气体种类,分别观察不同的实验条件对等离子体射流的影响.实验结果表明:射流长度随施加电压的增加而增长;随着流量的连续变化,射流长度先逐渐变长,达到峰值后由于湍流影响,长度又逐渐缩短,达到一定流量后趋于饱和.此外,不同工作气体中的等离子体射流呈现截然不同的外观,氦气和氩气中射流呈针状模式,长度可达7 cm以上;而在氮气和空气中,射流呈现为长度不超过2 cm的刷状模式.

  3. Origination of gamma-ray burst pulses associated with the Doppler effect of spherical fireballs or uniform jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rui-Jing; Qin Yi-Ping; Zhang Fu-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Ryde and Petrosian have pointed out that the rise phases of gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses originate from the widths of the intrinsic pulses and their decay phases are determined by the curvature effect of the expanding fireball surface based on their simplified formula. In this paper we investigate in detail the issue based on the formula in Ref.[20], which is derived based on a model of highly symmetric expanding fireballs, where the Doppler effect is the key factor to be concerned about, and no terms are omitted in their derivation. Our analyses show that the decay phases of the observed pulses originate from the contributions from both the curvature effect of the expanding fireball and the two timescales of the local pulses, and the rise phases of the observed pulses only come from the two timescales of the local pulses. Associated with a local pulse with both rise and decay portions, the light curve of GRBs in the rise portion is expected to undergo a concave phase and then a convex one, whereas that in the decay portion is expected to evolve by an opposite process. And the ratio of the concave timescale to the convex one in the rise phase of the observed pulse linearly increases with the ratio of the rising timescale to the decay one of the local pulse (γrd), whereas the ratio of the convex timescale to the concave timescale in its decay phase linearly decreases with γrd. The two correlations are independent of the local pulse forms and the rest-frame radiation forms. But the different forms of local pulses and the different values of γrd gives rise to the diversity of the light curve pulse shapes. We test a sample of 86 GRB pulses detected by the BATSE instrument on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and find that the characteristics do exist in the light curve of GRBs.

  4. Exploring the polymerization of bioactive nano-cones on the inner surface of an organic tube by an atmospheric pressure pulsed micro-plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. M.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, G. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Hu, W.; Chen, W. X.; Bai, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the successful deposition of acrylic acid polymer (PAA) nano-cones on the inner surface of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube using an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma jet (APPJ) with acrylic acid (AA) monomer is presented. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements indicated that various reactive radicals, such as rad OH and rad O, existed in the plasma jet. Moreover, the pulsed current proportionally increased with the increase in the applied voltage. The strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (Cdbnd O) at 1700 cm-1, shown in the ATR-FTIR spectra, clearly indicated that the PAA was deposited on the PVC surface. The maximum height of the PAA nano-cones deposited by this method ranged from 150 to 200 nm. FTIR and XPS results confirmed the enhanced exposure of the carboxyl groups on the modified PVC surface, which was considered highly beneficial for successfully immobilizing a high density of biomolecules. The XPS data showed that the carbon ratios of the Csbnd OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 7.03% and 2.6% to 18.69% and 6.81%, respectively (more than doubled) when an Ar/O2 plasma with AA monomer was applied to treat the inner surface of the PVC tube. Moreover, the enhanced attachment density of MC3T3-E1 bone cells was observed on the PVC inner surface coated with PAA nano-cones.

  5. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Charles L H; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bower, Geoffrey C; Carpenter, John M; Crutcher, Richard M; Fiege, Jason D; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W; Looney, Leslie W; Matthews, Brenda C; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W; Stephens, Ian W; Tobin, John J; Vaillancourt, John E; Volgenau, N H; Wright, Melvyn C H

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation generally assume that bipolar outflows are parallel to the mean magnetic-field direction in protostellar cores. Here we present results of \\lambda1.3 mm dust polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2.5" resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotation axes of circumstellar disks, then our results imply that these disks are not aligned with the fields in the cores from which they formed.

  6. The early evolution of protostellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Steven W.; Korycansky, D. G.; Brothers, Maxwell J.; Touma, Jihad

    1994-01-01

    We consider the origin and intital growth of the disks that form around protostars during the collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores. These disks are assumed to be inviscid and pressure free, and to have masses small compared to those of their central stars. We find that there exist three distinct components-an outer disk, in which shocked gas moves with comparable azimuthal and radical velocities; and inner disk, where material follows nearly circular orbits, but spirals slowly toward the star because of the drag exerted by adjacent onfalling matter, and a turbulent ring adjoining the first two regions. Early in the evolution, i.e., soon after infalling matter begins to miss the star, only the outer disk is present, and the total mass acceration rate onto the protostar is undiminished. Once the outer disk boundary grows to more than 2.9 times the stellar radius, first the ring, and then the inner disk appear. Thereafter, the radii of all three components expand as t(exp 3). The mass of the ring increase with time and is always 13% of the total mass that has fallen from the cloud. Concurrently with the buildup of the inner disk and ring, the accretion rate onto the star falls off. However, the protostellar mass continue to rise, asymptotically as t(exp 1/4). We calculated the radiated flux from the inner and outer disk components due to the release of gravitational potential energy. The flux from the inner disk is dominant and rises steeply toward the stellar surface. We also determine the surface temperature of the inner disk as a function of radius. The total disk luminosity decreases slowly with time, while the contributions from the ring and inner disk both fall as t(exp -2).

  7. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN EARLY PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Casanova, Diego F.; Lazarian, Alexander [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Santos-Lima, Reinaldo, E-mail: casanova@astro.wisc.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão, 1226, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian and Vishniac model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called “magnetic braking catastrophe.” In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M{sub ⊙} protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, “reconnection diffusion,” removes the magnetic flux from the disk; the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the absolute value of the magnetic flux through the disk. We demonstrate that for the first mechanism, turbulence causes a magnetic flux transport outward from the inner disk to the ambient medium, thus decreasing the coupling of the disk to the ambient material. A similar effect is achieved through the change of the magnetic field's topology from a split monopole configuration to a dipole configuration. We explore how both mechanisms prevent the catastrophic loss of disk angular momentum and compare both above turbulent reconnection mechanisms with alternative mechanisms from the literature.

  8. Momentum transfer by astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, L M; De Gouveia dal Pino, E M; Benz, W

    1994-01-01

    We have used 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations to study the basic properties of the outflow that is created by a protostellar jet in a dense molecular cloud. The dynamics of the jet/cloud interaction is strongly affected by the cooling in the shocked gas behind the bow shock at the head of the jet. We show that this cooling is very rapid, with the cooling distance of the gas much less than the jet radius. Thus, although ambient gas is initially driven away from the jet axis by the high thermal pressure odf the post-shock gas, rapid cooling reduces the pressure and the outflow subsequently evolves in a momentum-conserving snowplow fashion. The velocity of the ambient gas is high in the vicinity of the jet head, but decreases rapidly as more material is swept up. Thus, this type of outflow produces extremely high velocity clumps of post shock gas which resemble the features seen in outflows. We have investigated the transfer of momentum from the jet to the ambient medium as a function of the jet ...

  9. Study of x-rays produced from debris-free sources with Ar, Kr and Kr/Ar mixture linear gas jets irradiated by UNR Leopard laser beam with fs and ns pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petrov, G. M.; Moschella, J. J.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Weller, M. E.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Experiments of x-ray emission from Ar, Kr, and Ar/Kr gas jet mixture were performed at the UNR Leopard Laser Facility operated with 350 fs pulses at laser intensity of 2 × 1019 W/cm2 and 0.8 ns pulses at an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. Debris free x-ray source with supersonic linear nozzle generated clusters/monomer jet with an average density of ≥1019 cm-3 was compared to cylindrical tube subsonic nozzle, which produced only monomer jet with average density 1.5-2 times higher. The linear (elongated) cluster/gas jet provides the capability to study x-ray yield anisotropy and laser beam self-focusing with plasma channel formation that are interconnecting with efficient x-ray generation. Diagnostics include x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras and spectrometers. It was observed that the emission in the 1-9 keV spectral region was strongly anisotropic depending on the directions of laser beam polarization for sub-ps laser pulse and supersonic linear jet. The energy yield in the 1-3 keV region produced by a linear nozzle was an order of magnitude higher than from a tube nozzle. Non-LTE models and 3D molecular dynamic simulations of Ar and Kr clusters irradiated by sub-ps laser pulses have been implemented to analyze obtained data. A potential evidence of electron beam generation in jets' plasma was discussed. Note that the described debris-free gas-puff x-ray source can generate x-ray pulses in a high repetition regime. This is a great advantage compared to solid laser targets.

  10. Three Dimensional Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Protostellar Disks with Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, B. K.; Cassen, P.; Durisen, R. H.; Link, R.

    1997-05-01

    We present a series of extended three dimensional hydrodynamics calculations of protostellar cores in order to investigate the role of thermal energetics. One set of protostellar core models, denoted Hot Models, are isentropic equilibrium states formed by the axisymmetric collapse of uniformly rotating singular isothermal spheres. These objects are continuous star/disk systems, in which the star, the disk, and the star/disk boundary can be resolved in 3D in our hydrodynamics code. Since the disks of these equilibria are forced to have the same entropy as the stars, they are hotter than is typically considered appropriate for protostellar disks. Thus, the second set of models, denoted Cooled Models, are generated by first cooling the Hot Models in axisymmetry, and then calculating their subsequent nonaxisymmetric evolution. We compare evolutions of the Hot and Cooled models in which the disk is treated both adiabatically and isothermally, representing two extremes in cooling. The Hot models are marginally unstable to spiral disturbances that do not alter the protostellar core over many rotation periods. The Cooled models are highly unstable to multiple spirals, particularly two-armed spirals, which transport significant angular momentum and mass in a few dynamical times. In the isothermal evolution, the instability leads to the disruption of the disk and concentration of material into several dense, thin arcs. We compare these calculations with previous results and discuss the implications for star and solar system formation. This research is supported by grants NAGW-3399 DURISEN and RTOP 344-30-5101 CASSEN.

  11. Misalignment of magnetic fields and outflows in protostellar cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Tobin, John J.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, N. H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of lambda 1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with similar to 2 ''.5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of similar to 1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the prot

  12. Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects of plasma features and bubble dynamics on the PLAL process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Marcella; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp; Santagata, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, emission spectroscopy and fast imaging surveys during pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for nanoparticles (NPs) production have been used, in order to provide further details about the process involved and the potentialities offered by a wire-shaped sample ablated in a flowing water jet. This kind of set-up has been explored because the laser ablation efficiency in water increases when a thin water layer and a wire-shaped target are used. In order to understand the physical processes causing the increasing ablation efficiency, both the laser-induced plasma and bubble dynamics generated in a flowing liquid jet have been analysed. The plasma parameters and the bubble behaviour in such a system have been compared with those observed in conventional PLAL experiments, where either a bulk or a wire-shaped target is immersed in bulk water. From the data presented here it is evidenced that the plasma and shockwave induced during the breakdown process can play a direct role in the ablation efficiency variation observed. With regard to the cavitation bubbles evolving near a free surface (the interface between water and air) it should be noted that these have to be treated with caution as a consequence of the strong influence played in these circumstances by the boundary of the water jet during its expansion dynamics. The effects due to the size of the liquid layer, the presence of the water/air interface, the liquid characteristics, the target shape, the plasma evolution and the bubble dynamics together with their outcomes on the NPs’ production, are presented and discussed.

  13. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ar(3P2) Metastable Density Generated in a Pulsed DC Atmospheric Pressure micro-Plasma Jet Impinging on a Glass Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Es-Sebbar, Et-T.; Fleury, M.; Neveau, O.; Pasquiers, St.; Santos Sousa, J.; Laboratoire de Physique des gaz et des plasmas Team

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric Pressure micro-Plasma Jets (APPJs) are promising tools in various domains such as biomedical and material treatments. In this work, APPJs are produced in pure argon at variable flow rates (i.e., 200, 400 and 600 sccm), by applying high voltage positive pulses (250 ns in FWHM and 6 kV in amplitude) at a repetition frequency of 20 kHz. The generated plasma impacts an ungrounded glass plate placed at a distance of 5 mm from the tube's orifice and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse discharge is established resulting in a non-filamentary and reproducible plasma, in contrast with the free-jet case (no target). This allows the quantification of the absolute density of the Ar(1s5) metastable state by using laser absorption spectroscopy to probe the transition 1s5 -> 2p9 at 811.531 nm. The experiments show the dependence on the gas flow rate and on the axial and radial positions of the maximum density (6-9x1013 cm-3) . At 200 sccm, it is obtained close to the tube's orifice, while with increasing flow rate it is displaced towards the plate. Regarding the radial variation, density maxima are obtained in a small area around the streamers propagation axis.

  14. Laying the Groundwork for Future Alma Direct Magnetic Field Detection in Protostellar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Crutcher, Richard; Li, Zhi-Yun; Tobin, John; Stephens, Ian; Novak, Giles; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic fields are a crucial element of the star formation process on many scales, from controlling jet and outflow formation on large scales, determining the structure of any protostellar disk, to modulating the accretion rate onto the central protostar. Both the three-dimensional structure and the field strength are important in determining the outcome of star formation. Unfortunately, the method most commonly used to infer magnetic field structure - linearly polarized dust continuum emission - is limited to the plane-of-sky field structure, and gives no reliable information on field strength. Alternatively, observations of the Zeeman effect in transitions of paramagnetic molecules, especially CN, are one of the best prospects for making such measurements due to the molecules' high Zeeman coefficients. In particular, these observations have been used in determining field strengths on cloud-size scales. However, CN and other paramagnetic molecules have, to our knowledge, never been observed in the envelopes/disks of Class 0 protostars at ˜arcsecond resolution, due both to sensitivity and resolution limits of previous generations of millimeter-wave interferometers. Because field strengths near the protostar are so important to understand the star formation process, we have conducted a snapshot ALMA Band 3 (3 mm / 113 GHz) survey of the 10 brightest Class 0 protostars in the Perseus, Taurus, and ρ Ophiuchus molecular clouds in the regions surrounding five transitions of four paramagnetic species, including CN, SO, C_2S, and C_4H. We present this survey - the principle goal of which was to assess the brightness of the lines within ˜ 1000 AU of the protostar - and assess the likelihood of using ALMA observations of the Zeeman effect to determine protostellar magnetic field strength.

  15. Turbulent mixing layers in supersonic protostellar outflows, with application to DG Tauri

    CERN Document Server

    White, Marc C; Sutherland, Ralph S; Salmeron, Raquel; McGregor, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent entrainment processes may play an important role in the outflows from young stellar objects at all stages of their evolution. In particular, lateral entrainment of ambient material by high-velocity, well-collimated protostellar jets may be the cause of the multiple emission-line velocity components observed in the microjet-scale outflows driven by classical T Tauri stars. Intermediate-velocity outflow components may be emitted by a turbulent, shock- excited mixing layer along the boundaries of the jet. We present a formalism for describing such a mixing layer based on Reynolds decomposition of quantities measuring fundamental properties of the gas. In this model, the molecular wind from large disc radii provides a continual supply of material for entrainment. We calculate the total stress profile in the mixing layer, which allows us to estimate the dissipation of turbulent energy, and hence the luminosity of the layer. We utilize MAPPINGS IV shock models to determine the fraction of total emission t...

  16. Mapping water in protostellar outflows with Herschel: PACS and HIFI observations of L1448-C

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Antoniucci, S; Benedettini, M; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Lorenzani, A; Liseau, R; Tafalla, M; Bjerkeli, P; Cabrit, S; Caselli, P; Kristensen, L; Neufeld, D; Melnick, G; van Dishoeck, E F

    2012-01-01

    We investigate on the spatial and velocity distribution of H2O along the L1448 outflow, its relationship with other tracers, and its abundance variations, using maps of the o-H2O 1_{10}-1_{01} and 2_{12}-1_{01} transitions taken with the Herschel-HIFI and PACS instruments, respectively. Water emission appears clumpy, with individual peaks corresponding to shock spots along the outflow. The bulk of the 557 GHz line is confined to radial velocities in the range \\pm 10-50 km/s but extended emission associated with the L1448-C extreme high velocity (EHV) jet is also detected. The H2O 1_{10}-1_{01}/CO(3-2) ratio shows strong variations as a function of velocity that likely reflect different and changing physical conditions in the gas responsible for the emissions from the two species. In the EHV jet, a low H2O/SiO abundance ratio is inferred, that could indicate molecular formation from dust free gas directly ejected from the proto-stellar wind. We derive averaged Tkin and n(H2) values of about 300-500 K and 5 10^...

  17. Spectrum Blueshifting of Ultrashort UV Laser Pulse Induced by Ionization of Supersonic He and Ar Gas Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lixin; ZHANG Yongsheng; LIU Jingru; HUANG Wenhui; TANG Chuanxiang; CHENG Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The predominant spectral blueshifting of a sub-picosecond UV laser pulse induced by ultrafast ionization of noble gases was investigated. Spectral measurements were made at various gas densities. Typical quasi-periodic structures in the blueshifted spectrum were obtained. The observations were in connection with the so-called self-phase modulation of laser pulses in the ultrafast ionization process which was simply simulated with an ADK (Ammosov-Delone-Krainov) ionization model. Some quantitative information can be deduced from the measurements and calculations.

  18. Modeling of Protostellar Clouds and their Observational Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhilkin, A G; Zamozdra, S N

    2009-01-01

    A physical model and two-dimensional numerical method for computing the evolution and spectra of protostellar clouds are described. The physical model is based on a system of magneto-gasdynamical equations, including ohmic and ambipolar diffusion, and a scheme for calculating the thermal and ionization structure of a cloud. The dust and gas temperatures are determined during the calculations of the thermal structure of the cloud. The results of computing the dynamical and thermal structure of the cloud are used to model the radiative transfer in continuum and in molecular lines. We presented the results for clouds in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The evolution of a rotating magnetic protostellar cloud starting from a quasi-static state is also considered. Spectral maps for optically thick lines of linear molecules are analyzed. We have shown that the influence of the magnetic field and rotation can lead to a redistribution of angular momentum in the cloud and the formation of a characteristic rotationa...

  19. Turbulence and its effect on protostellar disk formation

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Klessen, R S

    2015-01-01

    We analyse simulations of turbulent, magnetised molecular cloud cores focussing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions Keplerian discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. Furthermore, we show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs occurs in a highly anisotropic manner, by means of a few narrow accretion channels. The magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the discs is highly disordered, revealing field reversals up to distances of 1000 AU. These findings demonstrate that as soon as even mild turbulent motions are included, the classical disc formation scenario of a coherently rotating environment and a well-ordered magnetic field breaks down.

  20. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of λ1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2."5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotati...

  1. Evaluation of a newly developed piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet system for liver resection in a surviving swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Chikashi; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Sato, Chiaki; Yamada, Masato; Kawagishi, Naoki; Tominaga, Teiji; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-01-25

    Preservation of the hepatic vessels while dividing the parenchyma is key to achieving safe liver resection in a timely manner. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of a newly developed, piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) for liver resection in a surviving swine model. Ten domestic pigs underwent liver resection. Parenchymal transection and vessel skeletonization were performed using the ADPJ (group A, n = 5) or an ultrasonic aspirator (group U, n = 5). The water jet was applied at a frequency of 400 Hz and a driving voltage of 80 V. Physiological saline was supplied at a flow rate of 7 ml/min. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their short-term complications were examined and compared between the two groups. No significant complications, such as massive bleeding, occurred in either group during the surgical procedures. The transection time per transection area was significantly shorter in group A than in group U (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.5 min/cm(2), respectively, P = 0.03). Blood loss per transection area was not significantly different between groups A and U (9.3 ± 4.2 vs. 11.7 ± 2.3 ml/cm(2), P = 0.6). All pigs in group A survived for 7 days. No postoperative bleeding or bile leakage was observed in any animal at necropsy. The present results suggested that the ADPJ reduces transection time without increasing blood loss. ADPJ is a safe and feasible device for liver parenchymal transection.

  2. Ejection of gaseous clumps from gravitationally unstable protostellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of gaseous clumps formed via gravitational fragmentation in young protostellar disks, focusing on the fragments that are ejected from the disk via many-body gravitational interaction. Numerical hydrodynamics simulations were employed to study the evolution of young protostellar disks formed from the collapse of rotating pre-stellar cores with mass in the 1.1-1.6 M_sun range. Protostellar disks formed in our models undergo gravitational fragmentation driven by continuing mass loading from parental collapsing cores. A few fragments can be ejected from the disk during the early evolution, but the low-mass fragments (< 15~M_Jup) disperse creating spectacular bow-type structures while passing through the disk and collapsing core. The least massive fragment that survived the ejection (21 M_Jup) straddles the planetary-mass limit, while the most massive ejected fragments (145 M_Jup) can break up into several pieces, leading to the ejection of wide separation binary clumps in the brown-...

  3. Real-time diagnostics of a jet engine exhaust using an intra-pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Hay, Kenneth G.; Langford, Nigel; Johnson, Mark P.; Black, John D.

    2011-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that an intra-pulse scanned quantum cascade laser spectrometer may be used to obtain real-time diagnostics of the amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water, in the exhaust of an aero gas turbine (turbojet) engine operated in a sea level test cell. Measurements have been made of the rapid changes in composition following ignition, the composition under steady state operating conditions, and the composition changes across the exhaust plume. The minimum detection limit for CO in a double pass through a typical gas turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter, with 0.4 seconds integration time, is approximately 2 ppm.

  4. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefor...

  5. Do protostellar fountains shape the regional core mass function?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Zeng Li; Claudio Carlos Mallamaci; Ricardo César Podestá; Eloy Actis Vicente; Ya-Fang Huang; Ana Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    The emerging massive binary system associated with AFGL 961 signifies the latest generation of massive star and cluster formation in the Rosette Molecular Complex.We present the detection of a compact cluster of dusty cores toward the AFGL 961 region based on continuum imaging at 1.3 mm by the Submillimeter Array.The binary components of AFGL 961 are associated with the most intensive millimeter emission cores or envelopes,confirming that they are indeed in an early stage of evolution.The other massive cores,however,are found to congregate in the close vicinity of the central high-mass protostellar binary.They have no apparent infrared counterparts and are,in particular,well aligned transverse to the bipolar molecular outflows originating from AFGL 961.This provides evidence for a likely triggered origin of the massive cores.All 40 individual cores with masses ranging between 0.6 and 15 M⊙ were detected above a 3 σ level of 3.6 mJy beam-1 (or 0.4 M⊙),based on which we derive a total core mass of 107 M⊙ in the AFGL 961 region.As compared to the stellar initial mass function,a shallow slope of 1.8 is,however,derived from the best fit to the mass spectrum of the millimeter cores with a prestellar and/or protostellar origin.The flatter core mass distribution in the AFGL 961 region is attributed here to dynamic perturbations from the massive molecular outflows that originated from the massive protostellar binary,which may have altered the otherwise more quiescent conditions of core or star formation,enhanced the formation of more massive cores and,as a result,influenced the core mass distribution in its close vicinity.

  6. The prestellar and protostellar population of R Coronae Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Nutter, D J; André, P; Nutter, David J.

    2004-01-01

    We present 450 and 850 um maps of R Coronae Australis. We compare the maps to previous surveys of the region, and shed new light on the previously unknown nature of the protostellar sources at the centre of the cloud. We clarify the nature of two millimetre sources previously discovered in lower resolution data. We identify one new Class 0 protostar that we label SMM 1B, and we measure the envelope masses of a number of more evolved protostars. We identify two new prestellar cores that we call SMM 1A and SMM 6.

  7. 环空流体吸入式自激振荡脉冲射流大涡模拟研究%Large eddy simulation of self-oscillation pulsed water jet drawing in annulus fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉昆; 王瑞和; 倪红坚

    2009-01-01

    发展新型破岩钻井技术对于促进油气田高效开发具有重要意义,高压水射流是提高破岩钻井效率的一个重要手段,脉冲射流是一种高效射流形式.为了充分利用井底水力能量,提出了一种环空流体吸入式脉冲射流的技术构想.基于自激振荡原理设计了相应射流调制工具,并对工具的流场和动力学特性进行了大涡模拟研究.研究结果分析揭示了环空流体吸入式自激振荡脉冲射流调制的机理,并发现合理的水力结构可以在振荡腔内实现局部负压,使得环空流体被吸入,参与调制生成高效脉冲射流.与非吸入式脉冲射流相比,吸入式脉冲射流振荡更加剧烈,破岩能力更强.研究结果得到了实验验证,为实际钻井工具的研制和相关工艺技术的开发提供了依据.%It is of great significance that developing new rock breaking drilling technology to promote efficient exploit of oil field. High pressure water jet drilling technology is an important method to promote the rock breaking drilling efficiency, and pulsed water jet is such a kind of high efficiency water jet. In order to take full advantage of hydraulic energy in bottom hole, a concept of new type of pulsed water jet drawing in annulus flow, is put forward. The pulsed water jet modulation tool is designed based on the self-exciting principle, and the large eddy simulation is adopted to simulate the flow field and the dynamic characteristics in this tool. This simulation shows the modulation mechanism of self-exciting pulsed water jet drawing in annulus flow. Partial negative pressure could be achieved in the oscillating cavity if the reasonable hydraulic structure is applied. The negative pressure formed in the drawing entrance of the oscillating cavity provides assurance to automatically draw enough fluid into annulus flow, which takes part in modulating the efficient pulsed water jet. The amplitude is larger and the rock breaking capacity of

  8. Predicting Tissue Breaking Strengths in the Epileptic Brain with T2 Relaxometry: Application of Pulsed Water Jet Dissection System for Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Sato, Shiho; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-11-30

    Background The piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. Using the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery requires prediction of the tissue breaking strength of the epileptic brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry could predict the breaking strength. Methods A total of 12 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy who received surgical treatment were included in the study. All the patients qualified for surgery after a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for the treatment of epilepsy. T2 relaxation time, breaking strength of the hippocampus, and an anterior temporal lobe specimen obtained from surgery with dissection depth determined by the ADPJ system were examined. Results Preoperative T2 relaxation times of the anterior temporal lobe and hippocampus showed mild positive correlation with breaking strength (R(2 )= 0.60). The hippocampus showed higher T2 relaxation time than the temporal lobe. Hippocampal sclerosis seemed to have higher breaking strength than other pathologies, suggesting the correlation depends on the anatomical location and histopathology. The dissection depth of the extirpated lesion was negatively correlated with the breaking strength at input voltages of 10 V (R(2 )= - 0.34) and 20 V (R(2 )= - 0.20). Conclusions T2 relaxometry may be useful to predict tissue breaking strength in the epileptic brain that allows safe application of the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Application of actuator-driven pulsed water jet in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery: its effectiveness for dissection around ruptured aneurysmal walls and subarachnoid clot removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hidenori; Endo, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    In clipping surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), critical steps include clot removal and dissection of aneurysms without premature rupture or brain injuries. To pursue this goal, a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system was introduced in this study. This study included 42 patients, who suffered aSAH and underwent clipping surgery. Eleven patients underwent surgery with the assistance of the ADPJ system (ADPJ group). In the other 31 patients, surgery was performed without the ADPJ system (Control group). The ADPJ system was used for clot removal and aneurysmal dissection. The clinical impact of the ADPJ system was judged by comparing the rate of premature rupture, degree of clot removal, and clinical outcomes. Intraoperatively, a premature rupture was encountered in 18.2 and 25.8% of cases in the ADPJ and control groups, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, intraoperative observation suggested that the ADPJ system was effective in clot removal and dissection of aneurysms in a safe manner. Computed tomography scans indicated the achievement of higher degrees of clot removal, especially when the ADPJ system was used for cases with preoperative clot volumes of more than 25 ml (p = 0.047, Mann-Whitney U test). Clinical outcomes, including incidence of postoperative brain injury or symptomatic vasospasm, were similar in both groups. We described our preliminary surgical results using the ADPJ system for aSAH. Although further study is needed, the ADPJ system was considered a safe and effective tool for clot removal and dissection of aneurysms.

  10. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  11. Twin Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  12. Self-regulated gravitational accretion in protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, E I

    2007-01-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of a protostellar disc that has formed self-consistently from the collapse of a molecular cloud core. The global evolution of the disc is followed for several million years after its formation. The capture of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales is made possible by use of the thin-disc approximation. We focus on the role of gravitational torques in transporting mass inward and angular momentum outward during different evolutionary phases of a protostellar disc with disc-to-star mass ratio of order 0.1. In the early phase, when the infall of matter from the surrounding envelope is substantial, mass is transported inward by the gravitational torques from spiral arms that are a manifestation of the envelope-induced gravitational instability in the disc. In the late phase, when the gas reservoir of the envelope is depleted, the distinct spiral structure is replaced by ongoing irregular nonaxisymmetric density perturbations. The amplitude of these density pertu...

  13. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, M; Lopez-Sepulcre, A; Wakelam, V; Dominik, C; Ceccarelli, C; Lanza, M; Lique, F; Ochsendorf, B B; Lis, D C; Caballero, R N; Tielens, A G G M

    2014-01-01

    The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances $<10^{-5}$ has not yet been well studied. Our aim here is to study the depletion of chlorine in the protostellar core, OMC-2 FIR 4. We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H$_{2}$ hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9e-11, a factor of only 0.001 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous fo...

  14. Prestellar and protostellar cores in Ori B9

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, O; Haikala, L K; Kainulainen, J; Johansson, L E B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the properties and spatial distribution of dense cores in Ori B9, and to estimate their ages and dynamical timescales. The cloud was mapped in the 870 micron continuum with APEX/LABOCA, and selected positions were observed in the lines of N2H+ and N2D+ using IRAM-30m. These were used together with our previous H2D+ observations. Moreover, archival FIR Spitzer/MIPS maps were combined with the LABOCA map to distinguish between pre- and protostellar cores, and to estimate the evolutionary stages of protostars. Twelve dense cores were detected at 870 micron in the Ori B9 cloud. The submm cores constitute ~4% of the total mass of the Ori B9 region. There is an equal number of pre- and protostellar cores. Two of the submm sources, which we call SMM 3 and SMM 4, are previously unknown Class 0 candidates. We found a moderate degree of deuteration in N2H+ (0.03-0.04). There is, furthermore, evidence for N2H+ depletion in the core SMM 4. We derive a relatively high degree of ioni...

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  16. Magnetized Accretion and Dead Zones in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The edges of magnetically-dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically-active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically-active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 $M_\\odot$, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by S. Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, inclu...

  17. Molecular jets driven by high-mass protostars: a detailed study of the IRAS 20126+4104 jet

    OpenAIRE

    Garatti, A. Caratti o; Froebrich, D.; J. Eisloeffel; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.

    2008-01-01

    We present here an extensive analysis of the protostellar jet driven by IRAS 20126+4104, deriving the kinematical, dynamical, and physical conditions of the H2 gas along the flow. The jet has been investigated by means of near-IR H2 and [FeII] narrow-band imaging, high resolution spectroscopy of the 1-0S(1) line (2.12 um), NIR (0.9-2.5 um) low resolution spectroscopy, along with ISO-SWS and LWS spectra (from 2.4 to 200 um). The flow shows a complex morphology. In addition to the large-scale j...

  18. 喷吹压力与喷吹距离对长滤袋清灰效果的研究%Effect of the pulse pressure and the jet distance on the cleaning performance of the long pulse-jet filter bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕娟; 颜翠平; 袁彩云; 付瑜; 李雪; 陈海焱

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at introducing its investigation results on the effects of the pulse pressure and the jet distance on the cleaning performance of the long pulse-jet filter bag in order to promote the optimistic design for a semi-industrial pulse-jet filter bag.For the aforementioned purpose,we have adopted the peak pressure and the speed to arrive at the peak pressure as the idealistic indexes for the evaluation of the pulse cleaning effects.In doing so,we have adopted 8 high precision piezoelectric pressure transducers (according to Model QSY8135)to examine and measure the peak pressure and the time for reaching the peak pressure to be shown on the internal surface of the filter bag (160 mm ×6 000 mm),which is made of the polyester needle-felt.The evaluation results have shown that it would be possible to realize the optimum design in a semi-industrial pulsejet filter bag when the pulse pressure is set on 0.1-0.3 MPa in a distance of 200 mm.Our investigation has also proven that the peak pressure tends to increase from the top opening and then reach the maximum value at the location of 1 m in the length of the filter bag.And then,the peak pressure would like to drop gradually,and later to rise again at the bottom of the filter bag on its surface.Thus,the peak pressure distribution tends to be uneven along its surface and it would take 0 to 4 000 mm to reach its peak pressure in its length and decrease from 4 000 mm to 6 000mm,with the average peak pressure values along its length being 2.076 8 kPa,3.292 1 kPa and 4.325 2 kPa,on the condition that the pulse pressure keeps at 0.1-0.3 MPa and the distance stays at 200 mm,respectively.What is more,with the average peak pressures obtained under the optimum parameter design condition,the pulse cleaning results prove to be suitable for practical applications.Thus,it can be concluded that the investigation and experiments we have done can not only be expected to lay a theoretical basis for the study of the

  19. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  20. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline nickel prepared by pulsed friction aided jet electrodeposition%脉冲摩擦喷射电沉积纳米晶镍的电化学腐蚀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易笃钢; 沈理达; 朱军; 田宗军; 刘志东

    2015-01-01

    In order to further research the influence of pulse power on the pulse friction aided jet electrodeposition, nickel deposition layer was prepared by pulsed friction aided jet electrodeposition and traditional jet electrodeposition. The effects of the pulse duty ratio and frequency on microstructure of the two nickel deposition layer and the corrosion behavior in 3.5%NaCl solution were comparatively studied by TEM, XRD and electrochemical polarization method, which may provide theory basis for extending the application of nanocrystalline materials. The results show that, the application of pulsed friction aided jet electrodeposition can make the crystallization process more uniform and the grains greatly refined. The minimum average grain size can be down to 9. 12 nm. In the NaCl solution, pulsed friction aided jet electrodeposition has smaller corrosion current density and wider passivation zone. The prepared nickel deposition layers are all better than that prepared by traditional jet electrodeposition. The effect on the corrosion performance of depositions by duty ratio and frequency is basically in conformity with their impact on grain size, too small or too large duty ratio and frequency will lead to the reduction of corrosion resistance.%为进一步研究脉冲电源对脉冲摩擦喷射电沉积的影响,本文分别采用脉冲摩擦喷射电沉积工艺和传统喷射电沉积工艺制备镍沉积层,利用TEM和XRD对比分析了占空比和频率对纳米晶镍微观组织结构的影响,采用电化学极化法研究了各沉积层在3.5%氯化钠溶液中的耐腐蚀性能,以期为拓展纳米晶材料的应用提供理论依据.研究表明:脉冲摩擦电沉积的应用,使电沉积结晶过程更加均匀,晶粒得到极大细化,最小平均晶粒尺寸可达9.12 nm;在氯化钠溶液中,脉冲摩擦喷射电沉积具有更小的腐蚀电流密度和更宽的钝化区,制备的镍沉积层电化学腐蚀性能均优

  1. Modelling the Ohmic L-mode ramp-down phase of JET hybrid pulses using JETTO with Bohm-gyro-Bohm transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P. S.; Köchl, Florian; Voitsekhovitch, Irina; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    The empirical Bohm-gyro-Bohm (BgB) transport model implemented in the JETTO code is used to predictively simulate the purely Ohmic (OH), L-mode current-ramp-down phase of three JET hybrid pulses, which combine two different ramp rates with two different electron densities (at the beginning of the ramp). The modelling is discussed, namely the strategy to reduce as much as possible the number of free parameters used to benchmark the model predictions against the experimental results. Hence, keeping the gas puffing rate as measured whilst controlling the line-averaged electron density via the recycling coefficient (which in the modelling is taken at the separatrix instead of the wall), one of the many possible ways to fix the total particle source, it is shown that the BgB model reproduces well the experimental data, as far as both average quantities (plasma internal inductance and volume-averaged electron temperature) and profiles (electron density and temperature) are concerned, with relative errors remaining mostly below 20 % . The sensitivenesses with respect to the recycling coefficient, the ion effective charge, the energy of neutrals entering the plasma through the separatrix and the need to introduce a particle pinch are assessed; the necessity for a proper sawtooth model if experimental results are to be reproduced is also shown. The strong non-linear coupling in a OH plasma between density, temperature and current (essentially via interplay between the power-balance equation, Joule’s heating with a temperature-dependent resistivity and the dependence of BgB transport coefficients on profile gradients) is put in evidence and analyzed in light of modelling results. It is still inferred from the modelling that the real value of the recycling coefficient at the separatrix (basically, the so-called fuelling efficiency times the actual recycling coefficient at the wall) must become close to one in the final stages of the discharges, when the gas puffing is

  2. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  3. Experimental Research on Performance of Self-excited Inspiratory Pulsed Jet Device under Different Ambient Pressures%不同围压下自激吸气式脉冲射流装置性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 黄晓亮; 赵礼; 杜俐

    2011-01-01

    To address the technical problems of mud processing of deep water reservoirs and meet the urgent needs, experiments were conducted to assess the performance of a self-excited inspiratory pulsed jet device under different ambient pressures with testing device developed by ourselves, I n which the influence of the driving pressure, ambient pressure and standoff distance on the impact force of pulsed jet were analyzed. Preliminary research on the change of inspiratory quantity and start-up inspiratory pressure was also carried out. As the experimental results demonstrate, the pulsed jet impact force increases with the increase of driving pressure, but decreases with the increase of ambient pressure and standoff distance; the inspiratory capacity increases as driving pressure increases,at a speed varying according to the stimulus of ambient pressure ,and becomes stable gradually; start-up inspiratory pressure increases as ambient pressure increases,exhibiting certain regularity. The experiment provides basis for the in-depth study on self-excited inspiratory pulsed jet and its application in projects like reservoir desilting.%针对深水水库泥沙处理技术问题和需求的迫切性,运用自行研制的试验装置对不同围压(模拟不同水深)下的自激吸气式脉冲射流装置性能进行了试验,研究分析了工作压力、围压、靶距对脉冲射流冲击力的影响,并对装置吸气量的变化及启动吸气压力进行了初步分析.结果表明,脉冲射流冲击力随工作压力的增加而增大,随围压和靶距的增加而减小;装置吸气量随工作压力的增加而增大,增大的速度随围压的不同而不同,并逐渐趋于稳定;启动吸气压力随围压增加而增大,且表现出一定规律性.研究结果为进一步深入研究自激吸气式脉冲射流及其在水库清淤等工程应用方面提供依据.

  4. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo, Nadia M; Tobin, John J; Fedele, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. SEDs for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations >7", a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of...

  5. Impact of Protostellar Outflow on Star Formation: Effects of Initial Cloud Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2011-01-01

    Star formation efficiency controlled by the protostellar outflow in a single cloud core is investigated by three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. Starting from the prestellar cloud core, the star formation process is calculated until the end of the main accretion phase. In the calculations, the mass of the prestellar cloud is parameterized. During the star formation, the protostellar outflow is driven by the circumstellar disk. The outflow extends also in the transverse direction until its width becomes comparable to the initial cloud scale, and thus, the outflow has a wide opening angle of >40 degrees. As a result, the protostellar outflow sweeps up a large fraction of the infalling material and ejects it into the interstellar space. The outflow can eject at most over half of the host cloud mass, significantly decreasing star formation efficiency. The outflow power is stronger in clouds with a greater initial mass. Thus, the protostellar outflow effectively suppresses star formation efficiency in a mas...

  6. MISALIGNMENT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS AND OUTFLOWS IN PROTOSTELLAR CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Heiles, Carl; Meredith Hughes, A. [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jameson, Katherine; Mundy, Lee; Pound, Marc W. [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M.; Lamb, James W.; Pillai, Thushara [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Crutcher, Richard M.; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Matthews, Brenda C., E-mail: chat@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); and others

    2013-05-10

    We present results of {lambda}1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with {approx}2.''5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of {approx}1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotation axes of circumstellar disks, and that the outflows have not disrupted the fields in the surrounding material, then our results imply that the disks are not aligned with the fields in the cores from which they formed.

  7. Observations of Protostellar Outflow Feedback in Clustered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role of protostellar outflow feedback in clustered star formation using the observational data of recent molecular outflow surveys toward nearby cluster-forming clumps. We found that for almost all clumps, the outflow momentum injection rate is significantly larger than the turbulence dissipation rate. Therefore, the outflow feedback is likely to maintain supersonic turbulence in the clumps. For less massive clumps such as B59, L1551, and L1641N, the outflow kinetic energy is comparable to the clump gravitational energy. In such clumps, the outflow feedback probably affects significantly the clump dynamics. On the other hand, for clumps with masses larger than about 200 M$_\\odot$, the outflow kinetic energy is significantly smaller than the clump gravitational energy. Since the majority of stars form in such clumps, we conclude that outflow feedback cannot destroy the whole parent clump. These characteristics of the outflow feedback support the scenario of slow star formation.

  8. Signatures of Gravitational Instability in Resolved Images of Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav; Chiang, Eugene; Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2016-01-01

    Protostellar (class 0/I) disks, having masses comparable to those of their nascent host stars, and fed continuously from their natal infalling envelopes, are prone to gravitational instability (GI). Motivated by advances in near-infrared (NIR) adaptive optics imaging and mm-wave interferometry, we explore the observational signatures of GI in disks, using hydrodynamical and Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to synthesize NIR scattered light images and mm dust continuum maps. Spiral arms induced by GI, located at disk radii of hundreds of AUs, are local overdensities and have their photospheres displaced to higher altitudes above the disk midplane, arms therefore scatter more NIR light from their central stars than inter-arm regions, and are detectable at distances up to 1 kpc by Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. By contrast, collapsed clumps formed by disk fragmentation have such strong local gravitational fields that their scattering photospheres are at lower altitudes, such fragment...

  9. Diverse protostellar evolutionary states in the young cluster AFGL961

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jonathan P; Beaumont, Christopher N; Swift, Jonathan J; Adams, Joseph D; Hora, Joe; Kassis, Marc; Lada, Elizabeth A; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G

    2009-01-01

    We present arcsecond resolution mid-infrared and millimeter observations of the center of the young stellar cluster AFGL961 in the Rosette molecular cloud. Within 0.2 pc of each other, we find an early B star embedded in a dense core, a neighboring star of similar luminosity with no millimeter counterpart, a protostar that has cleared out a cavity in the circumcluster envelope, and two massive, dense cores with no infrared counterparts. An outflow emanates from one of these cores, indicating a deeply embedded protostar, but the other is starless, bound, and appears to be collapsing. The diversity of states implies either that protostellar evolution is faster in clusters than in isolation or that clusters form via quasi-static rather than dynamic collapse. The existence of a pre-stellar core at the cluster center shows that that some star formation continues after and in close proximity to massive, ionizing stars.

  10. Wind-driven Accretion in Transitional Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile

    2016-01-01

    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities imply that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside such cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionless ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by K\\"onigl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but not so good that the magnetic flux need be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.

  11. Turbulent Mixing and the Dead Zone in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Dziourkevitch, N

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for the presence of a magnetically inactive dead zone in protostellar disks, using 3-D shearing-box MHD calculations including vertical stratification, Ohmic resistivity and time-dependent ionization chemistry. Activity driven by the magnetorotational instability fills the whole thickness of the disk at 5 AU, provided cosmic ray ionization is present, small grains are absent and the gas-phase metal abundance is sufficiently high. At 1 AU the larger column density of 1700 g/cm^2 means the midplane is shielded from ionizing particles and remains magnetorotationally stable even under the most favorable conditions considered. Nevertheless the dead zone is effectively eliminated. Turbulence mixes free charges into the interior as they recombine, leading to a slight coupling of the midplane gas to the magnetic fields. Weak, large-scale radial fields diffuse to the midplane where they are sheared out to produce stronger azimuthal fields. The resulting midplane accretion stresses are jus...

  12. Consistent SPH Simulations of Protostellar Collapse and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasov, Ruslan; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Cruz, Fidel; Klapp, Jaime; Ramírez-Velasquez, José M.

    2017-02-01

    We study the consistency and convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) as a function of the interpolation parameters, namely the number of particles N, the number of neighbors n, and the smoothing length h, using simulations of the collapse and fragmentation of protostellar rotating cores. The calculations are made using a modified version of the GADGET-2 code that employs an improved scheme for the artificial viscosity and power-law dependences of n and h on N, as was recently proposed by Zhu et al., which comply with the combined limit N\\to ∞ , h\\to 0, and n\\to ∞ with n/N\\to 0 for full SPH consistency as the domain resolution is increased. We apply this realization to the “standard isothermal test case” in the variant calculated by Burkert & Bodenheimer and the Gaussian cloud model of Boss to investigate the response of the method to adaptive smoothing lengths in the presence of large density and pressure gradients. The degree of consistency is measured by tracking how well the estimates of the consistency integral relations reproduce their continuous counterparts. In particular, C 0 and C 1 particle consistency is demonstrated, meaning that the calculations are close to second-order accuracy. As long as n is increased with N, mass resolution also improves as the minimum resolvable mass {M}\\min ∼ {n}-1. This aspect allows proper calculation of small-scale structures in the flow associated with the formation and instability of protostellar disks around the growing fragments, which are seen to develop a spiral structure and fragment into close binary/multiple systems as supported by recent observations.

  13. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan; Bally, John

    2016-01-01

    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrowband [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with 5 previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and 2 HH objects. All of the jets we targeted with WFC3 show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few H$\\alpha$ candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than H$\\alpha$ and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 $\\mu$m/H$\\alpha$ flux ratio measured in the jets is $\\gtrsim 5$ times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe$^+$ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify fo...

  14. Jet rotation investigated in the near-ultraviolet with HST/STIS

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Deirdre; Bacciotti, Francesca; Ray, Thomas P; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using HST/STIS. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magneto-centrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents sufficient signal-to-noise for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km/s in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements fo...

  15. Characteristic of the Spark Discharge Plasma Jet Driven by Nanosecond Pulses%纳秒脉冲等离子体合成射流的气动激励特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敏; 梁华; 宋慧敏; 刘朋冲; 吴云

    2011-01-01

    The spark discharge plasma jet driven by nanosecond high voltage pulses is studied.The rotational temperature of N2(C3Пu) molecule is calculated according to its rotational emission band near 380.5 nm.The vibration temperatures of N2(C3Пu) molecule are measured based on the optical emission spectra from N2 second positive system,and calculated using emission intensity ratios of 371.1 nm to 380.5 nm.A theoretical estimation of the jet velocity can be obtained by the model of isovolumetric process.Meanwhile,a two-dimensional computational model of plasma jet in air is presented to provide a better understanding of the characteristics of spark discharge plasma jet.Moreover,the evolution of the jet velocity is investigated.The maximum jet velocity occurs at 20 μs and reaches 206 m/s.The now-depleted chamber cools,drawing fresh air from outside the device into the chamber at 70 μs.The cycle is complete,and the device is ready for operation again.Spark discharge plasma jet can induce rapid and high strength aerodynamic actuation.%等离子体合成射流是一种快速、宽频的气动激励方式,由于激励强度高、射流速度大,在超音速流动控制方面具有广阔的应用前景。等离子体合成射流气动激励特性的研究将为揭示等离子体合成射流的产生和演化机制提供必要的基础。为此,研究ns脉冲等离子体合成射流气动激励特性,在常规大气环境进行了发射光谱测试,通过对380.5nm附近的谱线进行拟合得到N2(C3Πu)的转动温度,利用氮分子二正系列的371.1nm和380.5nm两条谱线强度之比计算了振动温度。将腔体内的激励简化为定容加热的过程,理论计算了射流的喷射压力和喷射速度

  16. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  17. Experimental Research on Effects of Operation Parameters on the Performance of Self-oscillating Pulse Jet Device%运行参数对自激脉冲射流装置性能影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 刘彩萍; 刘新阳; 苏泊源

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the operation parameters on the performance of the self-oscillating pulse jet device were investigated in this paper. The relationship between the operation parameters, such as working pressure, flow velocity, standoff distance, and the performance of the device was analyzed,and the optimal ranges of the operation parameters were obtained for the and self-oscillating pulse jet device, which provided references for the engineering applications.%运用自行研制的自激脉冲射流装置就其运行参数对装置性能的影响进行了试验研究.在自激脉冲射流装置结构参数一定的情况下,分析了工作压力、工作流速、靶距等运行参数与脉冲射流装置性能之间的关系,初步得出自激脉冲射流装置的最佳运行参数范围,为工程应用提供了依据.

  18. Experimental study on ultra-fine powder purification of pulse-jet cartridge dust collector%脉冲滤筒除尘器对超细粉体净化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉君; 周露

    2012-01-01

    随着工业的快速发展,空气中颗粒污染物的含量和种类越来越多,不仅对人体健康造成危害,颗粒污染还对能见度、气候、动植物均有影响,寻找合适的除尘设备,提高对微细粉尘的除尘效率,对安全和环境保护有着重要而深远的意义.该文利用脉冲滤筒除尘器对粒径分布为0.5-5μm的超细粉体进行净化实验.测试了除尘器净化效率、除尘器阻力及过滤风速等主要性能参数.实验结果说明:脉冲滤筒除尘器对于粒径为0.5-5μm超细粉体,在过滤风速为0.8-1.25m/min时,除尘器阻力小于300Pa,净化效率达99.9999%.得到结论:滤筒除尘器具有高除尘效率,低阻力损失,节约除尘系统的动力消耗的优点,有利于在超细粉体净化工艺中的应用.%With fast development of the Industry, more and more content and species of paniculate pollutants are in the air. The partieulate pollutants not only cause harm to the human health, but also have negative effect on the visibility , the climate , animals and plants. So it is important to safety and environmental protection that finding suitable dust collecting equipments and raising dust removal efficiency of fine dust particles.This paper was on the use of the pulse-jet cartridge dust collector to do the purifying experiment of the ultra-fine powder. The experimental tested the main characters of the pulse-jet cartridge dust collector, such as the purifying efficiency, the dust resistance and the filtering speed. The experimental results were that this study was used by the pulse-jet cartridge dust collector to purify 0.5μm - μm ultra-fine powders, tested the filtering speed were 0. 8 m/min-1.25m/min, dust resistance was less than 300Pa and the purifying efficiency was 99.9999% . At last, it comes to a conclusion; the pulse-jet cartridge filters are with the advantages of high efficiency, low pressure drop and save power to the dust removal system. The pulse-jet cartridge f dust

  19. Rotation of Jets from T-Tauri Stars New Clues from Hst/stis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Deirdre; Woitas, Jens; Francesca, Bacciotti; Ray, Thomas P.; Eisloffel, Jochen

    Whether jets from newly forming stars rotate is a fundamental question in star formation research. Theoretical models propose jet rotation as a means of removing angular momentum from the young star and disk system thus allowing accretion. While widely accepted this idea has not yet been tested observational due to the high resolution requirement of examining jets close to their launching point. Previous findings from the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) give indications of same sense rotation of the jet (Bacciotti et al 2002) and disk (Testi et al 2002) respectively of T Tauri star DG Tau. We report preliminary findings from HST/STIS data for 3 of 8 sources in a current survey to establish conclusively whether protostellar jets rotate. The results were positive yielding evidence of radial velocity differences about the axis at the base of all three jets of up to 20-30 km/s.

  20. H2 active jets in the near IR as a probe of protostellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Garatti, A C; Nisini, B; Lorenzetti, D

    2005-01-01

    We present a NIR analysis of a sample of H2 outflows from young embedded sources to compare the physical properties and cooling mechanisms of the different flows. The sample comprises 23 outflows driven by Class 0 and I sources having low-intermediate luminosity. We have obtained narrow band images in H2 2.12um and FeII 1.64um and spectroscopic observations in the range 1-2.5um. H2 line ratios have been used to estimate the visual extinction and average temperature of the molecular gas. Av values range from 2 to 15mag; average temperatures range between 2000 and 4000K. In several knots a stratification of temperatures is found with maximum values up to 5000K. Such a stratification is more commonly observed in those knots which also show FeII emission, while a thermalized gas at a single temperature is generally found in knots emitting only in molecular lines. Combining narrow band imaging with the parameters derived from the spectral analysis, we are able to measure the total luminosity of the H2 and FeII sho...

  1. H2 active jets in the near IR as a probe of protostellar evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Garatti, A. Caratti o; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a NIR analysis of a sample of H2 outflows from young embedded sources to compare the physical properties and cooling mechanisms of the different flows. The sample comprises 23 outflows driven by Class 0 and I sources having low-intermediate luminosity. We have obtained narrow band images in H2 2.12um and FeII 1.64um and spectroscopic observations in the range 1-2.5um. H2 line ratios have been used to estimate the visual extinction and average temperature of the molecular gas. Av va...

  2. JET ROTATION INVESTIGATED IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Deirdre; Ray, Thomas P. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Bacciotti, Francesca [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Eisloeffel, Jochen, E-mail: dac@cp.dias.ie [Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg (Germany)

    2012-04-20

    We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magnetocentrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau, and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio to allow for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km s{sup -1} in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements for the receding jet. The near-ultraviolet difference is not found six months later, nor is it found in the fainter receding jet. Overall, in the case of RW Aur, differences are not consistent with a simple jet rotation interpretation. Indeed, given the renowned complexity and variability of this system, it now seems likely that any rotation signature is confused by other influences, with the inevitable conclusion that RW Aur is not suited to a jet rotation study.

  3. First detection of Hydrogen Chloride towards protostellar shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Bottinelli, S; Salez, M; Viti, S; Lefloch, B; Cabrit, S; Caux, E; Faure, A; Vasta, M; Wiesenfeld, L

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detection of hydrogen chlorine in a protostellar shock, by observing the fundamental transition at 626 GHz with the Herschel HIFI spectrometer. We detected two of the three hyperfine lines, from which we derived a line opacity 15 K and density > 3 x 10(5) cm-3}. Combining with the Herschel HIFI CO(5-4) observations allows to further constrain the gas density and temperature, 10(5)-10(6) cm-3 and 120-250 K, as well as the HCl column density, 2 x 10(13) cm-2, and, finally, abundance: 3-6 x 10(-9). The estimated HCl abundance is consistent with that previously observed in low- and high- mass protostars. This puzzling result in the L1157-B1 shock, where species from volatile and refractory grains components are enhanced, suggests either that HCl is not the main reservoir of chlorine in the gas phase, against previous chemical models predictions, or that the elemental chlorine abundance is low in L1157-B1. Astrochemical modelling suggests that HCl is in fact formed in the gas phase, at low te...

  4. On the dynamics of dust during protostellar collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of dust and gas can be quite different from each other when the dust is poorly coupled to the gas. In protoplanetary discs, it is well known that this decoupling of the dust and gas can lead to diverse spatial structures and dust-to-gas ratios. In this paper, we study the dynamics of dust and gas during the earlier phase of protostellar collapse, before a protoplanetary disc is formed. We find that for dust grains with sizes ≲ 10 μm, the dust is well coupled during the collapse of a rotating, pre-stellar core and there is little variation of the dust-to-gas ratio during the collapse. However, if larger grains are present, they may have trajectories that are very different from the gas during the collapse, leading to mid-plane settling and/or oscillations of the dust grains through the mid-plane. This may produce variations in the dust-to-gas ratio and very different distributions of large and small dust grains at the very earliest stages of star formation, if large grains are present in pre-stellar cores.

  5. Rapid Mid-Infrared Variability in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Te T; Lin, Douglas N C

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distribution (SED) in protostellar disks is determined by the disks'internal dissipation and reprocessing of irradiation from their host stars. Around T Tauri stars, most mid-infrared (MIR) radiation (in a few to a few ten {\\mu}m wavelength range) emerge from regions around a fraction to a few AU's. This region is interesting because it contains both the habitable zone and the snow line. Recent observations reveal that SED variations, in the MIR wavelength range. These variations are puzzling because they occur on time scale (a few days) which is much shorter than the dynamical (months to years) time scale at 1AU to a few AU's. They are probably caused by shadows casted by inner onto outer disk regions. Interaction between disks and their misaligned magnetized host stars can lead to warped structure and periodic SED modulations. Rapid aperiodic SED variations may also be induced by observed X-ray flares from T Tauri stars. These flares can significantly modulate the ionization fraction of the ...

  6. Are passive protostellar disks stable to self-shadowing?

    CERN Document Server

    Dullemond, C P

    2000-01-01

    The uniqueness and stability of irradiated flaring passive protostellar disks is investigated in the context of a simplified set of equations for the vertical height H as a function of radius R. It is found that the well-known flaring disk solution with H ~ R^{9/7} is not unique. Diverging solutions and asymptotically conical (H ~ R) solutions are also found. Moreover, using time-dependent linear perturbation analysis, it is found that the flaring disk solution may become unstable to self-shadowing. A local enhancement in the vertical height alters the functional form of irradiation grazing angle, and causes the 'sunny side' of the enhancement to grow and the 'shadow side' to collapse in a run-away fashion. This instability operates in regions of the disk in which the cooling time is much shorter than the vertical sound crossing time, which may occur in the outer regions of the passive irradiated disk if dust and gas are sufficiently strongly thermally coupled. Processes that may stabilize the disk, which inc...

  7. On the tilting of protostellar disks by resonant tidal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lubow, S H

    2000-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of a protostellar disk surrounding a star in acircular-orbit binary system. Our aim is to determine whether, if the disk isinitially tilted with respect to the plane of the binary orbit, the inclinationof the system will increase or decrease with time. The problem is formulated inthe binary frame in which the tidal potential of the companion star is static.We consider a steady, flat disk that is aligned with the binary plane andinvestigate its linear stability with respect to tilting or warpingperturbations. The dynamics is controlled by the competing effects of the m=0and m=2 azimuthal Fourier components of the tidal potential. In the presence ofdissipation, the m=0 component causes alignment of the system, while the m=2component has the opposite tendency. We find that disks that are sufficientlylarge, in particular those that extend to their tidal truncation radii, aregenerally stable and will therefore tend to alignment with the binary plane ona time-scale comparable to that found ...

  8. On the dynamics of dust during protostellar collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Bate, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of dust and gas can be quite different from each other when the dust is poorly coupled to the gas. In protoplanetary discs, it is well known that this decoupling of the dust and gas can lead to diverse spatial structures and dust-to-gas ratios. In this paper, we study the dynamics of dust and gas during the earlier phase of protostellar collapse, before a protoplanetary disc is formed. We find that for dust grains with sizes < 10 micron, the dust is well coupled during the collapse of a rotating, pre-stellar core and there is little variation of the dust-to-gas ratio during the collapse. However, if larger grains are present, they may have trajectories that are very different from the gas during the collapse, leading to mid-plane settling and/or oscillations of the dust grains through the mid-plane. This may produce variations in the dust-to-gas ratio and very different distributions of large and small dust grains at the very earliest stages of star formation, if large grains are present in pr...

  9. Young Stars and Protostellar Cores near NGC 2023

    CERN Document Server

    Mookerjea, B; Jarrett, T H; McMullin, J P

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the young (proto)stellar population in NGC 2023 and the L 1630 molecular cloud bordering the HII region IC 434, using Spitzer IRAC and MIPS archive data, JCMT SCUBA imaging and spectroscopy as well as targeted BIMA observations of one of the Class 0 protostars, NGC 2023 MM1. We have performed photometry of all IRAC and MIPS images, and used color-color diagrams to identify and classify all young stars seen within a 22'x26' field along the boundary between IC 434 and L 1630. For some stars, which have sufficient optical, IR, and/or sub-millimeter data we have also used the online SED fitting tool for a large 2D archive of axisymmetric radiative transfer models to perform more detailed modeling of the observed SEDs. We identify 5 sub-millimeter cores in our 850 and 450 micron SCUBA images, two of which have embedded class 0 or I protostars. Observations with BIMA are used to refine the position and characteristics of the Class 0 source NGC 2023 MM 1. These observations show that it is embedded in...

  10. The Turbulent Shock Origin of Proto--Stellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Padoan, P; Goodman, A A; Nordlund, A A; Padoan, Paolo; Juvela, Mika; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Nordlund, AAke

    2001-01-01

    The fragmentation of molecular clouds (MC) into protostellar cores is a central aspect of the process of star formation. Because of the turbulent nature of super-sonic motions in MCs, it has been suggested that dense structures such as filaments and clumps are formed by shocks in a turbulent flow. In this work we present strong evidence in favor of the turbulent origin of the fragmentation of MCs. The most generic result of turbulent fragmentation is that dense post shock gas traces a gas component with a smaller velocity dispersion than lower density gas, since shocks correspond to regions of converging flows, where the kinetic energy of the turbulent motion is dissipated. Using synthetic maps of spectra of molecular transitions, computed from the results of numerical simulations of super--sonic turbulence, we show that the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas density generates an observable relation between the rms velocity centroid and the integrated intensity (column density), Sigma(V_0)-I, which is i...

  11. Protostellar fragmentation in a power-law density distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Burkert, A; Bodenheimer, P

    1997-01-01

    Hydrodynamical calculations in three space dimensions of the collapse of an isothermal, rotating 1 M\\sol protostellar cloud are presented. The initial density stratification is a power law with density $\\rho \\propto r^{-p}$, with $p=1$. The case of the singular isothermal sphere ($p=2$) is not considered; however $p=1$ has been shown observationally to be a good representation of the density distribution in molecular cloud cores just before the beginning of collapse. The collapse is studied with two independent numerical methods, an SPH code with 200,000 particles, and a finite-difference code with nested grids which give high spatial resolution in the inner regions. Although previous numerical studies have indicated that such a power-law distribution would not result in fragmentation into a binary system, both codes show, in contrast, that multiple fragmentation does occur in the central regions of the protostar. Thus the process of binary formation by fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the fact th...

  12. Wind-driven Accretion in Transitional Protostellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lile; Goodman, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities that are heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most of them show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities suggest that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside these cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas near the midplane is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionless ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by Königl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but it is not so good that the magnetic flux needs to be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.

  13. Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Ceccarelli, C; Codella, C; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance larger than 1e-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1 by means of an unbiased high-sensitivity survey obtained with the IRAM-30m and Herschel/HIFI. By means of an LVG radiative transfer code the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and, for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+, and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blueshifted velocity, ~ 0.5-3 km/s with respect to systemic, has a width of ~ 4-8 km/s, and is associated with the outflow cavities (T_kin ~ 20-70 K, n(H2) ~ 1e5 cm-3). Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances are in agreement with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionization rate Z = 3e-16 s-1. HOCO+...

  14. Protostellar Cosmic Rays and Extinct Radioactivities in Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. [Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115 (Taiwan); Shu, F.H.; Shang, H. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Glassgold, A.E. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Calcium-aluminum{endash}rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules of chondritic meteorites may originate with the melting of dustballs launched by a magnetically driven bipolar outflow from the inner edge of the primitive solar nebula. Bombardment by protostellar cosmic rays may make the rock precursors of CAIs and chondrules radioactive, producing radionuclides found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms. Reasonable scalings from the observed hard X-rays for the cosmic-ray protons released by flares in young stellar objects yield the correct amounts of {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, and {sup 138}La inferred for meteorites, but proton- and {alpha}-induced transformations underproduce {sup 26}Al by a factor of about 20. The missing {sup 26}Al may be synthesized by {sup 3}He nuclei accelerated in impulsive flares reacting primarily with {sup 24}Mg, an abundant isotope in the target precursor rocks. The mechanism allows a simple explanation for the very different ratios of {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al inferred for normal CAIs, CAIs with fractionated and unidentified nuclear (FUN) anomalies, and chondrules. The overproduction of {sup 41}Ca by analogous {sup 3}He reactions and the case of {sup 60}Fe inferred for eucritic meteorites require special interpretations in this picture. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  15. Dust Transport in Protostellar Disks Through Turbulence and Settling

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Sano, T

    2009-01-01

    We apply ionization balance and MHD calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variety in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can be produced by varying these together with the disk magnetic flux. The diversity in the silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magneto-rotational turbulence, through three effects: (1) Recombination on grains yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending above two scale heights, while turbulence in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoots the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. (...

  16. 3-D MHD disk wind simulations of jets and outflows from high-mass protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen; Liu, Mengyao

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a series of nested, large scale, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of disk winds with a Blandford-Payne like magnetic field configuration, resolving scales from the stellar surface to beyond the core. The goal is to understand the structure of massive protostellar cores at various stages of their formation as the protostellar mass grows from a massive core. At each stage of a given protostellar mass, first, we study how jets and winds develop from the inner accretion disk to ~100 AU scales. We use the results from these simulations to dictate the inner boundary condition of a set of simulation extending to the core boundary at ~10,000 AU of an initially 60 solar mass core. We run separate simulations where the protostellar mass is 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 Msun, and we are working on making a small grid of models in the context of the Turbulent Core Model with three different core masses and three different core surface densities. The wind is blown into the simulation box with properties derived from the previous jet simulations. We examine the opening angle of the outflow cavity and thus the star formation efficiency from the core due to outflow feedback. We find that the opening angle increases as the protostellar mass grows, but it is always less than 10 degrees, which is surprisingly small compared with previous analytic models. This is caused by the core which confines the outflow. Finally, we use our simulation results as input to a radiative transfer calculation, to compare with observations made by the SOMA survey.

  17. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  18. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer; Barsony, M.; Sahai, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus star-forming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  19. 大气压氖气介质阻挡放电脉冲等离子射流特性%Characterization of dielectric barrier discharge pulse plasma jet in neon at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷枭; 方志; 邵涛; 章程

    2012-01-01

    采用自行研制的低造价、小体积、可产生幅值0-35kV、重复频率1kHz的高压μs脉冲电源,设计了一套以大气压氖气为工作气体的介质阻挡放电(DBD)等离子体射流源,通过测量并计算放电过程中的电压-电流波形、拍摄放电图像、光谱分析等手段,对电压幅值、气体流速对氖气等离子体射流特性的影响进行了研究.结果表明:μs脉冲电源激励下大气压氖气DBD能产生锥状的等离子射流且其等离子强度适中;μs脉冲电源电压幅值的快速上升,可在放电空间瞬间施加高的过电压,能有效促进放电功率、电子密度、电子激发温度和射流长度的增加;工作气体流速的增加使得放电功率、电子激发温度和电子密度减小,而射流长度变化很小;一定条件下,能形成长距离的射流.%A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet source is presented, which is low-cost and small in size, fed with neon and driven by the a self-developed microsecond pulse power supply with a peak voltage of 0-35 kV and a frequency of 1 kHz. Influences of applied voltage amplitude and gas flow rate on the discharge characteristics of the plasma jet are studied by measuring the waveforms of voltage and current, taking the light emission images and measuring the optical emission spectra. Results show that, the DBD in neon at atmospheric pressure driven by a microsecond pulse voltage can generate a cone-shaped flaming plasma jet, and the intensity of plasma is moderate. The fast rise of the applied pulse voltage can apply a higher overvoltage instantly to the gas gap, and thus can promotes the increases of discharge power, electron density and excitation temperature efficiently; while the increase of gas flow rate results in the decrease of these parameters but little variation of the jet length. Under certain operating conditions, the plasma jet with long length can be generated.

  20. Infall-driven protostellar accretion and the solution to the luminosity problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of mass infall in the formation and evolution of protostars. To avoid ad hoc initial and boundary conditions, we consider the infall resulting self-consistently from modeling the formation of stellar clusters in turbulent molecular clouds. We show that infall rates....... The simulation reproduces well the observed characteristic values and scatter of protostellar luminosities and matches the observed protostellar luminosity function. The luminosity problem is therefore solved once realistic protostellar infall histories are accounted for, with no need for extreme accretion...... episodes. These results are based on a simulation of randomly driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence on a scale of 4 pc, including self-gravity, adaptive-mesh refinement to a resolution of 50 AU, and accreting sink particles. The simulation yields a low star formation rate, consistent with the observations...

  1. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Arce, Héctor G

    2014-01-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimeter wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimeter wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution ...

  2. Protostellar Feedback in Turbulent Fragmentation: Consequences for Stellar Clustering and Multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Guszejnov, David; Krumholz, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Stars are strongly clustered on both large (~pc) and small (~binary) scales, but there are few analytic or even semi-analytic theories for the correlation function and multiplicity of stars. In this paper we present such a theory, based on our recently-developed semi-analytic model of gravito-turbulent fragmentation, including the suppression of fragmentation by protostellar radiation feedback. We compare the results including feedback to a control model in which it is omitted. We show that both classes of models robustly reproduce the stellar correlation function at >0.01 pc scales, which is well approximated by a power-law that follows generally from scale-free physics (turbulence plus gravity) on large scales. On smaller scales protostellar disk fragmentation becomes dominant over common core fragmentation, leading to a steepening of the correlation function. Multiplicity is more sensitive to feedback, with the protostellar heating model reproducing the observed multiplicity fractions and mass ratio distri...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Field in Injection Pipe of Pulse-jet Bag Filter%脉冲袋式除尘器喷吹管内流场的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明辉

    2011-01-01

    脉冲袋式除尘器清灰时,传统等孔径喷吹管各喷口喷气量的不均匀,将导致沿喷吹管方向滤袋清灰效果不同,清灰效果差。本文针对等孔径喷吹管喷吹过程,利用CFD软件进行非稳态模拟,得到了喷吹充分发展时刻的管内气流速度、静压分布,以及喷吹管各喷口的气体质量流量。最后用修正方法对喷吹管喷口尺寸进行优化设计,提高了喷吹气流均匀性,为脉冲袋式除尘器喷吹系统的改进提供了理论依据。%Because of the mass flux non-uniform distribution of nozzles in injection pipe,the effect of pulse-jet cleaning system for each filter-bag is different.It causes the drop of the cleaning efficiency.In this paper,the computational fluid dynamics software is used to simulate the unsteady fluid field of the same nozzle radius distributed injection pipe.The distributions of static pressure,flow velocity and mass flow rate are gained when fluid field is fully developed,and the design of the nozzles of injection pipe is optimized.All of these offered a reference to the design and improvement of pulse-jet bag filter.

  4. Jet Observables Without Jet Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolini, Daniele; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables---jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum---have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their "local" computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applicatio...

  5. Three Dimensional Hydrodynamics of Protostars and Protostellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Brian Keith

    1995-01-01

    Stars form when a rotating cloud of gas and dust collapses under the influence of its own gravity. Modern studies of the collapse and fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds suggest a wide variety of outcomes, depending on the assumed initial conditions. The post-collapse objects are subject to dynamic instabilities which may produce significant mass and angular momentum transport or, if violent enough, could lead to the breakup of the original object. I have considered the isentropic equilibrium states that might form from the collapse of uniformly rotating spherical clouds. By varying the central concentration of the assumed initial cloud, I obtain equilibrium states distinguished primarily by their different specific angular momentum distributions. Using a new code to generate the axisymmetric equilibrium states and an improved adiabatic 3D hydrodynamics code to evolve them, I have investigated the onset and nature of global dynamic instabilities in these objects. The objects corresponding to uniform initial conditions are unstable to barlike distortions at high rotation rates. These instabilities are vigorous and lead to violent ejection of mass and angular momentum. In contrast, the rapidly rotating equilibrium objects that correspond to highly centrally condensed initial clouds are subject to low-order spiral instabilities. In extremely flattened models, one -armed spirals dominate all other disturbances but do not lead to fragmentation. Significant amounts of angular momentum can be transported on very short time scales; in the most extreme case, 30% of the total angular momentum is moved from the central regions outward in about half a year. Even when the instabilities do not lead to transport or ejection of material, the original object can be significantly restructured, leading to flaring and surface distortions at large radii. The central concentration of the assumed initial cloud appears to be a good predictor of the dynamic instabilities which

  6. Brown Dwarf Jets: Investigating the Universality of Jet Launching Mechanisms at the Lowest Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Emma Teresa; Ray, Tom; Dougados, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recently it has become apparent that proto-stellar-like outflow activity extends to the brown dwarf (BD) mass regime. While the presence of accretion appears to be the common ingredient in all objects known to drive jets fundamental questions remain unanswered. The more prominent being the exact mechanism by which jets are launched, and whether this mechanism remains universal among such a diversity of sources and scales. To address these questions we have been investigating outflow activity in a sample of protostellar objects that differ considerably in mass and mass accretion rate. Central to this is our study of brown dwarf jets. To date Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) have offered us the best touchstone for decoding the launching mechanism. Here we shall summarise what is understood so far of BD jets and the important constraints observations can place on models. We will focus on the comparison between jets driven by objects with central mass < 0.1M \\odot and those driven by CTTSs. In particular we wish...

  7. 负压区的存在对刚性陶瓷过滤器脉冲反吹性能的影响%EFFECT OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE REGION ON PULSE-JET CLEANING PERFORMANCE OF RIGID CERAMIC FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 郭建光

    2000-01-01

    利用压电式压力传感器测定了陶瓷过滤器在脉冲反吹过程中滤管内动态压力的变化规律,表明在脉冲反吹快要结束和正常过滤尚未开始的过渡过程中,滤管内存在严重的负压区。利用单个颗粒轨道模型分析了部分已被吹离滤管表面的小颗粒在负压区的作用下会重新返回到滤管壁,从而证实了负压区是影响刚性陶瓷过滤器稳定运行的重要原因。%In a ceramic filter experimental set-up with three filter candles,the dynamic pressures atthe inner wall of one filter candle during pulse-jet cleaning aremeasured by using resize-electric pressure transducer. The experimentalresults show that the dynamic pressure in wholepulse-jet cleaning process consists of two parts. One is the positivepressure in the filter candlegreater than the pressure outside the filter candle whichcorresponds to the outward radial fluidflow to break up and dislodge the dust cake on the surfaceof the filter tube. The other is anegative pressure region which is responsible for inward radialflow while the pulse-jet is closed.The influences of reservoir pressure on thedynamic pressure are discussed.The calculation results of particle motion indicate that negativepressure region cause a fractionof particles removed re-deposit on the candle surface. Especiallyfiner particles is more easierlyre-deposited on the surface to form thin and dense layer on thefilter candle and to increasegradually the residual pressure drop across the candle. It isconcluded that negative pressureregion may have important effects on the long-term stable operation of thefilter unit.

  8. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  9. Protostellar feedback in turbulent fragmentation: consequences for stellar clustering and multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Hopkins, Philip F.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2017-07-01

    Stars are strongly clustered on both large (˜pc) and small (˜binary) scales, but there are few analytic or even semi-analytic theories for the correlation function and multiplicity of stars. In this paper, we present such a theory, based on our recently developed semi-analytic framework called MISFIT (Minimalistic Star Formation Including Turbulence), which models gravito-turbulent fragmentation, including the suppression of fragmentation by protostellar radiation feedback. We compare the results including feedback to a control model in which it is omitted. We show that both classes of models robustly reproduce the stellar correlation function at >0.01 pc scales, which is well approximated by a power law that follows generally from scale-free physics (turbulence plus gravity) on large scales. On smaller scales, protostellar disc fragmentation becomes dominant over common core fragmentation, leading to a steepening of the correlation function. Multiplicity is more sensitive to feedback: we found that a model with the protostellar heating reproduces the observed multiplicity fractions and mass ratio distributions for both Solar and sub-Solar mass stars (in particular, the brown dwarf desert), while a model without feedback fails to do so. The model with feedback also produces an at-formation period distribution consistent with the one inferred from observations. However, it is unable to produce short-range binaries below the length-scale of protostellar discs. We suggest that such close binaries are produced primarily by disc fragmentation and further decrease their separation through orbital decay.

  10. Impact of Protostellar Outflows on Turbulence and Star Formation Efficiency in Magnetized Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Chaban, Jonah

    2017-10-01

    The star-forming efficiency of dense gas is thought to be set within cores by outflow and radiative feedback. We use magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the relation between protostellar outflow evolution, turbulence, and star formation efficiency. We model the collapse and evolution of isolated dense cores for ≳0.5 Myr including the effects of turbulence, radiation transfer, and both radiation and outflow feedback from forming protostars. We show that outflows drive and maintain turbulence in the core environment even with strong initial fields. The star formation efficiency decreases with increasing field strength, and the final efficiencies are 15%–40%. The Stage 0 lifetime, during which the protostellar mass is lower than that of the dense envelope, increases proportionally with the initial magnetic field strength and ranges from ∼ 0.1 {to} 0.4 {Myr}. The average accretion rate is well represented by a tapered turbulent core model, which is a function of the final protostellar mass and is independent of the magnetic field strength. By tagging material launched in the outflow, we demonstrate that the outflow entrains about three times the actual launched gas mass, a ratio that remains roughly constant in time regardless of the initial magnetic field strength. However, turbulent driving increases for stronger fields since momentum is more efficiently imparted to non-outflow material. The protostellar outflow momentum is highest during the first 0.1 Myr and declines thereafter by a factor of ≳ 10 as the accretion rate diminishes.

  11. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, N. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tobin, J. J.; Fedele, D.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. Aims: We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. Methods: Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations ≥7″, a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of non-coevality that is due to geometry. Results: We find a non-coevality frequency of 33 ± 10% from the comparison of SED shapes of resolved multiple systems. Other source parameters suggest a somewhat lower frequency of non-coevality. The frequency of apparent non-coevality that is due to random inclination angle pairings of model SEDs is 17 ± 0.5%. Observations of the outflow of resolved multiple systems do not suggest significant misalignments within multiple systems. Effects of unresolved multiples on the SED shape are also investigated. Conclusions: We find that one-third of the multiple protostellar systems sampled here are non-coeval, which is more than expected from random geometric orientations. The other two-thirds are found to be coeval. Higher order multiples show a tendency to be non-coeval. The frequency of non-coevality found here is most likely due to formation and enhanced by

  12. Nonstationary photonic jet from dielectric microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geints, Yu; Zemlyanov, A

    2014-01-01

    A photonic jet commonly denotes the specific spatially localized region in the near-field forward scattering of a light wave at a dielectric micron-sized particle. We present the detailed calculations of the transient response of an airborne silica microsphere illuminated by a femtosecond laser pulse. The spatial area constituting the photonic jet is theoretically investigated and the temporal dynamics of jet dimensions as well as of jet peak intensity is analyzed. The role of morphology-dependent resonances in jet formation is highlighted. The evolution scenario of a nonstationary photonic jet generally consists of the non-resonant and resonant temporal phases. In every phase, the photonic jet can change its spatial form and intensity.

  13. Jets from Young Stars I: Models and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jonathan; Dougados, Catherine; Whelan, Emma

    2007-09-01

    This volume contains the edited lecture notes of the First JETSET School on Jets from Young Stars: Models and Constraints, held by the Marie Curie Research and Training Network on JET Simulations, Experiments and Theory. At this school the lecturers gave an introduction to observational properties and basic models describing the launching and collimation mechanisms of jets. The first half of the book is devoted to general observational constraints, covering the outflow phenomenon in young stars, the identification of magneto-centrifugal processes as the main jet driving mechanism, and the magnetic interaction between the star and its accretion disc. The second half of the book is devoted to theoretical knowledge of magneto-hydrodynamic processes pertinent to the jet launching mechanism in young stars. This comprises a general introduction to magneto-hydrodynamics, a description of the role of MHD processes in Standard Accretion Discs, and the physics of steady state MHD o! utflows, from the basic concepts and equations to modern self-similar solutions. Further lectures detail the various classes of steady magnetic-wind models currently discussed in the context of protostellar jets.

  14. A rotating molecular jet from a Perseus protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Pech, Gerardo; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    We present $^{12}$CO(2-1) line and 1.4 mm continuum archival observations, made with the Submillimeter Array, of the outflow HH 797 located in the IC 348 cluster in Perseus. The continuum emission is associated with a circumstellar disk surrounding the class 0 object IC 348-MMS/SMM2, a very young solar analog. The line emission, on the other hand, delineates a collimated outflow, and reveals velocity asymmetries about the flow axis over the entire length of the flow. The amplitude of velocity differences is of order 2 km s$^{-1}$ over distances of about 1000 AU, and we interpret them as evidence for jet rotation --although we also discuss alternative possibilities. A comparison with theoretical models suggests that the magnetic field lines threading the protostellar jet might be anchored to the disk of a radius of about 20 AU.

  15. A ROTATING MOLECULAR JET FROM A PERSEUS PROTOSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, Gerardo; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Loinard, Laurent [Also at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany. (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    We present the {sup 12}CO(2-1) line and 1.4 mm continuum archival observations, made with the Submillimeter Array, of the outflow HH 797 located in the IC 348 cluster in Perseus. The continuum emission is associated with a circumstellar disk surrounding the class 0 object IC 348-MMS/SMM2, a very young solar analog. The line emission, on the other hand, delineates a collimated outflow and reveals velocity asymmetries about the flow axis over the entire length of the flow. The amplitude of velocity differences is of the order of 2 km s{sup -1} over distances of about 1000 AU, and we interpret them as evidence for jet rotation-although we also discuss alternative possibilities. A comparison with theoretical models suggests that the magnetic field lines threading the protostellar jet might be anchored to the disk of a radius of about 20 AU.

  16. A Two-Temperature Model of Magnetized Protostellar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang-Yao; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Chiang, Tzu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    We explore kinematics and morphologies of molecular outflows driven by young protostars using magnetohydrodynamic simulations in the context of the unified wind model of Shang et al. The model explains the observed high-velocity jet and low-velocity shell features. In this work we investigate how these characteristics are affected by the underlying temperature and magnetic field strength. We study the problem of a warm wind running into a cold ambient toroid by using a tracer field that keeps track of the wind material. While an isothermal equation of state is adopted, the effective temperature is determined locally based on the wind mass fraction. In the unified wind model, the density of the wind is cylindrically stratified and highly concentrated toward the outflow axis. Our simulations show that for a sufficiently magnetized wind, the jet identity can be well maintained even at high temperatures. However, for a high temperature wind with low magnetization, the thermal pressure of the wind gas can drive ma...

  17. Assessment of Differences in Phase 1 and Phase 2 Test Observations for Waste Treatment Plant Pulse Jet Mixer Tests with Non-Cohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-10-27

    The purpose of this work was to assess the apparent discrepancy in critical suspension velocity (UCS) between M3 Phase 1 (Meyer et al. 2009) and Phase 2 testing conducted by Energy Solutions (ES) at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) and to address the applicability of Phase 1 scale-up laws to Phase 2 test results. Three Phase 2 test sequences were analyzed in detail. Several sources of discrepancy were identified including differences in nominal versus actual velocity, definition of model input parameters, and definition of UCS. A remaining discrepancy was shown to not be solely an artifact of Phase 1 data correlations, but was fundamental to the tests. The non-prototypic aspects of Phase 1 testing were reviewed and assessed. The effects of non-prototypic refill associated with the closed loop operation of the jets, previously known to affect cloud height, can be described in terms of a modified settling velocity. When the modified settling velocity is incorporated into the Phase 1 “new” physical model the adjusted new physical model does a better job of predicting the Phase 2 test results. The adjusted new physical model was bench marked with data taken during three prototypic drive tests. Scale-up behavior of the Phase 1 tests was reviewed. The applicability of the Phase 1 scale-up behavior to Phase 2 prototypic testing was analyzed. The effects of non-prototypic refill caused measured values of UCS to be somewhat reduced at larger scales. Hence the scale-up exponents are believed to be smaller than they would have been had there been prototypic refill. Estimated scale-up exponents for the Phase 2 testing are 0.40 for 8-tube tests and 0.36 for 12-tube tests.

  18. A STATISTICAL INTELLIGENCE (STI) APPROACH TO DISCOVERING SPURIOUS CORRELATION IN A PHYSICAL MODEL AND RESOLVING THE PROBLEM WITH AN EXAMPLE OF DESIGNING A PULSE JET MIXING SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Kuhn, William L.

    2010-07-23

    Pulse jet mixing tests were conducted to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A physical approach (based on hydro-dynamic behavior) and two semi-empirical (SE) approaches were applied to the data to develop models for predicting two response variables (critical-suspension velocity and cloud height). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using multiple noncohesive simulants and levels of possibly influential factors. The physical modeling approach based on hydro- dynamic behavior was first attempted, but this approach can yield models with spurious correlation. To overcome this dilemma, two semi-empirical (SE) models were developed by generalizing the form of the physical model using dimensional and/or nondimensional (ND) variables. The results of applying statistical intelligence (STI) tools to resolve the spurious correlation problem via fitting the physical and SE models are presented and compared. Considering goodness-of-fit, prediction performance, spurious correlation, and the need to extrapolate, the SE models based on ND variables are recommended.

  19. Application of hydraulic pulse cavitating jet technology in unconventional well drilling%水力脉冲空化射流技术在非常规钻井中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛建华

    2012-01-01

    For some unconventional wells, due to old stratum and poor drillability, it takes longer drilling period and encounters more complex situation, including obvious decline of mechanical drilling rate and soaring drilling cost. Based on the drilling prac-tice of unconventional wells, it is found that conventional drilling technique cannot slove the problems of low mechanical drilling rate and long drilling period. Through research, oil experts found that, under the conditions of fixed hydraulic parameters, the use of pulse jet and cavitating jet could have a greater impact load, improve the efficiency of rock clearing and rock breaking, and success-fully resolve the problem of low mechanical drilling rate and long drilling period. By tracking and comparative analysis of the appli-cation of hydraulic pulse cavitating jet technology in the drilling of unconventional wells, this paper researched on the feasibility of enhancing mechanical drilling rate by the technology and explored the means to improve the tools structure of the technology, hy-draulic parameters, drilling tools combination and the adaptability of the technology to stratum. All the researches above were of practical meanings in making technical preparation for the improvement of mechanical drilling rate of unconventional wells.%部分非常规井由于地层古老,岩性致密,可钻性差,钻井周期长,钻井过程中遇到的复杂情况增多,机械钻速下降幅度明显增大,同时钻井成本也急剧增加。从非常规钻井施工实际不难发现,采用传统钻井工艺和方式不能解决钻井机械钻速低,钻井周期长等难题。目前,石油专家通过探索研究发现,在水力参数不变的条件下,利用脉冲射流和空化射流能够产生较大的冲击载荷,提高清岩和破岩效率,从而顺利解决了钻井机械钻速低,钻井周期长等难题。通过跟踪、对比分析水力空化射流钻井技术在非常规钻井中的应

  20. Infall-Driven Protostellar Accretion and the Solution to the Luminosity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Åke

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of mass infall in the formation and evolution of protostars. To avoid ad hoc initial and boundary conditions, we consider the infall resulting self-consistently from modeling the formation of stellar clusters in turbulent molecular clouds. We show that protostellar infall rates in turbulent clouds are always comparable to or larger than observed accretion rates, and thus cannot be neglected in modeling the luminosity of protostars and the evolution of disks, even after the embedded phase of protostars. We find large variations of infall rates from protostar to protostar, and large fluctuations during the evolution of individuals protostars. In most cases, the accretion rate is initially of order 10$^{-5}$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, and may either decay rapidly in the formation of low-mass stars, or remain relatively large when more massive stars are formed. The simulation reproduces well the observed characteristic values and scatter of protostellar luminosities and matches the observed pr...

  1. Formation and recondensation of complex organic molecules during protostellar luminosity outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of the surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts, followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas phase formation and the recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas phase chemical network forming complex organic molecules in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion-molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores, without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas phase reaction bra...

  2. Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Pudritz, R E; Klessen, R S

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the results of existing and newly performed and simulations of turbulent, collapsing molecular cloud cores focussing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions rotationally supported discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. In particular, we show that even mild, i.e. subsonic turbulent motions, reduce the magnetic braking efficiency sufficiently in order to allow Keplerian discs to form. Based on this result we suggest that already during the Class 0 stage the fraction of Keplerian discs is significantly higher than 50%. This is consistent with recent observational trends but significantly higher than predictions based on simulations with misaligned magnetic fields and disc angular momentum vectors, demonstrating the importance of turbulent motions for the formation of Keplerian discs. We show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs...

  3. Jet quenching via jet collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, J; Wiedemann, U

    2011-01-01

    The strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions measured by ATLAS and CMS provide important constraints on the dynamical mechanisms underlying jet quenching. In this work, we show that the transport of soft gluons away from the jet cone - jet collimation - can account for the observed dijet asymmetry with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude. Further, we show that the energy loss attained through this mechanism results in a very mild distortion of the azimuthal angle dijet distribution.

  4. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  5. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  6. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, an anthropomorfized archive of a past intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time....

  7. Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): Constraining the formation of complex organic molecules with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jes K.; Coutens, Audrey; Bourke, Tyler L.; Favre, Cecile; Garrod, Robin; Lykke, Julie; Mueller, Holger; Oberg, Karin I.; Schmalzl, Markus; van der Wiel, Matthijs; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Wampfler, Susanne F.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how, when and where complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules are formed is a fundamental goal of astrochemistry and an integral part of origins of life studies. Already now ALMA is showing its capabilities for studies of the chemistry of solar-type stars with its high sensitivity for faint lines, high spectral resolution which limits line confusion, and high angular resolution making it possible to study the structure of young protostars on solar-system scales. We here present the first results from a large unbiased survey “Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)” targeting one of the astrochemical template sources, the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. The survey is more than an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous surveys of the source and provide imaging down to 25 AU scales (radius) around each of the two components of the binary. An example of one of the early highlights from the survey is unambiguous detections of the (related) prebiotic species glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol (two lowest energy conformers), methyl formate and acetic acid. The glycolaldehyde-ethylene glycol abundance ratio is high in comparison to comets and other protostars - but agrees with previous measurements, e.g., in the Galactic Centre clouds possibly reflecting different environments and/or evolutionary histories. Complete mapping of this and other chemical networks in comparison with detailed chemical models and laboratory experiments will reveal the origin of complex organic molecules in a young protostellar system and investigate the link between these protostellar stages and the early Solar System.

  8. THE ROLE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONALLY SUPPORTED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  9. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

    2011-03-02

    We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

  10. Occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks by landing of low-mass condensations

    CERN Document Server

    Elyasi, Mahjubeh

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass condensations (LMCs) are observed inside the envelope of the collapsing molecular cloud cores. In this research, we investigate the effects of landing LMCs for occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks. We consider some regions of the disk where duration of infalling and landing of the LMCs are shorter than the orbital period. In this way, we can consider the landing LMCs as density bumps and grooves in the azimuthal direction of an initial thin axisymmetric steady state self-gravitating protostellar accretion disk (nearly Keplerian). Using the linear effects of the bump quantities, we obtain a characteristic equation for growth/decay rate of bumps; we numerically solve it to find occurrence of instability. We also evaluate the minimum-growth-time-scale (MGTS) and the enhanced mass accretion rate. The results show that infalling and landing of the LMCs in the inner regions of the protostellar accretion disks can cause faster unstable modes and less enhanced accretion rates re...

  11. Molecular Line Emission from Massive Protostellar Disks: Predictions for ALMA and the EVLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumholz, M R; Klein, R I; McKee, C F

    2007-05-07

    We compute the molecular line emission of massive protostellar disks by solving the equation of radiative transfer through the cores and disks produced by the recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of Krumholz, Klein, & McKee. We find that in several representative lines the disks show brightness temperatures of hundreds of Kelvin over velocity channels {approx} 10 km s{sup -1} wide, extending over regions hundreds of AU in size. We process the computed intensities to model the performance of next-generation radio and submillimeter telescopes. Our calculations show that observations using facilities such as the EVLA and ALMA should be able to detect massive protostellar disks and measure their rotation curves, at least in the nearest massive star-forming regions. They should also detect significant sub-structure and non-axisymmetry in the disks, and in some cases may be able to detect star-disk velocity offsets of a few km s{sup -1}, both of which are the result of strong gravitational instability in massive disks. We use our simulations to explore the strengths and weaknesses of different observational techniques, and we also discuss how observations of massive protostellar disks may be used to distinguish between alternative models of massive star formation.

  12. The segregation of starless and protostellar clumps in the Hi-GAL l=224deg region

    CERN Document Server

    Olmi, L; Elia, D; Jones, P

    2016-01-01

    Stars form in dense, dusty structures, which are embedded in larger clumps of molecular clouds often showing a clear filamentary structure on large scales (> 1pc). One of the best-studied regions in the Hi-GAL survey can be observed toward the l=224deg field. Here, a filamentary region has been studied and it has been found that protostellar clumps are mostly located along the main filament, whereas starless clumps are detected off this filament and are instead found on secondary, less prominent filaments. We want to investigate this segregation effect and how it may affect the clumps properties. We mapped the 12CO(1-0) line and its main three isotopologues toward the two most prominent filaments observed toward the l=224deg field using the Mopra radio telescope, in order to set observational constraints on the dynamics of these structures and the associated starless and protostellar clumps. Compared to the starless clumps, the protostellar clumps are more luminous, more turbulent and lie in regions where the...

  13. 深水自激吸气式脉冲射流装置冲击特性的试验研究%Experimental Study on Impact Properties of Self-excited Inspiration Pulse Jet Device in Deepwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 马文良; 刘新阳; 解克宇; 王猛飞; 胡亚州

    2016-01-01

    运用自行研制的水下射流试验系统对自激吸气式脉冲射流装置在不同围压和靶距下的冲击特性进行了试验研究,获取了装置吸气量以及靶盘上冲击力,分析了装置射流冲击力随围压和靶距的变化规律。研究表明:下喷嘴直径对吸气量影响较大,存在一个最佳范围;随着围压的增加,同一靶距下靶盘上各圈射流冲击力均减小,不同围压下靶盘靶心和不同圈之间冲击力变化规律是不同的;对于不同的下喷嘴直径,围压越高和靶距越大,冲击力分布曲线越平缓。%This paper carried out a lot of experiments on the Self-excited Inspiration Pulse Jet Device in the deepwater condition by using self-developed test equipments ,obtained the inspired air capacity and the jet impact power and analyzed the effect laws with the variations of confining pressure and target distance .Studies have shown that :the inspired air capacity changed greatly as the change of the bottom nozzle diameter and there are optimal ranges ;With the increase of confining pressure ,each circle impact forces on tar‐get plate reduced under the same target distance .The law among the variation of impact force of bullseye and other circles under the imparity confining pressure are different ;With the addition of confining pressure and target distance ,impact force becomes slow down in the different bottom nozzle diameter .

  14. Structure and Stability of Steady Protostellar Accretion Flows - Part Two - Linear Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluch, M.

    1991-03-01

    Recent developments concerning spherically symmetric (1D-) numerical models of protostellar evolution show that steady protostellar accretion flows (resp. their shockfronts) may be unstable at least in the very early (Tscharnuter 1987a) and late stages (Balluch 1988) of accretion. A global, linear stability analysis of the structure of steady protostellar accretion flows with a shock discontinuity (Balluch 1990) is therefore presented to investigate such flows by different methods. Thereby three characteristic wave types, the radiation-, radiation diffusion- and acoustic modes were found. In the `ideal case' of a perfect gas law and constant opacity, the shockfront appears to be oscillatory unstable due to critical cooling as long as the mass flux rate is larger than a critical one of Mṡcrit = 10-6 Msun yr-1. In the `real case' with more realistic constitutive relations, an additional vibrational instability occurs due to the κ-mechanism in the outer layers of the core. This is shown to be the case in the whole range of core masses between 0.01 and 1 Msun, mass flow rates between 10-3 and 10-7 Msun yr-1 and different outer boundary conditions (corresponding to different states of the surrounding interstellar cloud). Analysing the first, outer protostellar cores before they get dynamically unstable due to H2-dissociation in their interiors, similar instabilities as mentioned above were found. Now the unstable κ-behaviour is due to dust instead of the deep ionisation zone as in the case of second, inner cores. According to the linear analysis, the instabilities should first appear in the velocity and the radiation flux in the settling zone. In the case of first, outer cores, these variations should be accompanied by an oscillation of the radiation flux in the region upstream from the shock up to r = 1014 cm. Sooner or later, the shockfront should oscillate in both cases too. These results are finally compared with the characteristics of the accretion shock

  15. Complex organic molecules in protostellar environments in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Fontani, F; Jiménez-Serra, I; Caselli, P; Ceccarelli, C; Palumbo, M E; López-Sepulcre, A; Beltrán, M T; Lefloch, B; Brucato, J R; Viti, S; Testi, L

    2014-01-01

    Molecular complexity builds up at each step of the Sun-like star formation process, starting from simple molecules and ending up in large polyatomic species. Complex organic molecules (COMs; such as methyl formate, HCOOCH$_3$, dymethyl ether, CH$_3$OCH$_3$, formamide, NH$_2$CHO, or glycoaldehyde, HCOCH$_2$OH) are formed in all the components of the star formation recipe (e.g. pre-stellar cores, hot-corinos, circumstellar disks, shocks induced by fast jets), due to ice grain mantle sublimation or sputtering as well as gas-phase reactions. Understanding in great detail the involved processes is likely the only way to predict the ultimate molecular complexity reached in the ISM, as the detection of large molecules is increasingly more difficult with the increase of the number of atoms constituting them. Thanks to the recent spectacular progress of astronomical observations, due to the Herschel (sub-mm and IR), IRAM and SMA (mm and sub-mm), and NRAO (cm) telescopes, an enormous activity is being developed in the ...

  16. The chemical structure of the Class 0 protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A⋆⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpia, E.; Semenov, D. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Caux, E.

    2017-07-01

    Context. It is not well known what drives the chemistry of a protostellar envelope, in particular the role of the stellar mass and the protostellar outflows on the chemical enrichment of such environments. Aims: We study the chemical structure of the Class 0 protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A in order to (i) investigate the influence of the outflows on the chemistry; (ii) constrain the age of our studied object; (iii) compare it with a typical high-mass protostellar envelope. Methods: In our analysis we use JCMT line mapping (360-373 GHz) and HIFI pointed spectra (626.01-721.48 GHz). To study the influence of the outflow on the degree of deuteration, we compare JCMT maps of HCO+ and DCO+ with non-LTE (RADEX) models in a region that spatially covers the outflow activity of IRAS 4A. To study the envelope chemistry, we derive empirical molecular abundance profiles for the observed species using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (RATRAN) and adopting a 1D dust density/temperature profile from the literature. We use a combination of constant abundance profiles and abundance profiles that include jumps at two radii (T 100 K or T 30 K) to fit our observations. We compare our best-fit observed abundance profiles with the predictions from the time dependent gas grain chemical code (ALCHEMIC). Results: We detect CO, 13CO, C18O, CS, HCN, HCO+, N2H+, H2CO, CH3OH, H2O, H2S, DCO+, HDCO, D2CO, SO, SO2, SiO, HNC, CN, C2H and OCS. We divide the detected lines in three groups based on their line profiles: a) broad emission (FWHM = 4-11 km s-1), b) narrow emission (FWHMmodel for the outer envelope, with the exceptions of HCN, HNC, CN. These species along with the CO abundance require an enhanced UV field which points towards an outflow cavity. The abundances with respect to H2 are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than those observed in the high mass protostellar envelope (AFGL 2591), while they are found to be similar within factors of a few when they are estimated with

  17. 自振脉冲磨料水射流切割性能影响因素及矿用安全性分析%Analysis on Influence factors of Cutting performance of Self- vibration Pulse Abrasive Water- jet and Its Application Safety in Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 何学秋; 聂百胜; 李海龙

    2012-01-01

    The influences of some factors on the cutting perform- ance of self - vibration pulse abrasive water - jet were experi- mentally investigated. The influences of stand - off distance, cutting times, the lateral moving velocity of jet and system pres- sure on cutting performance of the jet were determined. Analyti- cal demonstration of the safety of self - vibration pulse abrasive water- jet used for the cutting in coal mine was performed. The conclusion was drawn for this method, that the temperature caused by cutting is low and the lasting time of sparks is ex- tremely short, so it is safe enough not to cause the gas explo- sion. It is believed that the water- jet cutting technique is safe and feasible if used in the coal mine.%通过实验对自振脉冲磨料水射流切割过程中部分因素对切割性能的影响关系进行了研究,得出了靶距、切割次数、横移速度、系统压力同切割性能的影响关系,并对自振脉冲磨料水射流用于矿井切割的安全性进行了分析论证,得出该方法切割温度低、火花持续时间极短,不会引起瓦斯爆炸的结论,表明该切割方式用于井下安全切割是可行的。

  18. The Reel Deal In 3D: The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of YSO Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Jets are a ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics, though in most cases their central engines are unresolvable. Thus the structure of the jets often acts as a proxy for understanding the objects creating them. Jets are also of interest in their own right, serving as critical examples of rapidly evolving astrophysical magnetized plasma systems. And while millions of CPU hours {at least} have been spent simulating the kinds of astrophysical plasma dynamics that occur routinely in jets, we rarely have had the chance to study their real-time evolution. In this proposal we seek to use a unique multi-epoch HST dataset of protostellar jets to carry forward an innovative theoretical, numerical and laboratory-based study of magnetized outflows and the plasma processes which determine their evolution. Our work will make direct and detailed contact with these HST data sets and will articulate newly-observed features of jet dynamics that have not been possible to explore before. Using numerical simulations and laboratory plasma studies we seek to articulate the full 3-D nature of new behaviors seen in the HST data. Our collaboration includes the use of scaled laboratory plasma experiments with hypersonic magnetized radiative jets. The MHD experiments have explored how jets break up into clumps via kink-mode instabilities. Therefore such experiments are directly relevant to the initial conditions in our models.

  19. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality......“Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...

  20. Jet Quenching via Jet Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration recently reported strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we discuss to what extent these first data constrain already the microscopic mechanism underlying jet quenching. Simple kinematic arguments lead us to identify a frequency collimation mechanism via which the medium efficiently trims away the soft components of the jet parton shower. Through this mechanism, the observed dijet asymmetry can be accomodated with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude.

  1. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mottram, J C; van Dishoeck, E F; Bruderer, S; José-García, I San; Karska, A; Visser, R; Santangelo, G; Benz, A O; Bergin, E A; Caselli, P; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; van Kempen, T A; Liseau, R; Nisini, B; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F F S; Wyrowski, F

    2014-01-01

    Context: Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance in various parts of the protostar. Method: We present \\textit{Herschel} HIFI spectra of multiple water-transitions towards 29 nearby Class 0/I protostars as part of the WISH Survey. These are decomposed into different Gaussian components, with each related to one of three parts of the protostellar system; quiescent envelope, cavity shock and spot shocks in the jet and at the base of the outflow. We then constrain the excitation conditions present in the two outflow-related components. Results: Water emission is optically thick but effectively thin, with line ratios that do not vary with velocity, in contrast to CO. The physical conditions of the cavity and spot shocks are similar, with post-shock H$_{2}$ densities of order 10$^{5}-$10$^{8}$\\,cm$^...

  2. The Massive Protostellar Cluster NGC6334I at 220 AU Resolution: Discovery of Further Multiplicity, Diversity and a Hot Multi-Core

    CERN Document Server

    Brogan, C L; Cyganowski, C J; Chandler, C J; Friesen, R; Indebetouw, R

    2016-01-01

    We present VLA and ALMA imaging of the deeply-embedded protostellar cluster NGC6334I from 5 cm to 1.3 mm at angular resolutions as fine as 0.17 (220 AU). The dominant hot core MM1 is resolved into seven components at 1.3 mm, clustered within a radius of 1000 AU. Four of the components have brightness temperatures >200 K, radii ~300 AU, minimum luminosities ~10000 Lsun, and must be centrally heated. We term this new phenomenon a "hot multi-core". Two of these objects also exhibit compact free-free emission at longer wavelengths, consistent with a hypercompact HII region (MM1B) and a jet (MM1D). The spatial kinematics of the water maser emission centered on MM1D are consistent with it being the origin of the high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow seen in CO. The close proximity of MM1B and MM1D (440~AU) suggests a proto-binary or a transient bound system. Several components of MM1 exhibit steep millimeter SEDs indicative of either unusual dust spectral properties or time variability. In addition to resolving M...

  3. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  4. Laser-induced break-up of water jet waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couty, P.; Hoffmann, P. [EPFL/STI/IOA/Advanced Photonics Laboratory, Lausanne BM, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Spiegel, A.; Vago, N. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Ugurtas, B.I. [EPFL/STI/IMHEF/Laboratory Fluid Mechanics, Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-06-01

    In this article, an optical method to control the break-up of high-speed liquid jets is proposed. The method consists of focusing the light of a pulsed laser source into the jet behaving as a waveguide. Experiments were performed with the help of a Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:Yag laser ({lambda}=532 nm). The jet diameter was 48 {mu}m and jet velocities from 100 to 200 m/s. To study the laser-induced water jet break-up, observations of the jet coupled with the high power laser were performed for variable coupling and jet velocity conditions. Experimentally determined wavelength and growth rate of the laser-generated disturbance were also compared with the ones predicted by linear stability theory of free jets. (orig.)

  5. Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P

    2009-10-08

    Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  6. Jets and Outflows From Star to Cloud: Observations Confront Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A; Cabrit, S; Hartigan, P; Arce, H G; Bacciotti, F; Bally, J; Benisty, M; Eislöffel, J; Güdel, M; Lebedev, S; Nisini, B; Raga, A

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the role jets and outflows play in the star and planet formation process. Our essential question can be posed as follows: are jets/outflows merely an epiphenomenon associated with star formation or do they play an important role in mediating the physics of assembling stars both individually and globally? We address this question by reviewing the current state of observations and their key points of contact with theory. Our review of jet/outflow phenomena is organized into three length-scale domains: Source and Disk Scales ($0.1-10^2$ au) where the connection with protostellar and disk evolution theories is paramount; Envelope Scales ($10^2-10^5$ au) where the chemistry and propagation shed further light on the jet launching process, its variability and its impact on the infalling envelope; Parent Cloud Scales ($10^5-10^6$ au) where global momentum injection into cluster/cloud environments become relevant. Issues of feedback are of particular importance on the smallest scales where p...

  7. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Sipilä, Olli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  8. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wirström, Eva S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  9. Vibrationally excited CS: A new probe of conditions in young protostellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first detection of vibrationally excited C(32)S J = 10-9 and J = 7-6 emission toward a young stellar object (YSO). Toward IRAS 16293-2422, the vibrationally excited C(32)S emission is redshifted approximately 3.9 km/s from the systemic velocity of the core. The emission must arise in warm (T greater than or approximately equal 1000 K), dense (n greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 11)-10(exp 12) per cc) gas. The most plausible origin for the emission appears to be self-gravitating instabilities in a protostellar accretion disk, which produce waves and shocks.

  10. The segregation of starless and protostellar clumps in the Hi-GAL ℓ = 224° region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, L.; Cunningham, M.; Elia, D.; Jones, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars form in dense, dusty structures, which are embedded in larger clumps of molecular clouds often showing a clear filamentary structure on large scales (≳1 pc). The origin (e.g., turbulence or gravitational instabilities) and evolution of these filaments, as well as their relation to clump and core formation, are not yet fully understood. A large sample of both starless and protostellar clumps can now be found in the Herschel Infrared GALactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) key project, which also provides striking images of the filamentary structure of the parent molecular clouds. Recent results indicate that populations of clumps on and off filaments may differ. Aims: One of the best-studied regions in the Hi-GAL survey can be observed toward the ℓ = 224° field. Here, a filamentary region has been studied and it has been found that protostellar clumps are mostly located along the main filament, whereas starless clumps are detected off this filament and are instead found on secondary, less prominent filaments. We want to investigate this segregation effect and how it may affect the clumps properties. Methods: We mapped the 12CO (1-0) line and its main three isotopologues toward the two most prominent filaments observed toward the ℓ = 224° field using the Mopra radio telescope, in order to set observational constraints on the dynamics of these structures and the associated starless and protostellar clumps. Results: Compared to the starless clumps, the protostellar clumps are more luminous, more turbulent and lie in regions where the filamentary ambient gas shows larger linewidths. We see evidence of gas flowing along the main filament, but we do not find any signs of accretion flow from the filament onto the Hi-GAL clumps. We analyze the radial column density profile of the filaments and their gravitational stability. Conclusions: The more massive and highly fragmented main filament appears to be thermally supercritical and gravitationally bound

  11. Revealing H2D+ depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.;

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H2D+ 110-111 emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within...... hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H2D+) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ~ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless...

  12. THE HERSCHEL AND IRAM CHESS SPECTRAL SURVEYS OF THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1: FOSSIL DEUTERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Vasta, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Kahane, C.; Taquet, V.; Wiesenfeld, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Busquet, G. [INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Caselli, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lis, D. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Viti, S., E-mail: codella@rcetri.astro.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-20

    We present the first study of deuteration toward the protostellar shock L1157-B1, based on spectral surveys performed with the Herschel-HIFI and IRAM 30 m telescopes. The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The young (2000 yr), bright blueshifted bow shock, B1, is an ideal laboratory for studying the gas chemically enriched by the release of dust mantles due to the passage of a shock. A total of 12 emission lines (up to E{sub u} = 63 K) of CH{sub 2}DOH, HDCO, and DCN are detected. In addition, two lines of NH{sub 2}D and HDO are tentatively reported. To estimate the deuteration, we also extracted from our spectral survey emission lines of non-deuterated isotopologues ({sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, H{sub 2} {sup 13}CO, H{sup 13}CN, H{sub 2} {sup 13}CO, and NH{sub 3}). We infer higher deuteration fractions for CH{sub 3}OH (D/H = 0.2-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}) and H{sub 2}CO (5-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}) than for H{sub 2}O (0.4-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}), HCN ({approx}10{sup -3}), and ammonia ({<=}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}). The measurement of deuteration of water, formaldehyde, and methanol in L1157-B1 provides a fossil record of the gas before it was shocked by the jet driven by the protostar. A comparison with gas-grain models indicates that the gas passed through a low-density ({<=}10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) phase, during which the bulk of water ices formed, followed by a phase of increasing density, up to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, during which formaldehyde and methanol ices formed.

  13. Searching for Jet Rotation in Class 0/I Sources observed with GEMINI/GNIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Deirdre; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Nisini, Brunella; Davis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a number of detections of gradients in the radial velocity profile across jets from young stars. The significance of these results is considerable. They may be interpreted as a signature of jet rotation about its symmetry axis, thereby representing the only existing observational indications supporting the theory that jets extract angular momentum from star-disk systems. However, the possibility that we are indeed observing jet rotation in pre-main sequence systems is undergoing active debate. To test the validity of a rotation argument, we must extend the survey to a larger sample, including younger sources. We present the latest results of a radial velocity analysis on jets from Class 0 and I sources, using high resolution data from the infrared spectrograph GNIRS on GEMINI South. We obtained infrared spectra protostellar jets HH 34, HH 111-H, HH 212 NK1 and SK1. The [Fe II] emission was unresolved in all cases and so Doppler shifts across the jet width could not be accessed....

  14. 脉冲鼓泡床内鼓泡和颗粒混合特性的CFD-DEM 数值模拟%CFD-DEM simulation of bubbling and particle mixing properties in pulsed jet fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立波; 尚立宝; 闫日雄; 何海澜; 赵红霞; 韩吉田

    2015-01-01

    基于 FLUENT 软件信息传递模式的 MPI(message passing interface)并行计算平台,通过用户自定义函数(us-er-defined functions,UDFs)文件发展一种拟三维颗粒的计算流体力学(computational fluid dynamics,CFD)-离散单元法(discrete element method,DEM)耦合并行算法。采用该算法数值模拟了脉冲鼓泡床内气固两相流动,揭示了气相鼓泡特性和颗粒混合机制。数值模拟结果表明:该算法具有随计算节点数增加的良好扩展性能和加速性能;在鼓泡过程中,主流两侧的小尺度气流涡逐渐发展为双主涡;单气泡通过床层后,颗粒混合仅局限于射流触及区域;数值模拟结果与相关试验和数值模拟结果吻合较好,表明该并行算法能够较好的模拟稠密颗粒气固两相流中鼓泡和颗粒混合特性,为其在大规模并行集群上的应用奠定基础。%Based on the MPI (Message Passing Interface)platform of FLUENT software,the parallel simulation tech-nique for pseudo three-dimension computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM)coupling model was developed through the user-defined functions (UDFs).Numerical simulation of the gas-solid flow in pulsed jet flu-idized bed was conducted by the developed parallel CFD-DEM coupling model,and the bubbling properties for the gas phase and particle mixing properties were revealed.Simulation results showed that the developed parallel CFD-DEM coupling model could have good scalability and speeded-up performance with increase in the number of computing nodes.Small-scale vortices on both sides of the mainstream gradually evolved into two main vortices in the bubbling processes.The particle mixing only occurred in the jet-influenced region after a single bubble had passed through the bed.The simulation results accorded well with the related experimental and simulation results,which showed that this model could well simulate the bubbling and

  15. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  16. Protostellar collapse of magneto-turbulent cloud cores: shape during collapse and outflow formation

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    We investigate protostellar collapse of molecular cloud cores by numerical simulations, taking into account turbulence and magnetic fields. By using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, the collapse is followed over a wide dynamic range from the scale of a turbulent cloud core to that of the first core. The cloud core is lumpy in the low density region owing to the turbulence, while it has a smooth density distribution in the dense region produced by the collapse. The shape of the dense region depends mainly on the mass of the cloud core; a massive cloud core tends to be prolate while a less massive cloud core tends to be oblate. In both cases, anisotropy of the dense region increases during the isothermal collapse. The minor axis of the dense region is always oriented parallel to the local magnetic field. All the models eventually yield spherical first cores supported mainly by the thermal pressure. Most of turbulent cloud cores exhibit protostellar outflows around the first cores. These outflows are clas...

  17. Searching for Class I multiple protostellar systems in the MIR in OMC-2 and OMC-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Cornelia; Teixeira, Paula; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Takahashi, Satoko

    2013-07-01

    The Orion molecular cloud is a rich and well known star forming region where all the different evolutionary stages of the star formation process can be found. It is thus an ideal region to study physical characteristics of protostellar binaries (protobinaries). Observational studies of protobinaries are important tools to get better constraints on star formation models. Yet there are few such studies. We present preliminary results of a protobinary survey in the Orion Molecular Cloud-2 (OMC-2) and OMC-3. Our data consists of mid-infrared images obtained using the Europen Southern Observatory VLT/VISIR, and our sample has 24 Class I protostars, previously identified via Spitzer 24 micron observations. We present at first the frequencies of protostellar multiple systems in these molecular clouds. The survey will show how many protobinary or multiple systems form in these clouds, and if these frequencies are comparable to that of other similarly observed star forming regions. Another aim of the survey is to measure the separations of the protostars in these binary or multiple systems. We also derive the mass ratios of the protostars. Comparison of these results to other similar surveys might reveal some major initial conditions necessary for the formation of binary systems. The observed parameters will help constrain star formation models, and they will shed some light on how the stellar initial mass function may be assembled from a molecular cloud core mass function.

  18. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Spectral Energy Distributions and Fits Using a Grid of Protostellar Models

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, E; Ali, B; Stutz, A M; Stanke, T; Tobin, J J; Megeath, S T; Osorio, M; Hartmann, L; Calvet, N; Poteet, C A; Booker, J; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Allen, L

    2016-01-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS): spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star-formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, and sub-millimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2-870 $\\mu$m and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ~100 $\\mu$m. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate cons...

  19. Investigations of Protostellar Outflow Launching and Gas Entrainment: Hydrodynamic Simulations and Molecular Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, S S R

    2013-01-01

    We investigate protostellar outflow evolution, gas entrainment, and star formation efficiency using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, turbulent low-mass cores. We adopt an X-wind launching model, in which the outflow rate is coupled to the instantaneous protostellar accretion rate and evolution. We vary the outflow collimation angle from $\\theta$=0.01-0.1 and find that even well collimated outflows effectively sweep up and entrain significant core mass. The Stage 0 lifetime ranges from 0.14-0.19 Myr, which is similar to the observed Class 0 lifetime. The star formation efficiency of the cores spans 0.41-0.51. In all cases, the outflows drive strong turbulence in the surrounding material. Although the initial core turbulence is purely solenoidal by construction, the simulations converge to approximate equipartition between solenoidal and compressive motions due to a combination of outflow driving and collapse. When compared to a simulation of a cluster of protostars, which is not gravitationally ...

  20. Revealing H2D+ depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, R K; Bourke, T L; Caselli, P; Jørgensen, J K; Pineda, J E; Wong, M

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H2D+ 1_{10}-1_{11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M <~ 0.02M_Sun (~ 20 M_Jup). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly-symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated, and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H2D+ is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ~150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H2D+) depletion in the cold centre of the condensation. We propose th...

  1. Millimeter-sized grains in the protostellar envelopes: Where do they come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yi Hang Valerie; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Grain growth during star formation affects the physical and chemical processes in the evolution of star-forming clouds. We investigate the origin of the millimeter (mm)-sized grains recently observed in Class I protostellar envelopes. We use the coagulation model developed in our previous paper and find that a hydrogen number density of as high as 1010 cm-3, instead of the typical density 105 cm-3, is necessary for the formation of mm-sized grains. Thus, we test a hypothesis that such large grains are transported to the envelope from the inner, denser parts, finding that gas drag by outflow efficiently "launches" the large grains as long as the central object has not grown to ≳0.1 M⊙. By investigating the shattering effect on the mm-sized grains, we ensure that the large grains are not significantly fragmented after being injected in the envelope. We conclude that the mm-sized grains observed in the protostellar envelopes are not formed in the envelopes but formed in the inner parts of the star-forming regions and transported to the envelopes before a significant mass growth of the central object, and that they survive in the envelopes.

  2. Millimeter-sized grains in the protostellar envelopes: where do they come from?

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Yi Hang Valerie; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth during star formation affects the physical and chemical processes in the evolution of star-forming clouds. We investigate the origin of the millimeter (mm)-sized grains recently observed in Class I protostellar envelopes. We use the coagulation model developed in our previous paper and find that a hydrogen number density of as high as $10^{10}~{\\rm cm^{-3}}$, instead of the typical density $10^5~{\\rm cm^{-3}}$, is necessary for the formation of mm-sized grains. Thus, we test a hypothesis that such large grains are transported to the envelope from the inner, denser parts, finding that gas drag by outflow efficiently "launches" the large grains as long as the central object has not grown to $\\gtrsim 0.1$ M$_{\\odot}$. By investigating the shattering effect on the mm-sized grains, we ensure that the large grains are not significantly fragmented after being injected in the envelope. We conclude that the mm-sized grains observed in the protostellar envelopes are not formed in the envelopes but formed i...

  3. HH 666: different kinematics from H α and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Bally, John

    2015-06-01

    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H α and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ˜40 arcsec of the outflow. H α traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of ±200 km s-1 from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H α spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) H α images reveal the lateral spreading of the H α outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H α proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ˜1000 yr ago, while steady [Fe II] emission throughout the inner jet suggest that the burst is ongoing. An accretion burst sustained for ˜1000 yr is an order of magnitude longer than expected for FU Orionis outbursts, but represents only a small fraction of the total age of the HH 666 outflow. Altogether, available data suggests that [Fe II] traces the highly collimated protostellar jet while H α traces the entrained and irradiated outflow. HH 666 appears to be a missing link between bare jets seen in H II regions and entrained molecular outflows seen from embedded protostars in more quiescent regions.

  4. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  5. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core: The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kama, M.; Caux, E.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Wakelam, V.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lanza, M.; Lique, F.; Ochsendorf, B.B.; Lis, D.C.; Caballero, R.N.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances <10-5 has not

  6. Fast Heat Pulse Propagation by Turbulence Spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Mantica, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of a cold pulse initiated by edge cooling in JET is compared to propagation of the heat wave originating from a modulation of the heating source roughly at mid radius. It is found that the propagation of the cold pulse is by far faster than what could be predicted on the basis of ...

  7. Fast Heat Pulse Propagation by Turbulence Spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Mantica, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of a cold pulse initiated by edge cooling in JET is compared to propagation of the heat wave originating from a modulation of the heating source roughly at mid radius. It is found that the propagation of the cold pulse is by far faster than what could be predicted on the basis of ...

  8. Spitzer imaging of the jet driving the NGC 2264 G outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, Paula S; Fich, Michael; Lada, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    We present new infrared imaging of the NGC 2264 G protostellar outflow region, obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. A jet in the red outflow lobe (eastern lobe) is clearly detected in all four IRAC bands and, for the first time, is shown to continuously extend over the entire length of the red outflow lobe traced by CO observations. The redshifted jet also extends to a deeply embedded Class 0 source, VLA 2, confirming previous suggestions that it is the driving source of the outflow (Gomez et al. 1994). The images show that the easternmost part of the redshifted jet exhibits what appear to be multiple changes of direction. To understand the redshifted jet morphology we explore several mechanisms that could generate such apparent changes of direction. From this analysis, we conclude that the redshifted jet structure and morphology visible in the IRAC images can be largely, although not entirely, explained by a slowly precessing jet (period ~8000 yr) that lies mos...

  9. [OI]63micron jets in class 0 sources detected by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Giannini, T; Antoniucci, S; Cabrit, S; Codella, C; Davis, C J; Eisloeffel, J; Kristensen, L; Herczeg, G; Neufeld, D; van Dishoeck, E F

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel PACS mapping observations of the [OI]63 micron line towards protostellar outflows in the L1448, NGC1333-IRAS4, HH46, BHR71 and VLA1623 star forming regions. We detect emission spatially resolved along the outflow direction, which can be associated with a low excitation atomic jet. In the L1448-C, HH46 IRS and BHR71 IRS1 outflows this emission is kinematically resolved into blue- and red-shifted jet lobes, having radial velocities up to 200 km/s. In the L1448-C atomic jet the velocity increases with the distance from the protostar, similarly to what observed in the SiO jet associated with this source. This suggests that [OI] and molecular gas are kinematically connected and that this latter could represent the colder cocoon of a jet at higher excitation. Mass flux rates (\\.M$_{jet}$(OI)) have been measured from the [OI]63micron luminosity adopting two independent methods. We find values in the range 1-4 10$^{-7}$ Mo/yr for all sources but HH46, for which an order of magnitude higher value i...

  10. The LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time‐of‐flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3‐J pulse energy...

  11. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 2--Construction Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. Detonation engines of various concepts, pulse detonation, rotational and engine with stationary detonation wave, are reviewed. Main trends in detonation engine development are discussed. The most important works that carried out…

  12. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  13. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Sohbatzadeh; M Bagheri; S Motallebi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed...

  14. Interaction of microwave radiation with an erosion plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V. G.; Pashchina, A. S.; Ryazanskiy, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of high-power pulsed microwave radiation with a plasma jet formed by a discharge in an ablative capillary is studied. A significant influence of microwave radiation on the plasma jet flow is found. Depending on the intensity of the initial perturbation of the jet, different scenarios of its evolution downstream are possible: attenuation or amplification accompanied with the development of turbulence up to the disruption of the flow if a certain threshold of the energy action is exceeded. A significant influence of the plasma jet and its state on the spatial position of the microwave energy release zone is found.

  15. Unified Models of Molecular Emission from Class 0 Protostellar Outflow Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, J M C; Carolan, P B

    2013-01-01

    Low mass star-forming regions are more complex than the simple spherically symmetric approximation that is often assumed. We apply a more realistic infall/outflow physical model to molecular/continuum observations of three late Class 0 protostellar sources with the aims of (a) proving the applicability of a single physical model for all three sources, and (b) deriving physical parameters for the molecular gas component in each of the sources. We have observed several molecular species in multiple rotational transitions. The observed line profiles were modelled in the context of a dynamical model which incorporates infall and bipolar outflows, using a three dimensional radiative transfer code. This results in constraints on the physical parameters and chemical abundances in each source. Self-consistent fits to each source are obtained. We constrain the characteristics of the molecular gas in the envelopes as well as in the molecular outflows. We find that the molecular gas abundances in the infalling envelope ...

  16. Effect of Ambipolar Diffusion on Ion Abundances in Contracting Protostellar Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    1998-09-01

    Numerical simulations and analytical solutions have established that ambipolar diffusion can reduce the dust-to-gas ratio in magnetically and thermally supercritical cores during the epoch of core formation. We study the effect that this has on the ion chemistry in contracting protostellar cores and present a simplified analytical method that allows one to calculate the ion power-law exponent k (≡d ln ni/d ln nn, where ni and nn are the ion and neutral densities, respectively) as a function of core density. We find that, as in earlier numerical simulations, no single value of k can adequately describe the ion abundance for nn 1/2 during the core formation epoch (densities principle, to determine whether ambipolar diffusion is responsible for core formation in interstellar molecular clouds. For densities >>105 cm-3, k is generally <<1/2.

  17. Simulations of protostellar collapse using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. I. The first collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Vaytet, Neil; Chabrier, Gilles; Commercon, Benoit; Masson, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Radiative transfer plays a major role in the process of star formation. Many simulations of gravitational collapse of a cold gas cloud followed by the formation of a protostellar core use a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, dust opacities which dominate extinction show large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we used frequency-dependent radiative transfer to investigate the influence of the opacity variations on the properties of Larson's first core. We used a multigroup M1 moment model in a 1D radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the spherically symmetric collapse of a 1 solar mass cloud core. Monochromatic dust opacities for five different temperature ranges were used to compute Planck and Rosseland means inside each frequency group. The results are very consistent with previous studies and only small differences were observed between the grey and multigroup simulations. For a same central density, the multigroup simulations tend to produce fi...

  18. The Nature of Angular Momentum Transport in Radiative Self-Gravitating Protostellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan; Cossins, Peter; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Semi-analytic models of self-gravitating discs often approximate the angular momentum transport generated by the gravitational instability using the phenomenology of viscosity. This allows the employment of the standard viscous evolution equations, and gives promising results. It is, however, still not clear when such an approximation is appropriate. This paper tests this approximation using high resolution 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of self-gravitating protostellar discs with radiative transfer. The nature of angular momentum transport associated with the gravitational instability is characterised as a function of both the stellar mass and the disc-to-star mass ratio. The effective viscosity is calculated from the Reynolds and gravitational stresses in the disc. This is then compared to what would be expected if the effective viscosity were determined by assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium or, equivalently, that the local dissipation rate matches the local cooling rate. In gene...

  19. Rotationally-Driven Fragmentation for the Formation of the Binary Protostellar System L1551 IRS 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Jeremy; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Either bulk rotation or local turbulence is widely invoked to drive fragmentation in collapsing cores so as to produce multiple star systems. Even when the two mechanisms predict different manners in which the stellar spins and orbits are aligned, subsequent internal or external interactions can drive multiple systems towards or away from alignment thus masking their formation process. Here, we demonstrate that the geometrical and dynamical relationship between the binary system and its surrounding bulk envelope provide the crucial distinction between fragmentation models. We find that the circumstellar disks of the binary protostellar system L1551 IRS 5 are closely parallel not just with each other but also with their surrounding flattened envelope. Measurements of the relative proper motion of the binary components spanning nearly 30 yr indicate an orbital motion in the same sense as the envelope rotation. Eliminating orbital solutions whereby the circumstellar disks would be tidally truncated to sizes smal...

  20. A theoretical perspective on the formation and fragmentation of protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Whitworth, A P

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the factors influencing the formation and gravitational fragmentation of protostellar discs. We start with a review of how observations of prestellar cores can be analysed statistically to yield plausible initial conditions for simulations of their subsequent collapse. Simulations based on these initial conditions show that, despite the low levels of turbulence in prestellar cores, they deliver primary protostars and associated discs which are routinely subject to stochastic impulsive perturbations; consequently misalignment of the spins and orbits of protostars are common. Also, the simulations produce protostars that collectively have a mass function and binary statistics matching those observed in nearby star formation regions, but only if a significant fraction of the turbulent energy in the core is solenoidal, and accretion onto the primary protostar is episodic with a duty cycle > 3000 yr. Under this circumstance a core typically spawns between 4 and 5 protostars, with high efficiency, and th...

  1. Resistive double-diffusive instability in the dead-zones of protostellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Latter, Henrik N; Balbus, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    We outline a novel linear instability that may arise in the dead-zones of protostellar disks, and possibly the fluid interiors of planets and protoplanets. In essence it is an axisymmetric buoyancy instability, but one that would not be present in a purely hydrodynamical gas. The necessary ingredients for growth include a negative radial entropy gradient (of any magnitude), weak magnetic fields, and efficient resistive diffusion (in comparison with thermal diffusion). The character of the instability is local, axisymmetric, and double-diffusive, and it attacks lengths much shorter than the resistive scale. Like the axisymmetric convective instability, it draws its energy from the negative radial entropy gradient; but by utilising the diffusing magnetic field, it can negate the stabilising influence of rotation. Its nonlinear saturated state, while not transporting appreciable angular momentum, could drive radial and vertical mixing, which may influence the temperature structure of the disk, dust dynamics and,...

  2. Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Feedback, Star Formation Efficiency, and Outflow Broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional axially symmetric radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to assess the impact of outflows and radiative force feedback from massive protostars by varying when the protostellar outflow starts, the ratio of ejection to accretion rates, and the strength of the wide angle disk wind component. The star formation efficiency, i.e. the ratio of final stellar mass to initial core mass, is dominated by radiative forces and the ratio of outflow to accretion rates. Increasing this ratio has three effects: First, the protostar grows slower with a lower luminosity at any given time, lowering radiative feedback. Second, bipolar cavities cleared by the outflow are larger, further diminishing radiative feedback on disk and core scales. Third, the higher momentum outflow sweeps up more material from the collapsing envelope, decreasing the protostar's potential mass reservoir via entrainment. The star formation efficiency varies with the ratio of ejection to accretion rates from 50% in the case of very we...

  3. Dynamo magnetic field-induced angular momentum transport in protostellar nebulae - The 'minimum mass' protosolar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic torques can produce angular momentum redistribution in protostellar nebulas. Dynamo magnetic fields can be generated in differentially rotating and turbulent nebulas and can be the source of magnetic torques that transfer angular momentum from a protostar to a disk, as well as redistribute angular momentum within a disk. A magnetic field strength of 100-1000 G is needed to transport the major part of a protostar's angular momentum into a surrounding disk in a time characteristic of star formation, thus allowing formation of a solar-system size protoplanetary nebula in the usual 'minimum-mass' model of the protosolar nebula. This paper examines the possibility that a dynamo magnetic field could have induced the needed angular momentum transport from the proto-Sun to the protoplanetary nebula.

  4. Dynamo magnetic field-induced angular momentum transport in protostellar nebulae - The minimum mass protosolar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.F.; Levy, E.H. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Magnetic torques can produce angular momentum redistribution in protostellar nebulas. Dynamo magnetic fields can be generated in differentially rotating and turbulent nebulas and can be the source of magnetic torques that transfer angular momentum from a protostar to a disk, as well as redistribute angular momentum within a disk. A magnetic field strength of 100-1000 G is needed to transport the major part of a protostar's angular momentum into a surrounding disk in a time characteristic of star formation, thus allowing formation of a solar-system size protoplanetary nebula in the usual minimum-mass model of the protosolar nebula. This paper examines the possibility that a dynamo magnetic field could have induced the needed angular momentum transport from the proto-Sun to the protoplanetary nebula. 32 refs.

  5. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    CERN Document Server

    Taquet, Vianney; Sipilä, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed towards prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed towards low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimension model of collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H$_2$ and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation towards the surface. The differentiation...

  6. Piezoelectric actuator for pulsating jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Michel; Gonnard, Paul; Bera, Jean-Christophe; Sunyach, Michel

    2000-08-01

    Recent researches in aeronautics showed that fluidic actuator systems could offer possibilities for drag reduction and lift improvement. To this end many actuator types were designed. This paper deals with the design, fabrication and test of piezoelectric actuator in order to generate pulsated jets normal to a surface and control air flow separation. It is based on the flexural displacement of a rectangular metal plate clamped on one of its large edge. Piezoelectric patches cemented on the plate were used for driving into vibration the actuator. Experimental measurements show that pulsed flow velocities are adjustable from 1.5m/s to 35m/s through a 100x1mm2 slit andwithin a 100 to 400 Hz frequency range. Prototype provides the jet performances classically required for active control flow.

  7. Centrifugally driven winds from protostellar accretion discs - I. Formulation and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, C. A.; Salmeron, R.; Federrath, C.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    Protostellar discs play an important role in star formation, acting as the primary mass reservoir for accretion on to young stars and regulating the extent to which angular momentum and gas is released back into stellar nurseries through the launching of powerful disc winds. In this study, we explore how disc structure relates to the properties of the wind-launching region, mapping out the regions of protostellar discs where wind launching could be viable. We combine a series of 1.5D semi-analytic, steady-state, vertical disc-wind solutions into a radially extended 1+1.5D model, incorporating all three diffusion mechanisms (Ohm, Hall and ambipolar). We observe that the majority of mass outflow via disc winds occurs over a radial width of a fraction of an astronomical unit, with outflow rates attenuating rapidly on either side. We also find that the mass accretion rate, magnetic field strength and surface density profile each have significant effects on both the location of the wind-launching region and the ejection/accretion ratio \\dot{M}_out/\\dot{M}_in. Increasing either the accretion rate or the magnetic field strength corresponds to a shift of the wind-launching region to smaller radii and a decrease in \\dot{M}_out/\\dot{M}_in, while increasing the surface density corresponds to launching regions at larger radii with increased \\dot{M}_out/\\dot{M}_in. Finally, we discover a class of disc winds containing an ineffective launching configuration at intermediate radii, leading to two radially separated regions of wind launching and diminished \\dot{M}_out/\\dot{M}_in. We find that the wind locations and ejection/accretion ratio are consistent with current observational and theoretical estimates.

  8. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Constraining Protostellar Models with Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; HOPS Team

    2013-01-01

    During the protostellar stage of star formation, a young star is surrounded by a large infalling envelope of dust and gas; the material falls onto a circumstellar disk and is eventually accreted by the central star. The dust in the disk and envelope emits prominently at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths; at 10 micron, absorption by small silicate grains causes a broad absorption feature. By modeling the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostars, properties of their disks and envelopes can be derived; in particular, mid-IR spectroscopy reveals the detailed emission around the silicate absorption feature and thus provides additional constraints for the models. Here we present results from modeling a sample of protostars in the Orion star-forming region that were observed as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). These protostars represent a subsample of HOPS; they have Spitzer/IRS spectra, which cover the mid-IR SED from 5 to 35 micron, and photometry in the near-IR (2MASS), mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS), and far-IR (Herschel/PACS). We show the importance of adding Spitzer/IRS spectra with appropriate weights in determining the best fit to the SED from a large grid of protostellar models. The 10 micron silicate absorption feature and the mid- to far-IR SED slope provide key constraints for the inclination angle of the object and its envelope density, with a deep absorption feature and steep SED slope for the most embedded and highly inclined objects. We show a few examples that illustrate our SED fitting method and present preliminary results from our fits.

  9. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Constraining Protostellar Models with Near- to Far-Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Ali, Babar; Fischer, Will; Tobin, John; Stutz, Amy; Megeath, Tom; Allen, Lori; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    During the protostellar stage of star formation, a young star is surrounded by a large infalling envelope of dust and gas; the material falls onto a circumstellar disk and is eventually accreted by the central star. The dust in the disk and envelope emits prominently at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths; at 10 micron, absorption by small silicate grains typically causes a broad absorption feature. By modeling the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostars, properties of their disks and envelopes can be derived. As part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS; PI: S. T. Megeath), we have observed a large sample of protostars in the Orion star-forming complex at 70 and 160 micron with the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. For most objects, we also have photometry in the near-IR (2MASS), mid-IR (Spitzer/ IRAC and MIPS), at 100 micron (PACS data from the Gould Belt Survey), sub-mm (APEX/SABOCA and LABOCA), and mid-infrared spectra (Spitzer/IRS). For the interpretation of the SEDs, we have constructed a large grid of protostellar models using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Here we present our SED fitting techniques to determine the best-fit model for each object. We show the importance of including IRS spectra with appropriate weights, in addition to the constraints provided by the PACS measurements, which probe the peak of the SED. The 10 micron silicate absorption feature and the mid- to far-IR SED slope provide key constraints for the inclination angle of the object and its envelope density, with a deep absorption feature and steep SED slope for the most embedded and highly inclined objects. We show a few examples that illustrate our SED fitting method and present some preliminary results from our fits.

  10. The role of angular momentum transport in establishing the accretion rate-protostellar mass correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Alexander L.; Basu, Shantanu

    2017-02-01

    We model the mass accretion rate M˙ to stellar mass M* correlation that has been inferred from observations of intermediate to upper mass T Tauri stars-that is M˙ ∝ M*1.3±0.3. We explain this correlation within the framework of quiescent disk evolution, in which accretion is driven largely by gravitational torques acting in the bulk of the mass and volume of the disk. Stresses within the disk arise from the action of gravitationally driven torques parameterized in our 1D model in terms of Toomre's Q criterion. We do not model the hot inner sub-AU scale region of the disk that is likely stable according to this criterion, and appeal to other mechanisms to remove or redistribute angular momentum and allow accretion onto the star. Our model has the advantage of agreeing with large-scale angle-averaged values from more complex nonaxisymmetric calculations. The model disk transitions from an early phase (dominated by initial conditions inherited from the burst mode of accretion) into a later self-similar mode characterized by a steeper temporal decline in M˙. The models effectively reproduce the spread in mass accretion rates that have been observed for protostellar objects of 0.2 M⊙ ≤ M* ≤ 3.0 M⊙, such as those found in the ρ Ophiuchus and Taurus star forming regions. We then compare realistically sampled populations of young stellar objects produced by our model to their observational counterparts. We find these populations to be statistically coincident, which we argue is evidence for the role of gravitational torques in the late time evolution of quiescent protostellar disks.

  11. Jet multiplicity in the proto-binary system NGC1333-IRAS4A. The detailed CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI view

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, G; Cabrit, S; Maury, A J; Gueth, F; Maret, S; Lefloch, B; Belloche, A; André, Ph; Hennebelle, P; Anderl, S; Podio, L; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the paucity of sub-arcsecond (sub)mm observations required to probe the innermost regions of newly forming protostars, several fundamental questions are still being debated, such as the existence and coevality of close multiple systems. We study the physical and chemical properties of the jets and protostellar sources in the NGC1333-IRAS4A proto-binary system using continuum emission and molecular tracers of shocked gas. We observed NGC1333-IRAS4A in the SiO(6-5), SO(6_5-5_4), and CO(2-1) lines and the continuum emission at 1.3, 1.4, and 3 mm using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the framework of the CALYPSO large program. We clearly disentangle for the first time the outflow emission from the two sources A1 and A2. The two protostellar jets have very different properties: the A1 jet is faster, has a short dynamical timescale (<10^3 yr), and is associated with H2 shocked emission, whereas the A2 jet, which dominates the large-scale emission, is associated with diffuse emission, bends, a...

  12. The Giant Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Arnone, E.; Zanotti, F.; Cummer, S.; Li, J.; Füllekrug, M.; van der Velde, O.

    2012-04-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets - the longest electric discharges on our planet. The electric properties of jets, such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized by measurements. Here we present an analysis of the first gigantic jet that with certainty has a positive polarity. The jet region in the mesosphere was illuminated by an unusual sprite discharge generated by a positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash shortly after the onset of the jet. The sprite appeared with elements in a ring at ~40 km distance around the jet, the elements pointing curving away from the jet. This suggests that the field close the jet partially cancels the field driving the sprite. From a simple model of the event we conclude that a substantial portion of the positive cloud potential must be carried to ~50 km altitude, which is also consistent with the observed channel expansion and the electromagnetic radiation associated with the jet. It is further shown that blue jets are likely to substantially modify the free electron content in the lower ionosphere because of increased electron attachment driven by the jet electric field. The model further makes clear the relationship between jets, gigantic jets, and sprites. This is the first time that sprites are used for sounding the properties of the mesosphere. The observations presented here will allow evaluation of theories for jet and gigantic jet generation and of their influence on the atmosphere-ionosphere system.

  13. Overview of the JET results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanelli, F.; Abhangi, M.; Abreu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the installation of an ITER-like wall, the JET programme has focused on the consolidation of ITER design choices and the preparation for ITER operation, with a specific emphasis given to the bulk tungsten melt experiment, which has been crucial for the final decision on the material choice...... for the day-one tungsten divertor in ITER. Integrated scenarios have been progressed with the re-establishment of long-pulse, high-confinement H-modes by optimizing the magnetic configuration and the use of ICRH to avoid tungsten impurity accumulation. Stationary discharges with detached divertor conditions...

  14. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core. The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; Caux, E.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Wakelam, V.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lanza, M.; Lique, F.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Lis, D. C.; Caballero, R. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H2 hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. Results: A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9 × 10-11, a factor of only 10-3 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Conclusions: Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of ≲10-10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the [35Cl]/[37Cl] ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2 ± 0.1, consistent with the solar system value. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Discovery of the Youngest Molecular Outflow associated with an Intermediate-mass protostellar Core, MMS-6/OMC-3

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe (~1500 AU) associated with MMS6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical time scale of this outflow is estimated to be <100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow ({\\Delta}v~25 km s^{-1}), and clearly shows the bow-shock type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass (~10^{-4} M_{sun}) and outflow size are approximately 2-4 orders and 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller, while the outflow force (~10^{-4} M_{sun} km s^{-1} yr^{-1}) is similar, as compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest e...

  16. Experimental Characterization of the Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di; Li, Yinghong; Jia, Min; Song, Huimin; Cui, Wei; Sun, Quan; Li, Fanyu

    2013-10-01

    The plasma synthetic jet is a novel active flow control method because of advantages such as fast response, high frequency and non-moving parts, and it has received more attention recently, especially regarding its application to high-speed flow control. In this paper, the experimental characterization of the plasma synthetic jet actuator is investigated. The actuator consists of a copper anode, a tungsten cathode and a ceramic shell, and with these three parts a cavity can be formed inside the actuator. A pulsed-DC power supply was adopted to generate the arc plasma between the electrodes, through which the gas inside was heated and expanded from the orifice. Discharge parameters such as voltage and current were recorded, respectively, by voltage and current probes. The schlieren system was used for flow visualization, and jet velocities with different discharge parameters were measured. The schlieren images showed that the strength of plasma jets in a series of pulses varies from each other. Through velocity measurement, it is found that at a fixed frequency, the jet velocity hardly increases when the discharge voltage ranges from 16 kV to 20 kV. However, with the discharge voltage fixed, the jet velocity suddenly decreases when the pulse frequency rises above 500 Hz, whereas at other testing frequencies no such decrease was observed. The maximum jet velocity measured in the experiment was up to 110 m/s, which is believed to be effective for high-speed flow control.

  17. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  18. Comparing Poynting flux dominated magnetic tower jets with kinetic-energy dominated jets

    CERN Document Server

    Huarte-Espinosa, Martín; Blackman, Eric G; Ciardi, Andrea; Hartigan, Patrick M; Lebedev, Sergey; Chittenden, Jeremy P

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Towers represent one of two fundamental forms of MHD outflows. Driven by magnetic pressure gradients, these flows have been less well studied than magneto-centrifugally launched jets even though magnetic towers may well be as common. Here we present new results exploring the behavior and evolution of magnetic tower outflows and demonstrate their connection with pulsed power experimental studies and purely hydrodynamic jets which might represent the asymptotic propagation regimes of magneto-centrifugally launched jets. High-resolution AMR MHD simulations (using the AstroBEAR code) provide insights into the underlying physics of magnetic towers and help us constrain models of their propagation. Our simulations have been designed to explore the effects of thermal energy losses and rotation on both tower flows and their hydro counterparts. We find these parameters have significant effects on the stability of magnetic towers, but mild effects on the stability of hydro jets. Current-driven perturbations in...

  19. ALMA SiO (5-4) Observations: Protostellar Outflows near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H. A.; Lis, D. C.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Whitney, B.; Wootten, A.

    2013-06-01

    ALMA observations of the Galactic center resulted in the detection of a number of SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas in the 2-pc molecular ring orbiting Sgr A*. Eleven clumps of SiO (5-4) are also found within 0.6pc (15'') of Sgr A*. The three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities of ~150 km/s and broadest asymmetric linewidths with full width zero intensity (FWZI) 110-147 km/s. Other clumps beyond the inner 15'' show narrow linewidths (FWZI ~18-56 km/s. Using CARMA SiO (2-1) data, LVG modeling of the broad velocity clumps, constrain the H2 gas density (3-9)x10^5 cm^-3 for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200K. The SiO clumps combined with evidence of YSO candidates are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 10^4-10^5 years. Star formation near Sgr A* is forbidden, unless the gas density is large enough for self-gravity to overcome the strong tidal shear of the back hole. We discuss different mechanisms that increase the gas density so that star formation can take place in this tidally stressed environment.

  20. Energetic radiation and the sulfur chemistry of protostellar envelopes: Submillimeter interferometry of AFGL 2591

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, A O; Bourke, T L; vanderTak, F F S; Van Dishoeck, E F; Jørgensen, J K

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The chemistry in the inner few thousand AU of accreting envelopes around young stellar objects is predicted to vary greatly with far-UV and X-ray irradiation by the central star. Aim We search for molecular tracers of high-energy irradiation by the protostar in the hot inner envelope. METHODS: The Submillimeter Array (SMA) has observed the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591 in lines of CS, SO, HCN, HCN(v2=1), and HC15N with 0.6" resolution at 350 GHz probing radial scales of 600-3500 AU for an assumed distance of 1 kpc. The SMA observations are compared with the predictions of a chemical model fitted to previous single-dish observations. RESULTS: The CS and SO main peaks are extended in space at the FWHM level, as predicted in the model assuming protostellar X-rays. However, the main peak sizes are found smaller than modeled by nearly a factor of 2. On the other hand, the lines of CS, HCN, and HC15N, but not SO and HCN(v2=1), show pedestal emissions at radii of about 3500 AU that are not predict...

  1. The Herschel-HIFI view of mid-IR quiet massive protostellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Braine, J; van der Tak, F; Wyrowski, F; van Dishoeck, E F; Baudry, A; Bontemps, S; Kristensen, L; Schmalzl, M; Mata, J

    2016-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations (WISH KP) of 14 water lines in a small sample of galactic massive protostellar objects: NGC6334I(N), DR21(OH), IRAS16272-4837, and IRAS05358+3543. We analyze the gas dynamics from the line profiles. Through modeling of the observations using RATRAN, we estimate outflow, infall, turbulent velocities, molecular abundances, and investigate any correlation with the evolutionary status of each source. The molecular line profiles exhibit a broad component coming from the shocks along the cavity walls associated with the protostars, and an infalling (or expansion for IRAS05358+3543) and passively heated envelope component, with highly supersonic turbulence likely increasing with the distance from the center. Accretion rates between 6.3 10^{-5} and 5.6 10^{-4} \\msun yr^{-1} are derived from the infall observed in three of our sources. The outer water abundance is estimated to be at the typical value of a few 10^{-8} while the inner abundance varies from 1.7 10^{-6} to 1.4 10^{-4}...

  2. From Prestellar to Protostellar Cores II. Time Dependence and Deuterium Fractionation

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, Yuri; Hersant, Franck; Garrod, Robin T; Herbst, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from a dense-cloud core to a protostellar core, by solving a gas-grain reaction network applied to a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels. Spatial distributions of gas and ice-mantle species are calculated at the first-core stage, and at times after the birth of a protostar. Gas-phase methanol and methane are more abundant than CO at radii $r\\lesssim 100$ AU in the first-core stage, but gradually decrease with time, while abundances of larger organic species increase. The warm-up phase, when complex organic molecules are efficiently formed, is longer-lived for those fluid parcels in-falling at later stages. The formation of unsaturated carbon chains (warm carbon-chain chemistry) is also more effective in later stages; C$^+$, which reacts with CH$_4$ to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are stro...

  3. Molecules with a peptide link in protostellar shocks: a comprehensive study of L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; López-Sepulcre, A; Ceccarelli, C; Codella, C; Boechat-Roberty, H M; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar molecules with a peptide link -NH-C(=O)-, like formamide (NH$_2$CHO), acetamide (NH$_2$COCH$_3$) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) are particularly interesting for their potential role in pre-biotic chemistry. We have studied their emission in the protostellar shock regions L1157-B1 and L1157-B2, with the IRAM 30m telescope, as part of the ASAI Large Program. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with B1 and B2. Molecular abundance of $\\approx~(0.4-1.1)\\times 10^{-8}$ and $(3.3-8.8)\\times 10^{-8}$ are derived for formamide and isocyanic acid, respectively, from a simple rotational diagram analysis. Conversely, NH$_2$COCH$_3$ was not detected down to a relative abundance of a few $\\leq 10^{-10}$. B1 and B2 appear to be among the richest Galactic sources of HNCO and NH$_2$CHO molecules. A tight linear correlation between their abundances is observed, suggesting that the two species are chemically related. Comparison with astrochemical models favou...

  4. On the Origin of C4H and CH3OH in Protostellar Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.

    2016-12-01

    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We present here observations of C4H and CH3OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C4H and CH3OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C4H and CH3OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C4H and CH3OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH3OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high (˜70-100 K) temperatures and the C4H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH4 molecules have been liberated from ices. These results provide insight in the differentiation between hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry in embedded protostars. Based on observations with the Kitt Peak 12 m telescope telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The Kitt Peak 12 m telescope is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  5. IRAS 16293-2422: Evidence for Infall onto a Counter-Rotating Protostellar Accretion Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Remijan, A J; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution VLA observations of the low-mass star-forming region IRAS 16293-2422 using four molecular probes: ethyl cyanide (CH$_3$CH$_2$CN), methyl formate (CH$_3$OCHO), formic acid (HCOOH), and the ground vibrational state of silicon monoxide (SiO). Ethyl cyanide emiss ion has a spatial scale of $\\sim20''$ and encompasses binary cores A and B as determined by continuum emission peaks. Surrounded by formic acid emission, methyl formate emission has a spatial scale of $\\sim6''$and is confined to core B. SiO emission shows two velocity components with spatial scales less than 2$''$ that map $\\sim2''$ northeast of the A and B symmetry axis. The redshifted SiO is $\\sim2''$ northwest of blueshifted SiO along a position angle of $\\sim135^o$ which is approximately parallel to the A and B symmetry axis. We interpret the spatial position offset in red and blueshifted SiO emission as due to rotation of a protostellar accretion disk and we derive $\\sim$1.4 M$_{\\odot}$ interior to the SiO emission....

  6. A Spitzer-IRS Detection of Crystalline Silicates in a Protostellar Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Poteet, Charles A; Watson, Dan M; Calvet, Nuria; Remming, Ian S; McClure, Melissa K; Sargent, Benjamin A; Fischer, William J; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori E; Bjorkman, Jon E; Hartmann, Lee; Muzerolle, James; Tobin, John J; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the Orion A protostar HOPS-68. The mid-infrared spectrum reveals crystalline substructure at 11.1, 16.1, 18.8, 23.6, 27.9, and 33.6 microns superimposed on the broad 9.7 and 18 micron amorphous silicate features; the substructure is well matched by the presence of the olivine end-member forsterite. Crystalline silicates are often observed as infrared emission features around the circumstellar disks of Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars. However, this is the first unambiguous detection of crystalline silicate absorption in a cold, infalling, protostellar envelope. We estimate the crystalline mass fraction along the line-of-sight by first assuming that the crystalline silicates are located in a cold absorbing screen and secondly by utilizing radiative transfer models. The resulting crystalline mass fractions of 0.14 and 0.17, respectively, are significantly greater than the upper limit found in the interstellar medium (< 0.02-0.05). W...

  7. Identifying and analysing protostellar disc fragments in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cassandra; Forgan, Duncan; Rice, Ken

    2017-09-01

    We present a new method of identifying protostellar disc fragments in a simulation based on density derivatives, and analyse our data using this and the existing CLUMPFIND method, which is based on an ordered search over all particles in gravitational potential energy. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, we carry out nine simulations of a 0.25 M⊙ disc around a 1 M⊙ star, all of which fragment to form at least two bound objects. We find that when using all particles ordered in gravitational potential space, only fragments that survive the duration of the simulation are detected. When we use the density derivative method, all fragments are detected, so the two methods are complementary, as using the two methods together allows us to identify all fragments, and to then determine those that are likely to be destroyed. We find a tentative empirical relationship between the dominant azimuthal wavenumber in the disc m and the maximum semimajor axis a fragment may achieve in a simulation, such that amax∝1/m. We find the fragment destruction rate to be around half that predicted from population synthesis models. This is due to fragment-fragment interactions in the early gas phase of the disc, which can cause scattering and eccentricity pumping on short time-scales, and affects the fragment's internal structure. We therefore caution that measurements of eccentricity as a function of semimajor axis may not necessarily constrain the formation mechanism of giant planets and brown dwarfs.

  8. Simulations of protostellar collapse using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. II. The second collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Vaytet, N; Audit, E; Commercon, B; Masson, J; Ferguson, J; Delahaye, F

    2013-01-01

    Star formation begins with the gravitational collapse of a dense core inside a molecular cloud. As the collapse progresses, the centre of the core begins to heat up as it becomes optically thick. The temperature and density in the centre eventually reach high enough values where fusion reactions can ignite; the protostar is born. This sequence of events entail many physical processes, of which radiative transfer is of paramount importance. Many simulations of protostellar collapse make use of a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, interstellar gas and dust opacities present large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we follow-up on a previous paper on the collapse and formation of Larson's first core using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics (Paper I) by extending the calculations to the second phase of the collapse and the formation of Larson's second core. We have made the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state as well as an extensive set of spectral ...

  9. The instability of viscous self-gravitating protostellar disk affected by density bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Mahjubeh; Nejad-Asghar, Mohsen

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we study the instability of viscous self-gravitating protostellar disk affected by infalling Low-mass condensations (LMCs) from the envelope of collapsing molecular cloud cores. The infalling low-mass-condensations (LMCs) are considered as density bumps through the nearly Keplerian viscous accretion disk, and their evolutions are analyzed by using the linear perturbation approximation. We investigate occurrence of instability in the evolution of these density bumps. We find the unstable regions of the bumped accretion disk and evaluate the growth time scale (GTS) of the instability. We also study the radial accretion and azimuthal rotation in these unstable regions. The results show that the GTS will be minimum at a special radius so that the unstable regions can be divided in two parts (inner and outer regions). The perturbed radial and azimuthal velocities in the inner unstable regions are strengthened, while in the outer unstable regions are weakened. Decreasing the radial and azimuthal velocities in the outer unstable regions may lead to coagulation of matters. This effect can help the fragmentation of the disk and formation of the self-gravitating bound objects.

  10. VLTI/MIDI Observations of the Massive Protostellar Candidate NGC 3603 IRS 9A

    CERN Document Server

    Vehoff, Stefan; Hummel, Christian A; Duschl, Wolfgang J

    2007-01-01

    We used MIDI, the mid-infrared interferometric instrument of the VLTI, to observe the massive protostellar candidate IRS 9A, located at a distance of about 7 kpc at the periphery of the NGC 3603 star cluster. Our ongoing analysis shows that MIDI almost fully resolves the object on all observed baselines, yet below 9 $\\mu$m we detect a steep rise of the visibility. This feature is modelled as a combination of a compact hot component and a resolved warm envelope which lowers the correlated flux at longer wavelengths. The extended envelope can already be seen in both MIDI's acquisition images and in complementary data from aperture masking observations at the Gemini South telescope. Its shape is asymmetric, which could indicate a circumstellar disk inclined against the line of sight. The compact component is possibly related to the inner edge of this (accretion) disk. The uncorrelated mid-infrared spectrum appears featureless and could be caused by optically thick emission without a significant contribution from...

  11. A Self-Perpetuating Catalyst for the Production of Complex Organic Molecules in Protostellar Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. Many mechanisms may contribute to the total organic content in protostellar nebulae, ranging from organics formed via ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the cold dark clouds from which such nebulae collapse, to similar ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the dark regions of the nebula far from the proto star, to gas phase reactions in sub-nebulae around growing giant planets and in the nebulae themselves. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. The Haber-Bosch catalytic reduction of N2 by hydrogen was thought to produce the reduced nitrogen found in meteorites. However, the clean iron metal surfaces that catalyze these reactions are easily poisoned via reaction with any number of molecules, including the very same complex organics that they produce and both reactions work more efficiently in the hot regions of the nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Although none work as well as pure iron grains, and all produce a wide range of organic products rather than just pure methane, these materials are not truly catalysts.

  12. The end of star formation in Chamaeleon I ? A LABOCA census of starless and protostellar cores

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Parise, B; André, Ph; Hatchell, J; Jørgensen, J K; Bontemps, S; Weiß, A; Menten, K M; Muders, D; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015733

    2011-01-01

    Chamaeleon I is the most active region in terms of star formation in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud complex. Its population of prestellar and protostellar cores is not known and a controversy exists concerning its history of star formation. Our goal is to characterize the earliest stages of star formation in this cloud. We used the bolometer array LABOCA at APEX to map the cloud in dust continuum emission at 870 micron. The detected sources are analysed by carefully taking into account the spatial filtering inherent in the data reduction process. A search for associations with YSOs is performed using Spitzer data and the SIMBAD database. Most of the detected 870 micron emission is distributed in 5 filaments. We identify 59 starless cores, one candidate first hydrostatic core, and 21 sources associated with more evolved YSOs. The starless cores are only found above a visual extinction threshold of 5 mag. They are less dense than those detected in other nearby molecular clouds by a factor of a few on average. T...

  13. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of SMSs is a potential pathway to seed SMBHs in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity under conditions of realistic variable accretion from a self-gravitating circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the long-term protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds $10^4~M_\\odot$. The disc fragments due to gravitational instability, creating a number of small clumps that rapidly migrate inward to fall onto the star. The resulting accretion history is thus highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer, relative quiescent phases. We show that the circumstellar disc for the so-called direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability over shorter timescales than normal Pop III cases. We conduct a post-process stellar evolution calculati...

  14. On the origin of C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH in protostellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Cordiner, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We here present observations of C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH$_3$OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high ($\\sim$70-100 K) temperatures, and the C$_4$H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH$_4$ molecules have been liberat...

  15. Evolution of CO lines in time-dependent models of protostellar disk formation

    CERN Document Server

    Harsono, Daniel; Bruderer, Simon; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Kristensen, Lars E

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) Star and planet formation theories predict an evolution in the density, temperature, and velocity structure as the envelope collapses and forms an accretion disk. The aim of this work is to model the evolution of the molecular excitation, line profiles, and related observables during low-mass star formation. Specifically, the signatures of disks during the deeply embedded stage are investigated. Semi-analytic 2D axisymmetric models have been used to describe the evolution of the density, stellar mass, and luminosity from the pre-stellar to the T-Tauri phase. A full radiative transfer calculation is carried out to accurately determine the time-dependent dust temperatures and CO abundance structure. We present non-LTE near-IR, FIR, and submm lines of CO have been simulated at a number of time steps. In contrast to the dust temperature, the CO excitation temperature derived from submm/FIR lines does not vary during the protostellar evolution, consistent with C18O observations obtained with Herschel an...

  16. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Umurhan, Orkan M

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of...

  17. The role of cosmic rays on magnetic field diffusion and the formation of protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Joos, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The formation of protostellar discs is severely hampered by magnetic braking, as long as magnetic fields remain frozen in the gas. The latter condition depends on the levels of ionisation that characterise the innermost regions of a collapsing cloud. The chemistry of dense cloud cores and, in particular, the ionisation fraction is largely controlled by cosmic rays. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the attenuation of the flux of cosmic rays expected in the regions around a forming protostar is sufficient to decouple the field from the gas, thereby influencing the formation of centrifugally supported disc. We adopted the method developed in a former study to compute the attenuation of the cosmic-ray flux as a function of the column density and the field strength in clouds threaded by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. We applied this formalism to models of low- and high-mass star formation extracted from numerical simulations of gravitational collapse that include rotation and turbulence. For ea...

  18. Cosmic-ray propagation at small scale: a support for protostellar disc formation

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Hennebelle, Patrick; Commercon, Benoît; Joos, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As long as magnetic fields remain frozen into the gas, the magnetic braking prevents the formation of protostellar discs. This condition is subordinate to the ionisation fraction characterising the inmost parts of a collapsing cloud. The ionisation level is established by the number and the energy of the cosmic rays able to reach these regions. Adopting the method developed in our previous studies, we computed how cosmic rays are attenuated as a function of column density and magnetic field strength. We applied our formalism to low- and high-mass star formation models obtained by numerical simulations of gravitational collapse that include rotation and turbulence. In general, we found that the decoupling between gas and magnetic fields, condition allowing the collapse to go ahead, occurs only when the cosmic-ray attenuation is taken into account with respect to a calculation in which the cosmic-ray ionisation rate is kept constant. We also found that the extent of the decoupling zone also depends on the dust ...

  19. Deeply Embedded Protostellar Population in the 20 km s-1 Cloud of the Central Molecular Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xing; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Battersby, Cara; Gu, Qiusheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates in the 20 km s$^{-1}$ cloud, one of the massive molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way, using interferometric submillimeter continuum and H$_2$O maser observations. The submillimeter continuum emission shows five 1-pc scale clumps, each of which further fragments into several 0.1-pc scale cores. We identify 17 dense cores, among which 12 are gravitationally bound. Among the 18 H$_2$O masers detected, 13 coincide with the cores and probably trace outflows emanating from the protostars. There are also 5 gravitationally bound dense cores without H$_2$O maser detection. In total the 13 masers and 5 cores may represent 18 protostars with spectral types later than B1 or potential growing more massive stars at earlier evolutionary stage, given the non-detection in the centimeter radio continuum. In combination with previous studies of CH$_3$OH masers, we conclude that the star formation in this cloud is ...

  20. Millimeter continuum observations of a massive protostellar core in Sagittarius B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, J.E.; Vogel, S.N.

    1989-02-01

    The Hat Creek interferometer has been used to map 3.4 mm continuum emission from Sgr B2 with 4.5 x 2 arcsec resolution. The fluxes of two of the detected sources are substantially higher at 3.4 mm than at 1.3 cm; both sources are coincident with centroids of water maser clusters to less than 1 arcsec. In one, the flux can be attributed to free emission with a turnover frequency greater than 23 GHz; in the other, 3.4 mm emission comes mainly from hot dust grains in a dense protostellar core containing two embedded ultracompact H II regions. The amount of molecular material within 0.1 pc of the embedded protostars is at least one order of magnitude greater than within 0.1 pc of any of the other dozen ultracompact H II regions in Sgr B2. The observations indicate that ultracompact H II regions are much more common than the dense cores from which they presumably form, and that they survive long after most of the surrounding gas has been dispersed by outflow. 21 references.

  1. Signatures of Young Planets in the Continuum Emission From Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) Many protostellar disks show central cavities, rings, or spiral arms that could be caused by low-mass stellar or planetary companions. Few of these features are yet conclusively tied to objects embedded in the disks, perhaps because of shortcomings in our understanding of what a disk interacting with a planet looks like at the wavelengths we observe. We approach these issues noting that even small features on the disk's surface cast shadows, because the starlight grazes the surface at low angles. We therefore focus on accurately computing the disk's thickness, and thus its temperature. The embedded planet has 20, 100, or 1000~M$_\\oplus$, ranging from barely enough to perturb the disk gas surface density significantly, to able to clear a deep tidal gap. We compare models that are in hydrostatic equilibrium in the vertical direction to models where the disk pressure scale height varies as a power of the orbital radius. The hydrostatic balance makes a large difference to the disk's temperature and app...

  2. The HIFI spectral survey of AFGL 2591 (CHESS). III. Chemical structure of the protostellar envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmierczak-Barthel, Maja; van der Tak, Floris; Chavarría, Luis; van der Wiel, Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    We aim to understand the rich chemical composition of AFGL 2591, a prototypical isolated high-mass star-forming region. Based on HIFI and JCMT data, the molecular abundances of species found in the protostellar envelope of AFGL 2591 were derived with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, assuming either constant values or 1D stepwise radial profiles as abundance distributions. The reconstructed 1D abundances were compared with the results of time-dependent gas-grain chemical modeling, considering ages of 10,000 to 50,000 years, cosmic-ray ionization rates of 0.5 to 50 times 10^-16 s^-1, uniformly-sized 0.1-1 micron dust grains, a dust/gas ratio of 1%, and several sets of initial molecular abundances with C/O 1. Constant abundance models give good fits to the data for CO, CN, CS, HCO+, H2CO, N2H+, C2H, NO, OCS, OH, H2CS, O, C, C+, and CH. Models with an abundance jump at 100 K give good fits to the data for NH3, SO, SO2, H2S, H2O, HCl, and CH3OH. For HCN and HNC, the best models have an abundance jum...

  3. Protostellar Disk Evolution Over Million-Year Timescales with a Prescription for Magnetized Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, Russell; Turner, Neal J; Abram, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the most promising mechanism behind accretion in low-mass protostellar disks. Here we present the first analysis of the global structure and evolution of non-ideal MRI-driven T-Tauri disks on million-year timescales. We accomplish this in a 1+1D simulation by calculating magnetic diffusivities and utilizing turbulence activity criteria to determine thermal structure and accretion rate without resorting to a 3-D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation. Our major findings are as follows. First, even for modest surface densities of just a few times the minimum-mass solar nebula, the dead zone encompasses the giant planet-forming region, preserving any compositional gradients. Second, the surface density of the active layer is nearly constant in time at roughly 10 g/cm2, which we use to derive a simple prescription for viscous heating in MRI-active disks for those who wish to avoid detailed MHD computations. Furthermore, unlike a standard disk with constant-alpha viscosity, t...

  4. Complex Scattered Radiation Fields and Multiple Magnetic Fields in the Protostellar Cluster in NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Jungmi; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya; Hough, James H; Werner, Michael W; Teixeira, Paula S

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared (IR) imaging polarimetry in the J, H, and Ks bands has been carried out for the protostellar cluster region around NGC 2264 IRS 2 in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud. Various infrared reflection nebulae clusters (IRNCs) associated with NGC 2264 IRS 2 and IRAS 12 S1 core were detected as well as local infrared reflection nebulae (IRNe). The illuminating sources of the IRNe were identified with known or new near- and mid-IR sources. In addition, 314 point-like sources were detected in all three bands and their aperture polarimetry was studied. Using a color-color diagram, reddened field stars and diskless pre-main sequence stars were selected to trace the magnetic field (MF) structure of the molecular cloud. The mean polarization position angle of the point-like sources is 81 \\pm 29 degree in the cluster core, and 58 \\pm 24 degree in the perimeter of the cluster core, which is interpreted as the projected direction on the sky of the MF in the observed region of the cloud. The Chandrasekhar-Fermi ...

  5. Modeling the magnetic field in the protostellar source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Jose; Girart, Josep M

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to play a crucial role in the process of star formation. We compare high-angular resolution observations of the submillimeter polarized emission of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, tracing the magnetic field around a low-mass protostar, with models of the collapse of magnetized molecular cloud cores. Assuming a uniform dust alignment efficiency, we computed the Stokes parameters and synthetic polarization maps from the model density and magnetic field distribution by integrations along the line-of-sight and convolution with the interferometric response. The synthetic maps are in good agreement with the data. The best-fitting models were obtained for a protostellar mass of 0.8 solar masses, of age 9e4 yr, formed in a cloud with an initial mass-to-flux ratio ~2 times the critical value. The magnetic field morphology in NGC 1333 IRAS 4A is consistent with the standard theoretical scenario for the formation of solar-type stars, where well-ordered, large-scale, rather than turbulent, magnetic fields ...

  6. A candidate protostellar object in the L 1457/MBM 12 cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heithausen, A.; Böttner, C.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: The association of young T Tauri stars, MBM 12A, indicates that L 1457 was forming stars not too long ago. With our study we want to find out whether there are still signs of ongoing star formation in that cloud. Methods: Using the Max-Planck-Millimeter-Bolometer MAMBO at the IRAM 30 m telescope, we obtained a map of about 8'×8' centered on L 1457 in the dust continuum emission at 230 GHz. Towards the most intense regions in our bolometer map, we obtained spectra at high angular resolution in the CS (2 → 1) and the N2H+ (1 → 0) lines using the IRAM 30 m telescope. Results: We find that the cold dust in L 1457 is concentrated in several small cores with high H2 column densities and solar masses. The density profiles of the cores are inconsistent with a sphere with constant density. These cores are closer to virial equilibrium than is the cloud as a whole. Data from the VLA and Spitzer archives reveal two point sources in the direction of one dust core. One of the sources is probably a distant quasar, whereas the other source is projected right on a local maximum of our dust map and shows characteristics of a protostellar object.

  7. Weak and compact radio emission in early massive star formation regions: an ionized jet toward G11.11–0.12P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; McCoy, M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Loinard, L.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ellingsen, S. P., E-mail: viviana@nmt.edu [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We report 1.3 cm and 6 cm continuum observations toward the massive proto-stellar candidate G11.11–0.12P1 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We detect a string of four unresolved radio continuum sources coincident with the mid-infrared source in G11P1. The continuum sources have positive spectral indices consistent with a thermal (free-free) ionized jet. The most likely origins of the ionized gas are shocks due to the interaction of a stellar wind with the surrounding high-density material. We also present NIR United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) archival data that show an extended structure detected only at K band (2.2 μm), which is oriented perpendicular to the jet, and that may be scattered light from a circumstellar disk around the massive protostar. Our observations plus the UKIRT archival data thus provide new evidence that a disk/jet system is present in the massive proto-stellar candidate located in the G11.11–0.12P1 core.

  8. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  9. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  10. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S C; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$...

  11. The JET Intershot Analysis: Current infrastructure and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, R., E-mail: richard.layne@ccfe.ac.u [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tessella plc, 26 The Quadrant, Abingdon Science Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3YS (United Kingdom); Cook, N. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tessella plc, 26 The Quadrant, Abingdon Science Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3YS (United Kingdom); Harting, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Institute for Energy Research IEF-4, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association Euratom-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Germany); McDonald, D.C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tidy, C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); University of Bath, Computer Science, BA2 7AY Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The JET Intershot Analysis (Chain1) generates processed data following a pulse. Maintaining the pulse repetition rate is one of JET's key success factors, so performance of Chain1 is crucial. This paper will describe JET's experience of managing Chain1, including a description of the control system used to ensure the analysis chain runs as quickly as possible, and a discussion of JET's experience of integrating externally developed codes into a standard analysis framework. The current Chain1 infrastructure was developed in 1999 and although reliable and efficient is starting to prove costly in terms of flexibility and extensibility to meet JET's current and future needs. For this reason JET is planning to re-implement the Chain1 system. The paper will outline the work done towards this aim, and present a model of the proposed new system. Finally, possible future steps towards an integrated data production chain for JET will be discussed, and the potential applicability to next generation fusion devices will be outlined.

  12. Probing changes of dust properties along a chain of solar-type prestellar and protostellar cores in Taurus with NIKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, A.; Palmeirim, P.; André, Ph.; Adam, R.; Ade, P.; Bacmann, A.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Didelon, P.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Könyves, V.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maury, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Motte, F.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Peretto, N.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Rigby, A.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Roy, A.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-08-01

    The characterization of dust properties in the interstellar medium is key for understanding the physics and chemistry of star formation. Mass estimates are crucial to determine gravitational collapse conditions for the birth of new stellar objects in molecular clouds. However, most of these estimates rely on dust models that need further observational constraints to capture the relevant parameter variations depending on the local environment: from clouds to prestellar and protostellar cores. We present results of a new study of dust emissivity changes based on millimeter continuum data obtained with the NIKA camera at the IRAM-30 m telescope. Observing dust emission at 1.15 mm and 2 mm allows us to constrain the dust emissivity index, β, in the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust spectral energy distribution far from its peak emission, where the contribution of other parameters (i.e. dust temperature) is more important. Focusing on the Taurus molecular cloud, one of the most famous low-mass star-forming regions in the Gould Belt, we analyze the emission properties of several distinct objects in the B213 filament. This subparsec-sized region is of particular interest since it is characterized by a collection ofevolutionary stages of early star formation: three prestellar cores, two Class 0/I protostellar cores and one Class II object. We are therefore able to compare dust properties among a sequence of sources that likely derive from the same parent filament. By means of the ratio of the two NIKA channel maps, we show that in the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation, βRJ varies among the objects: it decreases from prestellar cores (βRJ 2) to protostellar cores (βRJ 1) and the Class II object (βRJ 0). For one prestellar and two protostellar cores, we produce a robust study using available Herschel data to constrain the dust temperature of the sources. By using the Abel transform inversion technique we derive accurate radial temperature profiles that allow us to obtain

  13. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  14. BROAD N{sub 2}H{sup +} EMISSION TOWARD THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Caselli, P., E-mail: codella@rcetri.astro.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-10

    We present the first detection of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density of a few 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10{sup –9}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10{sup 4} yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N{sub 2}H{sup +} is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  15. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, R. K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Di Francesco, J. [National Research Council Canada, Radio Astronomy Program, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bourke, T. L. [Radio and Geoastronomy Division, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS-42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jørgensen, J. K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Pineda, J. E. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Wong, M., E-mail: friesen@dunlap.utoronto.ca [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ≲ 0.02 M {sub ☉} (∼20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ∼150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ∼ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Solar Spicule Jets at a Magnetic Null-Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, V.; Konkol, P. M.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Murawski, K.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of jet-like structures in the solar atmosphere are performed. These structures result from a pressure pulse that is launched at the null point of a potential magnetic arcade. The plasma jet exhibits a double structure with two components: (a) dense, cool, and short vertical stream and (b) a less dense, hot and tall part of the jet. The upper part of the hot and tall jet may represent a direct response of the system to the pressure pulse launched at the null point, and the second, slower cool and dense part of the jet is formed later through the stretching up of the stream as a result of plasma evacuation from the top of the magnetic arcade. Numerical results show that jet-like structures mimic some properties of both type I and type II spicules, according to the classification provided by De Pontieu et al. ( Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, S655, 2007).

  17. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  18. The nature of angular momentum transport in radiative self-gravitating protostellar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan; Rice, Ken; Cossins, Peter; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Semi-analytic models of self-gravitating discs often approximate the angular momentum transport generated by the gravitational instability using the phenomenology of viscosity. This allows the employment of the standard viscous evolution equations, and gives promising results. It is, however, still not clear when such an approximation is appropriate. This paper tests this approximation using high-resolution 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of self-gravitating protostellar discs with radiative transfer. The nature of angular momentum transport associated with the gravitational instability is characterized as a function of both the stellar mass and the disc-to-star mass ratio. The effective viscosity is calculated from the Reynolds and gravitational stresses in the disc. This is then compared to what would be expected if the effective viscosity were determined by assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium or, equivalently, that the local dissipation rate matches the local cooling rate. In general, all the discs considered here settle into a self-regulated state where the heating generated by the gravitational instability is modulated by the local radiative cooling. It is found that low-mass discs can indeed be represented by a local α-parametrization, provided that the disc aspect ratio is small (H/r≤ 0.1) which is generally the case when the disc-to-star mass ratio q≲ 0.5. However, this result does not extend to discs with masses approaching that of the central object. These are subject to transient burst events and global wave transport, and the effective viscosity is not well modelled by assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. In spite of these effects, it is shown that massive (compact) discs can remain stable and not fragment, evolving rapidly to reduce their disc-to-star mass ratios through stellar accretion and radial spreading.

  19. Complex Scattered Radiation Fields And Multiple Magnetic Fields In The Protostellar Cluster In NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, Jungmi; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakamura, F.; Nagayama, T.; Nagata, T.; Hough, J. H.; Werner, M. W.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared imaging polarimetry in the J, H, and Ks bands has been carried out for the protostellar cluster region around NGC 2264 IRS 2 in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud. Various infrared reflection nebula clusters (IRNCs) associated with NGC 2264 IRS 2 and the IRAS 12 S1 core, as well as local infrared reflection nebulae (IRNe), were detected. The illuminating sources of the IRNe were identified with known or new near- and mid-infrared sources. In addition, 314 point-like sources were detected in all three bands and their aperture polarimetry was studied. Using a color-color diagram, reddened field stars and diskless pre-main-sequence stars were selected to trace the magnetic field structure of the molecular cloud. The mean polarization position angle of the point-like sources is 80 degrees in the cluster core, and 60 degrees in the perimeter of the cluster core, which is interpreted as the projected direction on the sky of the magnetic field in the observed region of the cloud. The Chandrasekhar-Fermi method gives a rough estimate of the magnetic field strength to be about 100 micro-Gauss. A comparison with recent numerical simulations of the cluster formation implies that the cloud dynamics is controlled by the relatively strong magnetic field. The local magnetic field direction is well associated with that of CO outflow for IRAS 12 S1 and consistent with that inferred from submillimeter polarimetry. In contrast, the local magnetic field direction runs roughly perpendicular to the Galactic magnetic field direction.

  20. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  1. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of vorticity edge waves. The roles of both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq effects upon the stability and propagation of these waves with and without the inclusion of self-gravity are then quantified. The dynamics involved with self-gravity non- Boussinesq effect is shown to be a source of vorticity production where there is a jump in the basic state density, in addition, self-gravity also alters the dynamics via the radial main pressure gradient, which is a Boussinesq effect . Further applications of these mechanical insights are presented in the conclusion including the ways in which multiple density jumps or gaps may or may not be stable.

  2. 换向脉冲喷射电沉积制备Co-Cr3C2复合镀层的工艺探讨%Discussion on the Process for Preparing Co-Cr3C2 Composite Coatings by Reverse Pulse Jet-electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 谭俊; 吴迪; 兰龙

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To efficiently solve the problem that the coating surface prepared by DC jet-electrodeposition is quite rough, and the surface deterioration degree is particularly serious when the hard particle size reaches micron grade.Methods Reverse pulse current was applied in jet-electrodeposition instead of DC to prepare the Co-Cr3C2 composite coatings which the size of Cr3C2 reaching micron grade. Through analyzing the composite tissue morphology and testing hardness, wear resistance and other perfor-mance parameters, the effect of commutation pulse electrical parameters on the composite coating particle composite coating, the roughness of the coating and the coating performance were discussed, and the influencing mechanism was analyzed.Results Using pulse current to prepare Co-Cr3C2composite coating could improve the surface roughness while maintaining higher concentration of the particles. By controlling the pulse electric parameters, micron grade Co-Cr3C2 composite coating with particle content of up to 11% was prepared.ConclusionThe higher the Cr3C2 particle content in the composite coating, the better the coating performance, but the more rough the coating surface. The reversing of the reverse pulse current could lead to the inverse process of co-deposition. The usage of RPC could not only make the composite coating flat, but also improve the uniformity of particles dispersed in the composite coating, improving both the surface morphology and properties of the composite coating.%目的:有效解决利用喷射电沉积在直流电流下制备的复合镀层存在的镀层表面粗糙,尤其当硬质颗粒尺寸达到微米级时,表面恶化程度尤为严重的问题。方法将换向脉冲电流取代直流电流应用于喷射电沉积,制备颗粒尺寸达到微米级的Co-Cr3C2复合镀层,通过分析复合镀层组织形貌、硬度和耐磨性等,探讨换向脉冲电参数对复合镀层颗粒复合量、镀层表面粗糙

  3. TASI Lectures on Jet Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Jet physics is a rich and rapidly evolving field, with many applications to physics in and beyond the Standard Model. These notes, based on lectures delivered at the June 2012 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute, provide an introduction to jets at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics covered include sequential jet algorithms, jet shapes, jet grooming, and boosted Higgs and top tagging.

  4. Jet propagation and deceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Perucho, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Extragalactic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are divided into two morphological types, namely Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) and Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII). The former show decollimated structure at the kiloparsec scales and are thought to be decelerated by entrainment within the first kiloparsecs of evolution inside the host galaxy. The entrainment and deceleration can be, at least partly, due to the interaction of jets with stellar winds and gas clouds that enter in the jet as they orbit around the galactic centre. In this contribution, I review recent simulations to study the dynamic effect of entrainment from stellar winds in jets and the direct interaction of jets with gas clouds and stellar winds. I also briefly describe the importance of these interactions as a possible scenario of high-energy emission from extragalactic jets.

  5. What ignites optical jets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Jester

    2002-12-23

    The properties of radio galaxies and quasars with and without optical or X-ray jets are compared. The majority of jets from which high-frequency emission has been detected so far (13 with optical emission, 11 with X-rays, 13 with both) are associated with the most powerful radio sources at any given redshift. It is found that optical/X-ray jet sources are more strongly beamed than the average population of extragalactic radio sources. This suggests that the detection or non-detection of optical emission from jets has so far been dominated by surface brightness selection effects, not by jet physics. It implies that optical jets are much more common than is currently appreciated.

  6. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  7. Properties of gluon jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, K.

    1986-09-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed.

  8. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  9. Development of pulsating twin jets mechanism for mixing flow heat transfer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitan, Ali Ahmed; Zulkifli, Rozli; Abdullah, Shahrir; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.

  10. Magnetized laboratory plasma jets: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrafel, Peter; Bell, Kate; Greenly, John; Seyler, Charles; Kusse, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radial foils on a 1 M A , 100 n s current driver can be used to study the ablation of thin foils and liners, produce extreme conditions relevant to laboratory astrophysics, and aid in computational code validation. This research focuses on the initial ablation phase of a 20 μ m Al foil (8111 alloy), in a radial configuration, driven by Cornell University's COBRA pulsed power generator. In these experiments ablated surface plasma (ASP) on the top side of the foil and a strongly collimated axial plasma jet are observed developing midway through the current rise. With experimental and computational results this work gives a detailed description of the role of the ASP in the formation of the plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field. This ˜1 T field is applied by a Helmholtz-coil pair driven by a slow, 150 μ s current pulse and penetrates the load hardware before arrival of the COBRA pulse. Several effects of the applied magnetic field are observed: (1) without the field extreme-ultraviolet emission from the ASP shows considerable azimuthal asymmetry while with the field the ASP develops azimuthal motion that reduces this asymmetry, (2) this azimuthal motion slows the development of the jet when the field is applied, and (3) with the magnetic field the jet becomes less collimated and has a density minimum (hollowing) on the axis. PERSEUS, an XMHD code, has qualitatively and quantitatively reproduced all these experimental observations. The differences between this XMHD and an MHD code without a Hall current and inertial effects are discussed. In addition the PERSEUS results describe effects we were not able to resolve experimentally and suggest a line of future experiments with better diagnostics.

  11. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  12. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 陈明

    2001-01-01

    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  13. Overview of the JET results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, F.; JET Contributors,

    2015-10-01

    Since the installation of an ITER-like wall, the JET programme has focused on the consolidation of ITER design choices and the preparation for ITER operation, with a specific emphasis given to the bulk tungsten melt experiment, which has been crucial for the final decision on the material choice for the day-one tungsten divertor in ITER. Integrated scenarios have been progressed with the re-establishment of long-pulse, high-confinement H-modes by optimizing the magnetic configuration and the use of ICRH to avoid tungsten impurity accumulation. Stationary discharges with detached divertor conditions and small edge localized modes have been demonstrated by nitrogen seeding. The differences in confinement and pedestal behaviour before and after the ITER-like wall installation have been better characterized towards the development of high fusion yield scenarios in DT. Post-mortem analyses of the plasma-facing components have confirmed the previously reported low fuel retention obtained by gas balance and shown that the pattern of deposition within the divertor has changed significantly with respect to the JET carbon wall campaigns due to the absence of thermally activated chemical erosion of beryllium in contrast to carbon. Transport to remote areas is almost absent and two orders of magnitude less material is found in the divertor.

  14. Embedded protostellar disks around (sub-)solar stars. II. Disk masses, sizes, densities, temperatures and the planet formation perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2011-01-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 Msun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M_{d,C0}^{mean}=0.12 Msun, M_{d,C0}^{mdn}=0.09 Msun and M_{d,CI}^{mean}=0.18 Msun, M_{d,CI}^{mdn}=0.15 Msun, respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2--3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M_st=0.05-0.1 Msun. Concurrently, disk r...

  15. Driving Flows in Laboratory Astrophysical Plasma Jets: The Mochi.LabJet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Evan G.

    Mochi.Labjet is a new experiment at the University of Washington developed to investigate the interaction of shear flows in plasma jets with boundary conditions similar to an accretion disc system. This thesis details the engineering design and first plasmas of the Mochi.Labjet experiment. The experiment required construction of a new three electrode plasma gun with azimuthal symmetric gas injection, two optically-isolated pulsed power supplies for generating and sustaining plasma, and one optically-isolated pulsed power supply for generating a background magnetic field. Optical isolation is achieved with four custom circuits: the TTL-optical transmitter, optical-TTL receiver, optical-relay, and optical-tachometer circuits. First plasmas, during the commissioning phase of the apparatus, show evidence of flared jet structures with significant azimuthal symmetry.

  16. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  17. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  18. Gas Flow and Electric Field Characterization in Plasma Jets for Biomedical Applications: From Single Jet to Multi Jet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Eric

    2015-09-01

    This work reports first on time-resolved measurement of longitudinal and radial electric fields (EF) associated with plasma propagation in dielectric capillaries. Plasma propagation occurs in a region where longitudinal EF exists ahead the ionization front position revealed from plasma emission with ICCD measurement. The ionization front propagation induces the sudden rise of a radial EF component. Both of these EF components have a few kV/cm in amplitude for helium or neon plasmas. Their amplitude is kept almost constant along a few tens of cm long capillary. The key role of the voltage pulse polarity and the drastic impact of the presence of a target in front of the plasma jet are discussed from Schlieren images. All these experimental measurements are in excellent agreement with model calculations which are used to infer EF data on capillary axis. EF diagnostics in the plasma plume in the free jet mode but also in contact with various targets is proposed. The combination of intense transient EF, both of ns and µs duration, together with significant transient reactive species generation during plasma jet treatments may be reconsidered. Typical EF amplitudes likely to induce electrostimulation, electroporation are indeed probably achieved in many in vivo protocols. Stimulation of tissue oxygenation, blood flow rate modulation and more recently immune system triggering may be examples where EF could play a significant role. The second part of this work is dedicated to the development of multi jets, using two different setups, based on a single plasma source. Plasma splitting in dielectric tubes drilled with sub millimetric orifices, but also plasma transfer across metallic tubes equipped with such orifices are analyzed from ICCD imaging and time resolved EF measurements. This allows for the design of plasma jet arrays but also emphasizes the necessity to account for voltage pulse polarity, target potential status, consecutive helium flow modulation and

  19. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2010-01-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  20. Propagation of Relativistic, Hydrodynamic, Intermittent Jets in a Rotating, Collapsing GRB Progenitor Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Kuiper, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    The prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is characterized by rapid variabilities, which may be a direct reflection of the unsteady central engine. We perform a series of axisymmetric 2.5-dimensional simulations to study the propagation of relativistic, hydrodynamic, intermittent jets through the envelope of a GRB progenitor star. A realistic rapidly rotating star is incorporated as the background of jet propagation, and the star is allowed to collapse due to the gravity of the central black hole. By modeling the intermittent jets with constant-luminosity pulses with equal on and off durations, we investigate how the half period, T, affects the jet dynamics. For relatively small T values (e.g., 0.2 s), the jet breakout time t bo depends on the opening angle of the jet, with narrower jets more penetrating and reaching the surface at shorter times. For T ≤ 1 s, the reverse shock (RS) crosses each pulse before the jet penetrates through the stellar envelope. As a result, after the breakout of the first group of pulses at t bo, several subsequent pulses vanish before penetrating the star, causing a quiescent gap. For larger half periods (T = 2.0 and 4.0 s), all the pulses can successfully penetrate through the envelope, since each pulse can propagate through the star before the RS crosses the shell. Our results may interpret the existence of a weak precursor in some long GRBs, given that the GRB central engine injects intermittent pulses with a half period T ≤ 1 s. The observational data seem to be consistent with such a possibility.

  1. JET experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, L.; Batistoni, P.; Boyer, H.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Donne, A. J. H.; Eriksson, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Gee, S.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, T.; King, D. B.; Knipe, S.; Litaudon, X.; Matthews, G. F.; Monakhov, I.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sips, A. C. C.; Warren, R.; Weisen, H.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive preparations are now underway for an experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) using tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. The goals of this experiment are described as well as the progress that has been made in developing plasma operational scenarios and physics reference pulses for

  2. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T

    2008-04-01

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  3. Atomic jet from SMM1 (FIRS1) in Serpens uncovers non-coeval binary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Dionatos, O; Teixeira, P S; Güdel, M; Bergin, E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the detection of an atomic jet associated with the protostellar source SMM1 (FIRS1) in Serpens. The jet is revealed in [FeII] and [NeII] line maps observed with Spitzer/IRS, and further confirmed in HiRes IRAC and MIPS images. It is traced very close to SMM1 and peaks at ~5 arcsec" from the source at a position angle of $\\sim 125 degrees. In contrast, molecular hydrogen emission becomes prominent at distances > 5" from the protostar and extends at a position angle of 160 degrees. The morphological differences suggest that the atomic emission arises from a companion source, lying in the foreground of the envelope surrounding the embedded protostar SMM1. In addition the molecular and atomic Spitzer maps disentangle the large scale CO (3-2) emission observed in the region into two distinct bipolar outflows, giving further support to a proto-binary source setup. Analysis at the peaks of the [FeII] jet show that emission arises from warm and dense gas (T ~1000 K, n(electron) 10^5 - 10^6 cm^-3). The ma...

  4. Pulse Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of pulse voltammetry, indicating that its widespread use arises from good sensitivity and detection limits and from ease of application and low cost. Provides analytical and mechanistic applications of the procedure. (JN)

  5. Simulations of Solar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  6. Hot methanol from the inner region of the HH 212 protostellar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Gueth, F.; Giannetti, A.; Bacciotti, F.; Bachiller, R.; Ceccarelli, C.; Gusdorf, A.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Tafalla, M.

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms leading to the formation of disks around young stellar objects (YSOs) and to the launching of the associated jets are crucial to the understanding of the earliest stages of star and planet formation. HH 212 is a privileged laboratory to study a pristine jet-disk system. Therefore we investigate the innermost region (uv plane of various velocity channels of the strongest high-excitation lines. The blue- and red-shifted velocity centroids are shifted roughly symmetrically on either side of the jet axis, indicating that the line-of-sight velocity beyond 0.7 km s-1 from systemic is dominated by rotational motions. The velocity increases moving away from the protostar further indicating that the emission of methanol is not associated with a Keplerian disk or rotating-infalling cavity, and it is more likely associated with outflowing gas. We speculate that CH3OH traces a disk wind gas accelerated at the base. The launching region would be at a radius of a few astronomical units from the YSO.

  7. Hot methanol from the inner region of the HH 212 protostellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Leurini, S; Cabrit, S; Gueth, F; Giannetti, A; Bacciotti, F; Bachiller, R; Ceccarelli, C; Gusdorf, A; Lefloch, B; Podio, L; Tafalla, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to the formation of disks around young stellar objects (YSOs) and to the launching of the associated jets are crucial to the understanding of the earliest stages of star and planet formation. HH 212 is a privileged laboratory to study a pristine jet-disk system. Therefore we investigate the innermost region ($<100$ AU) around the HH 212-MM1 protostar through ALMA band\\,7 observations of methanol. The 8 GHz bandwidth spectrum towards the peak of the continuum emission of the HH 212 system reveals at least 19 transitions of methanol. Several of these lines (among which several vibrationally excited lines in the v$_{\\rm t}=1,2$ states) have upper energies above 500 K. They originate from a compact ($<135$ AU in diameter), hot ($\\sim 295$ K) region elongated along the direction of the SiO jet. We performed a fit in the $uv$ plane of various velocity channels of the strongest high-excitation lines. The blue- and red-shifted velocity centroids are shifted roughly symmetrically on either...

  8. Magnetized plasma jets in experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrafel, Peter; Greenly, John; Gourdain, Pierre; Seyler, Charles; Blesener, Kate; Kusse, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    This research focuses on the initial ablation phase of a thing (20 micron) Al foil driven on the 1 MA-in-100 ns COBRA through a 5 mm diameter cathode in a radial configuration. In these experiments, ablated surface plasma (ASP) on the top of the foil and a strongly collimated axial plasma jet can be observed developing midway through current-rise. Our goal is to establish the relationship between the ASP and the jet. These jets are of interest for their potential relevance to astrophysical phenomena. An independently pulsed 200 μF capacitor bank with a Helmholtz coil pair allows for the imposition of a slow (150 μs) and strong (~1 T) axial magnetic field on the experiment. Application of this field eliminates significant azimuthal asymmetry in extreme ultraviolet emission of the ASP. This asymmetry is likely a current filamentation instability. Laser-backlit shadowgraphy and interferometry confirm that the jet-hollowing is correlated with the application of the axial magnetic field. Visible spectroscopic measurements show a doppler shift consistent with an azimuthal velocity in the ASP caused by the applied B-field. Computational simulations with the XMHD code PERSEUS qualitatively agree with the experimental results.

  9. Liquid Jet Formation in Laser-Induced Forward Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, C. Frederik

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct-write technique capable of printing precise patterns of a wide variety of materials. In this process, a laser pulse is focused through a transparent support and absorbed in a thin donor film, propelling material onto an adjacent acceptor substrate. For fluid materials, this transfer occurs through the formation of a narrow liquid jet, which eventually pinches off due to surface tension. This thesis examines in detail the fluid mechanics of the jet formation process occurring in LIFT. The main focus is on a variant of LIFT known as blister-actuated LIFT (BA-LIFT), in which the laser pulse is absorbed in an ink-coated polymer layer, rapidly deforming it locally into a blister to induce liquid jet formation. The early-time response of a fluid layer to a deforming boundary is analyzed with a domain perturbation method and potential-flow simulations, revealing scalings for energy and momentum transfer to the fluid and providing physical insight on how and why a jet forms in BA-LIFT. The remaining chapters explore more complex applications and modifications of LIFT. One is the possibility of high-repetition rate printing and limits on time delay and separation between pulses imposed by a tilting effect found for adjacent jets. Another examines a focusing effect achieved by perturbing the interface with ring-shaped disturbances. The third contains an experimental study of LIFT using a silver paste as the donor material instead of a Newtonian liquid. The transfer mechanism is significantly different, although with repeated pulses at one location, a focusing effect is again observed. All three of these chapters investigate how perturbations to the interface can strongly influence the jet formation process.

  10. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  11. Solar coronal jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyck, D.

    The solar jets were first observed by SOHO instruments (EIT, LASCO, UVCS) during the previous solar minimum. They were small, fast ejections originating from flaring UV bright points within large polar coronal holes. The obtained data provided us with estimates of the jet plasma conditions, dynamics, evolution of the electron temperature and heating rate required to reproduce the observed ionization state. To follow the polar jets through the solar cycle a special SOHO Joint Observing Program (JOP 155) was designed. It involves a number of SOHO instruments (EIT, CDS, UVCS, LASCO) as well as TRACE. The coordinated observations have been carried out since April 2002. The data enabled to identify counterparts of the 1996-1998 solar minimum jets. Their frequency of several events per day appear comparable to the frequency from the previous solar minimum. The jets are believed to be triggered by field line reconnection between emerging magnetic dipole and pre-existing unipolar field. Existing models predict that the hot jet is formed together with another jet of a cool material. The particular goal of the coordinated SOHO and TRACE observations was to look for possible association of the hot and cool plasma ejections. Currently there is observational evidence that supports these models.

  12. Plasma Jet Interaction with Thomson Scattering Probe Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvank, Tom; Banasek, Jacob; Potter, William; Kusse, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Thomson scattering systems can diagnose plasma temperatures and velocities. When probing a plasma jet with the Thomson scattering laser, we observe a laser-plasma interaction that inputs energy into the plasma jet. The absorbed energy causes a bubble of low density ( 5*1017 cm-2) in the jet (unperturbed 1018 cm-2). A pulsed power machine (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) with a radial foil (15 μm thick Al) configuration generates the plasma jet. We compare the effects of using 10 J and 1 J laser energies, for which the 10 J laser is a larger perturbation. We discuss how the interaction affects the Thomson scattering temperature and velocity measurements. Work supported by National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836 and National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant PHY-1102471.

  13. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  14. Experiment and simulation study of laser dicing silicon with water-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jiading; Long, Yuhong, E-mail: longyuhong@guet.edu.cn; Tong, Youqun; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Zupeng

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with ns-pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating. • Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. • SPH modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining. - Abstract: Water-jet laser processing is an internationally advanced technique, which combines the advantages of laser processing with water jet cutting. In the study, the experiment of water-jet laser dicing are conducted with ns pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating, and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) technique by AUTODYN software was modeled to research the fluid dynamics of water and melt when water jet impacting molten material. The silicon surface morphology of the irradiated spots has an appearance as one can see in porous formation. The surface morphology exhibits a large number of cavities which indicates as bubble nucleation sites. The observed surface morphology shows that the explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with nanosecond pulse laser of 1064 nm irradiating. Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining.

  15. High-speed multi-jets printing using laser forward transfer: time-resolved study of the ejection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Emeric; Rapp, Ludovic; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia; Serra, Pere; Delaporte, Philippe

    2014-07-14

    This paper extends the current understanding of the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) process to the multi-jets ejection problem. LIFT has already been used to print micrometer-sized droplets from a liquid donor substrate with single pulse experiments. Here we study the dynamics of the high-speed multi-jets formation from silver nanoparticles ink films with a time-resolved imaging technique. A galvanometric mirrors head controls the spacing between adjacent pulses by scanning the focused beam of a high repetition rate UV picosecond laser along an ink-coated donor substrate. The laser pulses interact with the liquid film and generate cavitation bubbles that propel the ink away from the substrate and form the jets. When the spacing between consecutive pulses is substantially higher than the maximum diameter of the bubbles, there is no interaction between adjacent jets, and these remain unperturbed. However, when the pulses are brought closer significant jet-jet interaction takes place, which results in a clear deviation from the single jet dynamics. Thus, the cavitation bubbles acquire different shapes, the ink is ejected faster and along different directions depending on the spacing between the pulses, and each bubble alters the evolution of the previous one and shifts away from it.

  16. Utilization of ultrasound to enhance high-speed water jet effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Svehla, Branislav; Svehla, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Continuous high-speed water jets are presently used in many industrial applications such as cutting of various materials, cleaning and removal of surface layers. However, there is still a need for further research to enhance the performance of pure water jets. An obvious method is to generate water jets at ultra-high pressures (currently up to 700 MPa). An alternate approach is to eliminate the need for such high pressures by pulsing of the jet. This follows from the fact that the impact pressure on a target generated by a slug of water is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure of a corresponding continuous jet. Ultrasonically forced modulation of a continuous stream of water represents the most promising method of pulsed jet generation because of its simplicity and practicality. A pulsed jet is generated by modulating a continuous stream of water by ultrasonic waves. A velocity transformer connected to a piezoelectric transducer is located axially inside a nozzle to induce longitudinal pulsations in the water. An extensive laboratory research program is in progress to understand the basic principles of the process and to optimize the nozzle design for several applications. The results reported in this paper show that the performance of such a pulsed jet is far superior to that of a continuous jet operating at the same parameters. Experimental results obtained with the ultrasonic vibration of a tip situated inside the nozzle indicate that using this technique one can achieve performance of the jet even order of magnitude higher in comparison to continuous jet at the same hydraulic parameters. Performance of ultrasonically modulated jets in cutting of various materials was tested in laboratory conditions. In this paper, results of measurement of dynamic pressure in the nozzle and force effects of modulated jets are presented together with results obtained in cutting of various materials using ultrasonically modulated water jets. The results are compared

  17. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, A L

    2014-01-01

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions [A. L. Moser & S. C. Hsu, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2014)]. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex ...

  18. Jets with Variable R

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new class of jet algorithms designed to return conical jets with a variable Delta R radius. A specific example, in which Delta R scales as 1/pT, proves particularly useful in capturing the kinematic features of a wide variety of hard scattering processes. We implement this Delta R scaling in a sequential recombination algorithm and test it by reconstructing resonance masses and kinematic endpoints. These test cases show 10-20% improvements in signal efficiency compared to fixed Delta R algorithms. We also comment on cuts useful in reducing continuum jet backgrounds.

  19. The JET Intershot Analysis: Current Infrastructure and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, R.; Cook, N.; McDonald, D. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Harting, D. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Tidy, C. [University of Bath, BA2 7AY Bath (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The JET Intershot Analysis (Chain1) generates processed data following a pulse. Chain1 currently consists of around 80 analysis codes, many developed by external developers, with complex dependencies on each other and around 40 raw data sources. Maintaining the pulse repetition rate is one of JET's key success factors, so performance of Chain1 is crucial to JET. This paper will describe JET's experience of managing Chain1, including a description of the control system used to ensure the analysis chain runs as quickly as possible, and a discussion of JET's experience of integrating externally developed codes into a standard analysis framework. The integrity of data generated by Chain1 is also crucial. Procedures are in place to control integration of analysis codes and configuration data. A description of this will be presented, together with proposed enhancements. The current Chain1 control system was written in 1999 and although reliable and efficient is starting to prove costly in terms of flexibility and extensibility to meet JET's current and future needs. For this reason JET is planning to re-implement the Chain1 control system. The paper will outline the work done towards this aim, including the development of a new Chain1 performance monitor, and present a model of the proposed new system. The new control system will allow more complex logic to define which codes run when; support automated run-time decision making to maximize the chain's efficiency; allow Chain1 to be rerun with a contemporary setup; and allow analysis code developers better access to the system, while maintaining traceability and security. Potential technology choices for the new system will be outlined. Finally, possible future steps towards an integrated data production chain for JET will be discussed, and the potential applicability to next generation fusion devices will be outlined. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation

  20. HH 666: Different kinematics from H{\\alpha} and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M; Bally, John

    2015-01-01

    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina Nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the FIRE spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H{\\alpha} and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ~40" of the outflow. H{\\alpha} traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of +/- 200 km/s from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H{\\alpha} spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch HST/ACS H{\\alpha} images reveal the lateral spreading of the H{\\alpha} outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H{\\alpha} proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ~1000 yr ago, while steady ...

  1. IRAS 16253-2429: the First Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through Dynamics of Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD at the embedded phase. IRAS 16253-2429 is classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO) with internal luminosity 0.1 Lsun. VeLLOs are believed to be very low-mass protostars or even proto-BDs. We observed the jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253-2429 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) using the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes and the SMA in order to study its dynamical features and physical properties. Our SMA map reveals two protostellar jets, indicating the existence of a proto-binary system as implied by the precessing jet detected in H2 emission. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams along the jet axes, which is likely due to the binary orbital motion. Based on this, we derive the current mass of the binary as ~0.032 Msun. Given the low en...

  2. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  3. Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Jet in the Symbiotic Star MWC 560. 3; Application to X-ray Jets in Symbiotic Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2007-01-01

    In Papers I and II in this series, we presented hydrodynamical simulations of jet models with parameters representative of the symbiotic system MWC 560. These were simulations of a pulsed, initially underdense jet in a high-density ambient medium. Since the pulsed emission of the jet creates internal shocks and since the jet velocity is very high, the jet bow shock and the internal shocks are heated to high temperatures and should therefore emit X-ray radiation. In this paper, we investigate in detail the X-ray properties of the jets in our models. We have focused our study on the total X-ray luminosity and its temporal variability, the resulting spectra, and the spatial distribution of the emission. Temperature and density maps from our hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling presented in the second paper are used, together with emissivities calculated with the atomic database ATOMDB. The jets in our models show extended and variable X-ray emission, which can be characterized as a sum of hot and warm components with temperatures that are consistent with observations of CH Cyg and R Aqr. The X-ray spectra of our model jets show emission-line features that correspond to observed features in the spectra of CH Cyg. The innermost parts of our pulsed jets show iron line emission in the 6.4-6.7 keV range, which may explain such emission from the central source in R Aqr. We conclude that MWC 560 should be detectable with Chandra or XMM-Newton, and such X-ray observations will prove crucial for understanding jets in symbiotic stars.

  4. Astrophysics: Cosmic jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andy

    2010-02-01

    In some galaxies, matter falling onto a supermassive black hole is ejected in narrow jets moving at close to the speed of light. New observations provide insight into the workings of these cosmic accelerators.

  5. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  6. Development of a Pulsed Combustion Actuator For High-Speed Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Beck, B. Terry; Wilkes, Jennifer A.; Drummond, J. Philip; Alderfer, David W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the flow within a prototype actuator, energized by pulsed combustion or detonations, that provides a pulsed jet suitable for flow control in high-speed applications. A high-speed valve, capable of delivering a pulsed stream of reactants a mixture of H2 and air at rates of up to 1500 pulses per second, has been constructed. The reactants burn in a resonant chamber, and the products exit the device as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers have been used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device at various reactant injection frequencies, including both resonant and off-resonant conditions. The combustion chamber has been constructed with windows, and the flow inside it has been visualized using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). The pulsed jet at the exit of the device has been observed using schlieren.

  7. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  8. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Technology Solutions, Lockheed Martin Robert S. Carnes , M.D. NRAC Member, Battelle Memorial Institute MajGen Paul A. Fratarangelo, USMC (Ret) NRAC...Development, Acquisition) (VADM Architzel). The Naval Research Advisory Committee members (Bowes, Bowler, Carnes and Fratarangelo) have broad...Lockheed Martin ADP Boeing: Jet Engine Noise Reduction for Tactical Fighter Aircraft Mr. Tom Kaemming, K. Viswanathan, Ph . D. Tactical Jet Noise

  9. Jets and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in $e^+ e^-$ collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in $ep$ and $pp/p\\bar{p}$ collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundam...

  10. Jet engine. Strahltriebwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.J.

    1990-11-15

    A gas turbine axial-flow compressor aggregate is mounted in a jet engine consisting of a high-temperature combustion chamber that is composed of conical rings forming slits and set together to a ring column and reaches up to the propelling nozzle, a compressed-air generator supplying the jet engine with compressed air at subsonic speeds and running into the propelling nozzle and a shell encasing the jet engine while leaving a certain intermediate space. The compressor aggregate has a relatively high fuel consumption and high emission rates, involves high production and maintenance costs and puts the blades at a high risk of overheating. The problem basic to the invention was to install a compressed-air generator in the jet engine that has lower fuel consumption and emission rates and is cheaper to manufacture and to service. The invention provides free-piston compressors for compressed-air generators arranged in a circle around the central high-temperature combustion chamber. The ring of compressors can rotate on bearings against the jet engine shell, so that each compressor can be turned to the bottom and serviced there. The jet engine is suitable as an engine for supersonic aircraft.

  11. Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Feedback, Star-formation Efficiency, and Outflow Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Rolf; Turner, Neal J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2016-11-01

    We perform two-dimensional axially symmetric radiation hydrodynamic simulations to assess the impact of outflows and radiative force feedback from massive protostars by varying when the protostellar outflow starts, and to determine the ratio of ejection to accretion rates and the strength of the wide-angle disk wind component. The star-formation efficiency, i.e., the ratio of final stellar mass to initial core mass, is dominated by radiative forces and the ratio of outflow to accretion rates. Increasing this ratio has three effects. First, the protostar grows slower with a lower luminosity at any given time, lowering radiative feedback. Second, bipolar cavities cleared by the outflow become larger, further diminishing radiative feedback on disk and core scales. Third, the higher momentum outflow sweeps up more material from the collapsing envelope, decreasing the protostar's potential mass reservoir via entrainment. The star-formation efficiency varies with the ratio of ejection to accretion rates from 50% in the case of very weak outflows to as low as 20% for very strong outflows. At latitudes between the low-density bipolar cavity and the high-density accretion disk, wide-angle disk winds remove some of the gas, which otherwise would be part of the accretion flow onto the disk; varying the strength of these wide-angle disk winds, however, alters the final star-formation efficiency by only ±6%. For all cases, the opening angle of the bipolar outflow cavity remains below 20° during early protostellar accretion phases, increasing rapidly up to 65° at the onset of radiation pressure feedback.

  12. Jet Mass Spectra in Higgs + One Jet at NNLL

    CERN Document Server

    Jouttenus, Teppo T; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-01-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m_jet^2/p_T^jet scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the je...

  13. Molecule survival in magnetized protostellar disk winds. I. Chemical model and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, D; Forets, G Pineau des; Garcia, P J V; Ferreira, J; Casse, F

    2011-01-01

    Molecular counterparts to atomic jets have been detected within 1000 AU of young stars. Reproducing them is a challenge for proposed ejection models. We explore whether molecules may survive in an MHD disk wind invoked to reproduce the kinematics and tentative rotation signatures of atomic jets in T Tauri stars. The coupled ionization, chemical and thermal evolution along dusty flow streamlines is computed for a prescribed MHD disk wind solution, using a method developed for magnetized shocks in the interstellar medium. Irradiation by wind-attenuated coronal X-rays and FUV photons from accretion hot spots is included, with self-shielding of H2 and CO. Disk accretion rates of 5e-6, 1e-6 and 1e-7 solar masses per year are considered, representative of low-mass young protostars (Class 0), evolved protostars (Class I) and very active T Tauri stars (Class II). The disk wind has an onion-like thermo-chemical structure, with streamlines launched from larger radii having lower temperature and ionisation, and higher H...

  14. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  15. A study on the pulse height resolution of organic scintillator digitized pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Francesco, E-mail: Francesco.Belli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Rome (Italy); Esposito, Basilio; Marocco, Daniele; Riva, Marco [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The frequency analysis of pulses from a liquid scintillator detector is performed. ► The minimum sampling rate required to avoid PH degradation is determined. ► It is shown that interpolation methods increase the FoM for n/γ discrimination. -- Abstract: Organic scintillator detectors are widely used for neutron spectroscopy in fusion devices due to their good energy resolution and capability of neutron/gamma discrimination. Nowadays, scintillator pulses are commonly recorded by means of digital acquisition systems. These have several advantages, and in particular the possibility of off-line data reprocessing: however, the signal digitization can be a cause of degradation of the pulse height (PH) resolution (and therefore of the energy resolution obtained after pulse height spectra unfolding). In this work, the problem of how pulse digitization may influence the pulse height resolution is investigated. First, through downsampling of digitized scintillator pulses, we determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid any degradation of the pulse height resolution. Secondly, we find that the application of interpolation methods to the digitized pulses does not affect the pulse height resolution, whereas it increases the figure of merit for neutron/gamma discrimination. These results are relevant to define the specifications for the digital acquisition systems of neutron detectors in present and future fusion devices such as JET and ITER.

  16. A Proposal to Build a Laboratory Blast Overpressure Test Simulator; Subtitle: The Development of a Water Jet Impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    BLAST oVtiRaPSSURE TLST SIMULATOR; Subtitles The Oevelopment of a Water Jet !mpactor Final Report (byo0 Jams .- Y. Yu Udvard J. Veael July 1952...suggested that an alternative approach was re- qui red. Ono of the plausible approaches was to use pulses of high velocity water jets to hit the

  17. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Shock-wave proton acceleration from a hydrogen gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nathan; Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Babzien, Marcus; Tresca, Olivier; Maharjan, Chakra; Shkolnikov, Peter; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2013-04-01

    Typical laser acceleration experiments probe the interaction of intense linearly-polarized solid state laser pulses with dense metal targets. This interaction generates strong electric fields via Transverse Normal Sheath Acceleration and can accelerate protons to high peak energies but with a large thermal spectrum. Recently, the advancement of high pressure amplified CO2 laser technology has allowed for the creation of intense (10^16 Wcm^2) pulses at λ˜10 μm. These pulses may interact with reproducible, high rep. rate gas jet targets and still produce plasmas of critical density (nc˜10^19 cm-3), leading to the transference of laser energy via radiation pressure. This acceleration mode has the advantage of producing narrow energy spectra while scaling well with pulse intensity. We observe the interaction of an intense CO2 laser pulse with an overdense hydrogen gas jet. Using two pulse optical probing in conjunction with interferometry, we are able to obtain density profiles of the plasma. Proton energy spectra are obtained using a magnetic spectrometer and scintillating screen.

  19. Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, James P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for measuring the pulse lengths of synchronously pumped dye lasers which does not require the use of an external nonlinear medium, such as a doubling crystal or two-photon fluorescence cell, to autocorrelate the pulses is discussed. The technique involves feeding the laser pulses back into the dye jet, thus correlating the output pulses with the intracavity pulses to obtain pulse length signatures in the resulting time-averaged laser power. Experimental measurements were performed using a rhodamine 6G dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The results agree well with numerical computations, and the method proves effective in determining lengths of picosecond laser pulses.

  20. B-jets and z + b-jets at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeans, Daniel; /Rome U.

    2006-06-01

    The authors present CDF cross-section measurements for the inclusive production of b jets and the production of b jets in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. Both measurements are in reasonable agreement with NLO QCD predictions.

  1. Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Ned [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Flippo, Kirk [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Nemoto, Koshichi [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Umstadter, Donald [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Crowell, Robert A. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Jonah, Charles D. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Trifunac, Alexander D. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    A laser based electron generator is shown, for the first time, to produce sufficient charge to conduct time resolved investigations of radiation induced chemical events. Electron pulses generated by focussing terawatt laser pulses into a supersonic helium gas jet are used to ionize liquid water. The decay of the hydrated electrons produced by the ionizing electron pulses is monitored with 0.3 {mu}s time resolution. Hydrated electron concentrations as high as 22 {mu}M were generated. The results show that terawatt lasers offer both an alternative to linear accelerators and a means to achieve subpicosecond time resolution for pulse radiolysis studies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. VLTI+MIDI STUDY OF THE HIGH MASS PROTOSTELLAR CANDIDATE NGC3603 IRS 9A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. A. Nürnberger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La formaci n y evoluci n temprana de estrellas gran masa est entre los temas m s \\calientes" en astrof sica. Los estudios interferom tricos de estas estrellas jovenes y de sus ambientes circunestelares (envolturas, discos y jets en las longitudes de onda del infrarrojo cercano y medio a n son escasos y en t erminos de su an lisis de datos/interpretaci n muy desa antes. Aqu reportamos sobre observaciones del candidato protoestelar de alta masa NGC3603 IRS 9A que emprendimos con VLTI+MIDI en el 2005, complementado por im genes en el infrarrojo cercano y medio y datos espectrosc picos. Discutimos nuestros resultados obtenidos mediante dedicados esfuerzos de modelado, empleando ambos c digos DUSTY y MC3D de transferencia radiativa para un n mero seleccionado de geometr as de la fuente y distribuciones super ciales del brillo.

  3. Pulsed thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.; Nedelcu, M.

    2010-07-01

    A special mechanism of thermoelectric transport is described, consisting of pulses of charge carriers which "fly" periodically through the external circuit from the hot end of the sample to the cold end, with a determined duration of the "on" and "off" times of the electric contacts, while maintaining continuously the thermal contacts. It is shown that such a "resonant" ideal thermogenerator may work cyclically, with the same efficiency quotient as the ideal efficiency quotient of the thermoelectric devices operated in the usual stationary transport regime but the electric flow and power are increased, as a consequence of the concentration of the charge carriers on pulses of small spatial extent. The process is reversible, in the sense that it can be operated either as a thermoelectric generator or as an electrothermal cooler.

  4. A review of JET neutral beam system performance 1994-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Robert [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: robert.king@jet.uk; Challis, Clive [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ciric, Dragoslav [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The operational performance of the JET neutral beam injector (NBI) system during 2003 is presented and compared with NBI operation from 1994 to 2002. The paper also addresses different demands imposed on NBI operation during the JET Joint Undertaking (until the end of 1999) and the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) JET operating contract (from 2000). The material presented shows new operational performance records achieved in 2003, derived from data focused on average and maximum pulse lengths, pulse power and injected pulse energy. Over the last 10 years, the issue of JET NBI positive ion neutral injector (PINI) reliability and availability has also been of significant interest. A discussion is presented where terminology is defined, technical systems causing unreliability and non-availability are analysed and operational practices are reviewed. The performance analysis shows that during the period of JET operation under the EFDA contract, the NBI facility has successfully changed from high power-short pulse to high power-long pulse (10 s) operation. It also shows that the sources of unreliability and non-availability have largely remained constant during this change.

  5. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry angul

  6. Use of water jet instruments in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toru; Sato, Chiaki; Sakurai, Tadashi; Kamei, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-02-10

    In recent years, water jet instruments have been used in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, mainly in two clinical situations: Investigation and treatment under endoscopic view. Injecting water jet into the gastrointestinal lumen is helpful for maintaining a clear endoscopic view, washing away blood or mucous in the lumen or on the surface of the tip of the endoscope. This contributes to reducing time and discomfort of examination. Water jet technology is an alternative method for dissecting soft tissue; this method does not harm the small vessels or cause mechanical or thermal damage. However, its use in clinical settings has been limited to the transmucosal injection of water into the submucosal layer that elevates the mucosa to prepare for endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, instead of tissue dissection, which may occur because of the continuous water jet. A preclinical study has been conducted using a pulsed water jet system as an alternative method for submucosal dissection by reducing intraoperative water consumption and maintenance of dissection capability. This review introduces recent studies pertaining to using a water jet in gastrointestinal endoscopy and discusses future prospects.

  7. Observation of a tidal effect on the Polar Jet Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the Polar Jet Stream directly affect weather across Europe and North America (Francis et al., 2012. Jet Stream dynamics are governed by the development of planetary Rossby waves (Dickinson, 1978 driven by variation of the Coriolis force with latitude. Here we show that increasing atmospheric tides induce the development of Rossby waves, especially during winter months. This changes the flow and direction of the Jet Stream, as measured by the Arctic Oscillation (AO. Although horizontal tidal forces are tiny (107 smaller than gravity, they act over huge areas dragging the Jet Stream flow southwards in regular pulses as the earth rotates. This induces a changing Coriolis torque, which then distorts the Jet Stream flow. The data from eight recent winters are studied indicating that the AO is anti-correlated to the horizontal "tractional" component of tides acting between latitude 45 and 60° N. The observed 28 day cycle in Jet Stream flow and extent has a statistical significance > 99 %. A cross-correlation between all daily AO data since 1950 and the tractional tidal strength shows a significant anti-correlation with a lag time of ~ 5 days. The strongest correlation and largest excursions of the AO are observed during winter 2005/2006 – a maximum lunar standstill year. This declination dependence of tidal forces at high latitudes is the proposed cause of many previous reports of an 18.6 year dependence of continental rainfall and drought.

  8. Jet Substructure by Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Lou, Hou Keong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new search strategy for high-multiplicity hadronic final states. When new particles are produced at threshold, the distribution of their decay products is approximately isotropic. If there are many partons in the final state, it is likely that several will be clustered into the same large-radius jet. The resulting jet exhibits substructure, even though the parent states are not boosted. This "accidental" substructure is a powerful discriminant against background because it is more pronounced for high-multiplicity signals than for QCD multijets. We demonstrate how to take advantage of accidental substructure to reduce backgrounds without relying on the presence of missing energy. As an example, we present the expected limits for several R-parity violating gluino decay topologies. This approach allows for the determination of QCD backgrounds using data-driven methods, which is crucial for the feasibility of any search that targets signatures with many jets and suppressed missing energy.

  9. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixing and Structural Characteristics of Unforced and Forced Jets in Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takeshi

    This dissertation describes an experimental exploration of structural and mixing characteristics of the unforced as well as forced jet in crossflow (JICF). For unforced experiments, variable jet-to-crossflow density ratios (0.35≤S≤1.00) and momentum flux ratios (5≤ J≤41) were explored, for three alternative injectors with a fixed jet Reynolds number (Rej=1900). For forced jet experiments, an equidensity jet emanating from two alternative flush nozzles (Rej=1900; Rej=1500) were explored. The interplay between scalar and velocity fields for the JICF was studied using simultaneous PLIF/stereo PIV measurements in the jet's centerplane. POD analysis showed a transition from convective to absolutely instability in the upstream shear layer as J was reduced, consistent with hotwire measurements. Local strain rates were extracted from both PLIF and PIV data via the Howarth transformation. Mixing characterization with variable mixing scale lengths was explored via centerplane PLIF images. Mixing associated with stirring as well as molecular mixing could be distinguished, apparent especially in vortical structures for flush pipe injection. Sinusoidal forcing of the convectively unstable JICF demonstrated that relatively low amplitude forcing affected jet structures and mixing, especially close to the fundamental frequency. For the absolutely unstable JICF, a much higher forcing amplitude was required to alter jet characteristics, consistent with lock-in, leading to enhanced molecular mixing. Single-pulse square wave forcing created deeply-penetrating vortical structures for specific stroke ratios (L/D), even for the absolutely unstable JICF. L/D producing the greatest jet spread and penetration decreased with decreasing J, but L/D for optimal molecular mixing corresponded to different values and trends in J. Double-pulse square wave excitation, with two variable pulses within each temporal period, enabled the jet's nearfield vortex rings to interact and collide, with

  11. Multichannel discharge between jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakirova, E. F.; Gaitsin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode within a wide range of parameters. We pioneer the reveal of the burning particularities and characteristics of multichannel discharge with jet electrolyte and droplet

  12. Controlling laser-induced jet formation for bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells with high viability and high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Pages, Emeline; Ducom, Alexandre; Fontaine, Aurelien; Guillemot, Fabien

    2014-09-12

    Laser-assisted bioprinting is a versatile, non-contact, nozzle-free printing technique which has demonstrated high potential for cell printing with high resolution. Improving cell viability requires determining printing conditions which minimize shear stress for cells within the jet and cell impact at droplet landing. In this context, this study deals with laser-induced jet dynamics to determine conditions from which jets arise with minimum kinetic energies. The transition from a sub-threshold regime to jetting regime has been associated with a geometrical parameter (vertex angle) which can be harnessed to print mesenchymal stem cells with high viability using slow jet conditions. Finally, hydrodynamic jet stability is also studied for higher laser pulse energies which give rise to supersonic but turbulent jets.

  13. A spectral line survey of the starless and proto-stellar cores detected by BLAST toward the Vela-D molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Jorge L Morales; Burton, Michael; De Luca, Massimo; Elia, Davide; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Massi, Fabrizio; Strafella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We present a 3-mm and 1.3-cm spectral line survey conducted with the Mopra 22-m and Parkes 64-m radio telescopes of a sample of 40 cold dust cores, previously observed with BLAST, including both starless and proto-stellar sources. 20 objects were also mapped using molecular tracers of dense gas. To trace the dense gas we used the molecular species NH3, N2H+, HNC, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN and H13CN, where some of them trace the more quiescent gas, while others are sensitive to more dynamical processes. The selected cores have a wide variety of morphological types and also show physical and chemical variations, which may be associated to different evolutionary phases. We find evidence of systematic motions in both starless and proto-stellar cores and we detect line wings in many of the proto-stellar cores. Our observations probe linear distances in the sources >~0.1pc, and are thus sensitive mainly to molecular gas in the envelope of the cores. In this region we do find that, for example, the radial profile of the N2H...

  14. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry angular momentum, the resultant centrifugal forces lead to a radial stratification. Current observations are not able to fully resolve the radial structure, so little is known about its actual profile. We present three active galactic nuclei jet models in 2.5D of which two have been given a radial structure. The first model is a homogeneous jet, the only model that does not carry angular momentum; the second model is a spine-sheath jet with an isothermal equation of state; and the third jet model is a (piecewise) isochoric spine-sheath jet, with constant but different densities for jet spine and jet sheath. In this paper, we look at the effects of radial stratification on jet integrity, mixing between the different jet components and global morphology of the jet-head and surrounding cocoon. We consider steady jets that have been active for 23 Myr. All jets have developed the same number of strong internal shocks along their jet axis at the final time of simulation. These shocks arise when vortices are being shed by the jet-head. We find that all three jets maintain their stability all the way up to the jet-head. The isothermal jet maintains part of its structural integrity at the jet-head where the distinction between jet spine and jet sheath material can still be made. In this case, mixing between jet spine and jet sheath within the jet is fairly inefficient. The isochoric jet, on the other hand, loses its structural jet integrity fairly quickly after the jet is injected. At its jet-head, little structure is maintained and the central part of the jet predominantly consists of jet sheath material. In this case, jet spine and jet sheath material mix efficiently within the jet

  15. Propagation of Relativistic, Hydrodynamic, Intermittent Jets in a Rotating, Collapsing GRB Progenitor Star

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Jin-Jun; Kuiper, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is characterized by rapid variabilities, which may be a direct reflection of the unsteady central engine. We perform a series of axisymmetric 2.5-dimensional simulations to study the propagation of relativistic, hydrodynamic, intermittent jets through the envelope of a GRB progenitor star. A realistic rapidly rotating star is incorporated as the background of jet propagation, and the star is allowed to collapse due to the gravity of the central black hole. By modeling the intermittent jets with constant-luminosity pulses with equal on and off durations, we investigate how the half-period, $T$, affects the jet dynamics. For relatively small $T$ values (e.g. 0.2 s), the jet breakout time $t_{\\rm bo}$ depends on the opening angle of the jet, with narrower jets more penetrating and reaching the surface at shorter times. For $T \\leq 1$ s, the reverse shock crosses each pulse before the jet penetrates through the stellar envelope. As a result, after the breakout of the...

  16. Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Begum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 1011 cm-3 and it reaches to the maximum of 1012 cm-3.

  17. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-09

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)072 smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  18. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F.

    2015-12-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm [1] smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  19. Resolving Boosted Jets with XCone

    CERN Document Server

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies---dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs---that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  20. Jet Photoproduction at THERA

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that a future high-energy electron-proton collider like THERA could largely extend the current HERA program in jet photoproduction of testing QCD and determining the partonic structure of the proton and the photon. Depending on the electron beam energy (250-500 GeV) and the collider mode ($ep$ or $\\gamma p$), the range in the hard transverse energy scale of the jets could be increased by a factor of 2-3 and the reach in the momentum fraction $x$ of the partons in the proton or ...

  1. Jet Physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet physics measurements. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime, and show sensitivity to the parton densities in the proton and to the value of the strong coupling, alpha_s.

  2. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  3. Hydrodynamical simulations of the jet in the symbiotic star MWC 560 III. Application to X-ray jets in symbiotic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    In papers I and II in this series, we presented hydrodynamical simulations of jet models with parameters representative of the symbiotic system MWC 560. These were simulations of a pulsed, initially underdense jet in a high density ambient medium. Since the pulsed emission of the jet creates internal shocks and since the jet velocity is very high, the jet bow shock and the internal shocks are heated to high temperatures and should therefore emit X-ray radiation. In this paper, we investigate in detail the X-ray properties of the jets in our models. We have focused our study on the total X-ray luminosity and its temporal variability, the resulting spectra and the spatial distribution of the emission. Temperature and density maps from our hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling presented in the second paper are used together with emissivities calculated with the atomic database ATOMDB. The jets in our models show extended and variable X-ray emission which can be characterized as a sum of hot and warm ...

  4. Diagnostics of an AC driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet and its use for radially directed jet array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, R.

    2017-08-01

    An alternating current atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated with noble gas or noble gas/oxygen admixture as working gas. A "core plasma filament" is observed at the center of the dielectric tube and extends to the plasma jet at higher peak-to-peak voltages. This type of plasma jet is believed to be of the same nature with the reported plasma bullet driven by pulsed DC power sources. Double current probes are used to assess the speed of the plasma bullet and show that the speed is around 104-105 m/s. The time dependence of the downstream bullet speed is attributed to the gas heating and in turn the increase of the reduced electric field E/N. Optical emission spectra show the dependence of helium and oxygen emission intensities on the concentration of oxygen additive in the carrier gas, with peak values found at 0.5% O2. Multiple radial jets are realized on dielectric tubes of different sizes. As a case study, one of these multi-jet devices is used to treat B. aureus on the inner surface of a plastic beaker and is shown to be more effective than a single jet.

  5. Pulsed liquid microjet for intravascular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Miller, Jason; Huie, Philip; Marmor, Michael; Blumenkranz, Mark S.

    2002-06-01

    Occlusions of the retinal veins and arteries are associated with common diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis and usually cause severe and irreversible loss of vision. Treatments for these vascular diseases have been unsatisfactory to date in part because of the difficulty of delivering thrombolytic drugs locally within the eye. In this article we describe a pulsed liquid microjet for minimally invasive intra-vascular drug delivery. The microjet is driven by a vapor bubble following an explosive evaporation of saline, produced by a microsecond-long electric discharge in front of the 25 micrometers electrode inside the micronozzle. Expansion of the transient vapor bubble produces a water jet with a diameter equal to the diameter of the nozzle, and with a velocity and duration that are controlled by the pulse energy. We found that fluid could be injected through the wall of a 60-micrometers -diameter artery in choriallantoic membrane using a 15-micrometers diameter liquid jet traveling at more than 60 m/s. Histological analysis of these arteries showed that the width of the perforation is limited to the diameter of the micronozzle, and the penetration depth of the jet is controlled by the discharge energy. The pulsed liquid microjet offers a promising technique for precise and needle-free intravascular delivery of thrombolytic drugs for localized treatment of retinal vascular occlusions.

  6. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions within SCET

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements based upon semi-inclusive jet functions within the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). In this work we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron $h$ is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet as a first example. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function ${\\mathcal G}^h_i(z= \\omega_J/\\omega,z_h=\\omega_h/\\omega_J,\\omega_J, R,\\mu)$ which depends on the jet radius $R$ and the large light-cone momenta of the parton '$i$' initiating the jet ($\\omega$), the jet ($\\omega_J$), and the hadron $h$ ($\\omega_h$). We are then able to express the jet fragmentation function as a semi-inclusive jet observable rather than as an exclusive one, which is closer to the actual experimental measurements. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations at next-to-leading order (NLO). We further derive the renormalization gro...

  7. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Three transects each from the cruises of R V Pioneer (84 , 88 degrees and 92 degrees E) during May-June 1964 and R V Vityaz (77 , 84 degrees and 94 degrees E) during October-November 1962 were used to compare pre and postmonsoon equatorial jets...

  8. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  9. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  10. Jet-Images: Computer Vision Inspired Techniques for Jet Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Cogan, Josh; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon- initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  11. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  12. Air Ejector Pumping Enhancement Through Pulsing Primary Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    CFD ) analysis show that pulsing the primary jet flow, an active metho of flow control, improved ejector performance. The physics of this improvement...without an entrance shape was found to be still reasonably efficient. Both experiments and Computer Fluid Dynamics( CFD ) analysis show that pulsing the...other shapes. A tube without an entrance shape was found to be still reasonably efficient. Both experiments and Computer Fluid Dynamics( CFD ) analysis

  13. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  14. On Gravitational Chirality as the Genesis of Astrophysical Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.

  15. On gravitational chirality as the genesis of astrophysical jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.

  16. Prediction of the growth rates of VDEs in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, R.; Mattei, M.; Villone, F.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we show that the effect of the saddle currents in the rigid sectors slows down the vertical instability of JET elongated plasmas with respect to estimates based on pure axisymmetric models. This, together with an accurate description of the passive structures, significantly improves the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results. Linearized models taking into account the three-dimensional effects of the eddy currents have been applied to various JET pulses; the growth rates have been estimated within an accuracy of less than 5% for plasmas with a growth time longer than 2 ms. This model can be used for JET and extended to ITER-FEAT to provide a reliable test bed for assessing the performance of the vertical control system and obtain an estimate of the loads on the structures during vertical displacement events (VDEs) and plasma disruptions.

  17. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-25

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements, based upon semi-inclusive jet functions in the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). As a first example, we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron h is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z=ω{sub J}/ω,z{sub h}=ω{sub h}/ω{sub J},ω{sub J},R,μ), which depends on the jet radius R and the large light-cone momenta of the parton ‘i’ initiating the jet (ω), the jet (ω{sub J}), and the hadron h (ω{sub h}). The jet fragmentation function can then be expressed as a semi-inclusive observable, in the spirit of actual experimental measurements, rather than as an exclusive one. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations of this observable at next-to-leading order (NLO). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z,z{sub h},ω{sub J},R,μ) are also derived and shown to follow exactly the usual timelike DGLAP evolution equations for fragmentation functions. The newly obtained RG equations can be used to perform the resummation of single logarithms of the jet radius parameter R up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL{sub R}) accuracy. In combination with the fixed NLO calculation, we obtain NLO+NLL{sub R} results for the hadron distribution inside the jet. We present numerical results for pp→(jet h)X in the new framework, and find excellent agreement with existing LHC experimental data.

  18. Relativistic AGN jets II. Jet properties and mixing effects for episodic jet activity

    CERN Document Server

    Walg, Sander; Markoff, Sera; Keppens, Rony; Porth, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Various radio galaxies show signs of having gone through episodic jet outbursts in the past. An example is the class of double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs). However, to follow the evolution of an individual source in real-time is impossible due to the large time scales involved. Numerical studies provide a powerful tool to investigate the temporal behavior of episodic jet outbursts in a (magneto-)hydrodynamical setting. We simulate the injection of two jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN), separated by a short interruption time. Three different jet models are compared. We find that an AGN jet outburst cycle can be divided into four phases. The most prominent phase occurs when the restarted jet is propagating completely inside the hot and inflated cocoon left behind by the initial jet. In that case, the jet-head advance speed of the restarted jet is significantly higher than the initial jet-head. While the head of the initial jet interacts strongly with the ambient medium, the restarted jet propagates almos...

  19. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  20. Schlieren Cinematography of Current Driven Plasma Jet Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebner, Keith; Underwood, Thomas; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Schlieren cinematography of a pulsed plasma deflagration jet is presented and analyzed. An ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse (20 μs). The Schlieren signal is radiometrically calibrated to obtain a two dimensional mapping of the refraction angle of the axisymmetric pinch plasma, and this mapping is then Abel inverted to derive the plasma density distribution as a function radius, axial coordinate, and time. Analyses of previously unknown discharge characteristics and comparisons with prior work are discussed.