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Sample records for pulsed current welding

  1. Pulse current gas metal arc welding characteristics, control and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Prakriti Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a first-of-its-kind compilation on high deposition pulse current GMAW process. The nine chapters of this monograph may serve as a comprehensive knowledge tool to use advanced welding engineering in prospective applications. The contents of this book will prove useful to the shop floor welding engineer in handling this otherwise critical welding process with confidence. It will also serve to inspire researchers to think critically on more versatile applications of the unique nature of pulse current in GMAW process to develop cutting edge welding technology.

  2. Effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded high strength aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Ravisankar, V.; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded AA7075 aluminium alloy. This alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. As welded joint strength is much lower than the base metal strength and hence, a simple aging treatment has been given to improve the tensile strength of the joints. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in GTA and GMA welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Post weld aging treatment is accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and tensile ductility

  3. Optimizing pulsed current micro plasma arc welding parameters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The weld joints fabricated using peak current of 7 Amps, ... that would lead to excellent mechanical properties, different methods and approaches have been used. ... with an appropriate empirical model is approximated, being the function.

  4. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Ravisankar, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2008-01-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit

  5. Control of the electrode metal transfer by means of the welding current pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz'kov, A.; Pustovykh, O.; Verevkin, A.; Terekhin, V.; Shachek, A.; Knyaz'kov, S.; Tyasto, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a generator of welding current pulses to transfer an electrode metal into the molten pool. A homogeneous artificial line is used to produce near rectangular pulses. The homogeneous artificial line provides the minimum heat input with in the pulse to transfer the electrode metal, and it significantly decreases the impact of disturbances affecting this transfer. The pulse frequency does not exceed 300 Hz, and the duration is 0.6 ÷ 0.9 ms.

  6. Testing of quality of welded joints using heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Firstov, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of carrying out of radiographic and electroradiographic testing of quality of welded joints using heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatuses under the mode of single pulses are shown. Basic quantitative characteristics of radiographic testing permitting to detect the focus distance, sensitivity behaviour and optical density of image are presented. Peculiarities of electroradiographic image formation under the mode of single pulses of nanosecond range are analysed. The outlook of heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatus application under the mode of single pulses in industry is estimated

  7. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  8. Influences of pulsed current tungsten inert gas welding parameters on the tensile properties of AA 6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, T.; Balasubramanian, V.; Sanavullah, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Medium strength aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. In any structural application of this alloy consideration its weldability is of utmost importance as welding is largely used for joining of structural components. The preferred welding process of aluminium alloy is frequently tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass TIG welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The use of pulsed current parameters has been found to improve the mechanical properties of the welds compared to those of continuous current welds of this alloy due to grain refinement occurring in the fusion zone. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of pulsed current TIG welding parameters on tensile properties of AA 6061 aluminium alloy weldments

  9. Developing mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.; Jayabalan, V.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current GTA welded titanium alloy weldments. Four factors, five level, central composite, rotatable design matrix is used to optimise the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method (RSM). The adequacy of the models has been checked by ANOVA technique. By using the developed mathematical models, the tensile properties of the joints can be predicted with 99% confidence level

  10. Developing mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, M. [Department of Production Engineering, Sathyabama University, Old Mamallapuram Road, Chennai 600 119 (India)], E-mail: manianmb@rediffmail.com; Jayabalan, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: jbalan@annauniv.edu; Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current GTA welded titanium alloy weldments. Four factors, five level, central composite, rotatable design matrix is used to optimise the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method (RSM). The adequacy of the models has been checked by ANOVA technique. By using the developed mathematical models, the tensile properties of the joints can be predicted with 99% confidence level.

  11. Effect of continuous and pulsed currents on microstructural evolution of stainless steel joined by TIG welding; Einfluss des Einsatzes von Dauerstrom und Impulsstrom auf die Mikrostrukturentwicklung bei durch das WIG-Schweissverfahren gefuegtem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgutlu, Ahmet; Findik, Tayfun; Guelenc, Behcet [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Cevik, Bekir [Duezce Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Welding Technology; Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin [Karabuek Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2015-07-01

    In this study, AISI 316L series austenitic stainless steel sheets were joined by tungsten inert gas welding method in continuous and pulsed currents. Regarding microstructural investigation and hardness values of weld metal, samples were welded to investigate the effect of current type on grain structures of weld metal. Results showed that samples welded by using pulsed current had considerable different properties compared to the samples welded by using continuous current. While the weld metals of joinings obtained by using continuous current displayed a coarse-grained and columnar structure, weld metals obtained by using pulsed current had a finer-grained structure. It was also found that hardness values of samples, which were welded with continuous and pulsed current, were quite different.

  12. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  13. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  14. Optimization of the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) parameters for corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel (UNS S32760) welds using the Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Among the four factors and three levels tested, it was concluded that the pulse current had the most significant effect on the pitting potential and the background current had the next most significant effect. The effects of pulse frequency and % on time are less important when compared to the other factors. → The percentage contributions of the pulse current, the background current, % on time, and pulse frequency to the corrosion resistance are 66.28%, 25.97%, 2.71% and 5.04%, respectively. → The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), third level of % on time (80%) and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz). → The confirmation test was carried out at optimum working conditions. Pitting potential was increased to 1.06 V SCE by setting the control factors. Predicted (1.04 V SCE ) and observed (1.06 V SCE ) pitting potential values are close to each other, which are the highest values obtained in the present study. - Abstract: In the present work, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, has been used to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) parameters for the corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel (UNS S32760) welds. A L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array (OA) of Taguchi design which involves nine experiments for four parameters (pulse current, background current, % on time, pulse frequency) with three levels was used. Corrosion resistance in 3.5%NaCl solution was evaluated by anodic polarization tests at room temperature. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed on the measured data and S/N (signal to noise) ratios. The higher the better response category was selected to obtain optimum conditions. The optimum conditions providing the highest pitting potential were estimated. The optimum conditions were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of

  15. The Effect of Constant and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Joint Properties of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel to 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neissi, R.; Shamanian, M.; Hajihashemi, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, dissimilar 316L austenitic stainless steel/2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) joints were fabricated by constant and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process using ER2209 DSS as a filler metal. Microstructures and joint properties were characterized using optical and electron scanning microscopy, tensile, Charpy V-notch impact and micro-hardness tests, and cyclic polarization measurements. Microstructural observations confirmed the presence of chromium nitride and delta ferrite in the heat-affected zone of DSS and 316L, respectively. In addition, there was some deviation in the austenite/ferrite ratio of the surface welding pass in comparison to the root welding pass. Besides having lower pitting potential, welded joints produced by constant current gas tungsten arc welding process, consisted of some brittle sigma phase precipitates, which resulted in some impact energy reduction. The tensile tests showed high tensile strength for the weld joints in which all the specimens were broken in 316L base metal.

  16. Effects of nitrogen and pulsed mean welding current in AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel solidification cracks; Efecto del nitrogeno y la corriente media pulsada de soldadura en la formacion de grietas de solidificacion en aceros inoxidables AISI 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, R. E.; Braga, E.; Fals, H. C.

    2002-07-01

    An analysis of the influence of nitrogen concentration in the weld zone and the pulsed mean welding current in the solidification crack formation is presented in this paper. The AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was employed as the metal base. The welding was done using CC+ pulsed flux cored are welding process and AWS E316L wire type. The tests were conducted using CO{sub 2} shielding gas with four different nitrogen levels (0,5; 10 and 15%) in order to induce different nitrogen weld metal concentrations. The pulsed mean welding current was varied in three levels and the. Transvarestraint tangential strain test was fixed of 5%. The results showed that the solidification cracking decreased as the pulsed mean welding current increase. It was also verified that an increase of the weld zone nitrogen level was associated with a decrease in both the total length of solidification crack and the amount of {delta} ferrite. (AUthor) 20 refs.

  17. Optimization of Experimental Conditions of the Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters for Mechanical Properties of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds Based on the Taguchi Design Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2012-09-01

    Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array was implemented to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters for the hardness and the toughness of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS, UNS S32760) welds. In this regard, the hardness and the toughness were considered as performance characteristics. Pulse current, background current, % on time, and pulse frequency were chosen as main parameters. Each parameter was varied at three different levels. As a result of pooled analysis of variance, the pulse current is found to be the most significant factor for both the hardness and the toughness of SDSS welds by percentage contribution of 71.81 for hardness and 78.18 for toughness. The % on time (21.99%) and the background current (17.81%) had also the next most significant effect on the hardness and the toughness, respectively. The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values for hardness were found as the first level of pulse current (100 A), third level of background current (70 A), first level of % on time (40%), and first level of pulse frequency (1 Hz), while they were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), second level of % on time (60%), and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz) for toughness. The Taguchi method was found to be a promising tool to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Finally, in order to verify experimental results, confirmation tests were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, there were good agreements between the predicted and the experimental results for the both hardness and toughness.

  18. Tube welding by the pulsed tig method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, N.T.

    1973-01-01

    During the construction of the helical wound boiler pods for the AGR stations at Hartlepool and Heysham, automatic TIG-welding techniques were used. In some cases limited access excluded the use of wire feed techniques and autogenous techniques had to be used. To resolve the problem of excessive concavity which occurred when using constant current autogenous techniques on 14.5 mm OD mild steel tubes of 1.8 mm thickness, pulsed-TIG welding was applied. By modifying the trailing edge of the pulse to produce a crater fill with each pulse, susceptibility to porosity and solidification cracking was reduced. The incorporation of digital counter permitted pulse duration, background duration, and electrode indexing distance to be monitored. (U.K.)

  19. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters

  20. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters.

  1. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Optimization of process parameters of pulsed TIG welded maraging steel C300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, P.; Jualeash, M. J.; Jishnu, J.; Srinivasan, P.; Arivarasu, M.; Padmanaban, R.; Thirumalini, S.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed TIG welding technology provides excellent welding performance on thin sections which helps to increase productivity, enhance weld quality, minimize weld costs, and boost operator efficiency and this has drawn the attention of the welding society. Maraging C300 steel is extensively used in defence and aerospace industry and thus its welding becomes an area of paramount importance. In pulsed TIG welding, weld quality depends on the process parameters used. In this work, Pulsed TIG bead-on-plate welding is performed on a 5mm thick maraging C300 plate at different combinations of input parameters: peak current (Ip), base current (Ib) and pulsing frequency (HZ) as per box behnken design with three-levels for each factor. Response surface methodology is utilized for establishing a mathematical model for predicting the weld bead depth. The effect of Ip, Ib and HZ on the weld bead depth is investigated using the developed model. The weld bead depth is found to be affected by all the three parameters. Surface and contour plots developed from regression equation are used to optimize the processing parameters for maximizing the weld bead depth. Optimum values of Ip, Ib and HZ are obtained as 259 A, 120 A and 8 Hz respectively. Using this optimum condition, maximum bead depth of the weld is predicted to be 4.325 mm.

  3. Weldability Characteristics of Sintered Hot-Forged AISI 4135 Steel Produced through P/M Route by Using Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.; Pandey, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation is an attempt to study the weldability characteristics of sintered hot-forged plates of AISI 4135 steel produced through powder metallurgy (P/M) route using matching filler materials of ER80S B2. Compacts of homogeneously blended elemental powders corresponding to the above steel were prepared on a universal testing machine (UTM) by taking pre-weighed powder blend with a suitable die, punch and bottom insert assembly. Indigenously developed ceramic coating was applied on the entire surface of the compacts in order to protect them from oxidation during sintering. Sintered preforms were hot forged to flat, approximately rectangular plates, welded by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) processes with aforementioned filler materials. Microstructural, tensile and hardness evaluations revealed that PCGTAW process with low heat input could produce weldments of good quality with almost nil defects. It was established that PCGTAW joints possess improved tensile properties compared to the base metal and it was mainly attributed to lower heat input, resulting in finer fusion zone grains and higher fusion zone hardness. Thus, the present investigation opens a new and demanding field in research.

  4. Pulsed TIG welding in the fabrication of nuclear components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, W.; Males, B.O.

    1979-01-01

    TIG welding is an important welding technique in nuclear plant fabrication for the welding of critical components and structures where a high level of weld integrity is demanded. Whilst the process is ideally suited to precision welding, since the arc is a small intense heat source, it has proved to be somewhat intolerant to production variations in 'difficult' applications, such as tube to tube plate welding and orbital tube welding with tube in the fixed position. Whilst the problems directly associated with this intolerance (of the welding process) are less frequently observed when used manually, difficulties are experienced in fully mechanised welding operations particularly when welding to a relatively rigid approved procedure. Pulsing of the welding current was developed as a technique to achieve greater control of the behaviour of the weld pool. Instead of moving the weld pool in a continuous motion around the joint, welding was conducted intermittently in the form of overlapping spots. This technique, which offers significant advantages over continuous current welding has been exploited in nuclear fabrication for welding those components which demand a high level of weld quality. In this paper, the essential features of this technique are described and, in indicating its advantages, examples have been drawn from recent experiences on the welding of two types of joint for the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor, a tube sheet and a butt joint in the G Position. (author)

  5. Pulsed tig-welding in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylett, R.

    1973-01-01

    The first main application of the pulsed-TIG welding process in production used a combination of the method with the melt-through method to fit and weld annular shaped AISI 321 stainless steel inserts as part of the fabrication of a double-skinned vacuum insulation panel of stainless steel for the thermal insulation system of a sodium-cooled reactor. Other applications are discussed. It is concluded that the process could be more fully exploited in industry and that this might be achieved by the use of inexpensive pulse operation attachments. (U.K.)

  6. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  7. Pulsed magnetic welding application of fast breeder austenitic pins plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizzi, H.; Colombe, G.

    1986-11-01

    For specific nuclear needs, we had to develop pulsed magnetic welding on high resistivity coefficient alloys as austenitic steels. The magnetic force produced by an explosive inductor is transmitted on weld pieces by the use of an aluminium driver. A theoretical work carried out permitted to compare pulsed magnetic welding with explosive welding. With specific recordings, it was possible to study electrical and magnetical behavior during the active welding phase. By means of these informations, we are able to specify and to realize, with the financial help of ANVAR organization, a low impedance high velocity generator permitting to weld with a non destructible inductor. 6 refs [fr

  8. Hybrid Control and Verification of a Pulsed Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Currently systems, which are desired to control, are becoming more and more complex and classical control theory objectives, such as stability or sensitivity, are often not sufficient to cover the control objectives of the systems. In this paper it is shown how the dynamics of a pulsed welding...... process can be reformulated into a timed automaton hybrid setting and subsequently properties such as reachability and deadlock absence is verified by the simulation and verification tool UPPAAL....

  9. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  10. Current Extensions on PULSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dragos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning management system (LMS is a common practise nowadays. Such instruments are used in educational institutions to enhance and support the teaching act as well as in industry for training purposes. In a computer science department of an university such instrument tends to be a basic requirement. That is because not only it allows a better management of courses and a better communication between students and professors, but can also serve as a perfect instrument for presenting teaching related materials for computer science subjects. During the years I have created and used several such instruments: a System with Interactive ackNowledgement and Evaluation of students work during laboratory sessions (SINE, a Php Utility used in Laboratories for Student Evaluation (PULSE, and PULSE Extended. The aim of this paper is to present the current enhancements of PULSE.

  11. Use of pulsed arc welding for butt joint fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    A technology of pulsed-arc butt welding with periodic wire feed to the welding zone has been developed. The pulsed arc is suitable both for submerged and gas-shielded weldings. The technology proposed has some advantages over the stationary-arc welding. Control of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the process enables one to affect melting and crystallization conditions of the welding crater, weld shape, relation between melting and deposited metal section areas, etc., as well as to reduce heat contribution to the base metal. The new process is shown to be applicable in power engineering. Automatic submerged welding conditions are given for low-carbon and pearlitic heat-resistant steels

  12. Laser repair welding of molds with various pulse shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pleterski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair welding of cold-work tool steels with conventional methods is very difficult due to cracking during remelting or cladding and is generally performed with preheating. As an alternative, repair welding with laser technology has recently been used. This paper presents the influence of different pulse shapes on welding of such tools with the pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Repair welding tests were carried out on AISI D2 tool steel, quenched and tempered to hardness of 56 HRc, followed by microstructural analysis and investigation of defects with scanning electron microscopy. Test results suggest that it is possible to obtain sound welds without preheating, with the right selection of welding parameters and appropriate pulse shape.

  13. Pulsed current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.D.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a current pulse generator with an auxiliary network consisting of a choke and diode in series designed to enlarge the range of pulse frequency control. One output of the network is connected to an adjustable valve cathode and via antoher auxiliary condenser to the point where the cathode of the main key unit is joined to the start of the magnetizing coil. A second output is connected to the anode of another adjustable valve and via another auxiliary condenser to the point where the anode of the other main key unit is joined to the end of the magnetizing coil. The generator can be used to excite the electromagnets of charged particle accelerators or in devices designed to produce magnetic fields. (author)

  14. Experience with pulsed tig-welding at UKAEA Springfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.F.

    1973-01-01

    Welding investigations at Springfields are primarily concerned with development of jointing procedures for nuclear fuel elements, where high standards of integrity are required. Equipment and work which developed from a pulsed TIG-welding technique, set up in 1963 for welding of 0.4 mm thick tubing are described. A computer based control system, which is illustrated, can provide direct digital control of continuous or pulsed TIG or plasma welding. The work has been mainly concerned with stainless and low alloy steel between 0.4 and 4 mm thick. Some applications are mentioned. Tentative conclusions are drawn and it is felt that because of development at Springfields in continuous TIG-welding there is no advantage in using pulsed TIG on materials thinner than about 2 mm. (U.K.)

  15. Pulsed infrared thermography for assessment of ultrasonic welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Megan E.; Rinker, Teresa J.; Sekol, Ryan C.

    2018-03-01

    Battery packs are a critical component in electric vehicles. During pack assembly, the battery cell tab and busbar are ultrasonically welded. The properties of the welds ultimately affect battery pack durability. Quality inspection of these welds is important to ensure durable battery packs. Pack failure is detrimental economically and could also pose a safety hazard, such as thermal runaway. Ultrasonic welds are commonly checked by measuring electrical resistance or auditing using destructive mechanical testing. Resistance measurements are quick, but sensitive to set-up changes. Destructive testing cannot represent the entire weld set. It is possible for a weak weld to satisfy the electrical requirement check, because only sufficient contact between the tabs and busbar is required to yield a low resistance measurement. Laboratory techniques are often not suitable for inline inspection, as they may be time-consuming, use couplant, or are only suitable for coupons. The complex surface geometry also poses difficulties for conventional nondestructive techniques. A method for inspection of ultrasonic welds is proposed using pulsed infrared thermography to identify discrepant welds in a manufacturing environment. Thermal measurements of welds were compared to electrical and mechanical measurements. The heat source distribution was calculated to obtain thermal images with high temporal and spatial resolution. All discrepant welds were readily identifiable using two thermographic techniques: pixel counting and the gradient image. A positive relationship between pixel count and mechanical strength was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of pulsed thermography for inline inspection, which can complement, or even replace, conventional electrical resistance measurements.

  16. Development of Weld Metal Microstructures in Pulsed Laser Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, F.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Torkamany, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The microstructure of the weld metal of a duplex stainless steel made with Nd:YAG pulsed laser is investigated at different travel speeds and pulse frequencies. In terms of the solidification pattern, the weld microstructure is shown to be composed of two distinct zones. The presence of two competing heat transfer channels to the relatively cooler base metal and the relatively hotter previous weld spot is proposed to develop two zones. At high overlapping factors, an array of continuous axial grains at the weld centerline is formed. At low overlapping factors, in the zone of higher cooling rate, a higher percentage of ferrite is transformed to austenite. This is shown to be because with extreme cooling rates involved in pulsed laser welding with low overlapping, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation can be limited only to the grain boundaries.

  17. Sample Entropy-Based Approach to Evaluate the Stability of Double-Wire Pulsed MIG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the sample entropy, this paper deals with a quantitative method to evaluate the current stability in double-wire pulsed MIG welding. Firstly, the sample entropy of current signals with different stability but the same parameters is calculated. The results show that the more stable the current, the smaller the value and the standard deviation of sample entropy. Secondly, four parameters, which are pulse width, peak current, base current, and frequency, are selected for four-level three-factor orthogonal experiment. The calculation and analysis of desired signals indicate that sample entropy values are affected by welding current parameters. Then, a quantitative method based on sample entropy is proposed. The experiment results show that the method can preferably quantify the welding current stability.

  18. Conversion of continuous-direct-current TIG welder to pulse-arc operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, D. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electronics package converts a continuous-dc tungsten-inert gas welder for pulse-arc operation. Package allows presetting of the pulse rate, duty cycle, and current value, and enables welding of various alloys and thicknesses of materials.

  19. Microstructural evolution and mechanical performance of resistance spot welded DP1000 steel with single and double pulse welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabok, Ali; van der Aa, Ellen; De Hosson, Jeff; Pei, Yutao T.

    2017-01-01

    Two welding schemes of single and double pulse were used for the resistance spot welding of DP1000 dual phase steel. The changes in the mechanical performance and variant pairing of martensite under two different welding conditions were scrutinized. It is demonstrated that, although both welds fail

  20. Distribution of Argon Arc Contaminated with Nitrogen as Function of Frequency in Pulsed TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-09-01

    TIG arc welding is the high-quality and much applicable material joining technology. However, the current has to be small because the cathode melting should be prevented. In this case, the heat input to the welding pool becomes low, then, the welding defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed TIG arc welding is used to improve this disadvantage This welding can be controlled by some current parameters such as frequency However, few report has reported the distribution of argon arc contaminated with nitrogen It is important to prevent the contamination of nitrogen because the melting depth increases in order to prevent the welding defects. In this paper, the distribution of argon arc contaminated as function of frequency with nitrogen in pulsed TIG welding is elucidated. The nitrogen concentration, the radial flow velocity, the arc temperature were calculated using the EMTF simulation when the time reached at the base current. As a result, the nitrogen concentration into the arc became low with increasing the frequency The diffusion coefficient decreased because of the decrement of temperature over 4000 K. In this case, the nitrogen concentration became low near the anode. Therefore, the nitrogen concentration became low because the frequency is high.

  1. Effect of current pulsing on tensile properties of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Jayabalan, V.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been considered as one of the best engineering metals for industrial applications. This is due to the excellent combination of properties such as elevated strength to weight ratio, high toughness, excellent resistance to corrosion and good fatigue properties make them attractive for many industrial applications. Recently, considerable research has been performed on pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process and reported advantages include improved bead contour, lower heat input requirements, reduced residual stresses and distortion. Metallurgical advantages of pulsed current welding frequently reported in literature include refinement of fusion zone grain size, reduced width of heat affected zone, etc. All these factors will help in improving the mechanical properties. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

  2. Effect of current pulsing on tensile properties of titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Jayabalan, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: jbalan@annauniv.edu; Balasubramanian, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Maamallan Institute of Technology, Sriperumpudur 602 105 (India)], E-mail: manianmb@rediffmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been considered as one of the best engineering metals for industrial applications. This is due to the excellent combination of properties such as elevated strength to weight ratio, high toughness, excellent resistance to corrosion and good fatigue properties make them attractive for many industrial applications. Recently, considerable research has been performed on pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process and reported advantages include improved bead contour, lower heat input requirements, reduced residual stresses and distortion. Metallurgical advantages of pulsed current welding frequently reported in literature include refinement of fusion zone grain size, reduced width of heat affected zone, etc. All these factors will help in improving the mechanical properties. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy.

  3. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  4. Energy losses estimation during pulsed-laser seam welding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, Hana; Havelková, M.; Chmelíčková, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1116-1121 ISSN 1073-5615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser welding * pulsed-laser * Nd:YAG laser Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2014

  5. Mechanical properties of 5083 aluminium welds after manual and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding using E5356 filler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-automatic and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of aluminium alloy 5083 with ER5356 filler wire causes considerable softening in the weld. The tensile strength of dressed automatic welds approaches that of the base metal...

  6. Influence of shielding gas composition on weld profile in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jokar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Weld area and weld depth/width ratio can be considered to be of the most important geometrical factors in pulsed laser welding. The effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen additions to the argon shielding gas on the weld properties in pulsed laser welding of low carbon steel is investigated. Presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen up to 10 and 15 percent respectively decreases the weld geometrical factors. But, at higher levels of additions, the weld geometrical factors will increase. It is observed that the plasma plume temperature decreases from 6000K to 5500K with the addition of 15% carbon dioxide but increases to 7700K with 25% carbon dioxide addition. Increase in laser absorption coefficient, laser energy absorption, formation of oxide layer on the work-piece surface, exothermic reactions and their competitive effects can be considered as the competing phenomena involved in such a behavior in the weld profile

  7. Effect of pulsed gas tungsten arc welding on corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Maamallan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Sriperumpudur 602 105 (India)], E-mail: manianmb@rediffmail.com; Jayabalan, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: jbalan@annauniv.edu; Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Due to the excellent combination of properties such as elevated strength-to-weight ratio, high toughness and excellent resistance to corrosion, make titanium alloys attractive for many industrial applications. Advantages of pulsed current welding frequently reported in literature include refinement of fusion zone grain size, etc. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of pulsed current Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding parameters on corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding was used to fabricate the joints. To optimize the number of experiments to be performed, central composite design was used. The investigation revealed increase in corrosion resistance with increase in peak current and pulse frequency up to an optimum value of the same and decrease in corrosion resistance beyond that optimum point. An increase in corrosion resistance with grain refinement was also detected.

  8. Effect of pulsed gas tungsten arc welding on corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.; Jayabalan, V.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the excellent combination of properties such as elevated strength-to-weight ratio, high toughness and excellent resistance to corrosion, make titanium alloys attractive for many industrial applications. Advantages of pulsed current welding frequently reported in literature include refinement of fusion zone grain size, etc. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of pulsed current Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding parameters on corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding was used to fabricate the joints. To optimize the number of experiments to be performed, central composite design was used. The investigation revealed increase in corrosion resistance with increase in peak current and pulse frequency up to an optimum value of the same and decrease in corrosion resistance beyond that optimum point. An increase in corrosion resistance with grain refinement was also detected

  9. Final Report of Project Curriculum Development: Pulsed Tig Welding, 1978-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic County Area Vocational-Technical School, NJ.

    Designed to help unemployed and disadvantaged workers find new career opportunities, this curriculum provides vocational students with a basic course of instruction in pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. The first of four sections provides a general background of welding, the welding industry, and welding processes. Section 2 focuses on…

  10. Quantitative pulsed eddy current analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of pulsed eddy current testing for furnishing more information than conventional single-frequency eddy current methods has been known for some time. However, a fundamental problem has been analyzing the pulse shape with sufficient precision to produce accurate quantitative results. Accordingly, the primary goal of this investigation was to: demonstrate ways of digitizing the short pulses encountered in PEC testing, and to develop empirical analysis techniques that would predict some of the parameters (e.g., depth) of simple types of defect. This report describes a digitizing technique using a computer and either a conventional nuclear ADC or a fast transient analyzer; the computer software used to collect and analyze pulses; and some of the results obtained. (U.S.)

  11. Laser beam welding of titanium nitride coated titanium using pulse-shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new welding method which allows the assembly of two titanium nitride coated titanium parts is proposed. The welding procedure utilizes the possibility for pulse-shaping in order to change the energy distribution profile during the laser pulse. The pulse-shaping is composed of three elements: a a short high power pulse for partial ablation at the surface; b a long pulse for thermal penetration; and c a quenching slope for enhanced weldability. The combination of these three elements produces crack-free welds. The weld microstructure is changed in comparison to normal welding, i.e. with a rectangular pulse, as the nitrogen and the microhardness are more homogenously distributed in the weld under pulse-shaping conditions. This laser pulse dissolves the TiN layer and allows nitrogen to diffuse into the melt pool, also contributing to an enhanced weldability by providing suitable thermal conditions.

  12. The Preceding Voltage Pulse and Separation Welding Mechanism of Electrical Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiao Cheng; Huang, Jiang; Li, Zhen Biao

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the welding mechanism in contact separation, electrical endurance tests were conducted with AgSnO2 and AgNi contacts on a simulation test device. Waveforms of contact displacement, contact voltage, and current were recorded with LabVIEW during the tests......, and changes in a contact gap and heights of pips with increases in operation cycles were observed through charge-coupled device cameras. The resultant test results show that welding in separation is accompanied with a preceding voltage pulse which represents arc rather than contact bounce arc....

  13. Arc Shape Characteristics with Ultra-High-Frequency Pulsed Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc plasma possesses a constriction phenomenon with a pulsed current. The constriction is created by the Lorentz force, the radial electromagnetic force during arc welding, which determines the energy distribution of the arc plasma. Welding experiments were carried out with ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc welding (UHFP-AW. Ultra-high-speed camera observations were produced for arc surveillance. Hue-saturation-intensity (HSI image analysis was used to distinguish the regions of the arc plasma that represented the heat energy distribution. The measurement of arc regions indicated that, with an ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc, the constriction was not only within the decreased arc geometry, but also within the constricted arc core region. This can be checked by the ratio of the core region to the total area. The arc core region expanded significantly at 40 kHz at 60 A. A current level of 80 A caused a decrease in the total region of the arc. Meanwhile, the ratio of the core region to the total increased. It can be concluded that arc constriction depends on the increased area of the core region with the pulsed current (>20 kHz.

  14. Electric pulse treatment of welded joint of aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mitiaev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Explanation of the redistribution effect of residual strengthes after electric pulse treatment of ark welding seam of the aluminum alloy. Methodology. Alloy on the basis of aluminium of АК8М3 type served as the research material. As a result of mechanical treatment of the ingots after alloy crystallization the plates with 10 mm thickness were obtained. After edge preparation the elements, which are being connected were butt welded using the technology of semiautomatic argon arc welding by the electrode with a diameter of 3 mm of AK-5 alloy. Metal structure of the welded joint was examined under the light microscope at a magnification of 200 and under the scanning electronic microscope «JSM-6360 LA». The Rockwell hardness (HRF was used as a strength characteristic of alloy. Hardness measuring of the phase constituents (microhardness was carried out using the device PМТ-3, with the indenter loadings 5 and 10 g. The crystalline structure parameters of alloy (dislocation density, second kind of the crystalline grid distortion and the scale of coherent scattering regions were determined using the methods of X-ray structural analysis. Electric pulse treatment (ET was carried out on the special equipment in the conditions of the DS enterprise using two modes A and В. Findings. On the basis of researches the previously obtained microhardness redistribution effect in the area of welded connection after ET was confirmed. As a result of use of the indicated treatment it was determined not only the reduction of microhardness gradient but also the simultaneous hardening effect in the certain thermal affected areas near the welding seam. During study of chemical composition of phase constituents it was discovered, that the structural changes of alloy as a result of ET first of all are caused by the redistribution of chemical elements, which form the connections themselves. By the nature of the influence the indicated treatment can be

  15. Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuca, Octav P., E-mail: octav.ciuca@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Carter, Richard M. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Prangnell, Philip B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Precision welded joints, produced between fused silica glass and aluminium by a newly-developed picosecond-pulse laser technique, have been analysed for the first time using a full range of electron microscopy methods. The welds were produced as lap joints by focusing a 1.2 μm diameter laser beam through the transparent glass top sheet, slightly below the surface of the metal bottom sheet. Despite the extremely short interaction time, extensive reaction was observed in the weld zone, which involved the formation of nanocrystalline silicon and at least two transitional alumina phases, γ- and δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The weld formation process was found to be complex and involved: the formation of a constrained plasma cavity at the joint interface, non-linear absorption in the glass, and the creation of multiple secondary keyholes in the metal substrate by beam scattering. The joint area was found to expand outside of the main interaction volume, as the energy absorbed into the low conductivity and higher melting point silica glass sheet melted the aluminium surface across a wider contact area. The reasons for the appearance of nanocrystalline Si and transitional alumina reaction products within the welds are discussed. - Highlights: •Pulsed laser welding of dissimilar materials causes extensive chemical reactivity. •Metastable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases form due to laser-induced highly-transient thermal regime. •Fused silica is reduced by Al to form nanocrystalline Si. •Mechanism of joint formation is discussed.

  16. Analysis of Pulsed Laser Welding Parameters Effect on Weld Geometry of 316L Stainless Steel using DOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pakmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding parameters was done on a lap-joint of a 316L stainless steel foil in order to predict the weld geometry through response surface methodology. For this purpose, the effects of laser power, pulse duration, and frequency were investigated. By presenting a second-order polynomial, the above-mentioned statistical method was managed to be well employed to evaluate the effect of welding parameters on weld width. The results showed that the weld width at the upper, middle and lower surfaces of weld cross section increases by increasing pulse durationand laser power; however, the effects of these parameters on the mentioned levels are different. The effect of pulse duration in the models of weld upper, middle and lower widths was calculated as 76, 73 and 68%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of power on theses widths was determined as 18, 24 and 28%, respectively. Finally, by superimposing these models, optimum conditions were obtained to attain a full penetration weld and the weld with no defects.

  17. On the Generalized Correlation Equation of Welding Current for the Tig Welding Machine Used in Nuclear Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Efrizon

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication, welding plays a very important role to join the end cap to the tube. In order to determine the welding current in TIG welding process for various materials, weld geometries and welding rates, the correlation between the welding current and the other parameters are needed. This paper presents the correlation of those parameters mentioned above. The proposed correlation was tested and produced satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  18. The effect of gas tungsten arc welding and pulsed-gas tungsten arc welding processes’ parameters on the heat affected zone-softening behavior of strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadadzadeh, Amir; Ghaznavi, Majid Mahmoudi; Kokabi, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy was welded using GTAW and PGTAW processes. • The HAZ softening behavior of the welding joint was characterized. • Employing pulsed current in GTAW process eliminated the HAZ softening. • Duration ratio did not affect the weld strength while the frequency influenced it. - Abstract: The heat affected zone (HAZ) softening behavior of strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. Increasing the heat input during welding led to formation of a wider HAZ. Moreover, the size of the precipitates was increased at higher heat inputs. Consequently, by increasing the heat input, lower strength was obtained for the welding joints. At the second stage of the study, pulsed-GTAW (PGTAW) process was employed to improve the strength of the joints. It was observed that the overall strength of the welding joints was improved and the fracture during tensile test was moved from the HAZ to the fusion zone. Moreover, the effect of duration ratio and pulse frequency was studied. For the current study, the duration ratio did not have a significant effect on the strength and microstructure of the weld, but increasing the frequency led to higher strength of the weld and finer microstructure

  19. Neutron induced current pulses in fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Buck, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of neutron induced current pulse generation in fission chambers is discussed. By application of the calculated detector transfer function to proposed detector current pulse shapes, and by comparison with actually observed detector output voltage pulses, a credible, semi-empirical, trapezoidal pulse shape of chamber current is obtained

  20. Microstructural examination of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy welds made by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and TIG welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Varma, P.V.S.; Panakkal, J.P.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the weld microstructure of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy material. Bead on plate welds were made using pulsed Nd:YAG laser and TIG welding technique at different parameters. These welds were characterized at macro and microstructural level. Weld pools of Pulsed Laser and TIG welds were not resolved by optical microscopy. SEM too did not reveal much. Orientation imaging microscopy could reveal the presence of fine martensite. It was observed that microstructure is very sensitive to welding parameters. Microhardness studies suggested formation of martensite in the weld pool. It was also observed that laser welds had very sharp weld pool boundary as compared to TIG welds. Variation in microhardness of the weldment is seen and is influenced by overlapping of weld spots causing thermal treatment of previously deposited spots. (author)

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility Canister Closure Weld Current Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maxwell, D. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-29

    Two closure welds on filled Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters failed to be within the acceptance criteria in the DWPF operating procedure SW4-15.80-2.3 (1). In one case, the weld heat setting was inadvertently provided to the canister at the value used for test welds (i.e., 72%) and this oversight produced a weld at a current of nominally 210 kA compared to the operating procedure range (i.e., 82%) of 240 kA to 263 kA. The second weld appeared to experience an instrumentation and data acquisition upset. The current for this weld was reported as 191 kA. Review of the data from the Data Acquisition System (DAS) indicated that three of the four current legs were reading the expected values, approximately 62 kA each, and the fourth leg read zero current. Since there is no feasible way by further examination of the process data to ascertain if this weld was actually welded at either the target current or the lower current, a test plan was executed to provide assurance that these Nonconforming Welds (NCWs) meet the requirements for strength and leak tightness. Acceptance of the welds is based on evaluation of Test Nozzle Welds (TNW) made specifically for comparison. The TNW were nondestructively and destructively evaluated for plug height, heat tint, ultrasonic testing (UT) for bond length and ultrasonic volumetric examination for weld defects, burst pressure, fractography, and metallography. The testing was conducted in agreement with a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) (2) and applicable procedures.

  2. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004 (India)], E-mail: adepu_kumar7@yahoo.co.in; Sundarrajan, S. [Scientist ' G' , Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 028 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties.

  3. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Sundarrajan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties

  4. Time resolved Thomson scattering diagnostic of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M; Schein, J; Marquès, J L

    2014-01-01

    In this work a Thomson scattering diagnostic technique was applied to obtain time resolved electron temperature and density values during a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. The investigated GMAW process was run with aluminum wire (AlMg 4,5 Mn) with 1.2 mm diameter as a wire electrode, argon as a shielding gas and peak currents in the range of 400 A. Time resolved measurements could be achieved by triggering the laser pulse at shifted time positions with respect to the current pulse driving the process. Time evaluation of resulting electron temperatures and densities is used to investigate the state of the plasma in different phases of the current pulse and to determine the influence of the metal vapor and droplets on the plasma properties

  5. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  6. Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding of API X80 Steel Linepipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding process with high welding production efficiency was used to join the girth weld seam of API X80 steel linepipe of 18.4 mm wall thickness and 1422 mm diameter. The macrostructure, microstructure, hardness, and electrochemical corrosion behavior of welded joints were studied. Effects of temperature and Cl− concentration on the corrosion behavior of base metal and weld metal were investigated. Results show that the welded joint has good morphology, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of both the base metal and the weld metal decreases with increasing temperature or Cl− concentration. In the solution with high Cl− concentration, the base metal and weld metal are more susceptible to pitting. The corrosion resistance of the weld metal is slightly lower than that of the base metal.

  7. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of Cu54Ni6Zr22Ti18 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Changhee; Lee, D.M.; Sun, J.H.; Shin, S.Y.; Bae, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to weld Cu 54 Ni 6 Zr 22 Ti 18 (numbers indicate at.%) metallic glass with glass forming ability of 6 mm. Through a single pulse irradiation on the glassy plate, the pulse condition for welding without crystallization was investigated. Under the selected pulse condition, the Cu 54 Ni 6 Zr 22 Ti 18 plate was periodically welded with different welding speeds. For the welding speed of 60 mm/min, no crystallization was observed in both weldment and heat-affected zone. For the 20 mm/min, the crystallized areas with a band shape were observed along the welding direction

  8. Application of the pulsed magnetic welding process to nuclear breeder reactor fuel pin end closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic welding process is a solid state welding process in which metallurgical bonding is effected by impacting metal or alloy parts against each other at high velocity by use of controlled high frequency, high intensity pulsed magnetic fields. This process is similar to the explosive welding process except that magnetic energy is used for impacting the parts together instead of using explosive energy. The pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) process is readily applied to the welding of cylindrical plugs to small diameter tubes. Although breeder reactor fuel pin design may vary in size, the application described here consisted of cladding tubes approximately 6.4 mm in diameter by 244 cm long with a wall thickness of 0.38 mm. After the cladding tubes are filled with fuel pellets and associated metal hardware, tapered end plugs are inserted into the end of the tubes and welded. A typical setup for PMW is described

  9. Use of pre-pulse in laser spot welding of materials with high optical reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Ihor; Geiger, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Laser micro welding has become a standard manufacturing technique, particularly in industry sectors, such as automotive and aerospace electronics or medical devices, where the requirements for strength, miniaturization and temperature resistance are constantly rising. So far the use of laser micro welding is limited due to the fluctuation of the quality of the welded joints, because the welding results for material with high optical reflection and thermal conductivity, such as copper and copper alloys, depend very strongly on the condition of the material surface. This paper presents investigations on the use of a laser pre-pulse in spot welding of electronic materials with Nd:YAG laser. In order to achieve reproducible joining results two strategies are followed-up. The first one utilizes a reflection-based process control for measuring the reflection during the short pre-pulse. The intensity of the reflected light is used to calculate an appropriated welding pulse power, which corresponds to the measured relative absorption. Adjustment of laser parameters according to the condition of the surface is done in real time before laser main pulse. A second possibility for the stabilization of copper welding is the employment of a short and powerful laser pre-pulse before laser main pulse. This pre-pulse affects the workpiece surface and creates more reproducible absorption conditions for the main pulse, independent from the initial situation on material surface.

  10. Characterization of electromagnetic pulse welding joints for advanced steels (ODS) welding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, P.M.; Sarkar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors structural materials (like in case of TBM and, first wall components) have several operation challenges due to the demanding high temperature exposure conditions (∼800°C) and low neutron radiation effects. The present paper reports the preliminary case studies carried out on steel and copper EMP joints and their properties characterization towards establishing this technology for ODS alloys. The EMP joints in form of tubes are fabricated and tested (typical process parameters ∼ Voltage 25 kV, Current ∼600-800 kA, Max. energy ∼ 50 kJ, and 50 sec duty cycle as major process parameters). The weld joints are further characterized by X-ray radiography and found that there were no measureable defects/discontinuities across the weld interface. This indicates the good process of joining and acceptable. Characterization studies like microstructure, interface grain orientation features, deformation, hardness has been carried out. SEM studies also carried to check the interface status and some interesting features of discontinuities are observed which are not exclusively revealed by radiography tests. Hardness survey also revealed that there is no much variation in the both parent materials as well at weld zone indicating the no hardening affects like in arc/beam weld process. EMP joining has potential features for the joining requirements of ODS kind typical metallurgical requirements

  11. Comparison of pulsed Nd : YAG laser welding qualitative features with plasma plume thermal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, J; Dadras, S; Torkamany, M J

    2007-01-01

    A spectroscopic approach was used to study the effects of different operating parameters on st14 sheet metal welding with a 400 W maximum average power pulsed Nd : YAG laser. The parameters included pulse duration and peak power and type and flow rate of the assist gas and welding speed. Weld quality, including penetration depth and melt width, has been compared with the FeI electron temperature obtained from spectroscopic observations of a plasma plume. A correlation between the standard deviation of the electron temperature and the quality of welding has also been found

  12. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds - 15206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Ueno, S.; Suganuma, N.; Oodake, T.; Maehara, T.; Kasuya, T.; Ichikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated the scanning of eddy current testing (ECT) probe on the welds area including the nozzle, the J-welds and the buildup welds of the Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI) mock-up using the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to scan the probe on the BMI welds area because the area has a complex curved surface shape and narrow spaces. We made the space coordinates and the normal vectors on the scanning points as the scanning trajectory of probe on the welds area based on the measured results of welds surface shape on the mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to scan the probe on the welds surface. Each motion axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. The BMI mock-up test was performed using the cross coil probe in the differential mode. The artificial stress corrosion cracking and the electrical discharge machining slits given on the mock-up surface were detected. The results show that the ECT can detect a defect of approximately 2.3 mm in length, 0.5 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width for the BMI welds. From the output voltage of single coil, we estimated that the average and the maximum probe tilt angles on the mock-up surface under scanning were 2.6 degrees and 8.5 degrees, respectively

  13. System for evaluating weld quality using eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni I.; Hay, Jacob

    2017-12-12

    Electromagnetic and eddy current techniques for fast automated real-time and near real-time inspection and monitoring systems for high production rate joining processes. An eddy current system, array and method for the fast examination of welds to detect anomalies such as missed seam (MS) and lack of penetration (LOP) the system, array and methods capable of detecting and sizing surface and slightly subsurface flaws at various orientations in connection with at least the first and second weld pass.

  14. Thomson scattering diagnostics of steady state and pulsed welding processes without and with metal vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M; Schein, J; Marqués, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Thomson scattering is applied to measure temperature and density of electrons in the arc plasma of the direct current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. This diagnostic technique allows to determine these plasma parameters independent from the gas composition and heavy particles temperature. The experimental setup is adapted to perform measurements on stationary as well as transient processes. Spatial and temporal electron temperature and density profiles of a pure argon arc in the case of the GTAW process and argon arc with the presence of aluminum metal vapor in the case of the GMAW process were obtained. Additionally the data is used to estimate the concentration of the metal vapor in the GMAW plasma. (fast track communication)

  15. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  16. Welding Current Distribution in the Work-piece and Pool in Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rybachuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to select the optimal configuration of controlling magnetic fields and build rational construction of magnetic systems, we need to know the distribution of welding current in the molten metal of the weld pool. So the objective of the work is to establish the calculated methods for determining current density in the weld pool during arc welding. The distribution of welding current in the pool depends on the field of the electrical resistance, which is determined by the deformed temperature field while arc moves with the welding speed. The previous works have shown experimentally and by simulation on the conductive paper that deformation of temperature field defines deformation of electric field. On the basis thereof, under certain boundary conditions the problem has been solved to give a general solution of differential equation, which relates the potential distribution to the temperature in the product during arc welding. This solution is obtained under the following boundary conditions: 1 metal is homogeneous; 2 input and output surfaces of heat flux and electric current coincide; 3 input and output surfaces of heat flux and electric current are insulated and equipotential; 4 other (lateral surfaces are adiabatic boundaries. Therefore, this paper pays basic attention to obtaining the analytical solution of a general differential equation, which relates distribution of potential to the temperature in the product. It considers the temperature field of the heat source, which moves at a welding speed with normal-circular distribution of the heat flow at a certain concentration factor. The distribution of current density is calculated on the assumption that the welding current is introduced through the same surface as the heat flux and the distribution of current density corresponds to the normally circular at a certain concentration factor. As a result, we get an expression that allows us to calculate the current density from the known

  17. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  18. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi Noriyasu; Ueno Souichi; Suganuma Naotaka; Oodake Tatsuya; Maehara Takeshi; Kasuya Takashi; Ichikawa Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The capability of eddy current testing (ECT) for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI) weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on th...

  19. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Varma, P.V.; Gupta, Amit; Amit, K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-02-01

    End plug welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) fuel elements involves welding of fully Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASS) of grade D9 clad tube with 316M end plug. Pulsed Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is being used for the production of PFBR fuel elements at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF). GTAW is an established process for end plug welding and hence adopted by many countries. GTAW has got certain limitations like heat input, arc gap sensitivity and certain sporadic defects like tungsten inclusion. Experiments have been carried out at AFFF to use Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technique as LBW offers a number of advantages over the former process. This report mainly deals with the optimization of laser parameters for welding of PFBR fuel elements. To facilitate pulsed Nd-YAG laser spot welding, parameters like peak power, pulse duration, pulse energy, frequency and defocusing of laser beam on to the work piece have been optimized. On the basis of penetration requirement laser welding parameters have been optimized. (author)

  20. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results

  1. A comparative study of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding and TIG welding of thin Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming at comparing properties of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy joints between pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding and traditional fusion welding. To achieve the research purpose, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates with a thickness of 0.8 mm were welded using pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), respectively. Residual distortions, weld geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints produced with LBW and TIG welding were compared. During the tensile test, with the aid of a high speed infrared camera, evolution of the plastic strain within tensile specimens corresponding to LBW and TIG welding were recorded and analyzed. Compared with the TIG, the welded joint by LBW has the characters of small overall residual distortion, fine microstructure, narrow heat-affected zone (HAZ), high Vickers hardness. LBW welding method can produce joints with higher strength and ductility. It can be concluded that Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding is much more suitable for welding the thin Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plate than TIG welding.

  2. Eddy current inspection of weld defects in tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.

    1992-01-01

    An approach using differential probes for the inspection of weld defects in tubing is studied. Finite element analysis is used to model the weld regions and defects. Impedance plane signals are predicted for different weld defect types and compared wherever possible with signals from actual welds in tubing. Results show that detection and sizing of defects in tubing is possible using differential eddy current techniques. The phase angle of the impedance plane trajectory gives a good indication of the sizing of the crack. Data on the type of defect can be obtained from the shape of the impedance plane trajectory and the phase. Depending on the skin depth, detection of outer wall, inner wall, and subsurface defects is possible.

  3. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  4. High current high accuracy IGBT pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.V.; Donaldson, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current triangular or trapezoidal pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in a capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The circuit can then recover the remaining energy and transfer it back to the capacitor bank without reversing the capacitor voltage. A third IGBT device is employed to control the initial charge to the capacitor bank, a command charging technique, and to compensate for pulse to pulse power losses. The rack mounted pulse generator contains a 525 μF capacitor bank. It can deliver 500 A at 900V into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled to 0.02% accuracy by a precision controller through the SLAC central computer system. This pulse generator drives a series pair of extraction dipoles

  5. High current pulsed positron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.; Kumar, A.; Sterne, P.A.; Cowan, T.E.; Hartley, J.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing a low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopy to provide a new defect analysis capability at the 10 10 e + s -l beam at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron linac. When completed, the pulsed positron microprobe will enable defect specific, 3-dimensional maps of defect concentrations with sub-micron resolution of defect location. By coupling these data with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes and positron implantation profiles we will both map the identity and concentration of defect distributions

  6. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  7. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Electron Microscope, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  8. Local eddy current measurements in pulsed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H. [SEPI-Electronica, ESIME-IPN, UPALM Edif. ' Z' . Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: jhespina@gmail.com; Groessinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents new eddy current measurements in pulsed fields. A commercial point pick-up coil is used to detect the induction signal along the radius of Cu and Al samples with cylindrical shape and diameters between 5 and 35 mm. Local eddy current measurements were performed on the surface of conducting materials due to the small dimensions of the coil. A simple electrical circuit, used as a model, is proposed to describe the local eddy current effect in pulsed fields. The proposed model allows to calculate the phase shift angle between the signal proportional to eddy currents and the applied external field in a pulsed field magnetometer.

  9. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  10. The Effect of Welding Current and Composition of Stainless steel on the Panetration in GTAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Yılmaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, welding was performed on the plates of two different types of AISI 316 and AISI 316Ti austenitic stainless steels by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding without using welding consumable in flat position. Automatic GTAW welding machine was used to control and obtain the exact values. The effects of welding currents used in welding process and the compositions of the stainless steels materials on the penetration were investigated. Weld bead size and shape such as bead width and dept were important considerations for penetration. Welding process was performed using various welding current values. The study showed that both welding parameters and composition of the stainless steels has influence on the penetration and It is increased with increasing of welding current. Besides, P/W rate of the weldments were influenced by the current and hardness values of the weld metal decrease with increasing welding current. The microstructure of the weld metal was also changed by variation of welding current.

  11. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  12. Joining of fuel pin end plugs. Pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), pressurized resistance welding (PRW) and their inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Seki, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    In Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, in order to attain the high burnup of FBR fuel, the development of new cladding tube materials mainly aiming at the improvement of swelling resistance has been advanced. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel has excellent swelling characteristics and high temperature creep strength, but the strength of its welded parts lowers remarkably. As the result of the investigation of solid phase joining, the conclusion that PMW and PRW are promising was obtained. So far, the manufacture of a welder was started first, the welding test was advanced, and the ultrasonic flaw detection technology of high accuracy was developed for the inspection of welding defects. The features, the principle of welding, the welders and the examples of application of the PMW and the PRW are reported. The features of the ultrasonic inspection apparatus are explained. The inspection apparatus comprises 5 pulse motors for driving probes and one pulse motor for turning a sample. The example of flaw detection test results is shown. (K.I.)

  13. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  14. Eddy currents in pulsed field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepferling, M.; Groessinger, R.; Wimmer, A.; Taraba, M.; Scholz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One problem of pulsed field magnetometry is an error in magnetization, which appears in measurements of conducting samples. This error is due to eddy currents induced by a time varying field. To allow predictions how eddy currents exert influence on the hysteresis loop, systematic experimental and theoretical studies of pulsed field measurements of metallic samples were performed. The theoretical studies include analytical calculations as well as numerical ones using a 2D finite element software. In the measurements three physical parameters have been varied: i) the conductivity of the sample by using two different materials, in this case technical Cu and Al ii) size and shape of the sample by using cylinders, spheres and cuboids iii) the pulse duration of the external field by changing the capacitor battery from 8mF ( =9.1ms) to 24mF ( =15.7ms). The time dependence of the external field corresponds with a pulsed damped harmonic oscillation with a maximum value of 5.2T. The samples were studied in the as cast state (after machining) as well as after heat treatment. Theoretical calculations showed not only good agreement with the absolute values of the measured eddy current m agnetization , they also gave an explanation of the shape of the eddy current hysteresis and the dependence of the eddy current 'magnetization' on parameters as pulse duration of the external field and conductivity of the sample. (author)

  15. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  16. A precision analogue integrator system for heavy current measurement in MFDC resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Dian; Xia, Zhen-Xin; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In order to control and monitor the quality of middle frequency direct current (MFDC) resistance spot welding (RSW), precision measurement of the welding current up to 100 kA is required, for which Rogowski coils are the only viable current transducers at present. Thus, a highly accurate analogue integrator is the key to restoring the converted signals collected from the Rogowski coils. Previous studies emphasised that the integration drift is a major factor that influences the performance of analogue integrators, but capacitive leakage error also has a significant impact on the result, especially in long-time pulse integration. In this article, new methods of measuring and compensating capacitive leakage error are proposed to fabricate a precision analogue integrator system for MFDC RSW. A voltage holding test is carried out to measure the integration error caused by capacitive leakage, and an original integrator with a feedback adder is designed to compensate capacitive leakage error in real time. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the new analogue integrator system could constrain both drift and capacitive leakage error, of which the effect is robust to different voltage levels of output signals. The total integration error is limited within  ±0.09 mV s −1 0.005% s −1 or full scale at a 95% confidence level, which makes it possible to achieve the precision measurement of the welding current of MFDC RSW with Rogowski coils of 0.1% accuracy class. (paper)

  17. Current pulse shaping of the load current on PTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghe Xia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The typical rise time of PTS machine is ∼110 ns with about 10 MA peak current under short pulse mode when all 24 modules discharge simultaneously. By distributing the trigger times of 12 laser beams logically and adjusting the statues of the pulse output switches, longer rise-time pulse can be obtained on the PTS facility. Based on the required pulse shape, whole circuit simulations will be used to calculate the trigger times of each laser triggering gas switch and the status of the pulse output switches. The rise time of the current is determined by the time difference between the first and last trigged laser triggering gas switches. In order to trigger the laser triggering gas switch, sufficient laser power is needed to be sent into the gap of the gas switches. The gas pressure and voltage difference on the two electrodes of the gas switches also affect the triggering of the gas switches, and the voltage added on the gas switch is determined by its transition time. Traditionally the trigger time difference should be less than the transition time of the two neighboring modules. A new simulation model of PTS shows one can break this transition time limits. Series of current pulse shaping experiments have been investigated on the PTS (Primary Test Stand. As results, more than 5 MA peak current were successfully achieved on the load with a rise time of 600 ns. This study and experiments of the pulse shaping on PTS demonstrate the adaptable ability of the PTS for offering different waveform of mega ampere current pulse for different research purpose.

  18. Pulse current enhanced electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect at diffe......Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect...

  19. Optimization of welding current waveform for dissimilar material with DP590 and Al5052 by Delta-spot welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Young Gon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The automotive industry has a target goal to improve fuel consumption due to restricted exhaust gas regulation. For this reason, the applicability of lightweight material, Al alloys, Mg alloys is also being expanded. In this concept, high strength steel, DP590 and light alloy, AL5052 are joined in the right place of the car body. However, it is difficult to join to steel and aluminum by conventional fusion welding. Generally, in respect to dissimilar metal joining by fusion welding, intermetallic compound layer is formed at the joint interface, hot cracking is generated. In this study, the effect of the current waveform on the mechanical characteristics and microstructure in Delta spot welding process of dissimilar metal was investigated. As results, Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was reduced from 2.355 μm to 1.09 μm by using Delta spot welding process; also the welding current range improved by 50% in the delta spot welding, higher than in the inverter resistance welding. To conclude, the delta spot welding process adopting the process tapes contributes to improving the welding quality for dissimilar metals (Al5052 and DP590) due to a decrease in IMC layer.

  20. Research of precise pulse plasma arc powder welding technology of thin-walled inner hole parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhanming; Du Xiaokun; Sun Xiaofeng; Song Wei

    2017-01-01

    The inner hole parts played an oriented or supporting role in engineering machinery and equipment,which are prone to appear surface damages such as wear,strain and corrosion.The precise pulse plasma arc powder welding method is used for surface damage repairing of inner hole parts in this paper.The working principle and process of the technology are illustrated,and the microstructure and property of repairing layer by precise pulse plasma powder welding and CO2 gas shielded welding are tested and observed by microscope,micro hardness tester and X-ray residual stress tester etc.Results showed that the substrate deformation of thin-walled inner hole parts samples by precise pulse plasma powder welding is relatively small.The repair layer and substrate is metallurgical bonding,the transition zones (including fusion zone and heat affected zone) are relatively narrow and the welding quality is good.h showed that the thin-walled inner hole parts can be repaired by this technology and equipment.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Electric Current-Aided Laser Stake Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinge Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on the weld morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the welded joints were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the aided electric current should be no greater than a certain maximum value. Upon increasing the aided electric current, the weld width at the skin and stringer faying surface obviously increased, but there was an insignificant change in the penetration depth. Furthermore, the electric current and pressing force should be chosen to produce an expected weld width at the faying surface, whereas the laser power and welding speed should be primarily considered to obtain an optimal penetration depth. The tensile shear specimens failed across the faying surface or failed in the weld zone of the skin. The specimens that failed in the weld of the skin could resist a higher tensile shear load compared with specimens that failed across the faying surface. The microstructural observations and microhardness results demonstrated that the tensile shear load capacity of the aluminum alloy welded T-joint was mainly determined by the weld width at the faying surface.

  2. Diffractive optics for reduction of hot cracking in pulsed mode Nd:YAG laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olesen, Søren; Roos, Sven-Olov

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the susceptibility to hot cracking in pulsed mode laser welding of austenitic stainless steel, an optical system for reduction of the cooling rate is sought developed. Based on intensive numerical simulations, an optical system producing three focused spots is made. In a number...

  3. Multi-objective Optimization of Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Using Neuro NSGA-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kamal; Pal, Surjya K.

    2018-05-01

    Weld quality is a critical issue in fabrication industries where products are custom-designed. Multi-objective optimization results number of solutions in the pareto-optimal front. Mathematical regression model based optimization methods are often found to be inadequate for highly non-linear arc welding processes. Thus, various global evolutionary approaches like artificial neural network, genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed. The present work attempts with elitist non-dominated sorting GA (NSGA-II) for optimization of pulsed gas metal arc welding process using back propagation neural network (BPNN) based weld quality feature models. The primary objective to maintain butt joint weld quality is the maximization of tensile strength with minimum plate distortion. BPNN has been used to compute the fitness of each solution after adequate training, whereas NSGA-II algorithm generates the optimum solutions for two conflicting objectives. Welding experiments have been conducted on low carbon steel using response surface methodology. The pareto-optimal front with three ranked solutions after 20th generations was considered as the best without further improvement. The joint strength as well as transverse shrinkage was found to be drastically improved over the design of experimental results as per validated pareto-optimal solutions obtained.

  4. Subminiature eddy-current transducers designed to study welded joints of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, V. N.; Dmitriev, S. F.; Katasonov, A. O.; Sagalakov, A. M.; Ishkov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Eddy current transducers (ECT) are used to construct a sensor for investigating titanium sheets connected by a welded joint. The paper provides key technical information about the eddy current transducer used and describes the procedure of measurements that makes it possible to control defects in welded joints of titanium alloys. It is capable of automatically changing the filtering cutoff frequency and operating frequency of the device. Experiments were conducted on welded VT1-0 titanium plates. The paper contains the results of these measurements. The dependence data facilitates the assessment of the quality of the welded joints and helps make an educated conclusion about welding quality.

  5. Pulsed eddy currents: principle and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Coutanceau, N.

    1993-04-01

    Eddy currents are widely used as a non destructive testing technique specially for heat exchanger testing. The specificities of pulsed eddy current testing are analyzed in terms of probe design and signal processing. The specific applications are detailed. They are divided in two parts. First part, deals with the two main applications of the high peak energy supplied to the probe. One concerns the design of focused probes used for the detection of small defects in irradiated fuel rods. The other concerns the saturation of ferromagnetic materials in order to test the full thickness of the exchanger tubes. Second part, deals with applications of the wide and low frequency spectrum generated by the pulse source. It enables the testing of thick materials, and the detection of sub-surface defects. It has been tested on austenitic steel (nuclear pressure vessel nozzle), multilayered structures of aluminium alloys (aeronautics) and sleeved structures (nuclear pressure vessel head penetrations through thermal sleeves)

  6. Applicability evaluation of eddy current testing for underwater laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Kasuya, Takashi; Ueno, Souichi; Ochiai, Makoto; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We clarified a defect detecting capability of eddy current testing (ECT) as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding. An underwater laser beam welding procedure includes groove caving as a preparation, laser beam welding in groove and welding surface grinding as a post treatment. Therefore groove and grinded welding surface inspections are required underwater. We curried out defect detection tests using three kinds of specimens simulated a groove, reactor vessel nozzle dissimilar metal welding materials and a laser beam welding material with a cross coil ECT probe. From experimental results, we confirmed that it is possible to detect 0.3 mm or more depth electro-discharge machining slits on machining surfaces in all specimens and an ECT has possibility as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding. (author)

  7. Modelling the transient behaviour of pulsed current tungsten-inert-gas weldpools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. S.; Zheng, W.; Wu, L.

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional model is established to simulate the pulsed current tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) welding process. The goal is to analyse the cyclic variation of fluid flow and heat transfer in weldpools under periodic arc heat input. To this end, an algorithm, which is capable of handling the transience, nonlinearity, multiphase and strong coupling encountered in this work, is developed. The numerical simulations demonstrate the transient behaviour of weldpools under pulsed current. Experimental data are compared with numerical results to show the effectiveness of the developed model.

  8. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  9. Monitoring of the submerged arc welding process using current and voltage transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G.; Velez, M.; Espinosa, M.A.; Santos, O.; Barrera, E.; Gomez, G.

    1996-01-01

    Welding by fusion is one of the most used techniques to join materials in the manufacture industry. given the increase in applications of this welding process and the demand of more quality in the welding deposits, these welding processes are good candidates for the improvement of their instrumentation and control. Any improvement in the control technique will have a positive effect in the quality and productivity of the welding process. Some of the most significant variables in the submerged arc welding process are: current, voltage and torch speed. For the instrumentation of this research work, two transducers were designed, one for CD current monitoring and one for CD voltage monitoring of the welding machine. The design of both transducers includes an isolation amplifier. Graphical programming and the concept of virtual instrumentation were the main tools used for the design of the data acquisition system and the signal processing task. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Pulsed high current ion beam processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Perry, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pulsed high voltage ion source is considered for use in ion beam processing for the surface modification of materials, and deposition of conducting films on different substrates. The source consists of an Arkad'ev-Marx high voltage generator, a vacuum ion diode based on explosive ion emission, and a vacuum chamber as substrate holder. The ion diode allows conducting films to be deposited from metal or allow sources, with ion beam mixing, onto substrates held at a pre-selected temperature. The main variables can be set in the ranges: voltage 100-700 kV, pulse length 0.3 μs, beam current 1-200 A depending on the ion chosen. The applications of this technology are discussed in semiconductor, superconductor and metallizing applications as well as the direction of future development and cost of these devices for commercial application. 14 refs., 6 figs

  11. Use of eddy current mixes to solve a weld examination application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; LaBoissonniere, A.

    1995-01-01

    The augmentation of typical nondestructive (i.e., ultrasound) weld inspection techniques by the use of eddy current tools may significantly enhance the quality and reliability of weld inspections. One recent example is the development of an eddy current technique for use in the examination of BWR core shroud welds, where multi-frequency mixes are used to eliminate signals coming from the weld material so that the examination of the heat affected zone is enhanced. An analysis tool most commonly associated with ultrasound examinations, the C-Scan based on gated information, may be implemented with eddy current data to enhance analysis

  12. [Calculation and analysis of arc temperature field of pulsed TIG welding based on Fowler-Milne method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hua, Xue-Ming; Wu, Yi-Xiong; Li, Fang

    2012-09-01

    Pulsed TIG welding is widely used in industry due to its superior properties, and the measurement of arc temperature is important to analysis of welding process. The relationship between particle densities of Ar and temperature was calculated based on the theory of spectrum, the relationship between emission coefficient of spectra line at 794.8 nm and temperature was calculated, arc image of spectra line at 794.8 nm was captured by high speed camera, and both the Abel inversion and Fowler-Milne method were used to calculate the temperature distribution of pulsed TIG welding.

  13. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  14. Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Energy on Strength of Fillet Lap Laser Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. N. M.; Ishak, M.; Aiman, M. H.; Idris, S. R. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.

    2017-09-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy have been hugely applied in the aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries. However, welding thin sheet AZ31B was challenging due to its properties which is easily to evaporated especially using conventional fusion welding method such as metal inert gas (MIG). Laser could be applied to weld this metal since it produces lower heat input. The application of fiber laser welding has been widely since this type of laser could produce better welding product especially in the automotive sectors. Low power fiber laser was used to weld this non-ferrous metal where pulse wave (PW) mode was used. Double fillet lap joint was applied to weld as thin as 0.6 mm thick of AZ31B and the effect of pulsed energy on the strength was studied. Bond width, throat length, and penetration depth also was studied related to the pulsed energy which effecting the joint. Higher pulsed energy contributes to the higher fracture load with angle of irradiation lower than 3 °

  15. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagov, P B; Drenin, A S; Zinoviev, M A

    2017-01-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding. (paper)

  16. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagov, P. B.; Drenin, A. S.; Zinoviev, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding.

  17. Study of 2219 aluminum alloy using direct current A-TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zou, Jiasheng

    2017-07-01

    Direct current A-TIG (DCEN A-TIG) welding using special active agent had eliminated the pores and the oxidation of 2219 high-strength aluminum alloy in welding. Addition of AlF3-25% LiF active agent to DCEN A-TIG welding and arc morphology showed a trailing phenomenon. However, the change in arc morphology was not remarkable when AlF3-75% LiF active agent was added. Addition of AlF3-75% LiF active agent can refine the grain size of DCEN A-TIG joint. The mechanical properties of the weld were optimal at 10% AlF3-75% LiF active agent. Compared with AC TIG and AC A-TIG welding, DCEN A-TIG welding yielded better results for 2219 Al alloy.

  18. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 μm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 μm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 μm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam

  19. Contribution to the study of an on line inspection system for pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Stephane

    1999-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of a on line inspection system for pulsed Nd 3+ :YAG laser welding operations. During a welding operation, laser-material interaction results in the emission of signals (optical, acoustical, electrical, thermal), characteristic of its behavior. On line inspection is based on the hypothesis that the signals evolutions, measured by sensors such as photodiodes, microphones.., may be correlated with the welding defects. Laser weld quality inspection can be done by the machine qualification (before and during welding), and by on line monitoring of the welding operation. The similarity of the signals produced by pulsed lasers (machine or interaction) has led us to develop a specific data acquisition and processing software. Signal processing tools utilization (Fourier and wavelets transforms) in conjunction with classification techniques (stress polytopes), introduces an innovating on line inspection approach. Discriminant parameters determination (signals/defect correlation) becomes thus automatic and non subjective. The developed prototype is not dedicated to the detection of a particular defect because the classification operator is a supervised one and needs a learning phase. lt has been validated on welding defects which are easy to deal with, and then applied to a precise production control at the Nuclear Fabrications and Technology Division of the Valduc Center of the French Atomic Energy Agency. (author) [fr

  20. An investigation on weld quality characteristics of pulsed current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Austenitic stainless steels are probably the most commonly used material of all the ... reported that Zr(Cr, Fe)2 intermetallic compound and Zr2Fe–Zr2Ni eutectic ... were used to analyze the microstructure and fracture characteristics of the.

  1. An investigation on weld quality characteristics of pulsed current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    generally defined as an iron alloy containing a minimum of 12 wt. ... When steel is held at critical temperature range (600-800 °C) chromium precipitates out of the matrix and forms chrome carbides ..... Prasad K.S., Rao C.S., Rao D.N., 2011a.

  2. Multifrequency eddy-current inspection of seam weld in steel sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Dodd, C.V.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1985-04-01

    Multifrequency eddy-current techniques were used to perform a continuous on-line inspection of the seam weld in the steel jacket for a superconducting cable. The inspection was required to detect both surface and internal weld flaws in the presence of a large, highly conductive central conductor. Raw eddy-current data were recorded on magnetic tape, and test properties such as discontinuity size and weld penetration were determined by mathematically fitting these data to coefficients developed with representative standards. A sophisticated computer-controlled scanning technique was applied, and a unique scanning device was developed to provide full coverage of the weld and heat-affected zone. The techniques used to develop this multifrequency eddy-current examination are described in this report along with the test equipment, test procedures, and computer programs.

  3. Multifrequency eddy-current inspection of seam weld in steel sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.H.; Dodd, C.V.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1985-04-01

    Multifrequency eddy-current techniques were used to perform a continuous on-line inspection of the seam weld in the steel jacket for a superconducting cable. The inspection was required to detect both surface and internal weld flaws in the presence of a large, highly conductive central conductor. Raw eddy-current data were recorded on magnetic tape, and test properties such as discontinuity size and weld penetration were determined by mathematically fitting these data to coefficients developed with representative standards. A sophisticated computer-controlled scanning technique was applied, and a unique scanning device was developed to provide full coverage of the weld and heat-affected zone. The techniques used to develop this multifrequency eddy-current examination are described in this report along with the test equipment, test procedures, and computer programs

  4. The influence of laser pulse waveform on laser-TIG hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Luo, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    By dividing laser pulse duration into two parts, three kinds of laser waveforms are designed, including a high power density pulse (HPDP) laser in a short duration set at the beginning of the laser waveform. This paper aims to find out the laser pulse waveform and idiographic critical values of HPDP, which can affect the magnesium penetration in laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) hybrid welding. Results show that when the laser pulse duration of HPDP is not more than 0.4 ms, the welding penetration values of lasers with HPDP are larger than otherwise. Also, the welding penetration values of laser with HPDP have increased by up to 26.1%. It has been found that with HPDP, the laser can form the keyhole more easily because the interaction between laser and the plate is changed, when the TIG arc preheats the plate. Besides, the laser with high power density and short duration strikes on the plates so heavily that the corresponding background power can penetrate into the bottom of the keyhole and maintain the keyhole open, which facilitates the final welding penetration.

  5. Current pulse generator of an induction accelerator electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskij, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtejn, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Thyristor generator forming in betatron electromagnet coil sinusoidal and quasisinusoidal current unipolar pulses, the field being deforced at the beginning of acceleration cycle, and with the pulse flat top in the cycle end, is described. The current amplitude is controlled by pulse-phase method. The current pulse time shift permitted to decrease the loss rate in the accumulating capacitor. The generator is used in systems with 1-10 ms pulse duration, electromagnet magnetic field maximal energy - 45-450 J, the voltage amplitude in the coil 960-1500 V and amplitude of the current passing the coil 100-500 A, the repetition frequency being 50-200 Hz. In particular, the generator is used to supply betatrons designed for defectoscopy in nonstationary conditions, the accelerated electron energy being 4, 6, 8 and 15 MeV

  6. Consolidation of materials by pulse-discharge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhakov, E. L.; Nescoromniy, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The article presents the research and the analysis of the pulse-discharge processes of capacitor discharge sintering: CD Stud Welding, capacitor discharge percussion welding (CDPW), high-voltage capacitor welding with an inductive-dynamic drive (HVCW with IDD), pulse electric current sintering (PECS) of powders. The comparative analysis of the impact parameter is presented.

  7. Defect detectability of eddy current testing for underwater laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Souichi; Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Ochiai, Makoto; Kasuya, Takashi; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We clarified defect detectability of eddy current testing (ECT) as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding works of dissimilar metal welding (DMW) of reactor vessel nozzle. The underwater laser beam welding procedure includes groove caving as a preparation, laser beam welding in the grooves and welded surface grinding as a post treatment. Therefore groove and welded surface inspections are required in the underwater condition. The ECT is a major candidate as this inspection technique because a penetrant testing is difficult to perform in the underwater condition. Several kinds of experiments were curried out using a cross coil an ECT probe and ECT data acquisition system in order to demonstrate the ECT defect detectability. We used specimens, simulating groove and DMW materials at an RV nozzle, with electro-discharge machining (EDM) slits over it. Additionally, we performed a detection test for artificial stress corrosion cracking (SCC) defects. From these experimental results, we confirmed that an ECT was possible to detect EDM slits 0.3 mm or more in depth and artificial SCC defects 0.02 mm to 0.48 mm in depth on machined surface. Furthermore, the underwater ECT defect detectability is equivalent to that in air. We clarified an ECT is sufficiently usable as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding works. (author)

  8. Influence of selected coatings on the welding result during Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW): Presentation held at 9. Internationales Lasersymposium und Internationalen Fügetechnischen Symposium "Tailored Joining" 2016, Dresden, 22.-24.2.2016

    OpenAIRE

    Bellmann, Jörg; Lueg-Althoff, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) has a great potential for large-scale industrial production. It is a clean and fast joining technique favorable for the generation of strong atomic bonded areas between similar and dissimilar metals. For example, aluminum and steel can be welded without formation of critical intermetallic phases due to the high-speed collision and the absence of external heat. Since the weld quality depends on the material’s behavior at the collision zone, surface layers in that r...

  9. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  10. Reducing the beam current in Linac4 in pulse to pulse mode.

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In order to deliver different beam intensities to users, we studied the possibility of varying the Linac4 beam current at PS Booster injection in pulse to pulse mode. This report gives the possible configurations of Linac4 Low and Medium Energy Beam Transport lines (LEBT and MEBT) that lead to a consistent current reduction.

  11. Weld nugget formation in resistance spot welding of new lightweight sandwich material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagüés Tanco, J.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    Weldability of a new lightweight sandwich material, LITECOR®, by resistance spot welding is analyzed by experiments and numerical simulations. The spot welding process is accommodated by a first pulse squeezing out the non-conductive polymer core of the sandwich material locally to allow metal......–metal contact. This is facilitated by the use of a shunt tool and is followed by a second pulse for the actual spot welding and nugget formation. A weldability lobe in the time-current space of the second pulse reveals a process window of acceptable size for automotive assembly lines. Weld growth curves...... with experimental results in the range of welding parameters leading to acceptable weld nugget sizes. The validated accuracy of the commercially available software proves the tool useful for assisting the choice of welding parameters....

  12. Numerical and experimental evaluation of residual strains induced by pulsed laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touvrey, C.; Bruyere, V.; Namy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the residual strains induced by different welding processes during the assembly of two Ti6Al4V thin sheets. Several welding configurations and two means (pulsed laser and continuous one) are tested. The first part of the study intends to experimentally quantify strains induced by laser-matter interaction when one of the plates can freely bend. In this configuration the residual stresses are minimum, and consequently the strains measurement constitute a good indicator of the mechanical evolution. The displacements are in-situ reported thanks to a mechanical sensor. The second part of the study is dedicated to the numerical modeling of the processes. Unfortunately, the model is not completely predictive and appears to be oversimplified to describe the measured distortion. As it appears difficult to model the laser-matter interaction (especially in the case of many impacts recovering), we have adopted an equivalent approach to simulate the thermal evolution within the work pieces. An optimization procedure has been developed to determine an equivalent thermal flux, which leads to a melted zone shape in good agreement with experimental evaluations. The thermo-mechanical problem is computed by means of the finite elements software COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are compared to experimental data (displacement measurements) throughout the complete simulation. We plan to apply the complete model for more complex geometries, involving the generation of residual stresses. (authors)

  13. Wavelength stabilisation during current pulsing of tapered laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2009-01-01

    The use of external feedback to stabilise the frequency of a tapered laser during current pulsing is reported. Using this technique more than 20 W of peak power in 60 ns pulses from the tapered laser is obtained and owing to the external feedback, the laser is tunable in the 778-808 nm range...

  14. Laser Spot Welding of Copper-aluminum Joints Using a Pulsed Dual Wavelength Laser at 532 and 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritt, Peter; Hagenlocher, Christian; Kizler, Christine; Weber, Rudolf; Rüttimann, Christoph; Graf, Thomas

    A modulated pulsed laser source emitting green and infrared laser light is used to join the dissimilar metals copper and aluminum. The resultant dynamic welding process is analyzed using the back reflected laser light and high speed video observations of the interaction zone. Different pulse shapes are applied to influence the melt pool dynamics and thereby the forming grain structure and intermetallic phases. The results of high-speed images and back-reflections prove that a modulation of the pulse shape is transferred to oscillations of the melt pool at the applied frequency. The outcome of the melt pool oscillation is shown by the metallurgically prepared cross-section, which indicates different solidification lines and grain shapes. An energy-dispersivex-ray analysis shows the mixture and the resultant distribution of the two metals, copper and aluminum, within the spot weld. It can be seen that the mixture is homogenized the observed melt pool oscillations.

  15. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  16. Proposta de roteiro para a determinação das variáveis de soldagem do Processo TIG pulsado aplicado à soldagem de chapas finas Proposal of roadmap for determining the variables of pulsed TIG welding process applied to welding of thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Vieira da Cunha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na soldagem TIG pulsada a corrente varia entre dois níveis bem definidos de energia numa determinada frequência, sendo, portanto, necessário a regulagem de um conjunto de variáveis composto pela corrente de pulso, tempo de pulso, corrente de base, tempo de base, além da velocidade de soldagem. Entretanto, apesar de ser uma técnica tão amplamente difundida, na prática estas variáveis de soldagem muitas vezes são reguladas de forma arbitrária. Isto pode conduzir ao uso ineficiente da pulsação da corrente quando considerado o resultado final da solda, bem como nos aspectos de produtividade. Diante desta carência, este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um roteiro desenvolvido com o intuito de suprir a necessidade prática de se estabelecer critérios para auxiliar a determinação das variáveis da soldagem TIG pulsada, tomando como premissa a largura desejada para o cordão de solda final, a sobreposição entre os pontos de solda que compõem o cordão e a velocidade de soldagem. Por fim, é apresentada uma aplicação deste roteiro na soldagem "bead on plate" de chapas de aço inox com 1,2 mm de espessura.In pulsed TIG welding the current varies between two well-defined energy levels in a given frequency being, therefore, necessary to the adjustment of a set of variables consisting of the peak current, peak time, background current, background time and the welding speed. However, despite being a technique so widespread, in practice these welding variables are often regulated arbitrarily. This can lead to inefficient use of the pulsed current regarding the end result of the weld as well as in the aspects of productivity. Given this shortage, this paper aims to present a roadmap developed in order to meet the practical need to establish criteria to assist in the determination of pulsed TIG welding variables, taking as its premise the desired width of the weld bead, overlap between the weld points comprising the weld bead and the

  17. Computerized simulation of YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V): experimental characterization and modelling of the thermomechanical aspects of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Y.

    2007-09-01

    This work is a part of study which goal is to realize a computer modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena occurring during the YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V). The filet welding has different heterogeneities (microstructural and mechanical). In fact, the temperature causes microstructural changes (phase transformations, precipitations) and modifies the mechanical properties. Thermomechanical modelling has thus to be established for the welding of TA6V. (author)

  18. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser; Soldagem do aco superduplex UNS S32750 com laser pulsado Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A., E-mail: ventrella@dem.feis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-07-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  19. Application of eddy current inspection to the Inconel weld of BWR internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Eiji; Yusa, Noritaka

    2004-01-01

    In order to definite the basic specifications of application of ECT (Eddy Current Test) to Inconel weld of BWR internals, the inspection and numerical analysis were carried out. The characteristics of the existing ECT probe were studied by making sample as same as CRD stud tube, measuring the relative permeability and electric conductivity of Inconel and alloy and evaluating ECT probe. On the basis of the results obtained, the basic specifications were determined and a new eddy current probe for inspection was designed and produced. The new ECT probe was able to detect small notch in Inconel weld, to classify the defects by eddy current inspection signal and sizing the length and depth. It is concluded that the new ECT probe is able to apply the Inconel weld of BWR internals. (S.Y.)

  20. Modeling of Pulsed Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mu; Zheng Yaru; Fan Yujia; Zhang Nan; Liu Chengsen; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent model was adopted to study the time evolution of low-voltage pulsed DC glow discharge. The distributions of electric field, ion density and electron density in nitrogen were investigated in our simulation, and the temporal shape of the discharge current was also obtained. Our results show that the dynamic behaviors of the discharge depends strongly on the applied pulse voltage, and the use of higher pulse voltages results in a significantly increase of discharge current and a decrease of discharge delay time. The current-voltage characteristic calculated by adjusting secondary electron emission coefficient for different applied pulse voltage under the gas pressure of 1 Torr is found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Research of long pulse high current diode radial insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jie; Chang Anbi; Hu Kesong; Liu Qingxiang; Ma Qiaosheng; Liu Zhong

    2002-01-01

    A radial insulation structure which is used in long pulse high current diode is introduced. The theory of vacuum flashover and the idea of design are briefly introduced. In the research, cone-shaped insulator was used. The geometry structure parameters were optimized by simulating the static electrical field distribution. Experiment was done on a pulse power source with 200 ns pulse width. The maximum voltage 750 kV was obtained, and the average stand-off electrical field of insulator is about 50 kV/cm

  2. Modeling and application of plasma charge current in deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Chen, Wuzhu; Jiang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Tian, Zhiling

    2003-01-01

    Plasma charge current distribution during deep penetration CO 2 laser welding was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The laser-induced plasma above the workpiece surface expands up to the nozzle, driven by the particle concentration gradient, forming an electric potential between the workpiece and the nozzle due to the large difference between the diffusion velocities of the ions and the electrons. The plasma-induced current obtained by electrically connecting the nozzle and the workpiece can be increased by adding a negative external voltage. For a fixed set of welding conditions, the plasma charge current increases with the external voltage to a saturation value. The plasma charge current decreases as the nozzle-to-workpiece distance increases. Therefore, closed-loop control of the nozzle-to-workpiece distance for laser welding can be based on the linear relationship between the plasma charge current and the distance. In addition, the amount of plasma above the keyhole can be reduced by a transverse magnetic field, which reduces the attenuation of the incident laser power by the plasma so as to increase the laser welding thermal efficiency

  3. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  4. Tig welding produces leak-proof joints for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A pulsed welding apparatus using a Hobart Cyber-tig power source with programmed pulsed current has been developed to produce leak-free welds required for a new hermetically sealed leak-free valve for use in nuclear power plants. Advantages of the technique are precise control over travel speed and filler metal addition allowing the weld to be repeated with precision. (R.A.)

  5. Low-Frequency Pulsed Current Versus Kilohertz-Frequency Alternating Current: A Scoping Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Frasson, Viviane Bortoluzzi

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of low-frequency pulsed current versus kilohertz-frequency alternating current in terms of evoked force, discomfort level, current intensity, and muscle fatigability; to discuss the physiological mechanisms of each neuromuscular electrical stimulation type; and to determine if kilohertz-frequency alternating current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for clinical treatment. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTSDiscus databases using the terms Russian current or kilohertz current or alternating current or pulsed current or Aussie current and torque or discomfort or fatigue or current intensity, and through citation tracking up to July 2017. Two independent reviewers selected studies comparing the use of the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation currents. Studies describing maximal current intensity tolerated and the main effects of the 2 different current types on discomfort, muscle force, and fatigability were independently reviewed. Data were systematized according to (1) methodology; (2) electrical current characteristics; and (3) outcomes on discomfort level, evoked force, current intensity, and muscle fatigability. The search revealed 15 articles comparing the 2 current types. Kilohertz-frequency alternated current generated equal or less force, similar discomfort, similar current intensity for maximal tolerated neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and more fatigue compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Similar submaximal levels of evoked force revealed higher discomfort and current intensity for kilohertz-frequency alternated current compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Available evidence does not support the idea that kilohertz-frequency alternated current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for strength training and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  6. Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

  7. Application of eddy current inversion technique to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds with rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Machida, Eiji; Janousek, Ladislav; Rebican, Mihai; Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of eddy current inversion techniques to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds with rough surfaces. For this purpose, a plate Inconel weld specimen, which models the welding of a stub tube in a boiling water nuclear reactor is fabricated, and artificial notches machined into the specimen. Eddy current inspections using six different eddy current probes are conducted and efficiencies were evaluated for the six probes for weld inspection. It is revealed that if suitable probes are applied, an Inconel weld does not cause large noise levels during eddy current inspections even though the surface of the weld is rough. Finally, reconstruction of the notches is performed using eddy current signals measured using the uniform eddy current probe that showed the best results among the six probes in this study. A simplified configuration is proposed in order to consider the complicated configuration of the welded specimen in numerical simulations. While reconstructed profiles of the notches are slightly larger than the true profiles, quite good agreements are obtained in spite of the simple approximation of the configuration, which reveals that eddy current testing would be an efficient non-destructive testing method for the sizing of defects in Inconel welds

  8. Standard practice for examination of welds using the alternating current field measurement technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during alternating current field measurement examination of welds for baseline and service-induced surface breaking discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on welds in any metallic material. 1.3 This practice does not establish weld acceptance criteria. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system might not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Applicability of eddy current inversion techniques to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds of BWR internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Janousek, Ladislav; Rebican, Mihai; Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo; Machida, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of eddy current inversion techniques to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds with rough surfaces. For this purpose, a plate Inconel weld specimen, which models the welding of a stub tube in a boiling water nuclear reactor, is fabricated, and artificial notches machined into the specimen. Eddy current inspections using six probes in weld inspection evaluated. It is revealed that if suitable probes are applied, an Inconel weld does not provide large noise signals in eddy current inspections even though the surface of the weld is rough. Finally, reconstruction of the notches are performed using eddy current signals measured with the use of the uniform eddy current probe that showed the best results among the six probes in the inspection. A simplified configuration is proposed in order to consider the complicated configuration of the welded specimen in numerical simulations. While reconstructed profiles of the notches are slightly larger than the true profiles, quite good agreements are obtained in spite of the simple approximation of the configuration, which reveals that eddy current testing would be an efficient non-destructive testing method for the sizing of defects in Inconel welds. (author)

  10. New Pulsed Power Technology for High Current Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G J

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed

  11. High-power CW and long-pulse lasers in the green wavelength regime for copper welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricking, Sebastian; Huber, Rudolf; Klausmann, Konrad; Kaiser, Elke; Stolzenburg, Christian; Killi, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We report on industrial high-power lasers in the green wavelength regime. By means of a thin disk oscillator and a resonator-internal nonlinear crystal for second harmonic generation we are able to extract up to 8 kW pulse power in the few-millisecond range at a wavelength of 515 nm with a duty cycle of 10%. Careful shaping and stabilization of the polarization and spectral properties leads to a high optical-to-optical efficiency larger than 55%. The beam parameter product is designed and measured to be below 5 mm·mrad which allows the transport by a fiber with a 100 μm core diameter. The fiber and beam guidance optics are adapted to the green wavelength, enabling low transmission losses and stable operation. Application tests show that this laser is perfectly suited for copper welding due to the superior absorption of the green wavelength compared to IR, which allows us to produce weld spots with an unprecedented reproducibility in diameter and welding depth. With an optimized set of parameters we could achieve a splatter-free welding process of copper, which is crucial for welding electronic components. Furthermore, the surface condition does not influence the welding process when the green wavelength is used, which allows to skip any expensive preprocessing steps like tin-coating. With minor changes we could operate the laser in cw mode and achieved up to 1.7 kW of cw power at 515 nm with a beam parameter product of 2.5 mm·mrad. These parameters make the laser perfectly suitable for additional applications such as selective laser melting of copper.

  12. Three-dimensional modelling of arc behaviour and gas shield quality in tandem gas-metal arc welding using anti-phase pulse synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnick, M; Lohse, M; Fuessel, U; Wilhelm, G; Murphy, A B

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a transient three-dimensional model of an anti-phase-synchronized pulsed tandem gas-metal arc welding process, which is used to analyse arc interactions and their influence on the gas shield flow. The shielding gases considered are pure argon and a mixture of argon with 18% CO 2 . Comparison of the temperature fields predicted by the model with high-speed images indicates that the essential features of the interactions between the arcs are captured. The paper demonstrates strong arc deflection and kinking, especially during the low-current phase of the pulse, in agreement with experimental observations. These effects are more distinct for the argon mixture with 18% CO 2 . The second part of the paper demonstrates the effects of arc deflection and instabilities on the shielding gas flow and the occurrence of air contamination in the process region. The results allow an improved understanding of the causes of periodic instabilities and weld seam imperfections such as porosity, spatter, heat-tint oxidation and fume deposits.

  13. Method for measuring the resistive transition and critical current in superconductors using pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, W.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the intragranular critical current of a granular superconductive material, comprising the steps of: conducting a substantially rectangular electronic pulse through said material so as to conduct a current through said material such that when said intragranular critical current of said material is exceeded, any grains present in said material are in a superconducting state when said current is less than said intragranular critical current, said material having a critical temperature; measuring said current through said material while conducting said pulse; measuring a voltage difference across said material while conducting said pulse; and determining said intragranular critical current through said material by varying said current to discern a current level at which an electrical resistance of said material increases to that of a non-superconducting state as the grains of said material transition from said superconducting to said non-superconducting state

  14. Pulsed transport critical currents of Bi2212 tapes in pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacki, K [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Gilewski, A; Klamut, J [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Newson, M; Jones, H [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity and Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    If high-T{sub C} superconductors are ever to be used in high-field applications, it is vital that the critical surfaces can be mapped under high-field conditions. However, the latest superconductors have high currents even at fields over 20 T, making accurate measurements very difficult due to the thermal and mechanical problems. In this paper, we compare measurements on BSCCO-2212 tape using a number of different methods, particularly an innovative pulsed transport current and pulsed field mode. We show how the analysis of the voltage signal from BSCCO-2212 tape in pulsed conditions may be used to extract the critical current in quasi-stationary conditions. The effect of a metallic substrate on the results is also briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Determination of the inter- and intra-granular critical currents in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzo, B; Iliescu, S; Bartolome, E; Palau, A; Granados, X; Puig, T; Obradors, X; Amoros, J; Carrera, M

    2005-01-01

    A method for determining simultaneously the inter- and intra-grain critical currents has been developed in welded YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) ceramics by solving the Inverse Problem for local maps of the magnetic field in the remanent state. From that current distribution, the current density flowing through the superconducting weld as well as the current density circulating inside the grains can be deduced. The method is discussed and it is applied to several examples of YBCO/Ag/YBCO welds. The results obtained show that it is possible to obtain superconducting joints with a quality at the same level as that of the starting material

  16. Principles and applications of multiplane pulsed eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.; Champonnois, F.; Joffre, F.

    1989-01-01

    A pulsed device using eddy currents, producing 8 shape signals on the screen like a sine wave system, has been developed. The method has been applied to the well-known problem of defects in stainless claddings of PWR reactor vessels

  17. Electrodialytic soil remediation enhanced by low frequency pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Mortensen, John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low frequency pulse current on decreasing the polarization and energy consumption during the process of electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the transportation of cations through the cation exchange membrane was the rate...

  18. Numerical Analysis of Through Transmission Pulsed Eddy Current Testing and Effects of Pulse Width Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Kil; Choi, Dong Myung

    2007-01-01

    By using numerical analysis methods, through transmission type pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing is modeled and PEC signal responses due to varying material conductivity, permeability, thickness, lift-off and pulse width are investigated. Results show that the peak amplitude of PEC signal gets reduced and the time to reach the peak amplitude is increased as the material conductivity, permeability, and specimen thickness increase. Also, they indicate that the pulse width needs to be shorter when evaluating the material conductivity and the plate thickness using the peak amplitude, and when the pulse width is long, the peak time is found to be more useful. Other results related to lift-off variation are reported as well

  19. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  20. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ

  1. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  2. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  3. Metallography of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser weld in a RS/PM Al-8Fe-2Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, S.; Baeslack, W.A. III

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the microstructure of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser weld in a rapid solidification/powder metallurgy (RS/PM) Al-8.0 wt.% Fe-2.3 wt.% Mo (Al-8Fe-2Mo) alloy investigated using light microcopy, canning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. This analysis revealed significant microstructure variations across the weld fusion zone (FZ). Near the fusion boundary, a light-etching FZ microstructure was observed to contain submicron dispersoids entrapped in a matrix of fine-sized dendritic alpha aluminum. At the center of the FZ, the presence of relatively coarse-sized intermetallic particles that served as growth centers for coarser dendritic alpha aluminum promoted a dark-etching microstructure. In the boundary between successive melt zones, both a heat-affected zone (HAZ) containing acicular dispersoids and a fusion boundary region (FBR) containing irregular-shaped particles in a coarse-grained dendritic alpha aluminum matrix were observed

  4. Effect of keyhole characteristics on porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa; Ma, Shengnan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between laser keyhole characteristics on the porosity formation during pulsed laser-GTA welding of magnesium alloy. Based on direct observations during welding process, the influences of laser keyhole state on the porosity formation were studied. Results show that the porosities in the joint are always at the bottom of fusion zone of the joint, which is closely related to the keyhole behavior. A large depth to wide ratio always leads to the increase of porosity generation chance. Keeping the keyhole outlet open for a longer time benefits the porosity restriction. Overlap of adjacent laser keyhole can effectively decrease the porosity generation, due to the cutting effect between adjacent laser keyholes. There are threshold overlap rate values for laser keyholes in different state.

  5. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures

  6. GMR-based eddy current probe for weld seam inspection and its non-scanning detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Chao; Li, Yang; Wang, Libin; Cong, Zheng; Zhi, Ya

    2017-04-01

    Eddy current testing is one of the most important non-destructive testing methods for welding defects detection. This paper presents the use of a probe consisting of 4 giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors to detect weld defects. Information from four measuring points above and on both sides of the weld seam is collected at the same time. By setting the GMR sensors' sensing axes perpendicular to the direction of the excitation magnetic field, the information collected mainly reflects the change in the eddy current which is caused by defects. Digital demodulation technology is applied to extract the real part and imaginary part of the GMR sensors' output signals. The variables containing directional information of the magnetic field are introduced. Based on the data from the four GMR (4-GMR) sensors' output signals, four values, Ran, Mean, Var and k are selected as the feature quantities for defect recognition. Experiments are carried out on weld seams with and without defects, and the detection outputs are given in this paper. The 4-GMR probe is also employed to investigate non-scanning weld defect detection and the four feature quantities (Ran, Mean, Var and k) are studied to evaluate weld quality. The non-scanning weld defect detection is presented. A support vector machine is used to classify and discriminate welds with and without defects. Experiments carried out show that through the method in this paper, the recognition rate is 92% for welds without defects and 90% for welds with defects, with an overall recognition rate of 90.9%, indicating that this method could effectively detect weld defects.

  7. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-01-01

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements

  8. Effect of current and travel speed variation of TIG welding on microstructure and hardness of stainless steel SS 316L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Abdillah, Fakhri Aulia; Kurniawan, Budi Agung; Rochiem, Rochman

    2018-04-01

    One of the stainless steel types that widely used in industry is SS 316L, which is austenitic stainless steel. One of the welding methods to join stainless steel is Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), which can affect its morphology, microstructure, strength, hardness, and even lead to cracks in the weld area due to the given heat input. This research has a purpose of analyzing the relationship between microstructure and hardness value of SS 316L stainless steel after TIG welding with the variation of current and travel speed. The macro observation shows a distinct difference in the weld metal and base metal area, and the weld form is not symmetrical. The metallographic test shows the phases that formed in the specimen are austenite and ferrite, which scattered in three welding areas. The hardness test showed that the highest hardness value found in the variation of travel speed 12 cm/min with current 100 A. Welding process and variation were given do not cause any defects in the microstructure, such as carbide precipitation and sigma phase, means that it does not affect the hardness and corrosion resistance of all welded specimen.

  9. A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Pigott, J.; Mckenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs (CVAs) are well established as a method for producing metal plasmas for thin film deposition and as a source of metal ions. Fundamental differences exist between direct current (dc) and pulsed CVAs. We present here results of our investigations into the design and construction of a high-current center-triggered pulsed CVA. Power supply design based on electrolytic capacitors is discussed and optimized based on obtaining the most effective utilization of the cathode material. Anode configuration is also discussed with respect to the optimization of the electron collection capability. Type I and II cathode spots are observed and discussed with respect to cathode surface contamination. An unfiltered deposition rate of 1.7 nm per pulse, at a distance of 100 mm from the source, has been demonstrated. Instantaneous plasma densities in excess of 1x10 19 m -3 are observed after magnetic filtering. Time averaged densities an order of magnitude greater than common dc arc densities have been demonstrated, limited by pulse repetition rate and filter efficiency

  10. Influence of magnetic arc oscillation and current pulsing on microstructure and high temperature tensile strength of alloy 718 TIG weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, K.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of magnetic arc oscillation and current pulsing on the microstructure and high temperature tensile strength of alloy 718 tungsten inert gas weldments. The magnetic arc oscillation technique resulted in refined Laves phase with lesser interconnectivity. The full benefits of current pulsing in breaking the dendrites could not be realized in the present study due to relatively higher heat input used in the welding process. In the direct aged condition weldments prepared using magnetic arc oscillation technique exhibited higher tensile strength due to the presence of refined and lesser-interconnected Laves particles. In the solution treated and aged condition, magnetic arc oscillated weldments exhibited lower tensile strength compared with the weldments made without arc oscillation due to the presence of large amounts of finer δ needles

  11. Effect of current and speed on porosity in autogenous Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding of aluminum alloys A1100 butt joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyardi, Indra; Sunar Baskoro, Ario

    2018-04-01

    Autogenous Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding has been conducted on aluminum alloy A1100. The purpose of this research is to determine the proper current and speed of autogenous TIG welding with butt joint pattern. Variations on welding current are 150 A, 155 A, and 160 A with the variations on welding speed are 1 mm/seconds, 1.1 mm/seconds, 1.2 mm/seconds. The welded results were tested using non-destructive test (NDT) method using X-Ray radiography. After the test, it is found that the appropriate current for the best result without porosity can be achieved using the welding parameter of welding current of 160 A and the welding speed of 1.1 mm seconds.

  12. Several peaks of total current in Trichel pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, O.; Golota, V.; Kadolin, B.; Mankovskyi, S.; Ostroushko, V.; Pashchenko, I.; Taran, G.; Zavada, L.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulations of negative corona at constant voltage in Trichel pulse mode are carried out in assumptions of presence and absence of photoemission from cathode. In absence of photoemission two peaks of total current or the step before the main peak were obtained for very small values of ion-electron emission coefficient. In presence of photoemission there were observed several maximums, connected with instability development of the process based on radiation of photons, photoemission, and avalanche multiplication

  13. Very Fast Current Diagnostic for Linear Pulsed Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, Vincenzo; Delle Side, Domenico; Turco, Vito

    2018-01-01

    Fast current pulses manage lasers and particle accelerators and require sophisticate systems to be detected. At today Rogowski coils are well known. They are designed and built with a toroidal structure. In recently application, flat transmission lines are imploded and for this reason we develop a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. To get deep information from the system, it was approached by means of the theory of the transmission lines. The coil we build presents a resistance but it doesn't influence the rise time of the response, instead the integrating time. We also studied the influence of the magnetic properties of coil support. The new device was able to record pulses of more hundred nanoseconds depending on the inductance, load impedance and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response was characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time ( 100 ps), The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the quality of the response depends both on the manufacture quality of the coil and on the magnetic core characteristics. In biophysical applications often, a double line is employed in order to have a sample as control and a sample stressed by a light source. So, in this case we build two equal plane lines by 100 Ω characteristic resistance connected in parallel. We diagnosed the current present in a line. The attenuation factor resulted to be 11,5 A/V.

  14. Very Fast Current Diagnostic for Linear Pulsed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassisi Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast current pulses manage lasers and particle accelerators and require sophisticate systems to be detected. At today Rogowski coils are well known. They are designed and built with a toroidal structure. In recently application, flat transmission lines are imploded and for this reason we develop a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. To get deep information from the system, it was approached by means of the theory of the transmission lines. The coil we build presents a resistance but it doesn’t influence the rise time of the response, instead the integrating time. We also studied the influence of the magnetic properties of coil support. The new device was able to record pulses of more hundred nanoseconds depending on the inductance, load impedance and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response was characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time (~100 ps, The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the quality of the response depends both on the manufacture quality of the coil and on the magnetic core characteristics. In biophysical applications often, a double line is employed in order to have a sample as control and a sample stressed by a light source. So, in this case we build two equal plane lines by 100 Ω characteristic resistance connected in parallel. We diagnosed the current present in a line. The attenuation factor resulted to be 11,5 A/V.

  15. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  16. Optimization of pulsed laser welding process parameters in order to attain minimum underfill and undercut defects in thin 316L stainless steel foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmanesh, M. R.; Shamanian, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding parameters was done on the lap-joint of a 316L stainless steel foil with the aim of reducing weld defects through response surface methodology. For this purpose, the effects of peak power, pulse-duration, and frequency were investigated. The most important weld defects seen in this method include underfill and undercut. By presenting a second-order polynomial, the above-mentioned statistical method was managed to be well employed to balance the welding parameters. The results showed that underfill increased with the increased power and reduced frequency, it first increased and then decreased with the increased pulse-duration; and the most important parameter affecting it was the power, whose effect was 65%. The undercut increased with the increased power, pulse-duration, and frequency; and the most important parameter affecting it was the power, whose effect was 64%. Finally, by superimposing different responses, improved conditions were presented to attain a weld with no defects.

  17. Dynamic response of HTS composite tapes to pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerovich, V; Sokolovsky, V; Prigozhin, L; Rozman, D

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic voltage-current characteristics of an HTS Ag/BiSCCO composite tape are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The tape is subjected to pulsed currents with different shapes and magnitudes and voltage traces are measured using the four-point method with different locations of potential taps on the sample surface. Clockwise and anticlockwise hysteresis loops are obtained for the same sample depending on the location of the potential taps. The dynamic characteristics deviate substantially from the DC characteristic, especially in the range of low voltages where a criterion for the critical current value is usually chosen (1-10 μV cm -1 ). The critical current determined from dynamic characteristics and its change with the pulse magnitude depend on the location of the potential taps and on the curve branch chosen for the critical current determination (ascending or descending). The theoretical analysis is based on a model of the magnetic flux diffusion into a composite tape for a superconductor described by the flux creep characteristic. Numerical simulation based on this model gives results in good agreement with the experimental ones and explains the observed peculiarities of the dynamic characteristics of HTS composite tapes. The difference between the magnetic diffusion into a tape and a slab is discussed

  18. Surface and near surface defect detection in thick copper EB-welds using eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Lipponen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface inspection of thick copper electron beam (EB) welds plays an important role in the acceptance of nuclear fuel disposal. The main reasons to inspect these components are related to potential manufacturing and handling defects. In this work the data acquisition software, visualising tools for eddy current (EC) measurements and eddy current sensors were developed for detection of unwanted defects. The eddy current equipment was manufactured by IZFP and the visualising software in active co-operation with Posiva and IZFP for the inspections. The inspection procedure was produced during the development of the inspection techniques. The inspection method development aims to qualify the method for surface and near surface defect detection and sizing according to ENIQ. The study includes technical justification to be carried out, and compilation of a defect catalogue and experience from measurements within the Posiva's research on issues related to manufacturing. The depth of penetration in copper components in eddy current testing is rather small. To detect surface breaking defects the eddy current inspection is a good solution. A simple approach was adopted using two techniques: higher frequency was used to detect surface defects and to determine the dimensions of the defects except depth, lower frequency was used to detect defects having a ligament and for sizing of deeper surface breaking defects. The higher frequency was 30 kHz and the lower frequency was 200 Hz. The higher frequency probes were absolute bobbing coils and lower frequency probes combined transmitter - several receiver coils. To evaluate both methods, calibration blocks were manufactured by FNS for weld inspections. These calibration specimens mainly consisted of electron discharge machined notches and holes of varying shapes, lengths and diameters in the range of 1 mm to 20 mm of depth. Also one copper lid specimen with 152 defects was manufactured and used for evaluation of weld inspection

  19. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  20. Investigation on a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new inducer of pulsed eddy current thermography (PECT is presented. The use of the inducer can help avoid the problem of blocking the infrared (IR camera’s view in eddy current thermography technique. The inducer can also provide even heating of the test specimen. This paper is concerned with the temperature distribution law around the crack on a specimen when utilizing the new inducer. Firstly, relative mathematical models are provided. In the following section, eddy current distribution and temperature distribution around the crack are studied using the numerical simulation method. The best separation distance between the inducer and the specimen is also determined. Then, results of temperature distribution around the crack stimulated by the inducer are gained by experiments. Effect of current value on temperature rise is studied as well in the experiments. Based on temperature data, temperature features of the crack are discussed.

  1. Study on pulsed current cathodic protection in a simulated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Milin; Li, Helin [Xi' an Jiao Tong Universitiy (China)]|[Tubular Goods Research Center of China National Petroleum Corp. (China); Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng [Hua Zhong University of Science and Techonology (China)

    2004-07-01

    The pulsed current cathodic protection (PCCP) is a new cathodic protection (CP) technology and shows more advantages over the conventional DC cathodic protection (DCCP) in oil well casing system. However, little information about PCCP is reported. In this research, a simulated CP system was set up in a pool of 3.5 m x 2.0 m x 3.0 m size, in which the effects of the square wave pulsed current (SWPC) parameters (amplitude: IA, frequency: f, duty cycle: P), auxiliary anode distance (d) and media conductivity ({mu}) on the cathodic potential (E) distribution were studied, and the protection effects of PCCP and DCCP were compared. The results show that with increase of the square wave parameters (IA, f, P), the E distribution becomes more negative and the effects of each current parameter are relate closely to the cathode polarizing state. Only with suitable square wave parameters can the whole cathode be effectively protected. With increase of d and {mu}, the E distribution becomes more uniform. Compared with DCCP system, PCCP system has much more uniform E distribution, costs less average current, and gains much better protection effects. Further, the mechanism of PCCP was analyzed. (authors)

  2. Thermal efficiency on welding of AA6061-T6 alloy by modified indirect electric arc and current signals digitalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, R. R.; Barrera, G.; Garcia, R.; Lopez, V. H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the thermal efficiency on welding by modified indirect electric arc technique (MIEA) [1] of the 6061- T6 aluminum alloy are presented. These values are in a range of 90 to 94 %, which depend of the preheating employed. Thermal efficiency was obtained by means of a balance energy which considers the heat input, the amount of melted mass of the welding profiles, and welding parameters during the joining, especially of the arc current data acquisition. Also, some dimensionless parameters were employed in order to determine the approximation grade of the melted pool, the heat affected zone (HAZ), and their corresponding values with the experimental results. (Author) 13 refs

  3. Innovations in electrophoretic deposition: Alternating current and pulsed direct current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-Valdez, Alejandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes emerging developments in the field of alternating current (AC) and pulsed direct current (DC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in aqueous or organic media. Numerous applications of AC-EPD are discussed including two major groups of investigations: (i) AC-EPD to suppress water hydrolysis at high voltages in inorganic (ceramic) coatings and (ii) AC-EPD for deposition of biological entities. The deposition, purification and manipulation of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles by AC-EPD to form specific arrays, for development of sensors and other electronic devices and the application of AC-EPD as method for separation of particles according to their shape or size are also presented. Other applications reviewed relate to the fabrication by AC-EPD of toxic gas sensors from oxides and superconducting layers. The main materials being examined by AC-EPD are inorganic, including carbon nanotubes, TiO 2 nanoparticles, Al 2 O 3 , Si, SnO 2 , ZnO and WO 3 and biological entities, e.g. bacteria cells. For pulsed EPD, the applications reviewed are divided in pulsed current and pulsed voltage EPD. Among the applications of pulsed EPD, the formation of thick films from aqueous suspensions without water decomposition, the fabrication of multilayer and composite materials and the size-selective deposition of ceramic nanoparticles are the most important investigated to date, based on the quality of the coatings and deposits obtained and their relevance for applications.

  4. A ns-pulsed high-current electron beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Gexin; Li, Youzhi; Pan, Yuli

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of a pulse electron beam source which is composed of a gun and pulse system depends on not only the time characteristics of the gun and the pulser, but also their combination. This point become apparent if effects of the electron tansit-time between electrodes are studied. A ferrite transmission line (FTL) pulser is used as a grid driver in this source. It has advantages of providing fast risetime, large peak power output and good loading characteristics. It is these advantages of the pulser that compensates the absence of some technological conditions of manufacturing gun and makes the source better. Our testing showed that the cooperation of both the gun and the pulser produced peak currents in the range of 1 to 9 amps with widths of 2 to 2.5 ns (FWHM) at cathode-to-anode potential of 60 to 82 kv, while the grid drives are about in the range of 1 to 3 kv. In addition, the results of the testing instructed that effects of electron transit-time cannot be ignored when the pulses with widths of several nanoseconds are used as a grid drive. Based on the results, electron transit-time effects on the design of the gun and the beam performances are briefly descussed in this paper. (author)

  5. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  6. Characterization of irradiated fuel rods using pulsed eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.R.; Francis, W.C.

    1975-11-01

    A number of irradiated fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes (''water tubes'') were obtained from the Saxton reactor through arrangements with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for use in subsequent irradiation effects and fuel behavior programs. A comprehensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive characterization program was undertaken on these fuel rods and tubes by ANC to provide baseline data on their characteristics prior to further testing and for comparison against post-post data. This report deals primarily with one portion of the NDT program performed remotely in the hot cells. The portion of interest in this paper is the pulsed eddy current inspection used in the nondestructive phase of the work. 6 references

  7. Research on High Current Pulse Discharges at IPP ASci CR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Prukner, Václav; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Martínková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl. B (2006), s. 259-266 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Pulsed high current capillary discharge * amplified spontaneous emission * soft X-ray laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  8. High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

    1981-03-01

    A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05π cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable

  9. Effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Jie, E-mail: zhanglinjie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2014-07-01

    The effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructures and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V alloy sheets was investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, tensile tests and fatigue tests. A microstructural examination shows that by increasing the overlapping factor, the grains in the fusion zone become coarser, and the width of the heat affected zone increases. As overlapping factor increases, the width of region composed completely of martensite α′ and the secondary α phase in the heat affected zone increases, consequently the gradient of microstructure along the direction from the fusion zone to base metal decreases, so does the gradient of microhardness. The results of tensile and fatigue tests reveal that the joints made using medium overlapping factor exhibit better mechanical properties than those welded with low and high overlapping factors. Based on the experimental results, it can be stated that a sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy can be obtained if an appropriate overlapping factor is used. - Highlights: • The weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy under various overlapping factors was assessed. • Tensile and fatigue tests were conducted with as-welded specimen. • Localized strain across the weld was measured using DIC photogrammetry system. • A sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy is obtained by using right overlapping factor.

  10. Electrical and hydrodynamic characterization of a high current pulsed arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Martins, R; Chemartin, L; Zaepffel, C; Lalande, Ph; Soufiani, A

    2016-01-01

    High current pulsed arcs are of significant industrial interest and, aiming to reduce time and cost, there is progressively more and more need for computation tools that describe and predict the behaviour of these arcs. These simulation codes need inputs and validations by experimental databases, but accurate data is missing for this category of electric discharges. The principal lack of understanding is with respect to the transient phase of the current, which can reach thousands of amperes in a few microseconds. In this paper, we present the work realized on an experimental setup that simulates in the laboratory an arc column subjected to five levels of high pulsed current, ranging from 10 kA to 100 kA, with the last one corresponding to the standard lightning current waveform used in aircraft certification processes. This device was instrumented by high speed video cameras to assess the characteristic sizes of the arc channel and to characterize the shock wave generated by the arc expansion. The arc channel radius was measured over time during the axisymmetric phase and reached 3.2 cm. The position and velocity of the shock wave was determined during the first 140 μs. The background-oriented schlieren method was used to study the shock wave and a model for the light deflection inside the shock wave was developed. The mass density profile of the shock wave was estimated and showed good agreement with Rankine–Hugoniot relations at the wave front. Electrical measurements were also used to estimate the time-dependent resistance and conductivity of the arc for times lasting up to 50 μs. (paper)

  11. Electrical and hydrodynamic characterization of a high current pulsed arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Martins, R.; Chemartin, L.; Zaepffel, C.; Lalande, Ph; Soufiani, A.

    2016-05-01

    High current pulsed arcs are of significant industrial interest and, aiming to reduce time and cost, there is progressively more and more need for computation tools that describe and predict the behaviour of these arcs. These simulation codes need inputs and validations by experimental databases, but accurate data is missing for this category of electric discharges. The principal lack of understanding is with respect to the transient phase of the current, which can reach thousands of amperes in a few microseconds. In this paper, we present the work realized on an experimental setup that simulates in the laboratory an arc column subjected to five levels of high pulsed current, ranging from 10 kA to 100 kA, with the last one corresponding to the standard lightning current waveform used in aircraft certification processes. This device was instrumented by high speed video cameras to assess the characteristic sizes of the arc channel and to characterize the shock wave generated by the arc expansion. The arc channel radius was measured over time during the axisymmetric phase and reached 3.2 cm. The position and velocity of the shock wave was determined during the first 140 μs. The background-oriented schlieren method was used to study the shock wave and a model for the light deflection inside the shock wave was developed. The mass density profile of the shock wave was estimated and showed good agreement with Rankine-Hugoniot relations at the wave front. Electrical measurements were also used to estimate the time-dependent resistance and conductivity of the arc for times lasting up to 50 μs.

  12. Pulsed negative hydrogen source for currents up to one ampere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

    1975-01-01

    During the 2nd Symposium on Ion Sources and Formation of Ion Beams, the development of a Mk II pulsed double slit magnetron source for the production of negative hydrogen ions was discussed. The source was capable of yielding beam currents up to 125 milliamperes, corresponding to current densities of 1.25 A/cm 2 . In order to increase negative hydrogen beam intensities by an order of magnitude (this would be quite useful for initial high energy neutral injector systems on Tokamaks), a larger, Mk III magnetron has been constructed, with the number of slits increased up to six. The idea was to utilize in a more efficient way the plasma width. In addition, such a source geometry will be more adaptable for beam formation and acceleration than single slit structures. With three extraction slits, a negative hydrogen yield of 300 mA was obtained with current densities of 1.2 A/cm 2 ; preliminary results with six extraction slits showed beam currents in excess of half an ampere with averaged current densities in excess of 0.75 A/cm 2 . (U.S.)

  13. Detection and evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel using alternating current field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Li, Ma, Weiping; Pan-Qi, Wen-jiao, Dou; Yuan, Xin'an; Yin, Xiaokang

    2018-04-01

    Stainless steel is widely used in nuclear power plants, such as various high-radioactive pool, tools storage and fuel transportation channel, and serves as an important barrier to stop the leakage of high-radioactive material. NonDestructive Evaluation (NDE) methods, eddy current testing (ET), ultrasonic examination (UT), penetration testing (PT) and hybrid detection method, etc., have been introduced into the inspection of a nuclear plant. In this paper, the Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) was fully applied to detect and evaluate the defects in the welds of the stainless steel. Simulations were carried out on different defect types, crack lengths, and orientation to reveal the relationship between the signals and dimensions to determine whether methods could be validated by the experiment. A 3-axis ACFM probe was developed and three plates including 16 defects, which served in nuclear plant before, were examined by automatic detection equipment. The result shows that the minimum detectable crack length on the surface is 2mm and ACFM shows excellent inspection results for a weld in stainless steel and gives an encouraging prospect of broader application.

  14. Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials Part I: Description of the Welding Methods and Preliminary Calculus of the Electromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. One describes the MIG welding method in which the electromagnet is used as well as its preliminary calculus.

  15. Arc pressure control in GTA welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.E.; Wells, F.M.; Levick, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Relationships are established between the peak current of a pulsed, rectangular current waveform and the pulse current duty cycle under conditions of constant arc power. By appropriate choice of these interrelated parameters, it is shown that the arc pressure may be varied over a wide range even though the arc power is held constant. The methodology is suggested as a means of countering the effect of gravity in 5-G welding, while maintaining constant heat input to the weld. Combined with appropriate penetration sensors, the methodology is additionally suggested as a means of controlling penetration

  16. Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum, zinc , and barium were also present, but they are believed to be an artifact of the CI substrate filter material.) Other metals that appear in the...OPERATIONS As noted earlier, PPI technology is promoted as producing less metal-bearing particulates because less slag and spatter take place. This is...2) Also, less slag and spatter should result in reduced welding time. In addition, PPI reportedly will generate less ozone, carbon monoxide, and

  17. Effect of Pulse Laser Welding Parameters and Filler Metal on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-4.7Mg-0.32Mn-0.21Sc-0.1Zr Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Loginova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pulse laser welding parameters and filler metal on microstructure and mechanical properties of the new heat-treatable, wieldable, cryogenic Al-4.7Mg-0.32Mn-0.21Sc-0.1Zr alloy were investigated. The optimum parameters of pulsed laser welding were found. They were 330–340 V in voltage, 0.2–0.25 mm in pulse overlap with 12 ms duration, and 2 mm/s speed and ramp-down pulse shape. Pulsed laser welding without and with Al-5Mg filler metal led to the formation of duplex (columnar and fine grains as-cast structures with hot cracks and gas porosity as defects in the weld zone. Using Al-5Ti-1B filler metal for welding led to the formation of the fine grain structure with an average grain size of 4 ± 0.2 µm and without any weld defects. The average concentration of Mg is 2.8%; Mn, 0.2%; Zr, 0.1%; Sc, 0.15%; and Ti, 2.1% were formed in the weld. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS of the welded alloy with AlTiB was 260 MPa, which was equal to the base metal in the as-cast condition. The UTS was increased by 60 MPa after annealing at 370 °C for 6 h that was 85% of UTS of the base alloy.

  18. Development of high current beam ns pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; Guan Xia Ling; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The development of high current beam ns pulsed system of CPNG and its characteristic, main technological performance and application are introduced. Firstly, important parameters of the system are calculated using theoretical model, the design requirements of some important parts are understood. Some mistakes in physics conception are corrected. Second, the chopper is designed for parallel plate deflector, chopping aperture and sine wave voltage sweeping device. It is emphasized that the conception of parallel plate load impedance is the capacitance load, but not the 50 ohm load impedance. The dynamic capacitance value has been measured. The output emphasizes the output voltage amplitude, but not the output power for sweeping device. The display system of output sweeping voltage was set up and it is sure that the maximum output voltage(V-V) is >=4000 V. The klystron buncher are re-designed. It is emphasized to overcome difficulty of support high voltage electrode in the klystron and insulator of input sine wa...

  19. Microstructure characterization and corrosion testing of MAG pulsed duplex stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitelea, Ion; Utu, Ion Dragos; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Karancsi, Olimpiu [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels are extremely attractive construction materials for their usage in intense aggressive environments. They offer numerous advantages compared to the austenitic stainless steels having an excellent behavior to pitting and cavernous corrosion, and a high resistance to stress cracking corrosion in chlorides media. However, their corrosion properties are largely dependent on the microstructural factors such as: the quantitative ratio of the two phases ferrite/austenite (F/A), the presence of intermetallic compounds and the distribution of the alloying elements between the ferrite and austenite. As a result of the thermal cycles experienced by the base metal without a post-weld heat treatment, the mechanical properties are significantly different in the heat affected zone and the deposited metal compared with the properties of the base metal. The present paper highlights the effect of the post-weld solution treatment in order to restore the balance between austenite and ferrite in the welded joint areas and also to limit undesirable precipitation of secondary phases with implications for increasing the corrosion resistance.

  20. Microstructure characterization and corrosion testing of MAG pulsed duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelea, Ion; Utu, Ion Dragos; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Karancsi, Olimpiu

    2017-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are extremely attractive construction materials for their usage in intense aggressive environments. They offer numerous advantages compared to the austenitic stainless steels having an excellent behavior to pitting and cavernous corrosion, and a high resistance to stress cracking corrosion in chlorides media. However, their corrosion properties are largely dependent on the microstructural factors such as: the quantitative ratio of the two phases ferrite/austenite (F/A), the presence of intermetallic compounds and the distribution of the alloying elements between the ferrite and austenite. As a result of the thermal cycles experienced by the base metal without a post-weld heat treatment, the mechanical properties are significantly different in the heat affected zone and the deposited metal compared with the properties of the base metal. The present paper highlights the effect of the post-weld solution treatment in order to restore the balance between austenite and ferrite in the welded joint areas and also to limit undesirable precipitation of secondary phases with implications for increasing the corrosion resistance.

  1. Transformation and Precipitation Reactions by Metal Active Gas Pulsed Welded Joints from X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utu, Ion-Dragos; Mitelea, Ion; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Crăciunescu, Corneliu Marius

    2016-07-21

    The high alloying degree of Duplex stainless steels makes them susceptible to the formation of intermetallic phases during their exposure to high temperatures. Precipitation of these phases can lead to a decreasing of the corrosion resistance and sometimes of the toughness. Starting from the advantages of the synergic Metal Active Gas (MAG) pulsed welding process, this paper analyses the structure formation particularities of homogeneous welded joints from Duplex stainless steel. The effect of linear welding energy on the structure morphology of the welded joints was revealed by macro- and micrographic examinations, X-ray energy dispersion analyses, measurements of ferrite proportion and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained showed that the transformation of ferrite into austenite is associated with the chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen distribution between these two phases and their redistribution degree is closely linked to the overall heat cycle of the welding process. The adequate control of the energy inserted in the welded components provides an optimal balance between the two microstructural constituents (Austenite and Ferrite) and avoids the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases.

  2. Transformation and Precipitation Reactions by Metal Active Gas Pulsed Welded Joints from X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Dragos Utu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The high alloying degree of Duplex stainless steels makes them susceptible to the formation of intermetallic phases during their exposure to high temperatures. Precipitation of these phases can lead to a decreasing of the corrosion resistance and sometimes of the toughness. Starting from the advantages of the synergic Metal Active Gas (MAG pulsed welding process, this paper analyses the structure formation particularities of homogeneous welded joints from Duplex stainless steel. The effect of linear welding energy on the structure morphology of the welded joints was revealed by macro- and micrographic examinations, X-ray energy dispersion analyses, measurements of ferrite proportion and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained showed that the transformation of ferrite into austenite is associated with the chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen distribution between these two phases and their redistribution degree is closely linked to the overall heat cycle of the welding process. The adequate control of the energy inserted in the welded components provides an optimal balance between the two microstructural constituents (Austenite and Ferrite and avoids the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases.

  3. Ultra fast shutter driven by pulsed high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiangtao; Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Yin Jiahui; Guo Jianming; Chen Yulan

    2005-01-01

    Radiation simulation utilizing plasma radiation sources (PRS) generates a large number of undesirable debris, which may damage the expensive diagnosing detectors. An ultra fast shutter (UFS) driven by pulsed high current can erect a physical barrier to the slowly moving debris after allowing the passage of X-ray photons. The UFS consists of a pair of thin metal foils twisting the parallel axes in a Nylon cassette, compressed with an outer magnetic field, generated from a fast capacitor bank, discharging into a single turn loop. A typical capacitor bank is of 7.5 μF charging voltages varying from 30 kV to 45 kV, with corresponding currents of approximately 90 kA to 140 kA and discharging current periods of approximately 13.1 μs. A shutter closing time as fast as 38 microseconds has been obtained with an aluminium foil thickness of 100 micrometers and a cross-sectional area of 15 mm by 20 mm. The design, construction and the expressions of the valve-closing time of the UFS are presented along with the measured results of valve-closing velocities. (authors)

  4. High current photoemission with 10 picosecond uv pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    1990-06-01

    The quantum efficiency and the optical damage threshold of various metals were explored with 10 ps, 266 nm, UV laser pulses. Efficiencies for Cu, Y, and Sm were: 1.4, 5, and 7 x 10 -4 , with damage thresholds about 100, 10, and 30 mJ/cm 2 . This would permit over 1 μC/cm 2 or current densities exceeding 100 kA/cm 2 . High charge and current densities of up to 66 kA/cm 2 were obtained on 0.25 mm diam cathodes, and 21 kA/cm 2 on a 3 mm diam yttrium cathode. The maximum currents were limited by space charge and the dc field. The experiments with small area illumination indicate that the emitted electrons spread transversely due to Coulomb repulsion and their initial transverse velocity. This increases the effective area above the cathode, reduces the space charge effect and increases emission density on the cathode. The quantum efficiency can be increased substantially by enhancing the field on the surface by either a suitable electrode geometry or microstructures on it. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Hybrid friction stir welding for dissimilar materials through electro-plastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-29

    A hybrid Friction Stir Welding approach and device for dissimilar materials joining employing Electro-Plastic Effect. The approach and device include an introduction of high density, short period current pulses into traditional friction stir welding process, which therefore can generate a localized softened zone in the workpiece during plastic stirring without significant additional temperature increase. This material softened zone is created by high density current pulses based on Electro-Plastic Effect and will move along with the friction stir welding tool. Smaller downward force, larger processing window and better joint quality for dissimilar materials are expected to be achieved through this hybrid welding technique.

  6. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  7. Computation of the current density in nonlinear materials subjected to large current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Hixson, R.S.; Parsons, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the finite element method and the finite difference method are used to calculate the current distribution in two nonlinear conductors. The first conductor is a small ferromagnetic wire subjected to a current pulse that rises to 10,000 Amperes in 10 microseconds. Results from the transient thermal and transient magnetic solvers of the finite element code FLUX2D are used to compute the current density in the wire. The second conductor is a metal oxide varistor. Maxwell's equations, Ohm's law and the varistor relation for the resistivity and the current density of p = αj -β are used to derive a nonlinear differential equation. The solutions of the differential equation are obtained by a finite difference approximation and a shooting method. The behavior predicted by these calculations is in agreement with experiments

  8. Effect of current pulses on Lithium intercalation batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de P.E.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of (dis)charge pulses on lithium-ion batteries is evaluated using an electronic network model. Simulations give insight into the effect of the pulses on the internal processes such as diffusion, migration, electrochemical reactions, heat generation, etc. on time scales from microseconds

  9. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, James A

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm 2 up to 10 m 2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R and D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications. (paper)

  10. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  11. Dilution and Ferrite Number Prediction in Pulsed Current Cladding of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at relatively low temperatures and can be used as a coating to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of low carbon and low alloy steels. Such coatings can be produced using weld cladding. In this study, pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process was utilized to deposit super-duplex stainless steel on high strength low alloy steel substrates. In such claddings, it is essential to understand how the dilution affects the composition and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel layer in order to be able to estimate its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the current study, the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process parameters on the dilution and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel clad layer was investigated by applying response surface methodology. The validity of the proposed models was investigated by using quadratic regression models and analysis of variance. The results showed an inverse relationship between dilution and ferrite number. They also showed that increasing the heat input decreases the ferrite number. The proposed mathematical models are useful for predicting and controlling the ferrite number within an acceptable range for super-duplex stainless steel cladding.

  12. Electrostimulated recovery of welded joint durability: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semakin, E.V.; Chirakadze, D.Z.; Tsellermaer, V.Ya.; Gromov, V.E.; Sosnin, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility to increase the durability of welded joints operating under conditions of low cycle fatigue is shown to be brought about using electric current pulses. Experimental method of recovery of operational capability is demonstrated on welded joints of tool steels R6M5 and 40Kh/ The onset of critical stage of fatigue in the welded joint was determined by ultrasonic testing. Then the specimens were treated with 20 Hz electric pulses with amplitude of 250 MA/M 2 for 100 μs. Such treatment resulted in an increase of time to fracture. The phenomenological model of the process is proposed

  13. On line monitoring of a welding process by pulsed Nd-YAG laser; Controle en ligne d'un procede de soudage par laser Nd-YAG pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardon, St.; Voisin, Y.; Gorria, P. [Universite de Bourgogne, Lab. LE2I, 21 - Dijon (France); Vauzelle, Th. [CEA/Valduc, Dept. Fabrications et Technologies Nucleaires, DFTN, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    1999-07-01

    Laser weld quality inspection can be assured by the machine qualification (before and during welding), and by on line monitoring of the operation. The similarity of the signals produced by pulsed lasers (machine or interaction) leads us to develop a specific data acquisition and processing software. During a welding operation, laser-material interaction results in a characteristically emission of optical, acoustical and electrical signals. These signals are measured by different kinds of sensors (photodiode, microphone, or an electric probe), then recorded and treated with the quoted software. Signal processing tools utilization in conjunction with classification techniques (stress polytopes), introduce an innovating approach of on line inspection. Discriminant parameters determination (signals/defect correlation) become thus automatic and non subjective. (authors)

  14. Influencia de la transferencia por arco sobre la microestructura de uniones soldadas usando arco pulsado//Influence of the transfer by arc on the microstructure of welded joint produced by pulsed arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Romero-Nieto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la influencia de la transferencia de arco pulsado en el proceso de soldadura por arco eléctrico con gas de protección (GMAW, Gas Metal Arc Welding, sobre la microestructura, utilizando dos composiciones de gas de protección y los modos de transferencia de arco pulsado y corto circuito. Se caracterizó la microestructura y las propiedades mecánicas y los resultados indican que se logra una mayor resistencia a la tensión y un perfil de dureza más homogéneo utilizando el modo de transferencia de arco pulsado, debido a que con esta existe una distribución más uniforme del tamaño de grano en lastres zonas de soldadura. La presencia de ferrita acicular fue una constante en todos los tratamientos evaluados, mientras la ferrita widmastatten se presentó con preferencia en la transferencia de arco pulsado.Palabras claves: transferencia en arco pulsado, proceso GMAW, mezclas de gases de protección._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis article studies the influence of pulsed arc transfer in the GMAW process on the microstructure, usingtwo shielding gas composition and the pulsed arc and short circuit transfer. The microstructure andmechanical properties was characterized and the results show that is achieved a greater tensile strengthand more homogeneous in the hardness profile using the pulsed arc transfer, because it creates a moreuniform size grain in the three areas of welding. The presence of a circular ferrite was constant in alltreatments tested, while widmastatten ferrite was presented preferably in the pulsed arc transfer.Key words: transfer in pulsed current, GMAW process, shielding gas mixtures

  15. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushnikov, D. N., E-mail: trdimitr@yandex.ru [The department for Applied Physics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, 614990 (Russian Federation); Mladenov, G. M., E-mail: gmmladenov@abv.bg; Koleva, E. G., E-mail: eligeorg@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose, 1784, Sofia (Bulgaria); Technology Centre of Electron Beam and Plasma Technologies and Techniques, 68-70 Vrania, ap.10, Banishora,1309, Sofia (Bulgaria); Belenkiy, V. Ya., E-mail: mtf@pstu.ru; Varushkin, S. V., E-mail: stepan.varushkin@mail.ru [The department for Welding Production and Technology of Constructional Materials, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, 614990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 10{sup 16} m{sup −3}, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A·m{sup −2}, i.e. 8 mA for a 3–10 cm{sup 2} collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  16. Square pulse current wave’s effect on electroplated nickel hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian Alonso Hoyos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of frequency, average current density and duty cycle on the hardness of electroplated nickel were studied in Watts and sulphamate solutions by means of direct and square pulse current. The results in Watts’ solutions revealed greater hardness at low duty cycle, high average current density and high square pulse current frequency. There was little variation in hardness in nickel sulphamate solutions to changes in duty cycle and wave frequency. Hardness values obtained in the Watts’ bath with square pulse current were higher than those achieved with direct current at the same average current density; such difference was not significant in sulphamate bath treatment.

  17. The study of Zn–Co alloy coatings electrochemically deposited by pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition by pulse current of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel was examined, with the aim to find out whether pulse plating could produce alloys that could offer a better corrosion protection. The influence of on-time and the average current density on the cathodic current efficiency, coating morphology, surface roughness and corrosion stability in 3% NaCl was examined. At the same Ton/Toff ratio the current efficiency was insignificantly smaller for deposition at higher average current density. It was shown that, depending on the on-time, pulse plating could produce more homogenous alloy coatings with finer morphology, as compared to deposits obtained by direct current. The surface roughness was the greatest for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with direct current, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with pulse current, for both examined average current densities. It was also shown that Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited by pulse current could increase the corrosion stability of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel. Namely, alloy coatings deposited with pulse current showed higher corrosion stability, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with direct current, for almost all examined cathodic times, Ton. Alloy coatings deposited at higher average current density showed greater corrosion stability as compared with coatings deposited by pulse current at smaller average current density. It was shown that deposits obtained with pulse current and cathodic time of 10 ms had the poorest corrosion stability, for both investigated average deposition current density. Among all investigated alloy coatings the highest corrosion stability was obtained for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with pulsed current at higher average current density (jav = 4 A dm-2.

  18. Liquid phase and supercooled liquid phase welding of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress on welding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has been reviewed. BMGs have been successfully welded to BMGs or crystalline metals by liquid phase welding using explosion, pulse-current and electron-beam methods, and by supercooled liquid phase welding using friction method. Successful welding of the liquid phase methods was due to the high glass-forming ability of the BMGs and the high concentration of welding energy in these methods. In contrast, the supercooled liquid phase welding was successful due to the thermally stable supercooled liquid state of the BMGs and the superplasticity and viscous flow of the supercooled liquid. The successful welding of BMGs to BMGs and crystalline materials is promising for the future development of BMGs as engineering materials

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief [Departement of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  20. Microstructure evolution of a dissimilar junction interface between an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet joined by magnetic pulse welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoi, Takaomi, E-mail: itoi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mohamad, Azizan Bin; Suzuki, Ryo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Okagawa, Keigo [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    An Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet were lap joined by using magnetic pulse welding (MPW). Tensile tests were performed on the joined sheets, and a good lap joint was achieved at a discharge energy of > 0.9 kJ. The weld interface exhibited a wavy morphology and an intermediate layer along the weld interface. Microstructure observations of the intermediate layer revealed that the Ni coating region consisted of a Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy and that the Al sheet region contained very fine Al nanograins. Ni fragments indicative of unmelted residual Ni from the coating were also observed in parts of the intermediate layer. Formation of these features can be attributed to localize melting and a subsequent high rate cooling of molten Al and Ni confined to the interface during the MPW process. In the absence of an oxide film, atomic-scale bonding was also achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces after the collision. MPW utilises impact energy, which affects the sheet surfaces. From the obtained results, good lap joint is attributed to an increased contact area, the anchor effect, work hardening, the absence of an oxide film, and suppressed formation of intermetallic compounds at the interface. - Highlights: •Good lap joint of an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet was achieved by using magnetic pulse welding. •A Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy was formed as an intermediate layer at weld interface. •Atomic-scale bonding was achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces.

  1. Simulation of High-current Pulse Effect on the Electrode with Nonlinear Material Characteristics and Phase Transitions Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Arutjunjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the thermal and electrical processes when heating the metal electrode by a high current pulse. The aim is to understand an impact nature of the nonlinearities of thermal parameters, the phase transitions of melting and evaporation, and the type of boundary conditions in the current spot. To solve the problem was formulated a mathematical model, and were also developed a finite-difference method and computer programmes which allow an effective computer simulations of thermal and electrical processes under the high current pulse impact on the metal electrodes. The Stefan problem is solved by the through "enthalpy" method. Calculation of the electric field is performed by Seidel iteration. Thermal and current balance and comparison with solution results of model problems allow computer error monitoring.The work involved a series of calculations for an informative case of iron. It enabled to find a significant influence of the nonlinearities of thermal parameters, the phase transitions of melting and evaporation, the type of boundary conditions on the values of the temperature and electric fields, especially in the vicinity of the current spot. The presence of high current density and temperature, respectively, in the vicinity of the current spot edge confirms the well-known hypothesis about the causes of contact welding on the edges of the contact area. It has been found that the impact of losses on radiation and convection cooling is negligible. The article continues and complements the well-known research in the theory of electrical contacts and welding processes based on detailed consideration of the electrode material properties, the nonlinearities, and a type of boundary conditions for temperature and electric fields.The results can be used in the practice in research and design of electrical machines and other electrical devices.The study has revealed the need to improve the enthalpy finite- difference method for

  2. Phase dependency of electrotonic spread of hyperpolarizing current pulses in the rabbit sinoatrial node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, J. J.; Bouman, L. N.; Bukauskas, F. F.; Opthof, T.; Jongsma, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    Electrotonic current spread in the SA node of the rabbit was measured by means of hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 to 10 microA, 60 ms), which were injected intracellularly through a K(+)-perfused suction electrode. The pulses were applied at the beginning, middle or end of the diastolic

  3. Pulsed critical current measurements of NbTi in perpendicular and parallel pulsed magnetic fields using the new Cryo-BI-Pulse System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehr, V; Tan, K S; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A; Keyser, A De; Bockstal, L Van; Deschagt, J

    2006-01-01

    Rapid transport current versus high magnetic field characterisation of high-irreversibility type II superconductors is important to maximise their critical parameters. HTS conductors are already used to produce insert coils that increase the fields of conventional magnets made from NbTi (Nb, Ta) 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al wires. There is fundamental interest in the study of HTS tapes and wires in magnetic fields higher than 21T, the current limit of superconducting magnets producing a DC field. Such fields can be obtained by using pulse techniques. High critical currents cannot be routinely measured with a continuous current applied at liquid helium, hydrogen or neon temperatures because of thermal and mechanical effects. A newly developed pulsed magnetic field and pulsed current system which allows rapid J c (B, T) measurements of the whole range of superconducting materials was tested with a multifilamentary NbTi wire in perpendicular and parallel orientations

  4. Pulsed high-current electron source: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindt, C.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to investigate ways to realize the cathode's potential as a source for high power pulse operation. The questions that needed to be studied were those of large area coverage, maximum emission that the cathode arrays are capable of producing practically, uniformity of emission over large areas, and the ability to operate with high voltage anodes. 9 figs

  5. Desenvolvimento da ferrita delta na solda e ZTA resultante de soldagem plasma pulsada em um aço inoxidável supermartensítico Delta-ferrite development in weld and HAZ produced by pulsed plasma arc welding in a supermartensitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio L. Henke

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrita delta é considerada uma fase indesejável na microestrutura dos aços inoxidáveis martensíticos haja vista a mesma poder influenciar no desempenho da resistência à fadiga, tenacidade e corrosão sob-tensão. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da soldagem plasma pulsada sobre a distribuição e quantidade de ferrita delta em um aço inoxidável supermartensítico. Para tal foram obtidos cordões por meio de fusão superficial sobre uma amostra de aço inoxidável supermartensítico de alta liga utilizando corrente pulsada e convencional. Em seguida foi efetuada a caracterização microestrutural, em especial da ferrita delta, via análises metalográficas por meio de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura . Os experimentos revelaram que, para o mesmo aporte térmico, a pulsação de corrente promoveu a formação de ferrita delta na forma de bandas ao longo do cordão de solda e redução significativa desta fase na ZTA quando comparada à soldagem convencional.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed plasma welding on the distribution and amount of delta ferrite which is considered an undesirable phase in a supermartensitic stainless steel. For such weld beads have been obtained by melting the surface of a sample of a high-alloy supermartensitic stainless steel using pulsed and conventional current. Microstructural characterization, especially of delta ferrite, was performed by metallographic analysis by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experiments showed that for the same heat input, pulsed current promoted the formation of delta ferrite in the form of bands along the weld bead and caused a significant reduction of this phase in HAZ as compared to conventional welding.

  6. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Letter Report on 500 nA Pulsed Current from Field Ionization Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently produced a milestone 500 nA of pulsed current using 40 Ir field ionizer electrodes in our ion source. In conclusion, we have produced the milestone pulsed current of 500 nA using 40 electrochemically etched iridium tips in a field ionization source. The pulsed current output is repeatable and scales as expected with gas fill pressure and bias voltage. We expect these current will be sufficient to produce neutral yields of 1 · 10 7 DT n/s.

  8. Featuring of transient tunneling current by voltage pulse and application to an electrochemical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun Yeon; Lee, Won Cheol; Choi, Seong Wook; Park, Young June

    2018-03-01

    We suggest a voltage pulse method for detecting the transient tunneling current component (faradaic current component) in a metal/redox-active monolayer/electrolyte system. After applying the pulse to the metal electrode, the capacitive current prevails; therefore, it is difficult to extract the tunneling current, which carries information on the biochemical reactions occurring between the biomarkers in the electrolyte and the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the probe peptide system. Instead of waiting until the capacitive current diminishes, and thereby, the tunneling current also decreases, we try to extract the tunneling current in an early stage of the pulse. The method is based on the observation that the capacitive current becomes symmetrized in the positive and negative pulses after introducing the SAM on the metal electrode. When the energy level of the redox molecule is higher than the Fermi level of the metal under zero-bias condition, the tunneling current in the negative pulse can be extracted by subtracting the capacitive current obtained from the positive pulse, where the tunneling current is neglected. The experiment conducted for detecting trypsin as a biomarker shows that the method enhances the sensitivity and the specific-to-nonspecific ratio of the sensor device in the case of the nonspecific protein-abundant electrolyte solution, as evinced by cyclic voltammetry measurements in comparison.

  9. Fiber Laser Welding Properties of Copper Materials for Secondary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae YOU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary battery is composed of four main elements: cathodes, anodes, membranes and electrolyte. The cathodes and the anodes are connected to the poles that allow input and output of the current generated while the battery is being charged or discharged. In this study laser welding is conducted for 40 sheets of pure copper material with thickness of 38μm, which are used in currently manufactured lithium-ion batteries, using pulse-wave fiber laser to compare welded joint to standard bolt joint and to determine optimum process parameters. The parameters, which has significant impact on penetration of the pulse waveform laser to the overlapped thin sheets, is the peak power while the size of the weld zone is mainly affected by the pulse irradiation time and the focal position. It is confirmed that overlapping rate is affected by the pulse repetition rate rather than by the pulse irradiation time. At the cross-section of the weld zone, even with the increased peak power, the width of the front bead weld size does not change significantly, but the cross-sectional area becomes larger. This is because the energy density per pulse increases as the peak power increases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.16316

  10. Optimization of hybrid laser - TIG welding of 316LN steel using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, M.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Ravikumar, R.; Saxena, Rajesh; Vasudevan, M.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the hybrid laser - TIG welding parameters for welding of 316LN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by combining a pulsed laser beam with a TIG welding heat source at the weld pool. Laser power, pulse frequency, pulse duration, TIG current were presumed as the welding process parameters whereas weld bead width, weld cross-sectional area and depth of penetration (DOP) were considered as the process responses. Central composite design was used to complete the design matrix and welding experiments were conducted based on the design matrix. Weld bead measurements were then carried out to generate the dataset. Multiple regression models correlating the process parameters with the responses have been developed. The accuracy of the models were found to be good. Then, the desirability approach optimization technique was employed for determining the optimum process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead profile. Validation experiments were then carried out from the determined optimum process parameters. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values.

  11. Recent advances in the TIG welding process and the application of the welding of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, W.; Males, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of precision arc welding techniques and infacilities for production of nuclear power plant components arc presented. Of the precision welding techniques, pulsed TIG welding, pulsed plasma arc welding, hot-wire TIG welding, and pulsed inert-gas metal-arc welding. In the field of weld cladding, GMA plasma welding is cited as an alternative to submerged-arc welding with a strip electrode. Transistors and computer-controlled welding systems get a special mention. Applications of TIG welding in the UK are cited, e.g. welding of components for the AGR nuclear power plant and construction of equipment for repair work in feedwater pipes of the MAGNOX reactor. (orig.) [de

  12. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for <$100 in components representing a significant potential value through lateral scaling and replication in the 3D printing community.

  13. Fast and efficient STT switching in MTJ using additional transient pulse current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sachin; Cha, Jongin; Jo, Kangwook; Yoon, Hongil; Hong, Jongill

    2017-06-01

    We propose a profile of write pulse current-density to switch magnetization in a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction to reduce switching time and write energy as well. Our simulated results show that an overshoot transient pulse current-density (current spike) imposed to conventional rectangular-shaped pulse current-density (main pulse) significantly improves switching speed that yields the reduction in write energy accordingly. For example, we could dramatically reduce the switching time by 80% and thereby reduce the write energy over 9% in comparison to the switching without current spike. The current spike affects the spin dynamics of the free layer and reduces the switching time mainly due to spin torque induced. On the other hand, the large Oersted field induced causes changes in spin texture. We believe our proposed write scheme can make a breakthrough in magnetic random access memory technology seeking both high speed operation and low energy consumption.

  14. Ultrapulse welding: A new joining technique. [for automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The ultrapulse process is a resistance welding process that utilizes unidirectional current of high magnitude for a very short time with a precisely controlled dynamic force pulse. Peak currents of up to 220,000 amperes for two to ten milliseconds are used with synchronized force pulses of up to nine thousand pounds. The welding current passing through the relatively high resistance of the interface between the parts that are being joined results in highly localized heating. Described is the UPW process as it applies to the automotive industry.

  15. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  16. Thyristor current-pulse generator for betatron electromagnet with independent low-voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskii, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtein, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    A thyristor generator is described that produces unipolar current pulses in the winding of a betatron electromagnet. The voltage on the electro-magnet is increased and the shape of the current pulses is improved by use of an intermediate inductive storage device. The current pulses have a duration of 11 msec, an amplitude of 190 A, and a repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The maximum magnetic-field energy is 450 J, the voltage on the electromagnet winding is 1.5 kV, and the supply voltage is 27 V

  17. Measurements of picosecond pulses of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, K.A.; Petrenko, A.N.; Turundaevskaya, I.G.; Shalimanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    The duration of a picosecond high-current accelerator electron beam pulse duration is measured and its shape is determined using a measuring line, comprising a Faraday cup, a radiofrequency cable of minor length and a wide-band SRG-7 oscillograph. The procedure of data reconstruction according to regularization method is applied to determine the actual shape of the pulse measured

  18. Saturation of subjective reward magnitude as a function of current and pulse frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J M; Gallistel, C R

    1994-02-01

    In rats with electrodes in the medial forebrain bundle, the upper portion of the function relating the experienced magnitude of the reward to pulse frequency was determined at currents ranging from 100 to 1,000 microA. The pulse frequency required to produce an asymptotic level of reward was inversely proportional to current except at the lowest currents and highest pulse frequencies. At a given current, the subjective reward magnitude functions decelerated to an asymptote over an interval in which the pulse frequency doubled or tripled. The asymptotic level of reward was approximately constant for currents between 200 and 1,000 microA but declined substantially at currents at or below 100 microA and pulse frequencies at or above 250 to 400 pulses per second. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the magnitude of the experienced reward depends only on the number of action potentials generated by the train of pulses in the bundle of reward-relevant axons.

  19. Capabilities of infrared weld monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Keske, J.S.; Leong, K.H.; Kornecki, G.

    1997-11-01

    A non-obtrusive pre-aligned, solid-state device has been developed to monitor the primary infrared emissions during laser welding. The weld monitor output is a 100-1000 mV signal that depends on the beam power and weld characteristics. The DC level of this signal is related to weld penetration, while AC portions of the output can be correlated with surface irregularities and part misalignment or contamination. Changes in DC behavior are also noted for both full and deep penetration welds. Full penetration welds are signified by an abrupt reduction in the weld monitor output. Bead on plate welds were made on steel, aluminum, and magnesium with both a CW CO{sub 2} laser and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to explore the relationships between the weld characteristics and the weld monitor output.

  20. Development of high current electron source using photoemission from metals with ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.

    1990-10-01

    We summarize the studies of photoemission from metal photocathodes using picosecond pulses in the UV (4.66 eV) wavelength and femtosecond laser pulses in the visible (2 eV) wavelengths. To achieve high current density yield from metal photocathodes, multiphoton photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses are suggested. Electron yield improvement incorporating surface photoemission and surface plasmon resonance in metals and metal films are demonstrated. We examine the possibility of the nonlinear photoemission process overtaking the linear process, and identity some possible complexity. To extract the large amount of electrons free of space charge, a pulsed high voltage is designed; the results of the preliminary test are presented. Finally, for the first time, the width of the electron temporal profiles are measured, utilizing the nonlinear photoelectric effect, to below 100 fsec time regime. The results indicated that the electron pulse duration follows the laser pulses and are not limited by the material. 8 refs., 15 figs

  1. Development of high-current pulsed heavy-ion-beam technology for applications to materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Masugata, Katsumi [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology for applications to materials processing is described. We have developed a magnetically insulated ion diode for the generation of intense pulsed metallic ion beams in which a vacuum arc plasma gun is used as the ion source. When the ion diode was successfully operated at a diode voltage of 220 kV and a diode current of 10 kA, an ion beam with an ion current density of >200 A/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 40 ns was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by using a Thomson parabola spectrometer, and the ion beam consisted of aluminum ions (Al{sup (1-3)+}) with an energy of 140 - 740 keV and protons with an energy of 160 - 190 keV; the purity was estimated to be 89%, which was much higher than that of the pulsed ion beam produced in a conventional ion diode. The development of a bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. When a bipolar pulse with a voltage of {+-}90 kV and a pulse duration of about 65 ns was applied to the drift tube of the BPA, the ion beam with an ion current density of 2 A/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 30 ns was observed 25 mm downstream from the cathode surface, which suggested bipolar pulse acceleration.

  2. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V

    2002-01-01

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  3. Eddy-current inspection of ferromagnetic tubing using pulsed magnetic saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, C V; Deeds, W E

    1986-07-01

    A pulsed eddy-current system has been designed and developed for nondestructive evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo steam generator tubing from the bore side. Since the tubing is ferromagnetic, a large current pulse is sent through a driver coil to produce magnetic saturation all the way through the tube wall. A pickup coil produces an output pulse that is dependent upon the tube properties as well as the driving pulse. The output pulse heights at selected times are used as data that are computer-correlated with calibration data taken from machined standards. Performance data, circuit diagrams, and computer programs are given for the system, which has been demonstrated to detect small flaws located near the outside of a thick ferromagnetic tube.

  4. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  5. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  6. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  7. Application-oriented research on plasma channeling of a large pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingye

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing the avalanche effect of plasma produced by the collision of energetic primary electrons with hydrogen molecules in a plasma, channeling of a large pulsed current is achieved, with the plasma acting as the carrier

  8. Experimental investigation of powerful pulse current generators based on capacitive storage and explosive magnetic generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Povareshkin, M. N.; Kozlov, A. A.; Shurupova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of microsecond duration powerful generators of current pulses on the basis of explosive magnetic generators and voltage impulse generator have been developed for the electromagnetic pulse effects on energy facilities to verify their stability. Exacerbation of voltage pulse carried out through the use of electro explosive current interrupter made of copper wires with diameters of 80 and 120 μm. Experimental results of these models investigation are represented. Voltage fronts about 100 ns and the electric field strength of 800 kV/m are registered.

  9. The detailed characteristics of positive corona current pulses in the line-to-plane electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuebao, LI; Dayong, LI; Qian, ZHANG; Yinfei, LI; Xiang, CUI; Tiebing, LU

    2018-05-01

    The corona current pulses generated by corona discharge are the sources of the radio interference from transmission lines and the detailed characteristics of the corona current pulses from conductor should be investigated in order to reveal their generation mechanism. In this paper, the line-to-plane electrodes are designed to measure and analyze the characteristics of corona current pulses from positive corona discharges. The influences of inter-electrode gap and line diameters on the detail characteristics of corona current pulses, such as pulse amplitude, rise time, duration time and repetition frequency, are carefully analyzed. The obtained results show that the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency increase with the diameter of line electrode when the electric fields on the surface of line electrodes are same. With the increase of inter-electrode gap, the pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency first decrease and then turn to be stable, while the rise time first increases and finally turns to be stable. The distributions of electric field and space charges under the line electrodes are calculated, and the influences of inter-electrode gap and line electrode diameter on the experimental results are qualitatively explained.

  10. Manipulation of high-current pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Griedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    For efficient induction-driven heavy-ion fusion, the current profile along a pulse must be modified in a non-selfsimilar manner between the accelerator and the target. In the accelerator, the pulse should have a duration of at least 50 ns in order to make efficient use of the induction cores, and the current should by nearly uniform along the pulse to minimize the aperture. In contrast, the optimal current profile on target consists of a main pulse of about 10 ns preceded by a longer low-current 'foot.' This pulse-shape manipulation must be carried out at the final pulse energy (5-10 GeV for 200 amu ions) in the presence of a large nonlinear longitudinal space-charge field. A straightforward method is presented here for doing the required pulse shaping. Induction-ceU voltages are generated using idealized beam profiles both in the accelerator and on target, and they are verified and checked for error sensitivity using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE

  11. Advances in automatic welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Woodacre, A.; Taylor, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    The development at the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, UKAEA Springfields, of a computer-based welding process control system, was aimed initially at the TIG welding of the end seals of nuclear fuel elements. The system provides for mixed multi-station operation with on-line real-time capability and can be used either as a research tool or for production requirements at competitive costs. The operation of the control system, the form of power source, and the servo motor control units are described. Typically, continuous or pulse-arc welding sequences can be digitally programmed on 0.1 sec increments, with current in 0.5 A increments up to a maximum of 256 A; up to three servo motors can be operated with speeds selected in 0.1 percent increments of their maximum. Up to six welding parameters can be monitored digitally at speeds from once every 10 msec. Some applications are described and it is shown that the equipment has wider uses outside the nuclear fuel element field. High quality industrial welding requirements can also be met and the system is not limited to the TIG process

  12. Advances in automatic welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Woodacre, A.; Taylor, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    The development at the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, UKAEA Springfields, of a computer-based welding process control system, was aimed initially at the TIG welding of the end seals of nuclear fuel elements. The system provides for mixed multi-station operation with on-line real-time capability and can be used either as a research tool or for production requirements at competitive costs. The operation of the control system, the form of power source and servo motor control units are described. Typically, continuous or pulse-arc welding sequences can be digitally programmed on 0.1 sec increments, with current in 0.5 A increments up to a maximum of 256 A; up to three servo motors can be operated with speeds selected in 0.1% increments of their maximum. Up to six welding parameters can be monitored digitally at speeds from once every 10 msec. Some applications are described and it is shown that the equipment has wider uses outside the nuclear fuel element field. High quality industrial welding requirements can also be met and the system is not limited to the TIG process. (author)

  13. Muscle oxygenation of vastus lateralis and medialis muscles during alternating and pulsed current electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; McGuigan, Michael; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2011-05-01

    This study compared between alternating and pulsed current electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) for muscle oxygenation and blood volume during isometric contractions. Nine healthy men (23-48 years) received alternating current EMS (2500 Hz) modulated at 75 Hz on the knee extensors of one leg, and pulsed current EMS (75 Hz) for the other leg separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counter-balanced order. Pulse duration (400 μs), on-off ratio (5-15 s) and other stimulation parameters were matched between conditions and 30 isometric contractions were induced at the knee joint angle of 100° (0° full extension). Changes in tissue oxygenation index (∆TOI) and total hemoglobin volume (∆tHb) of vastus lateralis and medialis muscles over 30 contractions were assessed by a near-infrared spectroscopy, and were compared between conditions by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Peak torque produced during EMS increased over 30 contractions in response to the increase in the stimulation intensity for pulsed current, but not for the alternating current EMS. The torque during each isometric contraction was less stable in alternating than pulsed current EMS. The changes in ∆TOI amplitude during relaxation phases and ∆tHb amplitude were not significantly different between conditions. However, the decreases in ∆TOI amplitude during contraction phases from baseline were significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the pulsed current than alternating current from the 18th contraction (-15.6 ± 2.3 vs. -8.9 ± 1.8%) to 30th contraction (-10.7 ± 1.8 vs. -4.8 ± 1.5%). These results suggest that the muscles were less activated in the alternating current EMS when compared with the pulsed current EMS.

  14. Development of optoelectronic-based pulsed current sensor to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil S Nayak

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... mitter–receiver HFBR, high-frequency current transformer, and fiber optic link. The CT has ... vacuum system, the atmospheric gases enter into the CVL, causing ..... tronics, Computer, Telecommunication and Information Tech-.

  15. Electromagnetic pulse-driven spin-dependent currents in semiconductor quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Berakdar, Jamal

    2009-04-08

    We investigate the non-equilibrium charge and spin-dependent currents in a quantum ring with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) driven by two asymmetric picosecond electromagnetic pulses. The equilibrium persistent charge and persistent spin-dependent currents are investigated as well. It is shown that the dynamical charge and the dynamical spin-dependent currents vary smoothly with a static external magnetic flux and the SOI provides a SU(2) effective flux that changes the phases of the dynamic charge and the dynamic spin-dependent currents. The period of the oscillation of the total charge current with the delay time between the pulses is larger in a quantum ring with a larger radius. The parameters of the pulse fields control to a certain extent the total charge and the total spin-dependent currents. The calculations are applicable to nanometre rings fabricated in heterojunctions of III-V and II-VI semiconductors containing several hundreds of electrons.

  16. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yokono, Tomomi.

    1991-01-01

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  17. Low-induction pulse current generator with a volume bus arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, Yu.N.; Krivosheev, S.I.; Lapin, N.G.; Shneerson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse current generator (PC6) with 38 kj stored energy designed for up to 50 kV charging voltage used to obtain magnetic fields within megagauss range, is described. Space (volume) bus arrangement of its modules is used to reduce eigen inductance of PC6. Current is commutated by solid-body spark gaps. Under 3uH inductive load PC6 provides for formation of up to 2.25 MA current pulse with 3.3x10 12 A/s pulse rise time. Technique to determine low inductances as applied to PC6 elements is described. The described PC6 is used for experiments on generation of super-strong pulse magnetic fields in single-loop solenoid with volume occupied by magnetic field, 5-7 mm. Magnetic field with up to 350 T induction amplitude is obtained in these experiments

  18. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  19. Versatile Stimulation Back-End With Programmable Exponential Current Pulse Shapes for a Retinal Visual Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and test of a stimulation back-end, for an implantable retinal prosthesis. In addition to traditional rectangular pulse shapes, the circuit features biphasic stimulation pulses with both rising and falling exponential shapes, whose time constants are digitally programmable. A class-B second generation current conveyor is used as a wide-swing, high-output-resistance stimulation current driver, delivering stimulation current pulses of up to ±96 μA to the target tissue. Duration of the generated current pulses is programmable within the range of 100 μs to 3 ms. Current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are used to program the amplitudes of the stimulation pulses. Fabricated using the IBM 130 nm process, the circuit consumes 1.5×1.5 mm 2 of silicon area. According to the measurements, the DACs exhibit DNL and INL of 0.23 LSB and 0.364 LSB, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the stimuli generator meets expected requirements when connected to electrode-tissue impedance of as high as 25 k Ω. Maximum power consumption of the proposed design is 3.4 mW when delivering biphasic rectangular pulses to the target load. A charge pump block is in charge of the upconversion of the standard 1.2-V supply voltage to ±3.3V.

  20. Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications – experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Orlowski de Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes details of the several steps of the technology involved for the orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process of pure commercially titanium tubes. These pieces will be used to connect the several components of the propulsion system of the China-Brazilian Satellite CBERS, and is part of the Brazilian aerospace industry development. The implantation involved the steps of environment control; cut and facing of the base metal; cleaning procedures; piece alignment; choice of the type, geometry and installation of the tungsten electrode; system for the pressure of the purge gas; manual tack welding; choice of the welding parameters; and, finally, the qualification of welding procedures. Three distinct welding programs were studied, using pulsed current with increasing speed, continuous current and pulsed current with decreasing amperage levels. The results showed that the high quality criteria required to the aerospace segment is such that usual welding operations must be carefully designed and executed. The three welding developed programs generated welds free of defects and with adequate morphology, allowing to select the condition that better fits the Brazilian aerospace segment, and to be implanted in the welding of the CBERS Satellite Propulsion System.

  1. Effects of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    industrially polluted soils were performed. At a current density of 0.1mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 2, there was no difference on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals between pulse current and constant current experiments, but at higher current experiments (i.e., 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0......The aims of this paper were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR) and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of heavy metals. Eight experiments with constant and pulse current in the different.......8mA/cm2 in soil 2) the energy was saved 67% and 60% and the removal of heavy metals was increased 17–76% and 31–51% by pulse current in soil 1 and soil 2, respectively. When comparing the voltage drop at different parts of EDR cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across cation...

  2. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar, A.; Wijnen, B.; Anzalone, G. C.; Havens, T. C.; Sanders, P. G.; Pearce, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW) RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder cu...

  3. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  4. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  7. Non-Cyanide Electrodeposited Ag–PTFE Composite Coating Using Direct or Pulsed Current Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDS, optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide silver complex bath. Direct or pulsed current method was used at a constant current density to enable comparison between both methods. A high incorporation rate of PTFE was successfully achieved, with pulsed current being highly useful in increasing the amount of PTFE in the composite coating. The study of coating wear under sliding showed that a large majority of the electrodeposited coatings still managed to adhere to the substrate, even after 10 wear cycles of sliding tests. Performance improvements were achieved on all the samples with a coefficient of friction (CoF between 0.06 and 0.12.

  8. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  9. Effects of pulse current stimulation on the thermal fatigue crack propagation behavior of CHWD steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.Q.; Zhao, Y.G.; Gao, Z.M.; Han, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagating behaviors of cast hot working die (CHWD) steel untreated and treated by an electric current in the intermediate stage of thermal fatigue were investigated in the present study. The circle/elliptical heating affected zone (HAZ) was formed ahead of the notch tip on the fatigued specimens after pulse electric current stimulation. Both SEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that pulse electric current stimulation refined grains/subgrains in the HAZs. With the prolonging of discharging duration, the grains/subgrains decreased in size and the dislocation density and microhardness increased gradually. The grain refinement and dislocation density increase played an important role in the material strengthening, which inevitably enhanced the propagation resistance and delayed the propagation of thermal fatigue cracks. Therefore, the pulse electric current stimulation was an effective method to improve the service lifetime of die material

  10. Study of pulse stretching in high current power supplies using multipulse techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendler, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Considerable interest exists at Fermilab to increase the pulse width of the Neutrino Focusing Horn to permit an increase in beam spill length from twenty (20) microseconds to one (1) millisecond. Two techniques to do this were examined: (1) a high current transformer, and (2) increased bank capacitance using the multi-power supply technique. The transformer is the most straightforward conceptually; it is, however, a complicated device requiring sizable changes to the existing horn power supply. This alternative is briefly reviewed. The second scheme involves pulsing a 20 kv 200 ka power supply to establish the required load current and then maintaining this current by the sequential pulsing of a number of low voltage high current power supplies. This alternative is discussed in detail with the results of tests performed on the Fermilab Focusing Horn System

  11. Pulse shape discrimination with silicon detectors using charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H.; Rauly, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Borderie, B.; Chabot, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Lavergne, L.; Le Bris, J.; Le Neindre, N.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Barbey, S.; Becheva, E.; Bzyl, F.R.; D' Esesquelles, P.; Galichet, E.; Lalu, G.; Martinet, G.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Legou, Th.; Tillier, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Carniol, B.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Grevy, S.; Lopez, O.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSI, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, 75 - Paris (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Villeurbanne Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 69 (France); Lanzalone, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, (Italy); Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Rosato, E. [Napoli, Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    For the first time shapes of current pulses from light charged particles and carbon ions are presented. Capabilities for pulse shape discrimination techniques are demonstrated. In this work, charge and current-sensitive preamplifier prototypes for nuclear structure and dynamics experiments have been developed and tested with the aim of improving PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method by studying in detail current signal shapes from particles and ions over a large energy range. Note that current signal shapes have been recently used in atomic cluster studies to identify partitions of carbon cluster fragmentation. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is devoted to characterization of preamplifiers. In section 3, results of on beam tests will be presented, discussed and compared to a simple simulation.

  12. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  13. Transient voltage response of a superconducting strip to a supercritical current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.Th.M. van; Wouters, M.C.H.M.; Wolter, J.; Horstman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A superconductor subject to a supercritical current pulse displays a delay time between the onset of the current pulse and the onset of the corresponding voltage response. From the onset of the voltage response it takes a second (transient) time to reach the stationary state. It is shown that the transient time can be explained with inhomogeneities in the strip which give rise to a distribution of delay times. The transient time is thus not related to a characteristic time in the superconductor. For small supercritical currents also heating effects show up. (author)

  14. Welding method, and welding device for use therein, and method of analysis for evaluating welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aendenroomer, A.J.; Den Ouden, G.; Xiao, Y.H.; Brabander, W.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a method of automatically welding pipes, comprising welding with a pulsation welding current and monitoring, by means of a sensor, the variations occurring in the arc voltage caused by weld pool oscillations. The occurrence of voltage variations with only frequency components below 100

  15. Sodium current inhibition by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)--fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In two recent publications in Bioelectromagnetics it has been demonstrated that the voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) is inhibited in response to a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). At the same time, there was an increase in a non-inactivating "leak" current (I(leak)), which was

  16. Characterization of a high-power/current pulsed magnetized arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, J. J.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Morgan, T. W.; D.C. Schram,; De Temmerman, G.

    2012-01-01

    A high-power pulsed magnetized arc discharge has been developed to allow the superimposition of a dc plasma and a high-power plasma impulse with a single plasma source. A capacitor bank (8400 mu F) is parallel-coupled to the current regulated power supply. The current is transiently increased from

  17. Characterization of a high-power/current pulsed magnetized arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, J.J.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Morgan, T.W.; Schram, D.C.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A high-power pulsed magnetized arc discharge has been developed to allow the superimposition of a dc plasma and a high-power plasma impulse with a single plasma source. A capacitor bank (8400 µF) is parallel-coupled to the current regulated power supply. The current is transiently increased from its

  18. Observation of dark pulses in 10 nm thick YBCO nanostrips presenting hysteretic current voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Parlato, L.; Arpaia, R.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.; Cristiano, R.; Tafuri, F.; Pepe, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have fabricated several 10 nm thick and 65 nm wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) nanostrips. The nanostrips with the highest critical current densities are characterized by hysteretic current voltage characteristics (IVCs) with a direct bistable switch from the zero-voltage to the finite voltage state. The presence of hysteretic IVCs allowed the observation of dark pulses due to fluctuations phenomena. The key role of the bistable behavior is its ability to transform a small disturbance (e.g. an intrinsic fluctuation) into a measurable transient signal, i.e. a dark pulse. On the contrary, in devices characterized by lower critical current density values, the IVCs are non-hysteretic and dark pulses have not been observed. To investigate the physical origin of the dark pulses, we have measured the bias current dependence of the dark pulse rate: the observed exponential increase with the bias current is compatible with mechanisms based on thermal activation of magnetic vortices in the nanostrip. We believe that the successful amplification of small fluctuation events into measurable signals in nanostrips of ultrathin YBCO is a milestone for further investigation of YBCO nanostrips for superconducting nanostrip single photon detectors and other quantum detectors for operation at higher temperatures.

  19. Research on the Effects of Technical Parameters on the Molding of the Weld by A-TIG Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Kai; Pan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of welding parameters on the molding of weld by A-TIG welding of a 4mm thickness mild steel plate is studied in the present paper. The results obtained show that: as welding current increases A-TIG welding penetration gets deeper than TIG welding; size and shape of HAZ has remarkable change; A-TIG welding has the narrower weld pool width than TIG welding.

  20. Use of servo controlled weld head for end closure welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    In the PHWR fuel fabrication line resistance welding processes are used for joining various zirconium based alloy components to fuel tube of similar material. The quality requirement of these welding processes is very stringent and has to meet all the product requirements. At present these welding processes are being carried out by using standard resistance welding machines. In the resistance welding process in addition to current and time, force is one of the critical and important parameter, which influences the weld quality. At present advanced feed back type fast response medium frequency weld controllers are being used. This has upslope/down slope, constant and repetitive weld pattern selection features makes this critical welding process more reliable. Compared to weld controllers, squeeze force application devices are limited and normally standard high response pneumatic cylinders are used in the welding process. With this type of devices the force is constant during welding process and cannot be varied during welding process as per the material deformation characteristics. Similarly due to non-availability of feed back systems in the squeeze force application systems restricts the accuracy and quality of the welding process. In the present paper the influence of squeeze force pattern on the weld quality using advanced feed back type servo based force control system was studied. Different squeeze forces were used during pre and post weld heat periods along with constant force and compared with the weld quality. (author)

  1. Effect of a superconducting coil as a fault current limiter on current density distribution in BSCCO tape after an over-current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallouli, M; Yamaguchi, S.; Shyshkin, O.

    2017-01-01

    The development of power transmission lines based on long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes is complicated and technically challenging task. A serious problem for transmission line operation could become HTS power cable damage due to over-current pulse conditions. To avoid the cable damage in any urgent case the superconducting coil technology, i.e. superconductor fault current limiter (SFCL) is required. Comprehensive understanding of the current density characteristics of HTS tapes in both cases, either after pure over-current pulse or after over-current pulse limited by SFCL, is needed to restart or to continue the operation of the power transmission line. Moreover, current density distribution along and across the HTS tape provides us with the sufficient information about the quality of the tape performance in different current feeding regimes. In present paper we examine BSCCO HTS tape under two current feeding regimes. The first one is 100A feeding preceded by 900A over-current pulse. In this case none of tape protection was used. The second scenario is similar to the fist one but SFCL is used to limit an over-current value. For both scenarios after the pulse is gone and the current feeding is set up at 100A we scan magnetic field above the tape by means of Hall probe sensor. Then the feeding is turned of and the magnetic field scanning is repeated. Using the inverse problem numerical solver we calculate the corresponding direct and permanent current density distributions during the feeding and after switch off. It is demonstrated that in the absence of SFCL the current distribution is highly peaked at the tape center. At the same time the current distribution in the experiment with SFCL is similar to that observed under normal current feeding condition. The current peaking in the first case is explained by the effect of an opposite electric field induced at the tape edges during the overcurrent pulse decay, and by degradation of

  2. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  3. Welded slump-graded sand couplets: evidence for slide generated turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daniel Jean

    1982-09-01

    Some massive channelized strata preserved in the rock record are characterized by a lower slump member which evolves upward to a turbidite. This merging is indicative of probable generation of sediment gravity flows from submarine sliding. Conditions essential for deposition of such sequences are short transport distance between point of failure and depositional site, and an environment likely to retain both facies. Fan valleys are a likely setting for welded couplets: flowing sand, initiated by the sliding event, comes to rest at nearly the same time and position as the slump mass deposited near the base of the valley wall and in the axis proper.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Optical Radiation Emission as a Function of Welding Power during Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Janßen, Marco; Schmitz, Martin; Ott, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements. The investigated welding currents range from 70 to 350 A, reflecting values usually applied in industry. Based upon these new irradiance data, three mathematical models were derived in order to describe optical radiation emission as a function of welding power. The linear, exponential, and sigmoidal emission models depend on the process variant (standard or pulsed) as well as on the welding material (mild and stainless steel, aluminum). In conjunction with the corresponding exposure limit values for incoherent optical radiation maximum permissible exposure durations were calculated as a function of welding power. Typical times are shorter than 1 s for the ultraviolet spectral region and range from 1 to 10 s for visible radiation. For the infrared regime, exposure durations are of the order of minutes to hours. Finally, a validation of the metal active gas emission models was carried out with manual arc welding.

  5. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  6. Current results for the NRC's short cracks in piping and piping welds research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P. Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Marschall, C.; Rahman, S.; Rosenfield, A.; Scott, P.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The program consists of 8 technical tasks as listed below. Task 1 Short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations. Task 2 Short surface-cracked pipe evaluations. Task 3 Bi-metallic weld crack evaluations. Task 4 Dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities. Task 5 Fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe. Task 6 Crack-opening-area evaluations. Task 7 NRCPIPE Code improvements. Task 8 Additional efforts. Since the last WRSM meeting several additional tasks have been initiated in this program. These are discussed in Task 8. Based on results to date, the first seven tasks have also been modified as deemed necessary. The most significant accomplishments in each of these tasks since the last WRSIM meeting are discussed below. The details of all the results presented here are published in the semiannual reports from this program

  7. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  8. Adaptive control of penetration and joint following for robotic GTA welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram Mir Sadeghi; Hishamuddin Jamaludin; Iskandar Baharin

    1997-01-01

    A statistical-based method for adaptive control of weld pool penetration and joint following in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding as an approach to process and trajectory control of robotic GTA welding has been designed and simulated. Welding process parameters such as: base current and time, pulse current and time, electrode tip to work piece distance, filler travelling speed, torch speed and work piece thickness were used for finding the equations which describe the interrelationship between the aforementioned variables and penetration depth as well as bead width. The calculation of these equations was developed from the statistical regression analysis of 80 welds deposited using various combinations of welding parameters. For monitoring of the work piece thickness variations, an ultrasonic device was used. In order to control the weld trajectory, a CCD camera was also used. The results showed that the misalignment of the progressive heat affected zone which is adjacent to the weld puddle can be detected, and used for control of the weld trajectory. Also, it was found that scanning of a certain region of the captured image in front of the weld puddle decreases the data processing time drastically

  9. A Monte Carlo model for 3D grain evolution during welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Mitchell, John A.; Tikare, Veena

    2017-09-01

    Welding is one of the most wide-spread processes used in metal joining. However, there are currently no open-source software implementations for the simulation of microstructural evolution during a weld pass. Here we describe a Potts Monte Carlo based model implemented in the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo computational framework. The model simulates melting, solidification and solid-state microstructural evolution of material in the fusion and heat-affected zones of a weld. The model does not simulate thermal behavior, but rather utilizes user input parameters to specify weld pool and heat-affect zone properties. Weld pool shapes are specified by Bézier curves, which allow for the specification of a wide range of pool shapes. Pool shapes can range from narrow and deep to wide and shallow representing different fluid flow conditions within the pool. Surrounding temperature gradients are calculated with the aide of a closest point projection algorithm. The model also allows simulation of pulsed power welding through time-dependent variation of the weld pool size. Example simulation results and comparisons with laboratory weld observations demonstrate microstructural variation with weld speed, pool shape, and pulsed-power.

  10. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    17  Figure 11.  IRMS versus VRMS Comparison with Different Ar/CO2 Gas Mixtures Using GMAW-P...21  Figure 13.  IRMS versus VRMS Comparison with Miller and Lincoln Welding Machines in the Horizontal and Vertical Positions Using GMAW-P...Gas Metal Arc Welding Pulsed Spray Transfer GMAW-S Gas Metal Arc Welding Spray Transfer HAZ Heat Affected Zone HC#1 Hull Cut #1 IRMS Current Root

  11. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance.

  12. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm 2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance

  13. Modular Power Supply for Micro Resistance Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Oleksandr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the important issue of enhancing the circuitry and characteristics of power supplies for micro resistance welding machines. The aim of the research is to provide high quality input current and to increase the energy efficiency of the output pulse generator by means of improving the circuit topologies of the power supply main blocks. In study, the principle of constructing the power supply for micro resistance welding, which provides high values of output welding current and high accuracy of welding pulse formation, makes it possible to reduce energy losses, and provides high quality of consumed input current, is represented. The multiphase topology of the charger with power factor correction based on SEPIC converters is suggested as the most efficient for charging the supercapacitor storage module. The multicell topology of the supercapacitor energy storage with voltage equalizing is presented. The parameters of the converter cells are evaluated. The calculations of energy efficiency of the power supply’s input and output converters based on suggested topologies are carried out and verified in MATLAB Simulink. The power factor value greater than 99 % is derived.

  14. Development of electromagnetic welding facility of flat plates for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, Subhanarayan; Sarkar, Biswanath; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse welding (EMPW) process, one of high speed welding process uses electromagnetic force from discharged current through working coil, which develops a repulsive force between the induced current flowing parallel and in opposite direction. For achieving the successful weldment using this process the design of working coil is the most important factor due to high magnetic field on surface of work piece. In case of high quality flat plate welding factors such as impact velocity, angle of impact standoff distance, thickness of flyer and overlap length have to be chosen carefully. All the parameters should be optimized because above or below the optimized value, it is impossible to get high quality welding of flat components. Electromagnetic pulse welding of flat components has been studied in detail by many researches due to its advantages of increased formability and reduced spring back than other welding methods. The feasibility of electromagnetic welding of sheets has been established, but the effect of process parameters on the weld quality has not been justified properly. The present study investigates the effect of parameters on welding quality of flat sheets, which has wide applications in nuclear industry, automotive industry, aerospace, electrical industries. However formability and weld ability still remain major issues. The EMPW process for flat sheets and axi-symmetric components has been studied in details by many researchers. Due to ease in controlling the magnetic field enveloped inside tubes, the EMPW has been widely used for tube welding. In case of flat components control of magnetic field is difficult. Hence the application of EMPW gets restricted. The present work attempts to make a novel contribution by investigating the effect of process parameters on welding quality. The work emphasizes the approaches and engineering calculations required to effectively use of actuator in EMPW. (author)

  15. Effect of Electric-current Pulses on Grain-structure Evolution in Cryogenically Rolled Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    severely deformed dilute aluminium alloy . Acta Mater. 56, 1619 (2008). 4. T. Konkova, S. Mironov, A. Korznikov, and S.L. Semiatin: Microstructural response...phase transformation and variant selection by electric current pulses in a Cu-Zn alloy . J. Mater. Res. 29, 975 (2014). 13. I.Sh. Valeev and Z.G

  16. Is there an Optimal Shape of the Defibrillation Shock: Constant Current vs. Pulsed Biphasic Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation are assessed and compared: the Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW, the Rectilinear Biphasic Waveform (RBW, and the "lossless" constant current (LLCC pulses. Two indices are introduced: 1 kf = W/W0 - the ratio between the delivered energy W and the energy W0 of a rectangular pulse with the same duration and electric charge; 2 ηC = W/WC0 - the level of utilizing the initially loaded capacitor energy WC0. The envisioned comparative study shows that ηC index is favorable for both PBW and LLCC, while kf of both RBW and LLCC demonstrates advantage over the PBW in the range of small inter-electrode thoracic impedances below 80 Ω. Some design considerations are also discussed. The attractive LLCC concept needs large and heavy inductive coil to support the constant current amplitude, besides it is capable to induce strong electromagnetic influences due to the complex current control. The RBW technology controls the delivery of current through a series of internal resistors which are, however, a source of high heat losses. The PBW implements controlled duty cycle of high-frequency chopped pulses to adapt the energy delivery in respect of the patient impedance measured at the beginning of the shock. PBW technology makes use of small capacitors which allows the construction of light weight and small-size portable devices for transthoracic defibrillation.

  17. Loeb's and streamer-based mechanism for negative corona current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnerova, L.; Skalny, J.D.; Cermak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The negative point-to-plane corona discharge in electronegative gaseous mixtures is studied experimentally and the basic mechanisms controlling the corona phenomena are discussed. The typical shapes of the current pulse waveforms observed in experiments with the nitrogen-freon mixtures are explained in terms of the theory by Loeb and of the positive-streamer-based model. (J.U.)

  18. Dynamic behavior of HTSC opening switch models controlled by short over-critical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Krastelev, E.G.; Voronin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    We present results of experimental research of dynamical properties of thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC-switch models under action of short overcritical current pulses to test this method of control of fast high-power opening switches for accelerator applications

  19. Current multiplier to improved generator-to-load coupling for pulse-power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvatin, A.S.; Rudakov, L.I.; Weber, B.V.; Bayol, F.; Cadiergues, R.

    2005-01-01

    The circuit presented improves the coupling of existing and future pulsed power generators to physical loads. The efficiency of the proposed current multiplication scheme could theoretically exceed the values for a typical direct load-to-generator circuit. The scheme could be beneficial for use in actual applications and two examples of such applications are given [ru

  20. A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Yuting; Du, Jinqiang

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor.

  1. Influence of pulse electric current on structure and superconducting properties of high temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajchenko, A.I.; Flis, A.A.; Chernenko, L.I.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of high-density pulse current treatment at room temperature on structure and superconducting properties of HTSC Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O x ceramics is studied. The structures of the samples are found to undergo appreciable changes as the density of pulse current is gradually increased from its minimum value; as a certain threshold value is attained, there occurs a melting-off of coarse grains with a partial destroying of intergrain contact areas followed by superconductivity loss. A further increase in the treatment current density results in a restoration of the superconducting properties probably due to the occurrence of aligned-with-current superconducting bridges between the melted-off grains. The superconducting transition temperature in the samples does not charge but subsequent thermal treatment causes this temperature to increase

  2. High-current relativistic klystron amplifier development for microsecond pulse lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Carlsten, B.E.; Faehl, R.; Kwan, T.J.; Rickel, D.G.; Stringfield, R.M.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos is extending the performance of the Friedman-type, high-current relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) to the microsecond regime while attempting to achieve the gigawatt-level peak power capability that has been characteristic of the RKA at shorter pulse lengths. Currently the electron beam power into the device is about 1 GW in microsecond duration pulses, with an effort underway to increase the beam power to 2.5 GW. To data the device has yielded an rf modulated electron beam power of 350 MW, with up to 50 MW coupled into waveguide. Several aspects of RKA operation under investigation that affect RKA beam bunching efficiency and amplifier gain include cavity tuning, beam diameter, beam current, and input rf drive power, and the development of an output coupler that efficiently couples the microwave power from the low impedance beam into rectangular waveguide operating in the dominant mode. Current results from experimental testing and code modeling are presented

  3. Determination of diffusion coefficients in polypyrrole thin films using a current pulse relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  4. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoranova, A.; Zahoran, M.; Bucek, A.; Cernak, M.; Bosko, J.

    2004-01-01

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF 6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF 6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF 6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  5. Thermomagnetic writing on deep submicron-patterned TbFe films by nanosecond current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Long; Kato, Takeshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Iwata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the heating process for deep submicron-patterned TbFe films to be used in a thermally assisted perpendicular magnetic random access memory's writing scheme. The dependence of the heating power density with the current pulse width required for the successful writing was measured in the investigated range of 5-100 ns. In the case of long current pulse, the heat diffuses dominantly into substrate, which resulted in large variation of the required power/energy density with the patterned size. The power/energy densities required for writing increased as the junction area is reduced. While for the short current pulse width, the power/energy densities became rather independent on the size. The required power density for writing 0.38x0.28 μm 2 patterned films using the pulse width of 5 ns is experimentally estimated to be around P=4.7 mW/μm 2 , corresponding to the energy density of E=23 pJ/μm 2 , under an external field of 100 Oe

  6. Computerized simulation of YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V): experimental characterization and modelling of the thermomechanical aspects of this process; Simulation numerique du soudage du TA6V par laser YAG impulsionnel: caracterisation experimentale et modelisation des aspects thermomecanique associees a ce procede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Y

    2007-09-15

    This work is a part of study which goal is to realize a computer modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena occurring during the YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V). The filet welding has different heterogeneities (microstructural and mechanical). In fact, the temperature causes microstructural changes (phase transformations, precipitations) and modifies the mechanical properties. Thermomechanical modelling has thus to be established for the welding of TA6V. (author)

  7. Surface modification of TC4 titanium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) with different pulsed energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yu-kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. •The surface integrity changes were investigated by different techniques. •The mechanism was analyzed based on AFM and TEM investigations. -- Abstract: Surface changes including surface topography and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated for TC4 titanium alloy by different energy densities of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB). The surface topography was characterized by SEM and AFM, and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TC4 titanium alloy by HCPEB. The surface roughness was modified by HCPEB and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM. The fine grain structure inherited from the rapid solidification of the melted layer as well as the strain hardening of the sub-surface are two of the factors responsible the increase in nanohardness

  8. The effect of welding methods on the microstructure and properties of welded tantalum sheets and a mathematical analysis of heat transfer in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharir, Y.

    1977-12-01

    The effect of electromagnetic vibration of the arc and the influence of varying the pulses of the current on the nature of solidification in the molten zone of welded tantalum were investigated. Their influence on microstructure and some service properties were also studied. At optimum conditions equi-axed grains and refined microstructure were obtained in the fusion zone of the weld. Similar results were achieved by selecting proper conditions for the current pulses. The effect of varying welding speed and the combined effect of welding speed and optimal vibration conditions were also examined. The experiments were performed in an inert-gas-chamber designed for this purpose. Most of the tests to evaluate service performance were devoted to the investigation of some mechanical properties (yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, hardness and ductility) of the fusion-zone itself. Slight improvement in strength and significant increase in ductility were achieved by an advanced welding technique as compared with the results of a more conventional welding method. The optimum conditions for the advanced welding technique applied in this work were determined. A new mathematical model for calculating heat distribution in tantalum sheets was developed. A non-stationary calculation, independent of specific initial conditions or the shape of the molten pool, is the basis of this model. Consequently, it can be used for advanced welding techniques where the molten pool is dynamic in shape or nature. The model takes into account heat losses by an exponential function and the variation of some physical properties as a function of temperature. The differential equations are solved numerically by an explicit-finite-difference-method by a computer program written for this purpose. Calculated and experimental results are in good agreement. (author)

  9. Investigation on mechanical properties of welded material under different types of welding filler (shielded metal arc welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdullah Mohd; Lair, Noor Ajian Mohd; Wei, Foo Jun

    2018-05-01

    The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is (or the Stick welding) defined as a welding process, which melts and joins metals with an arc between a welding filler (electrode rod) and the workpieces. The main objective was to study the mechanical properties of welded metal under different types of welding fillers and current for SMAW. This project utilized the Design of Experiment (DOE) by adopting the Full Factorial Design. The independent variables were the types of welding filler and welding current, whereas the other welding parameters were fixed at the optimum value. The levels for types of welding filler were by the models of welding filler (E6013, E7016 and E7018) used and the levels for welding current were 80A and 90A. The responses were the mechanical properties of welded material, which include tensile strength and hardness. The experiment was analyzed using the two way ANOVA. The results prove that there are significant effects of welding filler types and current levels on the tensile strength and hardness of the welded metal. At the same time, the ANOVA results and interaction plot indicate that there are significant interactions between the welding filler types and the welding current on both the hardness and tensile strength of the welded metals, which has never been reported before. This project found that when the amount of heat input with increase, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness decrease. The optimum tensile strength for welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7016 and the optimum of hardness of welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7018 at welding current of 80A.

  10. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  11. Photoinduced electric currents in ring-shaped molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically demonstrated that circularly polarized laser pulses induce electric currents and magnetic moments in ring-shaped molecules Na 10 and benzene. The time-dependent adiabatic local density approximation is employed for this purpose, solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation in real space and real time. It has been found that the electric currents are induced efficiently and persist continuously even after the laser pulses were switched off provided the frequency of the applied laser pulse is in tune with the excitation energy of the electronic excited state with the dipole strength for each molecular system. The electric currents are definitely revealed to be a second-order nonlinear optical response to the magnitude of the electric field. The magnetic dipole moments inevitably accompany the ring currents, so that the molecules are magnetized. The production of the electric currents and the magnetic moments in the present procedure is found to be much more efficient than that utilizing static magnetic fields

  12. Pulse measurement of the hot spot current in a NbTiN superconducting filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, K.; Mekki, A.; Kunwar, S.; Maneval, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the voltage response of superconducting NbTiN filaments to a step-pulse of over-critical current I > Ic. The current induces the destruction of the Cooper pairs and initiates different mechanisms of dissipation depending on the bath temperature T. For the sample investigated, and for T above a certain T*, not far from Tc, the resistance manifests itself in the form of a phase-slip center, which turns into a normal hot spot (HS) as the step-pulse is given larger amplitudes. However, at all temperatures below T*, the destruction of superconductivity still occurs at Ic(T), but leads directly to an ever-growing HS. By lowering the current amplitude during the pulse, one can produce a steady HS and thus define a threshold HS current Ih(T). That is achieved by combining two levels of current, the first and larger one to initiate an HS, the second one to search for constant voltage response. The double diagram of the functions Ic(T) and Ih(T) was plotted in the T-range Tc/2 < T < Tc, and their crossing found at T* = (8.07 ± 0.07) K.

  13. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    improvements for the actual can welding process, however, did not result in an improved weld geometry. Several possibilities for the lack of positive response exist, some of which are that (1) an insufficient number of test articles were welded under prototypic conditions, (2) the process was not optimized so that significant improvements were observable over the 'noise', and (3) the in-situ arc anneal closed the gap down too much so the can was unable to exhaust pressure ahead of the weld. Several operational and mechanical improvements were identified. The weld clamps were changed to a design consistent with those used in the legacy operations. A helium puff operation was eliminated; it is believed that this operation was the cause of the original weld defect. Also, timing of plug mast movement was found to correspond with weld irregularities. The timing of the movement was changed to occur during weld head travel between tacks. In the end a three sequential tack weld process followed by a pulse weld at the same current and travel speed as was used for the legacy processes was suggested for use during the IC qualification effort. Relative to legacy welds, the PDC IC weld demonstrates greater fluctuation in the region of the weld located between tack welds. However, canister weld response (canister to canister) is consistent and with the aid of the optical mapping system (for targeting the cut position) is considered adequate. DR measurements and METs show the PDC IC welds to have sufficient ligament length to ensure adequate canister pressure/impact capacity and to ensure adequate stub function. The PDC welding process has not been optimized as a result of this effort. Differences remain between the legacy BTC welds and the PDC IC weld, but these differences are not sufficient to prevent resumption of the current PDC IC qualification effort. During the PDC IC qualification effort, a total of 17 cans will be welded and a variety of tests/inspections will be

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Welds of Al - Mg - Si Alloys After Different Modes of Impulse Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'ev, S. Yu.; Morozova, Yu. N.; Golubev, Yu. A.; Hantelmann, C.; Naumov, A. A.; Mikhailov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    Welded joints of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 formed by the method of impulse friction stir welding are studied. The effect of the power and frequency of the pulses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints is determined. Application of an additional pulse during the welding affects the surface quality and the shape of the weld, the distribution of the oxide layer and of particles of the hardening phase, and the grain size in the zone of dynamic recrystallization.

  15. Weld analysis and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  16. Analysis on Development of Transverse - Sectioned Weld Zone using FEM Verified with Multipulsed Resistance Seam Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper details an investigation, through an experimental study, of the development of weld nuggets and a heat-affected zone (HAZ in resistance seam welding(RSEW using a numerical simulation approach. SYSWELD software for the simulation of heat treatment, welding, and welding assembly was utilized for the simulation process. The integrated Spot Weld Advisor (SWA in SYSWELD was applied to simulate the RSEW model using a two-dimensional axis-symmetric FE model with customized electrode meshing. The thermal-mechanical-electrical characteristic and contact condition were taken into account throughout this study. The developed model comprised a transverse cross section for welding two layers of low carbon steel with a thickness of 1 mm. For the experimental verification, three-pulsed RSEW with two different current stages was carried out. It was discovered that this program code, Spotweld Advisor, when used with the meshing method, was capable of offering results that were in agreement with physical experiments.

  17. Preparation of scanning tunneling microscopy tips using pulsed alternating current etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Thaker, Avesh A.; Derouin, Jonathan; Valencia, Damian N.; Farber, Rachael G.; Gebel, Dana A.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical method using pulsed alternating current etching (PACE) to produce atomically sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is presented. An Arduino Uno microcontroller was used to control the number and duration of the alternating current (AC) pulses, allowing for ready optimization of the procedures for both Pt:Ir and W tips using a single apparatus. W tips prepared using constant and pulsed AC power were compared. Tips fashioned using PACE were sharper than those etched with continuous AC power alone. Pt:Ir tips were prepared with an initial coarse etching stage using continuous AC power followed by fine etching using PACE. The number and potential of the finishing AC pulses was varied and scanning electron microscope imaging was used to compare the results. Finally, tip quality using the optimized procedures was verified by UHV-STM imaging. With PACE, at least 70% of the W tips and 80% of the Pt:Ir tips were of sufficiently high quality to obtain atomically resolved images of HOPG or Ni(111)

  18. Optimization of a Two Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator for the Integrated Current Lead System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, R.; Matsubara, Y.; Okada, A.; Takami, S.; Konno, M.; Tomioka, A.; Imayoshi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Mito, T.

    2008-03-01

    Implementation of a conventional current lead with a pulse tube refrigerator has been validated to be working as an Integrated Current Lead (ICL) system for the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). Realization of the system is primarily accounted for the flexibility of a pulse tube refrigerator, which does not posses any mechanical piston and/or displacer. As for an ultimate version of the ICL system, a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) lead links a superconducting coil with a conventional copper lead. To ensure the minimization of heat loads to the superconducting coil, a pulse tube refrigerator has been upgraded to have a second cooling stage. This arrangement reduces not only the heat loads to the superconducting coil but also the operating cost for a SMES system. A prototype two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, series connected arrangement, was designed and fabricated to satisfy the requirements for the ICL system. Operation of the first stage refrigerator is a four-valve mode, while the second stage utilizes a double inlet configuration to ensure its confined geometry. The paper discusses the optimization of second stage cooling to validate the conceptual design

  19. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.C.; Hao, S.Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm 2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg 17 Al 12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ∼15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg 3.1 Al 0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg 17 Al 12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  20. Preparation of scanning tunneling microscopy tips using pulsed alternating current etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Thaker, Avesh A.; Derouin, Jonathan; Valencia, Damian N.; Farber, Rachael G.; Gebel, Dana A.; Killelea, Daniel R., E-mail: dkillelea@luc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Loyola University Chicago, 1068 W. Sheridan Rd., Chicago, Illinois 60660 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    An electrochemical method using pulsed alternating current etching (PACE) to produce atomically sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is presented. An Arduino Uno microcontroller was used to control the number and duration of the alternating current (AC) pulses, allowing for ready optimization of the procedures for both Pt:Ir and W tips using a single apparatus. W tips prepared using constant and pulsed AC power were compared. Tips fashioned using PACE were sharper than those etched with continuous AC power alone. Pt:Ir tips were prepared with an initial coarse etching stage using continuous AC power followed by fine etching using PACE. The number and potential of the finishing AC pulses was varied and scanning electron microscope imaging was used to compare the results. Finally, tip quality using the optimized procedures was verified by UHV-STM imaging. With PACE, at least 70% of the W tips and 80% of the Pt:Ir tips were of sufficiently high quality to obtain atomically resolved images of HOPG or Ni(111)

  1. The destruction influence of pulse and surge currents on overvoltage protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, M.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals about the influences caused during the active operation process of the surge arrester against the pulse and surge currents. It also refers about a lightning, the characteristic of lightning and about the lightning (surge) currents caused its influence. One parts of the article is focused on a total elimination of surge current energy, and on an ineffective operation, which leads to partially or totally destruction of a protection element. There is a comparison with two basic types of surge arresters (spark gap and varistor based arresters), and theirs re-effectiveness on prescribed level. (Authors)

  2. Advanced electrical current measurements of microdischarges: evidence of sub-critical pulses and ion currents in barrier discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Kudrle, Vít; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Electrical current measurements in corona or barrier microdischarges are a challenge as they require both high temporal resolution and a large dynamic range of the current probe used. In this article, we apply a simple self-assembled current probe and compare it to commercial ones. An analysis in the time and frequency domain is carried out. Moreover, an improved methodology is presented, enabling both temporal resolution in sub-nanosecond times and current sensitivity in the order of tens of micro-amperes. Combining this methodology with a high-tech oscilloscope and self-developed software, a unique statistical analysis of currents in volume barrier discharge driven in atmospheric-pressure air is made for over 80 consecutive periods of a 15 kHz applied voltage. We reveal the presence of repetitive sub-critical current pulses and conclude that these can be identified with the discharging of surface charge microdomains. Moreover, extremely low, long-lasting microsecond currents were detected which are caused by ion flow, and are analysed in detail. The statistical behaviour presented gives deeper insight into the discharge physics of these usually undetectable current signals.

  3. Pulsed currents carried by whistlers. IV. Electric fields and radiation excited by an electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Rousculp, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of current pulses carried by whistler wave packets are obtained from a basic laboratory experiment. While the magnetic field and current density are described in the preceding companion paper (Part III), the present analysis starts with the electric field. The inductive and space charge electric field contributions are separately calculated in Fourier space from the measured magnetic field and Ohm's law along B 0 . Inverse Fourier transformation yields the total electric field in space and time, separated into rotational and divergent contributions. The space-charge density in whistler wave packets is obtained. The cross-field tensor conductivity is determined. The frozen-in condition is nearly satisfied, E+v e xB congruent 0. The dissipation is obtained from Poynting's theorem. The waves are collisionally damped; Landau damping is negligible. A radiation resistance for the electrode is determined. Analogous to Poynting's theorem, the transport of helicity is analyzed. Current helicity is generated by a flow of helicity between pulses traveling in opposite directions which carry opposite signs of helicity. Helicity is dissipated by collisions. These observations complete a detailed description of whistler/current pulses which can occur in various laboratory and space plasmas. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guang-Wen; Qi, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: qizhy@sysucc.org.cn; Deng, Xiao-Wu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Rosenfeld, Anatoly [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters forin vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. Methods: Several MOSFETs were irradiated atd{sub max} using a 6 MV x-ray beam with 5 V on the gate and annealed with zero bias at room temperature. The percentage recovery of threshold voltage shift during multiple irradiation-annealing cycles was evaluated. Key dosimetry characteristics of the annealed MOSFET such as the dosimeter's sensitivity, reproducibility, dose linearity, and linearity of response within the dynamic range were investigated. The initial results of using the annealed MOSFETs for IMRT dosimetry practice were also presented. Results: More than 95% of threshold voltage shift can be recovered after 24-pulse current continuous annealing in 16 min. The mean sensitivity degradation was found to be 1.28%, ranging from 1.17% to 1.52%, during multiple annealing procedures. Other important characteristics of the annealed MOSFET remained nearly consistent before and after annealing. Our results showed there was no statistically significant difference between the annealed MOSFETs and their control samples in absolute dose measurements for IMRT QA (p = 0.99). The MOSFET measurements agreed with the ion chamber results on an average of 0.16% ± 0.64%. Conclusions: Pulsed current annealing provides a practical option for reusing MOSFETs to extend their operational lifetime. The current annealing circuit can be integrated into the reader, making the annealing procedure fully automatic.

  5. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  6. Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guang-Wen; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Wu; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters for in vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. Several MOSFETs were irradiated at d(max) using a 6 MV x-ray beam with 5 V on the gate and annealed with zero bias at room temperature. The percentage recovery of threshold voltage shift during multiple irradiation-annealing cycles was evaluated. Key dosimetry characteristics of the annealed MOSFET such as the dosimeter's sensitivity, reproducibility, dose linearity, and linearity of response within the dynamic range were investigated. The initial results of using the annealed MOSFETs for IMRT dosimetry practice were also presented. More than 95% of threshold voltage shift can be recovered after 24-pulse current continuous annealing in 16 min. The mean sensitivity degradation was found to be 1.28%, ranging from 1.17% to 1.52%, during multiple annealing procedures. Other important characteristics of the annealed MOSFET remained nearly consistent before and after annealing. Our results showed there was no statistically significant difference between the annealed MOSFETs and their control samples in absolute dose measurements for IMRT QA (p = 0.99). The MOSFET measurements agreed with the ion chamber results on an average of 0.16% ± 0.64%. Pulsed current annealing provides a practical option for reusing MOSFETs to extend their operational lifetime. The current annealing circuit can be integrated into the reader, making the annealing procedure fully automatic.

  7. Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Guang-Wen; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Wu; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters forin vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. Methods: Several MOSFETs were irradiated atd max using a 6 MV x-ray beam with 5 V on the gate and annealed with zero bias at room temperature. The percentage recovery of threshold voltage shift during multiple irradiation-annealing cycles was evaluated. Key dosimetry characteristics of the annealed MOSFET such as the dosimeter's sensitivity, reproducibility, dose linearity, and linearity of response within the dynamic range were investigated. The initial results of using the annealed MOSFETs for IMRT dosimetry practice were also presented. Results: More than 95% of threshold voltage shift can be recovered after 24-pulse current continuous annealing in 16 min. The mean sensitivity degradation was found to be 1.28%, ranging from 1.17% to 1.52%, during multiple annealing procedures. Other important characteristics of the annealed MOSFET remained nearly consistent before and after annealing. Our results showed there was no statistically significant difference between the annealed MOSFETs and their control samples in absolute dose measurements for IMRT QA (p = 0.99). The MOSFET measurements agreed with the ion chamber results on an average of 0.16% ± 0.64%. Conclusions: Pulsed current annealing provides a practical option for reusing MOSFETs to extend their operational lifetime. The current annealing circuit can be integrated into the reader, making the annealing procedure fully automatic

  8. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J R; Wagg, A R; Whittle, M J [N.D.T. Applications Centre, CEGB, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The metallurgical structure of austenitic welds is described and contrasted with that found in ferritic welds. It is shown that this structure imparts a marked elastic anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation parameters. Measurements of variations in the apparent attenuation of sound and deviations in the beam direction are described. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the measured velocity anisotropy. Two applications of the fundamental work are described. In the first it is shown how, by using short pulse compression wave probes, and with major modification of the welding procedure, a stainless steel fillet weld in an AGR boiler can be inspected. In the second application, alternative designs of a transition butt weld have been compared for ease of ultrasonic inspection. The effects of two different welding processes on such an inspection are described. Finally, the paper examines the prospects for future development of inspection and defect-sizing techniques for austenitic welds. (author)

  10. Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Farson, Dave F [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Hollis, Kendall; Milewski, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Volume of fluid (VOF) numerical simulation was used to investigate melt flow and volumetric oscillation of conduction-mode pulsed laser weld pools. The result is compared to high speed video stream of titanium laser spot welding experiment. The total simulation time is 10ms with the first 5 ms being heating and melting under constant laser irradiation and the remaining 5 ms corresponding to resolidification of the weld pool. During the melting process, the liquid pool did not exhibit periodic oscillation but was continually depressed by the evaporation recoil pressure. After the laser pulse, the weld pool was excited into volumetric oscillation by the release of pressure on its surface and oscillation of the weld pool surface was analyzed. The simulation model suggested adjusting thermal diffusivity to match cooling rate and puddle diameter during solidification which is distinguishable from previous weld pool simulation. The frequency continuously increased from several thousand cycles per second to tens of thousands of cycles per second as the weld pool solidified and its diameter decreased. The result is the first trial of investigation of small weld pool oscillation in laser welding although there have been several reports about arc welding.

  11. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  12. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  13. Nickel coating on high strength low alloy steel by pulse current deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Patel, S. K.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Sharma, N.; Ghosh, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal mostly used to enhance the value, utility, and lifespan of industrial equipment and components by protecting them from corrosion. Nickel is commonly used in the chemical and food processing industries to prevent iron from contamination. Since the properties of nickel can be controlled and varied over broad ranges, nickel plating finds numerous applications in industries. In the present investigation, pulse current electro-deposition technique has been used to deposit nickel on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel substrate.Coating of nickel is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDAX analysis. Optical microscopy and SEM is used to assess the coating characteristics. Electrochemical polarization study has been carried out to study the corrosion behaviour of nickel coating and the polarisation curves have revealed that current density used during pulse electro-deposition plays a vital role on characteristics of nickel coating.

  14. Detection of the Thickness Variation of a Stainless Steel sample using Pulsed Eddy Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Jhong, H. K.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) system has been developed for the detection of thickness variation of stainless steel. The sample was machined as step configuration using stainless steel for thickness variation from 1mm to 5mm step by step. The LabView computer program was developed to display the variation in the amplitude of the detected pulse by scanning the PECT probe on the flat side of the sample. The pickup Sensor measures the effective magnetic field on the sample, which is the sum of the incident field and the field reflected by the specimen due to the induced eddy currents in the sample. We use the hall sensor for the detection. Usage of hall sensor instead of coil as a field detector improves the detectability and special resolution. This technology can be used in detection of local wall thinning of the pipeline of nuclear power plant

  15. Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19011 Curitiba, 81.531-970 PR (Brazil); Nobrega, K.Z., E-mail: bzuza1@yahoo.com.br [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technolgy of Maranhão (IFMA), Av. Marechal Castelo Branco, 789, São Luís, 65.076-091 MA (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.

  16. The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as “plasma bullet” is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

  17. Pulsed eddy current inspection system for nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    An inspection system has been developed for nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods utilizing pulsed eddy current techniques. The system employs an encircling type pulsed eddy current transducer capable of sensing small defects located on both the inner and outer diameter fuel rod surfaces during a single scan. Pulsed eddy current point probes are used to provide fuel rod wall thikness data and an indication of radial defect location. Two linear variable differential transformers are used to provide information on fuel rod diameter variation. A microprocessor based control system is used to automatically scan fuel rods up to 4.06 meters in length at predetermined radial locations. Defects as small as 0.005 cm deep by 0.254 cm long by 0.005 cm wide have been detected on outside diameter surfaces of a 1.43 cm outside diameter fuel rod cladding with a 0.094 cm wall thickness and 0.010 cm deep by 0.254 cm long by 0.005 cm wide on the inside diameter surface

  18. Numerical simulation and experiment of high-intensity current pulsed impact on the structure body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mintang; Yan Ping; Yuan Weiqun; Sun Yaohong; Sun Lianhua; Zhou Yuan; Liu Chuanpu

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of the impulse force formed by pulse current of electromagnetic rail propulsion system, and to explore effective ways to improve the support structure of rails, a set of impulse force test system was designed, and the work-related test situation was numerically simulated. Several impulse force waveforms formed by different pulse current waveforms were achieved by using an armature as a source of impulse force in this test system, and two curves of waveform were comparatively analyzed. The armature existing in the environment of coupling fields including electric field and magnetic field and force field was carried out numerical calculation by using the software of ANSYS, and the coupling force field was emphatically analyzed to calculate the electromagnetic driving force and the electromagnetic clamping force acting on the armature, and the structure stress and deformation was also analyzed. The results showed that the curves of electromagnetic driving force computed by numerical simulation and the curves of impulse force obtained by experiment were basically the same, and the value of peak points' error was increasing along with the increase of pulse current, but the curves still showed some common characteristics. This verified that the test method we used in this paper was proper to capture the impulse force, and the method of calculation was also feasible and effective. (authors)

  19. Domain wall manipulation in magnetic nanotubes induced by electric current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otálora, J A; López-López, J A; Landeros, P; Núñez, A S

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the injection of electric currents can be used to independently manipulate the position and chirality of vortex-like domain walls in metallic ferromagnetic nanotubes. We support this proposal upon theoretical and numerical assessment of the magnetization dynamics driven by such currents. We show that proper interplay between the tube geometry, magnitude of the electric current and the duration of a current pulse, can be used to manipulate the position, velocity and chirality of a vortex domain wall. Our calculations suggest that domain wall velocities greater than 1 km s -1 can be achieved for tube diameters of the order of 30 nm and increasing with it. We also find that the transition from steady to precessional domain wall motion occurs for very high electric current densities, of the order of 10 13 A m -2 . Furthermore, the great stability displayed by such chiral magnetic configurations, and the reduced Ohmic loses provided by the current pulses, lead to highly reproducible and efficient domain wall reversal mechanisms.

  20. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  1. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  2. Glow-to-arc transition events in H2-Ar direct current pulsed plasma: Automated measurement of current and voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Luciano A.; Rodrigues, Jhonatam C.; Mafra, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    The glow-to-arc transition phenomena (arcing) observed in plasma reactors used in materials processing was studied through the arcs characteristic current and voltage waveforms. In order to capture these arcs signals, a LABVIEW based automated instrumentation system (ARCVIEW) was developed, including the integration of an oscilloscope equipped with proper current and voltage probes. The system also allows capturing the process parameters at the arc occurrence moments, which were used to map the arcs events conditions. Experiments in H 2 -Ar DC pulsed plasma returned signals data from 215 arcs events, which were analyzed through software routines. According to the results, an anti-arcing system should react in the time order of few microseconds to prevent most of the damage caused by the undesired arcing phenomena.

  3. Regression analysis of pulsed eddy current signals for inspection of steam generator tube support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Underhill, P.R.; Mokros, S.G.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T.W.; Babbar, V.K.; Lepine, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear steam generator (SG) support structure degradation and fouling can result in damage to SG tubes and loss of SG efficiency. Conventional eddy current technology is extensively used to detect cracks, frets at supports and other flaws, but has limited capabilities in the presence of multiple degradation modes or fouling. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression models was examined for the inspection of support structure degradation and SG tube off-centering with the goal of extending results to include additional degradation modes. (author)

  4. Noncircular plasma shape analysis in long-pulse current drive experiment in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minooka, Mayumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Jotaki, Eriko; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    Plasma cross section was noncircularized and the plasma shape was analyzed in order to study the characteristics of the plasma in long-pulse current drive experiments in high-field superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M. Filament approximation method was adopted, since on-line processing by data processing computer is possible. The experiments of the noncircularization were carried out during 30-to 60-sec discharges. As a result, it became clear that D-shape plasma of elongation ratio 1.4 was maintained stably. By the analysis the internal inductance and poloidal beta were assessed, and so informations about the plasma current profile and internal pressure were obtained. (author)

  5. Welding Penetration Control of Fixed Pipe in TIG Welding Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    This paper presents a study on welding penetration control of fixed pipe in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding using fuzzy inference system. The welding penetration control is essential to the production quality welds with a specified geometry. For pipe welding using constant arc current and welding speed, the bead width becomes wider as the circumferential welding of small diameter pipes progresses. Having welded pipe in fixed position, obviously, the excessive arc current yields burn through of metals; in contrary, insufficient arc current produces imperfect welding. In order to avoid these errors and to obtain the uniform weld bead over the entire circumference of the pipe, the welding conditions should be controlled as the welding proceeds. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position using the AC welding machine. The monitoring system used a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Simulation of welding control using fuzzy inference system was constructed to simulate the welding control process. The simulation result shows that fuzzy controller was suitable for controlling the welding speed and appropriate to be implemented into the welding system. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy controller. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the control system that is confirmed by sound welds.

  6. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  7. Pulsed eddy current differential probe to detect the defects in a stainless steel pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, C. G.; Leela, P.; Kishore, M.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an electromagnetic nondestructive technique widely used to detect and quantify the flaws in conducting materials. In the present study a differential Hall-sensor probe which is used in the PEC system has been fabricated for the detection of defects in stainless steel pipelines. The differential probe has an exciting coil with two Hall-sensors. A stainless steel test sample with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches under different depths of 1-5 mm was made and the sample was laminated by plastic insulation having uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The driving coil in the probe is excited by a rectangular current pulse and the resultant response, which is the difference of the two Hall-sensors, has been detected as the PEC probe signal. The discriminating time domain features of the detected pulse such as peak value and time to zero are used to interpret the experimental results with the defects in the test sample. A feature extraction technique such as spectral power density has been devised to infer the PEC response.

  8. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  9. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  10. Mechanism for negative corona current pulse in CO sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zahoranova, A; Simor, M; Cernak, M

    2003-01-01

    Current waveforms of first negative corona pulses have been measured in CO sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures over a pressure range extending from 6.65 to 50 kPa and various overvoltages. Effects of changing cathode secondary electron emission were studied using a copper cathode coated by CuI and graphite. For a given set of experimental conditions it is concluded that in the mixtures containing up to 30% of SF sub 6 the negative corona pulse is associated with the formation of a cathode-directed streamer-like ionizing wave in the immediate vicinity of the cathode. This is in contrast to the discharge behaviour in air-SF sub 6 and N sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures, where in similar conditions the discharge develops according to a multi-avalanche Townsend mechanism. (rapid communication)

  11. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  12. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  13. Effect of pulse current on acidification and removal of Cu, Cd, and As during suspended electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pulse current on the acidification process and the removal of heavy metals during suspended electrodialytic soil remediation were investigated in this work. Eight experiments with constant and pulse current in two polluted soils were conducted using a 3-compartment membrane cell......, predominately working under overlimiting current density conditions. Soil 1 was sampled from a pile of excavated soil at a site with mixed industrial pollution (Cu and Cd), and soil 2 was sampled from the top layer of a wood preservation site (Cu and As). Results showed that pulse current improved...... the acidification by supplying more reactive H+ ions (defined as the H+ ions causing release of heavy metals from soil particles). The molar ratio of reactive H+ ions to total produced H+ ions (RH+/PH+) was higher in every pulse current experiment than in the corresponding constant current experiment. In addition...

  14. Experimental electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing welds in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Welds in austenitic stainless steel pipes are notoriously difficult to nondestructively examine using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current methods. Survace irregularities and microscopic variations in magnetic permeability cause false eddy current signal variations. Ultrasonic methods have been developed which use computer processing of the data to overcome some of the problems. Electro-thermal nondestructive testing shows promise for detecting flaws that are difficult to detect using other NDT methods. Results of a project completed to develop and demonstrate the potential of an electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing stainless steel pipe welds are presented. Electro-thermal NDT uses a brief pulse of electrical current injected into the pipe. Defects at any depth within the weld cause small differences in surface electrical current distribution. These cause short-lived transient temperature differences on the pipe's surface that are mapped using an infrared scanning camera. Localized microstructural differences and normal surface roughness in the welds have little effect on the surface temperatures

  15. Elemental redistribution in coloured films on SUS304 stainless steel produced by current pulse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.J.; Duh, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Coloured films are deposited on an SUS304 substrate by the square wave current pulse method in a 2.5 M CrO 3 + 5 M H 2 SO 4 solution at 75 C. The absolute ratio of anodic to cathodic charge density and the corresponding final value of cathodic potential provide an easy and appropriate approach to the control of colour in the current pulse colouring method. This is proved in this study for a frequency region lower than 1 Hz. The corresponding cathodic potential increases with increasing dwell time in the negative applied current region and is related to the colour tone of the deposited film. The total time required to obtain the same thickness of coloured film is shorter at lower frequency than at higher frequency, which takes more time to charge the double layer. The thickness of the coloured films is determined by both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling and is of submicron order. The film thickness is proportional to the introduced total charge per unit area in the current pulse colouring process. CrO + and FeO + ions are observed in the coloured films and their concentrations increase as the colouring time is increased. The Fe concentration in the coloured films is lower than that in the substrate and decreases with the colouring time. It is the iron species that first becomes involved in the anodic reaction and the spinel oxide structure of iron and chromium is present in the coloured films. (orig.)

  16. Development of pulsed high current drivers for fast Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Zeng Zhengzhong; Zeng Jiangtao; Kuai Bin; Yang Hailiang

    2006-01-01

    It is required that the peak current of high power pulsed drive for fast Z-pinch reaches 60 MA to realize inertial confine fusion (ICF) and high yield (HY). With the conventional technological methods similar to the Z or Saturn apparatus, increasing driver current further is impractical and difficult according to the cost, structure complexity and reliability of the driver, so it is necessary to develop novel fast pulsed high current driver. The present art-of-state and trends of fast Z-pinch driver are summarized, and the typical conceptual designs and technological methods on ICF/HY PRS (plasma radiation source) and destroying-level super X-ray simulators in USA and Russia are outlined, such as HCEI's UGXX1 driver and new Saturn driver based on fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) and novel driver based on fast Marx generator (FMG) with current of 15 MA. The crucial technological problems and requirements to investigate in the future are presented. (authors)

  17. High-current relativistic klystron amplifier development for microsecond pulse lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Carlsten, B.E.; Faehl, R.J.; Kwan, T.J.; Rickel, D.G.; Stringfield, R.M.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos is extending the performance of the Friedman-type, high-current relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) to the microsecond regime while attempting to achieve the gigawatt-level peak power capability that has been characteristic of the RKA at shorter pulse lengths. Currently the electron beam power into the device is about 1 GW in microsecond duration pulses, with an effort underway to increase the beam power to 2.5 GW. To date the device has yielded an rf modulated electron beam power of 350 MW, with up to 50 MW coupled into waveguide. Several aspects of RKA operation under investigation that affect RKA beam bunching efficiency and amplifier gain include cavity tuning, beam diameter, beam current, and input rf drive power, and the development of an output coupler that efficiently couples the microwave power from the low impedance beam into rectangular waveguide operating in the dominant mode. Current results from experimental testing and code modelling are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. Basic research into eddy current testing of austenetic weld joints and surface claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1976-01-01

    The result of research work has shown that the eddy-current testing method can be used for austenetic steel up to 10 mm thick to detect cracks in the material. An exception to this are laminations if they are parallel to the surface. Cracks in the various geometrical positions in the test specimen produce different results in the x-y plot. They are influenced by the direction of the material cracks. Research into the influence the geometric parameters have on the indications shows that the eddy-current method provides clearer interpretations of material cracks than any other non-destructive test method known. (orig.) [de

  19. Automatic welding and cladding in heavy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamer, A. de

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic welding processes used by an Italian fabricator of pressure vessels for petrochemical and nuclear plant. The automatic submerged arc welding, submerged arc strip cladding, pulsed TIG, hot wire TIG and MIG welding processes have proved satisfactory in terms of process reliability, metal deposition rate, and cost effectiveness for low alloy and carbon steels. An example shows sequences required during automatic butt welding, including heat treatments. Factors which govern satisfactory automatic welding include automatic anti-drift rotator device, electrode guidance and bead programming system, the capability of single and dual head operation, flux recovery and slag removal systems, operator environment and controls, maintaining continuity of welding and automatic reverse side grinding. Automatic welding is used for: joining vessel sections; joining tubes to tubeplate; cladding of vessel rings and tubes, dished ends and extruded nozzles; nozzle to shell and butt welds, including narrow gap welding. (author)

  20. Torque Measurement of Welding of Endplug-Endplate using Multi-pin Remote Welding System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung; Park, Geun-Il; Lee, Jung-Won; Song, Kee-Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As fuel bundles in PHWR irradiates, inner pressure in claddings of fuel rods increases owing to outer pressure and fission products of nuclear fissions. Because of leak possibility of welding between cladding and end plug, this welding part connects with safety of nuclear fuel rods. Because of importance of this welding part, weldability of end plug-cladding of nuclear fuel rods is continually researched. Welding method for research and commercialization is classified as melting, solid type welding or resistance welding. End plug cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in PHWR takes advantage of resistance upset butt welding using multicycle mode. This method makes weld flash and shapes re-entrant corner owing to welding heat due to resistivity, contact resistance of cladding-end plug, and inelasticity deformation due to pressure. Welding part between cladding and end plug receives stresses and makes small cracks. In this study, remote welding system for multi-pin assembly was designed, fabricated and welding specimens of end plug-endplate were made using electrical resistance method. The torques of welding between end plug and endplate were measured. These results on welding current, pressure of main electrode and pressure of branch electrode were analyzed. Weldability between end plug and endplate was confirmed through metallographic examinations. In the future, optimal welding examinations due to welding current, welding pressure and welding time will be performed to improve weldability of end plug-endplate.

  1. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed eddy current detection method based on rectangular differential probe can effectively improve the sensitivity of surface defect detection of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

  2. Spot Welding Characterizations With Time Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; History; Paidjo, Andryansyah; Sagino, Sudarmin; Tamzil, M.

    2001-01-01

    For obtain spot welding used effective data, this research is made, so that time operational of machine increasing. Welding parameters are material classification, electrical current, and weld time. All of the factors are determined welding quality. If the plate more thick, the time must be longer when the current constant. Another factor as determined welding quality are surface condition of electrode, surface condition of weld material, and material classifications. In this research, the weld machine type IP32A2 VI (110 V), Rivoira trademark is characterized

  3. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  4. Laminar iridium coating produced by pulse current electrodeposition from chloride molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li’an, E-mail: mr_zla@163.com; Bai, Shuxin; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Yicong

    2013-10-01

    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, Iridium (Ir) is one of the most promising oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory materials above 1800 °C in aerospace field. However, the Ir coatings prepared by traditional methods are composed of columnar grains throughout the coating thickness. The columnar structure of the coating is considered to do harm to its oxidation resistance. The laminar Ir coating is expected to have a better high-temperature oxidation resistance than the columnar Ir coating does. The pulse current electrodeposition, with three independent parameters: average current density (J{sub m}), duty cycle (R) and pulse frequency (f), is considered to be a promising method to fabricate layered Ir coating. In this study, laminar Ir coatings were prepared by pulse current electrodeposition in chloride molten salt. The morphology, roughness and texture of the coatings were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), profilometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the laminar Ir coatings were composed of a nucleation layer with columnar structure and a growth layer with laminar structure. The top surfaces of the laminar Ir coatings consisted of cauliflower-like aggregates containing many fine grains, which were separated by deep grooves. The laminar Ir coating produced at the deposition condition of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} (J{sub m}), 10% (R) and 6 Hz (f) was quite smooth (R{sub a} 1.01 ± 0.09 μm) with extremely high degree of preferred orientation of 〈1 1 1〉, and its laminar structure was well developed with clear boundaries and uniform thickness of sub-layers.

  5. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  6. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  7. A frequency domain approach to analyzing passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids supplying periodic pulsed current loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, Alon; Aharon, Ilan; Kara, Avi; Malki, Shalev

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids are examined. → Frequency domain analysis is employed. → The ultracapacitor branch operates as a low-pass filter for the battery. → The battery supplies the average load demand. → Design requirements are discussed. - Abstract: A Fourier-based analysis of passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrid sources is introduced in the manuscript. The approach is first introduced for a general load, and then is followed by a study for a case of periodic pulsed current load. It is shown that the ultracapacitor branch is perceived by the battery as a low-pass filter, which absorbs the majority of the high frequency harmonic current and letting the battery to supply the average load demand in addition to the small part of dynamic current. Design requirements influence on the ultracapacitor capacitance and internal resistance choice are quantitatively discussed. The theory is enforced by simulation and experimental results, showing an excellent agreement.

  8. Predictive Pulse Pattern Current Modulation Scheme for Harmonic Reduction in Three-Phase Multidrive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    at the rectification stage to synthesize sinusoidal input currents. The input voltage sensing is avoided in order to minimize the number of required sensors, and the grid synchronization also has been implemented based on a common Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) using the DC-link capacitor voltage ripple. Experimental results......The majority of the industrial motor drive systems are equipped with the conventional line-commutated front-end rectifiers, and being one of the main sources of harmonics in the power line. While a parallel combination of these drive units elevates current quality issues, a proper arrangement...... of them can lead to the cancellation of specific harmonics. This paper proposes a new cost-effective harmonic mitigation solution for multi-drive systems using a predictive pulse pattern current modulation control strategy. The proposed technique applies suitable interaction among parallel drive units...

  9. Self-consistent model for pulsed direct-current N2 glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengsen

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent analysis of a pulsed direct-current (DC) N 2 glow discharge is presented. The model is based on a numerical solution of the continuity equations for electron and ions coupled with Poisson's equation. The spatial-temporal variations of ionic and electronic densities and electric field are obtained. The electric field structure exhibits all the characteristic regions of a typical glow discharge (the cathode fall, the negative glow, and the positive column). Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge can be obtained from the model. The calculated current-voltage results using a constant secondary electron emission coefficient for the gas pressure 133.32 Pa are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (authors)

  10. Influence of pulsed current on deformation mechanism of AZ31B sheets during tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kai [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong, Xianghuai, E-mail: dongxh@sjtu.edu.cn [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie, Huanyang [Shanghai Superior Die Technology Co., Ltd, 775 Jinsui Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Wu, Yunjian; Peng, Fang [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The tensile tests of AZ31B sheets were carried out under pulsed current (PC) of different frequencies, and then the deformation mechanism at different conditions was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction. The results show that PC does not change the initial yield stress, but reduces the work hardening rate and induces softening effect. Furthermore, electroplasticity effect is controlled by thermal activation. When Z (Zener-Hollomon parameter) is high, the effect of PC is limited, causing a relatively weak electroplasticity effect. With the increasing of Z, the effect of PC strengthens. When Z reaches the critical condition, the activated slip systems obviously change because of PC, which induces the change of texture evolution and the discontinuous change of the intensity of electroplasticity. When Z is low, electroplasticity effect reaches a saturate condition and does not change with Z. Moreover, higher frequency contributes to the dislocation annihilation at all the slip systems, and then increasing frequency can strengthen the extra softening effect of PC. - Highlights: • Pulsed current does not change the initial yield stress, but reduce the work hardening rate and cause softening effect. • Increasing frequency can strengthen the softening effect. • The rules of the softening effect at different deformation condition are different. • The influence of current on deformation mechanism was analyzed by XRD.

  11. Extreme degree of ionization in homogenous micro-capillary plasma columns heated by ultrafast current pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaria, G; Grisham, M; Li, J; Tomasel, F G; Shlyaptsev, V N; Busquet, M; Woolston, M; Rocca, J J

    2015-03-06

    Homogeneous plasma columns with ionization levels typical of megaampere discharges are created by rapidly heating gas-filled 520-μm-diameter channels with nanosecond rise time current pulses of 40 kA. Current densities of up to 0.3  GA cm^{-2} greatly increase Joule heating with respect to conventional capillary discharge Z pinches, reaching unprecedented degrees of ionization for a high-Z plasma column heated by a current pulse of remarkably low amplitude. Dense xenon plasmas are ionized to Xe^{28+}, while xenon impurities in hydrogen discharges reach Xe^{30+}. The unique characteristics of these hot, ∼300:1 length-to-diameter aspect ratio plasmas allow the observation of unexpected spectroscopic phenomena. Axial spectra show the unusual dominance of the intercombination line over the resonance line of He-like Al by nearly an order of magnitude, caused by differences in opacities in the axial and radial directions. These plasma columns could enable the development of sub-10-nm x-ray lasers.

  12. Electrocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction by rhenium oxides electrodeposited by pulsed-current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro; Mosquera, Edgar; Chornik, Boris; Cifuentes, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rhenium oxides were produced by means of pulsed current electrodeposition over ITO. • The electrocatalytic behavior of rhenium oxides electrodeposited over ITO was studied. • Electrodeposited rhenium oxides showed electrocatalytic behavior increasing the rate of the hydrogen evolution reaction. • The electrocatalysis behavior was explained considering the relative abundance of Re species on the surface of the electrodeposited material. - Abstract: Rhenium oxides are materials of interest for applications in the catalysis of reactions such as those occurring in fuel cells and photoelectrochemical cells. This research work was devoted to the production of rhenium oxide by means of pulsed current electrodeposition for the electrocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Rhenium oxides were electrodeposited over a transparent conductive oxide substrate (Indium Tin-doped Oxide – ITO) in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte. The electrodeposition process allowed the production of rhenium oxides islands (200–600 nm) with the presence of three oxidized rhenium species: Re"I"V associated to ReO_2, Re"V"I associated to ReO_3 and Re"V"I"I associated to H(ReO_4)H_2O. Electrodeposited rhenium oxides showed electrocatalytic behavior over the HER and an increase of one order of magnitude of the exchange current density was observed compared to the reaction taking place on the bare substrate. The electrocatalytic behavior varied with the morphology and relative abundance of oxidized rhenium species in the electrodeposits. Finally, two mechanisms of electrocatalysis were proposed to explain experimental results.

  13. Characterization of an electrochemical mercury sensor using alternating current, cyclic, square wave and differential pulse voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, Gabriela V.; Zaitouna, Anita J.; Lai, Rebecca Y.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An electrochemical Hg(II) sensor based on T–Hg(II)–T sensing motif was fabricated. •A methylene blue-modified DNA probe was used to fabricate the sensor. •Sensor performance was evaluated using ACV, CV, SWV, and DPV. •The sensor behaves as a “signal-off” sensor in ACV and CV. •The sensor behaves as either a “signal-on” or “signal-off” sensor in SWV and DPV. -- Abstract: Here we report the characterization of an electrochemical mercury (Hg 2+ ) sensor constructed with a methylene blue (MB)-modified and thymine-containing linear DNA probe. Similar to the linear probe electrochemical DNA sensor, the resultant sensor behaved as a “signal-off” sensor in alternating current voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. However, depending on the applied frequency or pulse width, the sensor can behave as either a “signal-off” or “signal-on” sensor in square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In SWV, the sensor showed “signal-on” behavior at low frequencies and “signal-off” behavior at high frequencies. In DPV, the sensor showed “signal-off” behavior at short pulse widths and “signal-on” behavior at long pulse widths. Independent of the sensor interrogation technique, the limit of detection was found to be 10 nM, with a linear dynamic range between 10 nM and 500 nM. In addition, the sensor responded to Hg 2+ rather rapidly; majority of the signal change occurred in 2+ , which has not been previously reported. More importantly, the observed “switching” behavior in SWV and DPV is potentially generalizable and should be applicable to most sensors in this class of dynamics-based electrochemical biosensors

  14. Research on Defects Inspection of Solder Balls Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT. Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique.

  15. Three-electrode pulse electron gun with currents up to 250 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.V.; Shanturin, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a pulsed electron gun are described. The electron gun has three electrodes: a cathode, an anode and a control electrode in the form of a grid. The cathode is made from lanthanum hexaboride, which ensures its operation in a low vacuum at a temperature of 1,700 deg C. The control electrode and anode grid are fabricated from sheet tantalum. The anode-grid characteristics of the gun are given. It is shown that at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV, a temperature of 1,700 deg C and a zero control electrode potential the beam current is 250 A

  16. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Rivet, M.F.; Barbey, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chabot, M. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chbihi, A. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Cussol, D. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Edelbruck, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Frankland, J.D. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ.e Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopez, O. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2011-06-21

    Current pulses induced in a silicon detector by 10 different heavy ion species at known energies around 10 A MeV have been sampled in time at high frequency. Their individual average shapes are quite well reproduced by a fit procedure based on our recent charge carrier collection treatment which considers the progressive extraction of the electrons and holes from the high carrier density zone along the ionizing particle track. This region is assumed to present a supplementary dielectric polarization and consequently a disturbed electric field. The influence of the nature of the heavy ion on the values of the three fit parameters is analyzed.

  17. Thermal neutron measurements on electrolytic cells with deuterated palladium cathodes subjected to a pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.; Mayer, R.E.; Guido, G.; Florido, P.C.; Larreteguy, A.; Gillette, V.H.; Patino, N.E.; Converti, J.; Gomez, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present work describes the design of a high efficiency thermal neutron detection system and the measurements performed with it on electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in D 2 O with palladium cathodes. A procedure involving the use of a non-stationary (pulsed) current through the cell caused a correlated neutron production to be observed in a repeatable manner. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathodes. The technique employed seems to be very useful as a research tool for a systematic study of the different variables governing the phenomenon. (author)

  18. Ir-based refractory superalloys by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) process (II prealloyed powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Harada, H.

    2002-02-01

    Five prealloyed powder samples prepared from binary Ir-based refractory superalloys were sintered at 1800 °C for 4 h by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS). No metal loss was observed during sintering. The relative densities of the sintered specimens all exceeded 90% T.D. The best one was Ir-13% Hf with the density of 97.82% T.D. Phases detected in sintered samples were in accordance with the phase diagram as expected. Fractured surfaces were observed in two samples (Ir-13% Hf and Ir-15% Zr). Some improvements obtained by using prealloyed powders instead of elemental powders, which were investigated in the previous studies, were presented.

  19. Spectral and temporal characteristics of target current and electromagnetic pulse induced by nanosecond laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, Jakub; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Limpouch, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Dostál, Jan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 065007. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA16-07036S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * target current * electromagnetic pulse Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  20. Metals welding by using laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qaisy, R.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work, same welding ''conduction limited type'' under atmospheric conditions was performed using pulsed Ng:YAG laser to weld; low carbon steel (LCS), stainless steel (304) (SUS304), stainless steel (303) (SUS303), and brass. Microstructure of welded zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and the laser energy on penetration depth and effective diameter were studied. Tensile test, micro-hardness, and surface roughness of welded and parent metals were also dealt with. Melting efficiency was worked out and an under vacuum seam welding of low carbon steel has been accomplished. Finally spot welding of aluminium tungsten, and platinium wires were employed using different layer energies. 34 tabs.; 82 figs.; 51 refs.; 1 app

  1. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  2. Effect of pulse frequency and current density on anomalous composition and nanomechanical property of electrodeposited Ni-Co films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C.K., E-mail: ckchung@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Chang, W.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Effect of pulse frequency and current density on the anomalous cobalt content and nanomechanical property of the electrodeposited nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) films has been investigated. The composition, morphology, phase and hardness of the Ni-Co alloy films were examined by scanning electron microscope with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation techniques, respectively. The different Co composition of the Ni-Co films codeposited from the fixed sulfamate-chloride bath is subject to the pulse frequencies and current densities. The frequencies varied from 0 to 100 Hz and current densities varied from 1 to 20 ASD (ampere per square decimeter). The Co composition has no significant variation in pulse electrodeposition but it is greatly influenced by current densities from 22.53% at 1 ASD decreased to 13.39% at 20 ASD under DC codeposition. The mean hardness of Ni-Co films has no eminent change at a pulse frequency of 10-100 Hz but it decreases with current densities from 8.72 GPa (1 ASD) to 7.13 GPa (20 ASD). The smoother morphology can be obtained at higher pulse frequency or lower current density. Good Ni-Co films with high hardness and smooth morphology can be obtained by reducing current density and increasing pulse frequency.

  3. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-01-01

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 (Omega) load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs

  4. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  5. Effect of pulse current parameters on the mechanical and corrosion properties of anodized nanoporous aluminum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Iman; Ahmadi, Shahab; Afshar, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of pulse current parameters on corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of anodized coatings were evaluated. Hardness measurements, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were employed to investigate the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of these coatings. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology and microstructure of the coatings. It was found that the properties of anodized coatings were dependent on various parameters, among which, time, temperature and pulse current parameters (current density limit, frequency and duty cycle) were optimized. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted in order to optimize the results of designed experiments for predicting the hardness of anodic Al_2O_3 coatings. Experimental results showed that the temperature and the interaction of quadratic behavior of minimum current density with frequency and duty cycle were the most important factors influencing the hardness of these coatings. It was indicated that the highest hardness value of 642 HV was attained at the maximum and minimum current densities of 4.4, 1.27 A/dm"2, respectively, a frequency of 82 Hz, procedure time of 27.2 min, duty cycle of 80.2% and the bath temperature of 13.5 °C. In addition, the FE-SEM micrographs showed that the highest density is obtained through the mentioned optimum conditions. Moreover, the electrochemical tests revealed that the highest polarization resistance obtained at optimum conditions was more than 20 times greater than the other samples. - Highlights: • Electrolyte temperature undesirably influences the hardness of anodized coatings. • Maximum hardness of coatings was evaluated by optimization of effective parameters. • The diameter of alumina nanotube considerably affects hardness of anodized coating. • R_P of the sample formed at optimum condition was at least 20 times more than others. • Porosity is the

  6. Effect of pulse current parameters on the mechanical and corrosion properties of anodized nanoporous aluminum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Iman, E-mail: imanmohammadi68@gmail.com; Ahmadi, Shahab; Afshar, Abdollah

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effects of pulse current parameters on corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of anodized coatings were evaluated. Hardness measurements, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were employed to investigate the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of these coatings. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology and microstructure of the coatings. It was found that the properties of anodized coatings were dependent on various parameters, among which, time, temperature and pulse current parameters (current density limit, frequency and duty cycle) were optimized. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted in order to optimize the results of designed experiments for predicting the hardness of anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings. Experimental results showed that the temperature and the interaction of quadratic behavior of minimum current density with frequency and duty cycle were the most important factors influencing the hardness of these coatings. It was indicated that the highest hardness value of 642 HV was attained at the maximum and minimum current densities of 4.4, 1.27 A/dm{sup 2}, respectively, a frequency of 82 Hz, procedure time of 27.2 min, duty cycle of 80.2% and the bath temperature of 13.5 °C. In addition, the FE-SEM micrographs showed that the highest density is obtained through the mentioned optimum conditions. Moreover, the electrochemical tests revealed that the highest polarization resistance obtained at optimum conditions was more than 20 times greater than the other samples. - Highlights: • Electrolyte temperature undesirably influences the hardness of anodized coatings. • Maximum hardness of coatings was evaluated by optimization of effective parameters. • The diameter of alumina nanotube considerably affects hardness of anodized coating. • R{sub P} of the sample formed at optimum condition was at least 20 times more than others

  7. Current status of pulse-power technology and applications at LBT, Nagaoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsui, K.; Masuda, W.; Masugata, K.; Jiang, W.; Sekimoto, Y.; Imada, G.; Sonegawa, T.; Kang, X.D.

    1993-01-01

    Tight focusing of an ion beam was obtained by open-quotes Plasma Focus Diodeclose quotes. In addition to two-dimensionally line-focusing reported previously, the authors achieved point focusing of the proton beam. Quick charging Blumlein PFL was successfully developed. Using saturable cores as a charging inductor, the authors succeeded in the reduction of prepulse and quick charging of the Blumlein line. Output pulse of voltage ∼580 kV and current ∼24 kA with current rise time of less than 16 ns. Various thin films were quickly prepared by Ion-Beam Evaporation (IBE) such as ZnS, YBCO, BaTiO 3 , BN, B, C, ITO, apatite, etc. Basic characteristics were studied of ablation plasma produced by the irradiation of ion beam on the targets. Highly-repetitive excimer laser with subsonic gas flow is developed by Ludwieg charge tube. Basic characteristics of gas dynamics are studied by simulation. The authors developed a new circuit to excite highly-repetitive excimer lasers, where a saturable transformer is used in magnetic pulse compressor. To control lightning artificially, they studied basic plasma channel produced by TEA-CO 2 lasers in air

  8. Silicone Substrate with Collagen and Carbon Nanotubes Exposed to Pulsed Current for MSC Osteodifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyal Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have the potential for clinical translation through their induction into osteoblasts for regeneration. Bone healing can be driven by biophysical stimulation using electricity for activating quiescent adult stem cells. It is hypothesized that application of electric current will enhance their osteogenic differentiation, and addition of conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs to the cell substrate will provide increased efficiency in current transmission. Cultured MSCs were seeded and grown onto fabricated silicone-based composites containing collagen and CNT fibers. Chemical inducers, namely, glycerol phosphate, dexamethasone, and vitamin C, were then added to the medium, and pulsatile submilliampere electrical currents (about half mA for 5 cycles at 4 mHz, twice a week were applied for two weeks. Calcium deposition indicative of MSC differentiation and osteoblastic activity was quantified through Alizarin Red S and spectroscopy. It was found that pulsed current significantly increased osteodifferentiation on silicone-collagen films without CNTs. Under no external current, the presence of 10% (m/m CNTs led to a significant and almost triple upregulation of calcium deposition. Both CNTs and current parameters did not appear to be synergistic. These conditions of enhanced osteoblastic activities may further be explored ultimately towards future therapeutic use of MSCs.

  9. Dynamic response of thermal neutron measurements in electrochemically produced cold fusion subject to pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose; Converti, Jose; Mayer, Roberto; Guido, German; Florido, Pablo; Patino, Nestor; Sobehart, Leonardo; Gomez, Silvia; Larreteguy, Axel

    1988-01-01

    The present work shows the results of measurements performed on electrolytic cells using a high efficiency (22%) neutron detection system in combination with a procedure involving a non-stationary current through the cell's circuit. Cold fusion was produced in electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in heavy water with a palladium cathode. The dynamic response to low frequency current pulses was measured. Characteristic patterns showing one or two bumps were obtained in a repeatable fashion. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathode. The technique employed seems to be very convenient as a research tool for a systematic study of the different variables governing the phenomenon. (Author)

  10. Design of a Shielded Reflection Type Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for the Evaluation of Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil; Choi, Dong Myung [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    For better evaluation of material thickness by using the reflection type pulsed eddy current method, various probe models are designed and their response signals, characteristics, and sensitivities to thickness variation are investigated by a numerical analysis method. Since the sensor needs to detect magnetic fields from eddy currents induced in a test material, not from the exciter coil, two types of models that are shielded by the combination of copper and ferrite and only by ferrite are considered. By studying response signals from these shielded probe models, the peak value and the zero crossing time are selected as useful signal features for the evaluation of material thickness. Investigation of sensitivities of these two features shows that the sensitivity of peak value is more useful than that of zero crossing time and that the probe shielded only by ferrite gives much better sensitivity to thickness variation

  11. A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

    1984-03-01

    The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

  12. The interaction of pulsed eddy current with metal surface crack for various coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.-C.; Tai, C.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study the interaction of pulsed eddy current (PEC) with metal surface cracks using various coils that have different geometric sizes. In the previous work, we have showed that the PEC technique can be used to inspect electrical-discharge-machined (EDM) notches with depth from 0.5 mm to 9 mm. The results showed that the relationship between PEC signals and crack depth is obvious. In this work, we further try a series of coils with different radii, heights, turns and shapes. We will discuss the effects of these coil parameters on the PEC signal. Some other critical problems of PEC measurements such as signal drift that caused by heating effect of coil currents will be studied. We also show more experiments on fatigue cracks to demonstrate the capability of PEC technique for cracks inspection

  13. Characterization of manganese dioxide electrodeposited by pulse and direct current for electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelkhani, H.; Ghaemi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical capacitor behavior of manganese dioxide (MD, MnO 2 ) samples that were prepared by direct current (DCMD) and pulse current (PCMD) electrodeposition. The capacitive characteristics of the samples were studied in 0.5 M aqueous Na 2 SO 4 solution using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical composition analyses and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) method were employed to characterize the samples. In the study of the effect of scan rate on capacitance, it was revealed that PCMD displayed higher capacities than DCMD for all scan rates. The higher capacitive performance of PCMD was attributed to its porosity (specific surface area, pore volume, and pore-size distribution), chemical composition and structural properties.

  14. Low-noise pulse-mode current power supply for magnetic field measurements of magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanenko, M.M.; Borisov, V.V.; Donyagin, A.M.; Kostromin, S.A.; Makarov, A.A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G.G.; Shemchuk, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The described pulse-mode current power supply has been designed and fabricated for the magnetic field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators. The power supply is based on a current regulator with pass transistor bank in linear mode. The output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by using the energy of preliminary charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is charged additionally after each pulse. There is no AC-line frequency and harmonics ripple in the output current, the relative noise level is less than -100 dB (or 10 -5 ) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to the maximal output current 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB).

  15. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  16. Structural and phase transformations in zinc and brass wires under heating with high-density current pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervikov, A. V. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Ultrafine Materials, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, 634021 Tomsk, Russia and Department of High Voltage Electrophysics and High Current Electronics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The work is focused on revealing the mechanism of structure and phase transformations in the metal wires under heating with a high-density current pulse (the electric explosion of wires, EEWs). It has been demonstrated on the example of brass and zinc wires that the transition of a current pulse with the density of j ≈ 3.3 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} results in homogeneous heating of the crystalline structure of the metal/alloy. It has been determined that under heating with a pulse of high-density current pulse, the electric resistance of the liquid phases of zinc and brass decreases as the temperature increases. The results obtained allow for a conclusion that the presence of the particles of the condensed phase in the expanding products of EEW is the result of overheating instabilities in the liquid metal.

  17. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  18. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  19. Exponential current pulse generation for efficient very high-impedance multisite stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, S; Sawan, M

    2011-02-01

    We describe in this paper an intracortical current-pulse generator for high-impedance microstimulation. This dual-chip system features a stimuli generator and a high-voltage electrode driver. The stimuli generator produces flexible rising exponential pulses in addition to standard rectangular stimuli. This novel stimulation waveform is expected to provide superior energy efficiency for action potential triggering while releasing less toxic reduced ions in the cortical tissues. The proposed fully integrated electrode driver is used as the output stage where high-voltage supplies are generated on-chip to significantly increase the voltage compliance for stimulation through high-impedance electrode-tissue interfaces. The stimuli generator has been implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS technology while a 0.8-μm CMOS/DMOS process has been used to integrate the high-voltage output stage. Experimental results show that the rectangular pulses cover a range of 1.6 to 167.2 μA with a DNL and an INL of 0.098 and 0.163 least-significant bit, respectively. The maximal dynamic range of the generated exponential reaches 34.36 dB at full scale within an error of ± 0.5 dB while all of its parameters (amplitude, duration, and time constant) are independently programmable over wide ranges. This chip consumes a maximum of 88.3 μ W in the exponential mode. High-voltage supplies of 8.95 and -8.46 V are generated by the output stage, boosting the voltage swing up to 13.6 V for a load as high as 100 kΩ.

  20. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  1. Stability of high current diode under 100-nanosecond-pulse voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Dingguo; Qiu Aici; Zhang Yongmin; Huang Jianjun; Ren Shuqing; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    Stability of high current diode under pulse voltage with 80 ns and 34 ns rise time was studied on the flash Ⅱ accelerator. Influence of rise time of diode voltage on startup time and cathode emission uniformity and repeatability of diode impedance was analyzed by comparing the experimental results with numerically simulated results, and the influence mechanism was discussed. The startup time of diode increases with the increasing of rise time of voltage, and the repeatability of diode impedance decreases. Discal plane cathode is prone to emit rays intensely in the center area, the time that plasma covers the surface of the cathode increases and the shielding effect has more impact on cathode emission according to the increase of rise time. Local intense emission on the cathode increases expansion speed of plasma and reduces the effective emission area. The stability of characteristic impedance of diode under a pulse voltage with slow rise time is decreased by the combined action of expansion speed of plasma and the effective emission area. (authors)

  2. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  3. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  4. Study on Nanostructures Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four techniques using high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB were proposed to obtain surface nanostructure of metal and alloys. The first method involves the distribution of several fine Mg nanoparticles on the top surface of treated samples by evaporation of pure Mg with low boiling point. The second technique uses superfast heating, melting, and cooling induced by HCPEB irradiation to refine the primary phase or the second phase in alloys to nanosized uniform distributed phases in the matrix, such as the quasicrystal phase Mg30Zn60Y10 in the quasicrystal alloy Mg67Zn30Y3. The third technique involves the refinement of eutectic silicon phase in hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys to fine particles with the size of several nanometers through solid solution and precipitation refinement. Finally, in the deformation zone induced by HCPEB irradiation, the grain size can be refined to several hundred nanometers, such as the grain size of the hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys in the deformation zone, which can reach ~400 nm after HCPEB treatment for 25 pulses. Therefore, HCPEB technology is an efficient way to obtain surface nanostructure.

  5. Influence of current pulse shape on directly modulated system performance in metro area optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carmina del Rio; Horche, Paloma R.; Martin-Minguez, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    Due to the fact that a metro network market is very cost sensitive, direct modulated schemes appear attractive. In this paper a CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system is studied in detail by means of an Optical Communication System Design Software; a detailed study of the modulated current shape (exponential, sine and gaussian) for 2.5 Gb/s CWDM Metropolitan Area Networks is performed to evaluate its tolerance to linear impairments such as signal-to-noise-ratio degradation and dispersion. Point-to-point links are investigated and optimum design parameters are obtained. Through extensive sets of simulation results, it is shown that some of these shape pulses are more tolerant to dispersion when compared with conventional gaussian shape pulses. In order to achieve a low Bit Error Rate (BER), different types of optical transmitters are considered including strongly adiabatic and transient chirp dominated Directly Modulated Lasers (DMLs). We have used fibers with different dispersion characteristics, showing that the system performance depends, strongly, on the chosen DML-fiber couple.

  6. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  7. Characterization of an electrochemical mercury sensor using alternating current, cyclic, square wave and differential pulse voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Gabriela V.; Zaitouna, Anita J.; Lai, Rebecca Y., E-mail: rlai2@unl.edu

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An electrochemical Hg(II) sensor based on T–Hg(II)–T sensing motif was fabricated. •A methylene blue-modified DNA probe was used to fabricate the sensor. •Sensor performance was evaluated using ACV, CV, SWV, and DPV. •The sensor behaves as a “signal-off” sensor in ACV and CV. •The sensor behaves as either a “signal-on” or “signal-off” sensor in SWV and DPV. -- Abstract: Here we report the characterization of an electrochemical mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) sensor constructed with a methylene blue (MB)-modified and thymine-containing linear DNA probe. Similar to the linear probe electrochemical DNA sensor, the resultant sensor behaved as a “signal-off” sensor in alternating current voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. However, depending on the applied frequency or pulse width, the sensor can behave as either a “signal-off” or “signal-on” sensor in square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In SWV, the sensor showed “signal-on” behavior at low frequencies and “signal-off” behavior at high frequencies. In DPV, the sensor showed “signal-off” behavior at short pulse widths and “signal-on” behavior at long pulse widths. Independent of the sensor interrogation technique, the limit of detection was found to be 10 nM, with a linear dynamic range between 10 nM and 500 nM. In addition, the sensor responded to Hg{sup 2+} rather rapidly; majority of the signal change occurred in <20 min. Overall, the sensor retains all the characteristics of this class of sensors; it is reagentless, reusable, sensitive, specific and selective. This study also highlights the feasibility of using a MB-modified probe for real-time sensing of Hg{sup 2+}, which has not been previously reported. More importantly, the observed “switching” behavior in SWV and DPV is potentially generalizable and should be applicable to most sensors in this class of dynamics-based electrochemical biosensors.

  8. Grain refinement control in TIG arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.; Whiffen, E. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A method for controlling grain size and weld puddle agitation in a tungsten electrode inert gas welding system to produce fine, even grain size and distribution is disclosed. In the method the frequency of dc welding voltage pulses supplied to the welding electrode is varied over a preselected frequency range and the arc gas voltage is monitored. At some frequency in the preselected range the arc gas voltage will pass through a maximum. By maintaining the operating frequency of the system at this value, maximum weld puddle agitation and fine grain structure are produced.

  9. Nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods by pulsed eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.C.; Quapp, W.J.; Martin, M.R.; Gibson, G.W.

    1976-02-01

    A number of fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes which had been irradiated in the Saxton reactor have undergone extensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive examinations by Aerojet Nuclear Company as part of the Water Reactor Safety Research Program, Irradiation Effects Test Series. This report discusses the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive examinations on the fuel rods and tubing and the metallography results on two fuel rods and one irradiated zircaloy tube. The PEC equipment, designed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and Aerojet, performed very satisfactorily the functions of diameter, profile, and wall thickness measurements and OD and ID surface defect detection. The destructive examination provided reasonably good confirmation of ''defects'' detected in the nondestructive examination

  10. Quantitative Evaluation of Defect in Stainless Steel 304 Tube Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Nordin Jamaludin; Zaredah Hashim; Norhayati Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that operates based on electromagnetic principle. The excitation consists of broad frequency spectrum leading to be a potential in detecting defects that are deeply buried inside the specimen. In this paper, the experiment and simulation were conducted on stainless steel plate 304 fabricated with open surface defects having a different defect depth as an investigation towards the correlation between extracted signal feature and defect depth. Two common features; time to peak and peak value that corresponds to the location depth of defect and size of defect were used for signals analysis and evaluation. The results that acquired through finite element method (FEM) simulation were compared with experimental results for the signals evaluation and defect quantification. (author)

  11. Transverse emittance measurement of high-current single pulse beams using pepper-pot method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianlin; Zhou Changgeng; Qiu Rui

    2013-01-01

    A pepper pot-imaging plate system has been developed and used to measure the 4-D transverse emittance of a vacuum arc ion source. Single beam pulses of tens to hundreds milliamperes were extracted from the plasma with 64 kV high voltage. An imaging plate was laid after the pepper pot to visualize the ion beamlets passing though the holes on the pepper pot. An application program was developed to show the phase-space distribution and calculate the ellipse and RMS emittances. The normalized RMS emittances are about 6.41 π·mm·mrad in x-direction and 4.61 π·mm·mrad in y-direction. It is shown that the emittance of the vacuum arc ion source is much larger than that of other types of ion sources, which is mainly attributed to the high current and the convex meniscus of this source. (authors)

  12. Increase in operation safety of high-current pulsed accelerators by means of nonlinear resistances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, B.A.; Ivkin, M.V.; Petrov, V.A.; Fanchenko, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A circuit for connecting a shaping line through a nonlinear resistor in a high-current pulsed accelerator is proposed and investigated experimentally. For experimental purposes standard resistors are used as nonlinear resistors, they are made in the form of cylinders 100 mm in dia and 60 mm long. The results obtained show that if two resistors are connected in series, the reduction in an initial potential is less than 5% at the logarithmic damping coefficient equal to 1.3. It is also shown that such a method allows elimination of the reverse pumpover of energy to the storage device for untimely actuation of a spark gap that results in the prolongation of the time of potential applying thereby it permits a substantial increase in the reliability of a high-voltage insulation [ru

  13. Spatial-time-state fusion algorithm for defect detection through eddy current pulsed thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Tian, Gui Yun; Xiao, Xiao Ting

    2018-05-01

    Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) has received extensive attention due to its high sensitive of detectability on surface and subsurface cracks. However, it remains as a difficult challenge in unsupervised detection as to identify defects without knowing any prior knowledge. This paper presents a spatial-time-state features fusion algorithm to obtain fully profile of the defects by directional scanning. The proposed method is intended to conduct features extraction by using independent component analysis (ICA) and automatic features selection embedding genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimal feature of each step is fused to obtain defects reconstruction by applying common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) method. Experiments have been conducted to validate the study and verify the efficacy of the proposed method on blind defect detection.

  14. Model-Based Prediction of Pulsed Eddy Current Testing Signals from Stratified Conductive Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian Hai; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Woong Ji; Kim, Hak Joon; Chung, Jong Duk

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic field of a cylindrical coil above an arbitrary number of conductive plates for pulsed eddy current testing(PECT) are very complex problems due to their complicated physical properties. In this paper, analytical modeling of PECT is established by Fourier series based on truncated region eigenfunction expansion(TREE) method for a single air-cored coil above stratified conductive structures(SCS) to investigate their integrity. From the presented expression of PECT, the coil impedance due to SCS is calculated based on analytical approach using the generalized reflection coefficient in series form. Then the multilayered structures manufactured by non-ferromagnetic (STS301L) and ferromagnetic materials (SS400) are investigated by the developed PECT model. Good prediction of analytical model of PECT not only contributes to the development of an efficient solver but also can be applied to optimize the conditions of experimental setup in PECT

  15. Development and contribution of rf heating and current drive systems to long pulse, high performance experiments in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shinichi; Seki, Masami; Terakado, Masayuki; Shimono, Mitsugu; Ide, Shunsuke; Isayama, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fujii, Tsuneyuki

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to high performance long pulse (∼65 s) experiments in JT-60U, the target of the electron cyclotron (EC) operation in long pulse is 0.6 MW for 30 s with four gyrotrons, though 10 MJ (2.8 MW and 3.6 s) was achieved in high power operation before 2003. One of the critical issues for the long pulse operation is detuning due to decay in beam current of the gyrotron. This decay comes from the cathode cooling by continuous electron emission. As a countermeasure for this issue, active adjustments for the heater current and anode voltage during the pulse have successfully extended the duration of a good oscillation condition for the gyrotron. As a result, 0.4 MW for 16 s with one gyrotron to the dummy load and for 8.7 s to the plasma have been achieved up to now

  16. MFDC - technological improvement in resistance welding controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somani, A.K.; Naga Bhaskar, V.; Chandramouli, J.; Rameshwara Rao, A. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    Among the various Resistance Welding operations carried out in the production line of a fuel bundle end plug welding is the most critical operation. Welding controllers play a very vital role in obtaining consistent weld quality by regulating and controlling the weld current. Conventional mains synchronized welding controllers are at best capable of controlling the weld current at a maximum speed of the mains frequency. In view of the very short welding durations involved in the various stages of a fuel bundle fabrication, a need was felt for superior welding controllers. Medium Frequency Welding Controllers offer a solution to these limitations in addition to offering other advantages. Medium Frequency power sources offer precise welding current control as they regulate and correct the welding current faster, typically twenty times faster when operated at 1000Hz. An MFDC was employed on one of the welding machines and its performance was studied. This paper discusses about the various advantages of MFDCs with other controllers employed at NFC to end plug welding operation. (author)

  17. Microstructure characterization in the weld joint of a high nickel austenitic alloy and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Na; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan [Shandong Univ., Jinan (CN). Key Lab. for Liquid - Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2012-06-15

    High nickel austenitic alloy, 6 mm thick, and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel with a thickness of 0.6 mm were joined by pulsed current tungsten inert gas arc welding without filler metal in this work. Metallographic examination, microhardness measurement and electron microprobe analysis were used to reveal microstructural characteristics in the joint. The results indicated that the weld metal consisted of {gamma}-austenite, {delta}-ferrite and carbides without the appearance of martensite. There were dendrite crystals at the edge of the weld metal near the high nickel austenitic alloy and isometric crystals in the center of the weld metal. The microhardness of the weld metal was the highest due to the existence of carbides and its finer structure. Graphite flakes were still embedded in the austenite matrix of the heat-affected zone without the formation of martensite. (orig.)

  18. Transient current changes induced in pin-diodes by nanosecond electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Goldner, R.; Bos, J.; Mehnert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The electron pulse technique can be applied as a diagnostic method to measure charge carrier lifetimes, diffusion length or junction width in semiconductor p + -i-n + diodes. The described effect of the pulse length dependence on the electron energy might be of importance as an energy monitor for pulsed electron accelerators. (author)

  19. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Mitarai, Osamu; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1980-01-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence. (author)

  20. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-02-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence.

  1. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  2. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shvets, Gennady; Startsev, Edward; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma

  3. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  4. Mechanism of formation of subnanosecond current front in high-voltage pulse open discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The mechanism of subnanosecond current front rise observed previously in the experiment in high-voltage pulse open discharge in helium is studied in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. The Boltzmann equations for electrons, ions, and fast atoms are solved self-consistently with the Poisson equations for the electrical potential. The partial contributions to the secondary electron emission from the ions, fast atoms, photons, and electrons, bombarding the electrode, are calculated. In simulations, as in the experiment, the discharge glows between two symmetrical cathodes and the anode grid in the midplane at P =6 Torr and the applied voltage of 20 kV. The electron avalanche development is considered for two experimental situations during the last stage of breakdown: (i) with constant voltage and (ii) with decreasing voltage. For case (i), the subnanosecond current front rise is set by photons from the collisional excitation transfer reactions. For the case (ii), the energetic electrons swamp the cathode during voltage drop and provide the secondary electron emission for the subnanosecond current rise, observed in the experiment.

  5. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Gennady Shvets; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2001-01-30

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma.

  6. Fatique Resistant, Energy Efficient Welding Program, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egland, Keith; Ludewig, Howard

    2006-05-25

    The program scope was to affect the heat input and the resultant weld bead geometry by synchronizing robotic weave cycles with desired pulsed waveform shapes to develop process parameters relationships and optimized pulsed gas metal arc welding processes for welding fatique-critical structures of steel, high strength steel, and aluminum. Quality would be addressed by developing intelligent methods of weld measurement that accurately predict weld bead geometry from process information. This program was severely underfunded, and eventually terminated. The scope was redirected to investigate tandem narrow groove welding of steel butt joints during the one year of partial funding. A torch was designed and configured to perform a design of experiments of steel butt weld joints that validated the feasability of the process. An initial cost model estimated a 60% cost savings over conventional groove welding by eliminating the joint preparation and reducing the weld volume needed.

  7. Welding Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2009-01-01

    About 95% of all manufactured goods in this country are welded or joined in some way. These welded products range in nature from bicycle handlebars and skyscrapers to bridges and race cars. The author discusses what students need to know about careers for welding technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career advancement…

  8. Characterization of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites subjected to simultaneous application of electric current pulse and low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert James

    2011-12-01

    The use of composite materials in aerospace, electronics, and wind industries has become increasingly common, and these composite components are required to carry mechanical, electrical, and thermal loads simultaneously. A unique property of carbon fiber composites is that when an electric current is applied to the specimen, the mechanical strength of the specimen increases. Previous studies have shown that the higher the electric current, the greater the increase in impact strength. However, as current passes through the composite, heat is generated through Joule heating. This Joule heating can cause degradation of the composite and thus a loss in strength. In order to minimize the negative effects of heating, it is desired to apply a very high current for a very short duration of time. This thesis investigated the material responses of carbon fiber composite plates subjected to electrical current pulse loads of up to 1700 Amps. For 32 ply unidirectional IM7/977-3 specimens, the peak impact load and absorbed energy increased slightly with the addition of a current pulse at the time of an impact event. In 16 ply cross-ply IM7/977-2 specimens, the addition of the current pulse caused detrimental effects due to electrical arcing at the interface between the composite and electrodes. Further refinement of the experimental setup should minimize the risk of electrical arcing and should better elucidate the effects of a current pulse on the impact strength of the specimens.

  9. A model of preliminary breakdown pulse peak currents and their relation to the observed electric-field pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Petr; Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Farges, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 596-603 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : lightning initiation * electromagnetic radiation * preliminary breakdown pulses Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL071483/pdf

  10. Case Study Regarding the Design of a Direct Current Electromagnet for the MIG Welding of Metallic Materials Part II: Constructive-Electromagnetic Dimension and Verification of the Electromagnet Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the design of a direct current electromagnet, located on the head of a swan neck welding gun of a MIG welding equipment and used for magnetising the rotation space of two additional electric arches, in order to preheat the electrode wire and of the protective gas, partially turned into plasma jet. We present the constructive - electromagnetic dimensioning and the verification of the electromagnet operation.

  11. Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It

  12. Post-tensioning tendon force loss detection using low power pulsed eddy current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Min; Lee, Jun; Sohn, Hoon

    2018-04-01

    In the field of bridge engineering, pre-fabrication of a bridge member and its construction in site have been issued and studied, which achieves improved quality and rapid construction. For integration of those pre-fabricated segments into a structural member (i.e., a concrete slab, girder and pier), post-tensioning (PT) technique is adopted utilizing a high-strength steel tendon, and an effective investigation of the remaining PT tendon force is essential to assure an overall structural integrity. This study proposes a pulsed eddy current based tendon force loss detection system. A compact eddy current sensor is designed to be installed on the surface of an anchor holding a steel PT tendon. The intensity of the induced eddy current varies with PT tendon force alteration due to the magnetostriction effect of a ferromagnetic material. The advantages of the proposed system are as follows: (1) low power consumption, (2) rapid inspection, and (3) simple installation. Its performance was validated experimentally in a full-scale lab test of a 3.3-m long, 15.2-mm diameter mono-tendon that was tensioned using a universal testing machine. Tendon force was controlled from 20 to 180 kN with 20 kN interval, and eddy current responses were measured and analyzed at each force condition. The proposed damage index and the amount of force loss of PT tendon were monotonically related, and an excessive loss as much as 30 % of an initially-introduced tendon force was successfully predicted.

  13. Direct and pulsed current annealing of p-MOSFET based dosimeter: the "MOSkin".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Sami; Carolan, Martin; Petasecca, Marco; Lerch, Michael; Metcalfe, Peter; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary radiation therapy (RT) is complicated and requires sophisticated real-time quality assurance (QA). While 3D real-time dosimetry is most preferable in RT, it is currently not fully realised. A small, easy to use and inexpensive point dosimeter with real-time and in vivo capabilities is an option for routine QA. Such a dosimeter is essential for skin, in vivo or interface dosimetry in phantoms for treatment plan verification. The metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) detector is one of the best choices for these purposes, however, the MOSFETs sensitivity and its signal stability degrade after essential irradiation which limits its lifespan. The accumulation of positive charge on the gate oxide and the creation of interface traps near the silicon-silicon dioxide layer is the primary physical phenomena responsible for this degradation. The aim of this study is to investigate MOSFET dosimeter recovery using two proposed annealing techniques: direct current (DC) and pulsed current (PC), both based on hot charged carrier injection into the gate oxide of the p-MOSFET dosimeter. The investigated MOSFETs were reused multiple times using an irradiation-annealing cycle. The effect of the current-annealing parameters was investigated for the dosimetric characteristics of the recovered MOSFET dosimeters such as linearity, sensitivity and initial threshold voltage. Both annealing techniques demonstrated excellent results in terms of maintaining a stable response, linearity and sensitivity of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, PC annealing is more preferable than DC annealing as it offers better dose response linearity of the reused MOSFET and has a very short annealing time.

  14. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.; Abeyta, Epifanio O.; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Jacquez, Edward B.; Mccuistian, Brian T.; Montoya, Nicholas A.; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rowton, Lawrence; Sanchez, Manolito; Scarpetti, Raymond; Schauer, Martin M.; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A.; Broste, William B.; Carlson, Carl A.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Tom, C.Y.; Williams, John; Hughes, Thomas; Anaya, Richard; Caporaso, George; Chambers, Frank; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steve; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Richardson, Roger; Trainham, C.; Watson, Jim; Weir, John; Genoni, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 (micro)s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  15. Excitation of low-frequency residual currents at combination frequencies of an ionising two-colour laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vvedenskii, N. V.; Kostin, V. A.; Laryushin, I. D.; Silaev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the processes of excitation of low-frequency residual currents in a plasma produced through ionisation of gases by two-colour laser pulses in laser-plasma schemes for THz generation. We have developed an analytical approach that allows one to find residual currents in the case when one of the components of a two-colour pulse is weak enough. The derived analytical expressions show that the effective generation of the residual current (and hence the effective THz generation) is possible if the ratio of the frequencies in the two-colour laser pulse is close to a rational fraction with a not very big odd sum of the numerator and denominator. The results of numerical calculations (including those based on the solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation) agree well with the analytical results.

  16. Application of Streaming Effect and Joule Heating Effect of Pulse Current in Crack Healing of Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacture engineering is an emerging industry that saves resources as well as protects the environment. However, cracks on remanufactured components can result in serious trouble. Therefore, in order to avoid unnecessary waste of resources and energy, these cracks should be repaired radically in order to ensure the smooth progressing of the remanufacturing process. Consequently, the crack healing technique of metal materials is very important in the field of remanufacturing. In this study, the U-shape vane stainless steel of a centrifugal compressor which had cracks was processed by pulse current using a high pulse current discharge device, and the influence of the streaming effect and Joule heating effect of pulse current on the crack healing of metal materials was studied, aiming to provide references for the better application of this technology in the remanufacturing field in the future.

  17. EFFECTS OF ELECTRODE DEFORMATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING ON 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WELD GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance spot welding process is accomplished by forcing huge amounts of current flow from the upper electrode tip through the base metals to the lower electrode tip, or vice versa or in both directions. A weld joint is established between the metal sheets through fusion, resulting in a strong bond between the sheets without occupying additional space. The growth of the weld nugget (bond between sheets is therefore determined from the welding current density; sufficient time for current delivery; reasonable electrode pressing force; and the area provided for current delivery (electrode tip. The welding current and weld time control the root penetration, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tips successfully accomplish the connection during the welding process. Although the welding current and weld time cause the heat generation at the areas concerned (electrode tip area, the electrode tips’ diameter and electrode pressing forces also directly influence the welding process. In this research truncated-electrode deformation and mushrooming effects are observed, which result in the welded areas being inconsistent due to the expulsion. The copper to chromium ratio is varied from the tip to the end of the electrode whilst the welding process is repeated. The welding heat affects the electrode and the electrode itself influences the shape of the weld geometry.

  18. Applications of pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) technique on defect and material assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul A'in Ahmad Latif; Noorhazleena Azaman; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    The pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging electromagnetic method and widely used in multiple field including aerospace, petrochemical, industry and transportation. PEC mainly depends on the multiple variables such as peak value and rising time to detect and quantify the defects. Apart of its advantage as non contacting technique, it has ability on conducting surface and subsurface detection. Additionally, PEC is high sensitive to variety parameters that are inherent in the flaws. Compare to conventional eddy current, PEC allows deeper penetration as it is a combination from multiple frequencies. This paper demonstrates the abilities of PEC technique performing multiple testing in various fields such as conducting conductivity testing, measuring the material thickness and identifying depth of the defects. The conductivity testing will be performed on multiple materials such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper, austenitic steel and titanium. To measure the material thicknesses, PEC testing will be conducted on the multi layered specimen with the different thickness. Meanwhile to identify depth of defects, the testing will be carried out using a stainless steel calibration block contains multiple length of defect. For the validation purposes, all the results generate through the experiments will be compared with simulation results produced using dedicated software, COMSOL. (author)

  19. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  20. Wide-range bipolar pulse conductance instrument employing current and voltage modes with sampled or integrated signal acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, R K; Holler, F J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Geiger, jr, R F; Nieman, T A [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Caserta, K J [Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1991-11-05

    An instrument for measuring solution conductance using the bipolar pulse technique is described. The instrument is capable of measuring conductances in the range of 5x10{sup -9}-10{Omega}{sup -1} with 1% accuracy or better in as little as 32 {mu}s. Accuracy of 0.001-0.01% is achievable over the range 1x10{sup -6}-1{Omega}{sup -1}. Circuitry and software are described that allow the instrument to adjust automatically the pulse height, pulse duration, excitation mode (current or voltage pulse) and data acquisition mode (sampled or integrated) to acquire data of optimum accuracy and precision. The urease-catalyzed decomposition of urea is used to illustrate the versality of the instrument, and other applications are cited. (author). 60 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs.

  1. Energy-Saving Sintering of Electrically Conductive Powders by Modified Pulsed Electric Current Heating Using an Electrically Nonconductive Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikio; Kawahara, Kenta; Araki, Keita

    2014-04-01

    Sintering of Cu and thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 was tried using a modified pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) process, where an electrically nonconductive die was used instead of a conventional graphite die. The pulsed electric current flowed through graphite punches and sample powder, which caused the Joule heating of the powder compact itself, resulting in sintering under smaller power consumption. Especially for the Ca3Co4O9 powder, densification during sintering was also accelerated by this modified PECS process.

  2. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  3. Weld pool boundary and weld bead shape reconstruction based on passive vision in P-GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhihong; Zhang Guangjun; Gao Hongming; Wu Lin

    2006-01-01

    A passive visual sensing system is established in this research, and clear weld pool images in pulsed gas metal arc welding ( P-GMA W) can be captured with this system. The three-dimensional weld pool geometry, especially the weld height,is not only a crucial factor in determining workpiece mechanical properties, but also an important parameter for reflecting the penetration. A new three-dimensional (3D) model is established to describe the weld pool geometry in P-GMAW. Then, a series of algorithms are developed to extract the model geometrical parameters from the weld pool images. Furthermore, the method to reconstruct the 3D shape of weld pool boundary and weld bead from the two-dimensional images is investigated.

  4. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  5. Initiation of ignition by the action of a high-current pulsed discharge on a gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starikovskii, AY

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of nonthermal initiation of chemical reactions by a uniform pulsed nanosecond discharge is demonstrated. Dependences of variation of the ignition delay on initial conditions are obtained. It is shown that the main role in combustion initiation under conditions of a pulsed gas

  6. Pulse current electrodeposition of tungsten coatings on V–4Cr–4Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Yingchun; Li, Xuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on vanadium alloy substrate. • Tungsten coatings consisted of two sub-layers. • Tungsten coatings plated at lower duty cycle has a better surface quality. • High heat flux property of tungsten coatings was investigated. • Helium ion irradiation property of tungsten coatings was investigated. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings with high (2 2 0)-orientation were formed on V alloy substrate by pulse current electrodeposition in air atmosphere. The coatings’ microstructure, crystal structure and adhesive strength between coatings and substrates were investigated. It could be observed the tungsten coatings consisted of two sub-layers with the inner tooth-like layer, and the outer columnar layer. The tungsten coatings deposited at lower duty cycle have a better surface quality with a little change in the adhesive strength. The tungsten coating was exposed to electron beam with power density of 200 MW/m 2 in the thermal shock test, the tungsten crystal grain surface melt, the microcracks are found among the crystal grains. Exfoliation, flaking and dense needle-like holes were observed on the tungsten coating after irradiation with helium ions at an energy of 65 keV and an implanted dose of 22.67 × 10 18 cm −2

  7. Design of shielded encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current probe using numerical analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electircal Engineeirng, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    An encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe is designed for use in aluminum tube inspection. When bare receive coils located away from the exciter were used, the peak time of the signal did not change although the distance from the exciter increased. This is because the magnetic flux from the exciter coil directly affects the receive coil signal. Therefore, in this work, both the exciter and the sensor coils were shielded in order to reduce the influence of direct flux from the exciter coil. Numerical simulation with the designed shielded encircling PEC probe showed the corresponding increase of the peak time as the sensor distance increased. Ferrite and carbon steel shields were compared and results of the ferrite shielding showed a slightly stronger peak value and a quicker peak time than those of the carbon steel shielding. Simulation results showed that the peak value increased as the defect size (such as depth and length) increased regardless of the sensor location. To decide a proper sensor location, the sensitivity of the peak value to defect size variation was investigated and found that the normalized peak value was more sensitive to defect size variation when the sensor was located closer to the exciter.

  8. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2011-01-01

    Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.

  10. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  11. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  12. TIG welding power supply with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the influence of the DC component of the welding current during TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas welding is discussed. Known methods of DC current cancellation are reviewed, such as capacitor bank or diode/thyristor network insertion in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. A new method of controlling the magnitude and shape of the TIG welding current is proposed. The idea is to insert a controlled voltage source in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. This controlled voltage source is realized using a full-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI. VSI control system design issues are discussed. VSI is controlled by a three-level hysteretic current controller, while current reference is generated using lookup table driven by PLL (Phase Locked Loop locked to the mains frequency. Simulation results are shown. The proposed topology of TIG power supply allows to provide magnitude and shape control of the welding current, with the limitation that its DC component must be zero. Thus, some capabilities of professional AC-TIG welders are obtained using substantially lower cost components: VSI built using high-current low voltage MOSFETs with control system based on 32-bit ARM microcontroller. The use of proposed TIG welding power supply will eliminate the DC component of the welding current, improve welding transformer’s power factor and improve welding technology by increasing the welding arc stability

  13. Friction welding of bulk metallic glasses to different ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takuo; Kawamura, Yoshihito; Ohno, Yasuhide

    2004-01-01

    For application of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as industrial materials, it is necessary to establish the metallurgical bonding technology. The BMGs exhibit high-strain-rate superplasticity in the supercooled liquid state. It has been reported that bulk metallic glasses were successfully welded together by friction, pulse-current, explosion and electron-beam methods. In this study, friction welding of the BMGs to different ones were tried for Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 , Pd 40 Cu 30 P 20 Ni 10 , Zr 55 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 5 and Zr 41 Be 23 Ti 14 Cu 12 Ni 10 BMGs. Successful welding was obtained in the combinations of the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 and Pd 40 Cu 30 P 20 Ni 10 BMGs, and the Zr 55 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 5 and Zr 41 Be 23 Ti 14 Cu 12 Ni 10 ones. No crystallization was observed and no visible defect was recognized in the interface. The joining strength of the welded BMGs was the same as that of the parent BMG or more. BMGs seem to be successfully welded to the different ones with a difference below about 50 K in glass transition temperature

  14. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  15. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  16. Ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi

    1981-01-01

    Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time). (author)

  17. Ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time).

  18. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  19. Socket welds in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.; Torres, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Socket welds are easier and faster to make than are butt welds. However, they are often not used in nuclear facilities because the crevices between the pipes and the socket sleeves may be subject to crevice corrosion. If socket welds can be qualified for wider use in facilities that process nuclear materials, the radiation exposures to welders can be significantly reduced. The current tests at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are designed to determine if socket welds can be qualified for use in the waste processing system at a nuclear fuel processing plant

  20. WELDING TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correy, T.B.

    1961-10-01

    A welding torch into which water and inert gas are piped separately for cooling and for providing a suitable gaseous atmosphere is described. A welding electrode is clamped in the torch by a removable collet sleeve and a removable collet head. Replacement of the sleeve and head with larger or smaller sleeve and head permits a larger or smaller welding electrode to be substituted on the torch. (AEC)

  1. Can the use of pulsed direct current induce oscillation in the applied pressure during spark plasma sintering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, David; Eriksson, Mirva; Nygren, Mats; Shen Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is known for its rapid densification of metals and ceramics. The mechanism behind this rapid densification has been discussed during the last few decades and is yet uncertain. During our SPS experiments we noticed oscillations in the applied pressure, related to a change in electric current. In this study, we investigated the effect of pulsed electrical current on the applied mechanical pressure and related changes in temperature. We eliminated the effect of sample shrinkage in the SPS setup and used a transparent quartz die allowing direct observation of the sample. We found that the use of pulsed direct electric current in our apparatus induces pressure oscillations with the amplitude depending on the current density. While sintering Ti samples we observed temperature oscillations resulting from pressure oscillations, which we attribute to magnetic forces generated within the SPS apparatus. The described current–pressure–temperature relations might increase understanding of the SPS process.

  2. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  3. Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmurugan, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Manikandan, M., E-mail: mano.manikandan@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2017-04-13

    Alloy 686 is a highly corrosion resistant 21st-Century Nickel based superalloy derived from Ni-Cr-Mo ternary system. The alloying elements chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) are added to improve the resistance to corrosion in the broad range of service environment. The presence of a higher percentage of alloying elements Cr and Mo lead to microsegregation and end up with hot cracking in the fusion zone of Nickel-based superalloys. However, there is scanty of information regarding the welding of alloy 686 with respect to the microsegregation of alloying elements. The present study investigates the possibility of bringing down the microsegregation to cut down the formation of secondary phases in the fusion zone. The weld joints were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) with ERNiCrMo-10 filler and without filler wire (autogenous) mode. The microstructural properties of the weld joints were studied with optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The joints fabricated by pulsed current (PC) technique shows refined microstructure, narrower weld bead and practically no heat affected zone (HAZ). Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrates the presence of secondary phases in the interdendritic regions of GTAW case. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying element. The results show that the segregation of Mo noticed in the interdendritic zone of GTAW both autogenous and filler wire. Tensile and Impact tests were done to evaluate the strength, ductility, and toughness of the weld joints. The results show that the PCGTA helps to obtain improved strength, ductility and toughness of the weld joints compared to their respective GTAW. Bend test did not lead to cracking irrespective of the type of welding adopted in the present study.

  4. Characterisation of an optimised high current MgO/Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8.21} composite conductor using pulsed transport currents with pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A; Gilewski, A; Rogacki, K; Kursumovic, A; Evetts, J E; Jones, H; Henson, R; Tsukamoto, O

    2003-01-15

    High temperature superconducting conductors are already used in hybrid magnets to produce fields that enhance the performance of conventional magnets made from A-15 type low temperature superconducting wires. For such applications it is vital that the interdependence of the critical parameters such as critical current versus magnetic field can be mapped under high field and high current conditions. However these superconductors have high critical currents even at fields over 20 T, making accurate measurements difficult due to the thermal and mechanical problems. In this paper, we compare measurements on the fully optimised Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8.21} flat rigid conductors using an innovative pulsed high transport current and pulsed high field technique. We show how analysis of the voltage signal from Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8.21} tape in pulsed conditions may be used to extract the critical current under quasi-stationary conditions.

  5. Effect of plasma arc welding variables on fusion zone grain size and hardness of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, pulsed current microplasma arc welding is carried out on AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel of 0.3 mm thickness. Peak current, Base current, Pulse rate and Pulse width are chosen as the input variables, whereas grain size and hardness are considered as output responses. Response surface method is adopted by using Box-Behnken Design, and in total 27 experiments are performed. Empirical relation between input and output response is developed using statistical software and analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% confidence level to check the adequacy. The main effect and interaction effect of input variables on output response are also studied.

  6. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  7. Hardening of alloys in glow discharge with the use of pulsed electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipko, M.N.; Pomel'nikova, A.S.; Solunin, A.M.; Solunin, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ex/ternal pulsed electric field on the thickness of a hardened surface layer of a Nd-Fe-B system alloy during chemical heat treatment in a glow discharge is studied. The relationship is established between the hardened layer thickness and the frequency of external electric field which is verified by derived equations for the relation between electron energy and pulsed electric field frequency [ru

  8. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    quantified anomalies, associated with different frequency components of variability, such as sub-meso-scale eddies, marginal shelf waves, inertial oscillations, diurnal, semi-diurnal and short-period internal waves, long surface waves, were estimated. Based on estimates of the statistical relationships between the different parameters of hydro-meteorological system, including meteorological elements, sea level, sea temperature and flow fields, space/time scales of the observed fields variability were estimated. Several new features of the physical mechanisms of multiscale hydro-physical processes in the shelf zone of the Black Sea, have been revealed. In particular, it is shown, that there are wind self-similar cycles at different time scales, each cycle being consisted of a pair of northeast and then southeast winds, which corresponds to the alternative influences of the Azores and Siberian highs(in winter). In the range of decadal (10 years) scale and in macro space view, long-term wind cycles support basic Black Sea circulation(Rim Current).Wind cycles with a time scale of about 20 days give rise to distinct upwellings, appeared with the same frequency. Along with each upwelling, radical hydrological restructuring of the stratification is accompanied by intense advection with high velocities(up to 1 m/s). Kinetic energy is dominated by alongshore currents, the direction being reversed periodically. The vertical structure of currents is rather complicated. When the current speed exceeds some threshold value, the flow gives rise to relaxation oscillations with a period of about 24 hours with counterclockwise velocity vector rotation. All the above mentioned events and current pulses cause significant variations of air-sea fluxes. This research was jointly supported by Ministry of Education of the RF (Agreement №14.604.21.0044), Russian Academy of Sciences(Program No 23), RFBR grant 14-05-00159,contract No 10/2013 RGS-RFBR.

  9. Current Sheets in Pulsar Magnetospheres and Winds: Particle Acceleration and Pulsed Gamma Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Jonathan

    electric current that separate regions of differing magnetization into the domain of highly relativistic magnetic fields - those with energy density large compared to the rest mass energy of the charged particles - the plasma - caught in that field. The investigators will create theoretical and computational models of the magnetic dissipation - a form of viscous flow in the thin sheets of electric current that form in the magnetized regions around the rotating stars - using Particle in-Cell plasma simulations. These simulations use a large computer to solve the equations of motion of many charged particles - millions to billions in the research that will be pursued - to unravel the dissipation of those fields and the acceleration of beams of particles in the thin sheets. The results will be incorporated into macroscopic MHD models of the magnetic structures around the stars which determine the location and strength of the current sheets, so as to model and analyze the pulsed gamma ray emission seen from hundreds of Rotation Powered Pulsars. The computational models will be assisted by ``pencil and paper'' theoretical modeling designed to motivate and interpret the computer simulations, and connect them to the observations.

  10. A STUDY ABOUT CELL ACTIVITY ON ANODIZED Ti-6Al-4V BY MEANS OF PULSED CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUANA M. R. VASCONCELLOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and some of its alloys exhibit excellent anti-corrosive and biocompatibility properties due to rapid formation of a passive film on their surfaces when exposed to the atmosphere. However, such materials presentpoor osteoindutive properties. Surfaces modified via anodization are being proposed in this study to promote a chemical interaction between implants and bone cells. For this purpose, samples in Ti-6Al-4V alloy discs were anodized in a phosphoric acid solution using pulsed current for being applied in orthopaedic implants. The pulsed current is based on duty cycle (DC, which was supplied by a square wave pulse rectifier at 100 Hz and maximum tension of 30 V. A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain images of the anodized surfaces, thus revealing the presence of uniformly distributed pores over the entire surface, measuring approximately 2 m in diameter. Osteogenic cells grown on the surface of the control and anodized samples were assayed for cytotoxicity and mineralized matrix formation. The anodized surfaces presented a higher rate of viable cells after 10 days, as well as a higher amount of nodules (p = 0.05. In conclusion, these results suggest that the nanotopography promoted by anodization using pulsed current induces beneficial modulatory effects on osteoblastic cells.

  11. Fusion welding of thin metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of fusion welding of thin metal foils are reviewed and the current techniques employed at LASL to join foils are described. Techniques for fusion welding approximately 0.025-mm-thick foils of copper, aluminum, and stainless steels have been developed using both electron beam and laser welding equipment. These techniques, together with the related aspects of joint design, tooling and fixturing, joint preparation, and modifications to the commercially available welding equipment, are included in the review. (auth)

  12. Commissioning of the long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Cary, W.

    1995-01-01

    Two new four-element fast wave current drive antennas have been installed on DIII-D. These antennas are designed for 10-s pulses at 2 MW each in the frequency range of 30 to 120 MHz. Each element comprises two poloidal segments fed in parallel in order to optimize plasma coupling at the upper end of the frequency range. The antennas are mounted on opposite sides of the vacuum vessel, in ports designated 0 degrees and 180 degrees after their toroidal angle. Each antenna array is fed by a single transmitter. The power is first split two ways by means of a 3-dB hybrid coupler, then each of these lines feeds a resonant loop connecting a pair of array elements. The power transfer during asymmetric phasing is shunted between resonant loops by a decoupler. The resonant loops are fitted with line stretchers so that multiple frequencies of operation are possible without reconfiguring the transmission line. Commissioning of these antennas has been underway since June 1994. Several deficiencies in the transmission line system were uncovered during initial vacuum conditioning, including problems with the transmission line insulators and with the drive rods for the variable elements. The former was solved by replacing the original alumina insulators, and the latter has been avoided during operation to date by positioning the tuners to avoid high voltage appearing on the drive rods. A modified design for the drive rods will be implemented before RF operations resume operation June 1995. New transmitters were procured from ABB for the new antennas and were installed in parallel with the antenna installation. During initial vacuum conditioning of the antenna in the 180 degree port a fast digital oscilloscope was used to try to pinpoint the location of arcing by a time-of-flight technique and to develop an understanding of the typical arc signature in the system

  13. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Pulsed Electric Current Sintered (PECS) Cu-Diamond Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritasalo, Riina; Kanerva, Ulla; Ge, Yanling; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2014-04-01

    In this work, dispersion strengthening of copper by diamonds is explored. In particular, the influence of 50- and 250-nm diamonds at contents of 3 and 6 vol. pct on the mechanical and thermal properties of pulsed electric current sintered (PECS) Cu composites is studied. The composite powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in argon atmosphere using a high-energy vibratory ball mill. The PECS compacts prepared had high density (>97 pct of T.D.) with quite evenly distributed diamonds. The effectiveness of dispersoids in increasing the microhardness was more pronounced at a smaller particle size and larger volume fraction, explained by Hall-Petch and Orowan strengthening models. The microhardness of Cu with 6 and 3 vol. pct nanodiamonds and pure sm-Cu (submicron-sized Cu) was 1.77, 1.46, and 1.02 GPa, respectively. In annealing experiments at 623 K to 873 K (350 °C to 600 °C), the composites with 6 vol. pct dispersoids retained their hardness better than those with less dispersoids or sm-Cu. The coefficient of thermal expansion was lowered when diamonds were added, being the lowest at about 14 × 10-6 K-1 between 473 K and 573 K (200 °C and 300 °C). Good bonding between the copper and diamond was qualitatively demonstrated by nanoindentation. In conclusion, high-quality Cu-diamond composites can be produced by PECS with improved strength and better thermal stability than for sm-Cu.

  14. Hybrid laser-TIG welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten arc welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liming; Wang Jifeng; Song Gang

    2004-01-01

    Welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out using hybrid laser-TIG (LATIG) welding, laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding. The weldability and microstructure of magnesium AZ31B alloy welded using LATIG, LBW and TIG were investigated by OM and EMPA. The experimental results showed that the welding speed of LATIG was higher than that of TIG, which was caught up with LBW. Besides, the penetration of LATIG doubles that of TIG, and was four times that of LBW. In addition, arc stability was improved in hybrid of laser-TIG welding compared with using the TIG welding alone, especially at high welding speed and under low TIG current. It was found that the heat affect zone of joint was only observed in TIG welding, and the size of grains in it was evidently coarse. In fusion zone, the equiaxed grains exist, whose size was the smallest welded by LBW, and was the largest by TIG welding. It was also found that Mg concentration of the fusion zone was lower than that of the base one by EPMA in three welding processes

  15. An EIS alternative for impedance measurement of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack based on current pulse injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Araya, Samuel Simon; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the fuel cell impedance is presented, namely the current pulse injection (CPI) method, which is well suited for online implementation. This method estimates the fuel cell impedance and unlike electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it is simple...... to implement at a low cost. This makes it appealing as a characterization method for on-line diagnostic algorithms. In this work a parameter estimation method for estimation of equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) parameters, which is suited for on-line use is proposed. Tests on a 10 cell high temperature PEM...... fuel cell show that the method yields consistent results in estimating EEC parameters for different current pulse at different current loads, with a low variance. A comparison with EIS shows that despite its simplicity the response of CPI can reproduce well the impedance response of the high...

  16. Use of alternating and pulsed direct current electrified fields for zebra mussel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Dean, Jan C.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and 20% duty cycle square-wave pulsed direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of adult zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22 °C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power densities ranged from 77,999 to 107,199 µW/cm3 in the AC exposures and 245,320 to 313,945 µW/cm3 in the PDC exposures. The peak dose ranged from 6,739 to 27,298 Joules/cm3 and 21,306 to 80,941 Joules/cm3 in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively. The applied power ranged from 16.6 to 68.9 kWh in the AC exposures and from 22.2 to 86.4 kWh in the PDC exposures. Mortality ranged from 2.7 to 92.7% in the AC exposed groups and from 24.0 to 98.7% in PDC exposed groups. Mortality increased with corresponding increases in water temperature and exposure duration, and we observed more zebra mussel mortality in the PDC exposures. Exposures conducted with AC required less of a peak dose (Joules/cm3) but more applied power (kWh) to achieve the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality as corresponding PDC exposures. The results demonstrate that 20% duty cycle square-wave PDC requires less energy than sinusoidal AC to inducing the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality.

  17. Analysis and Minimization of Output Current Ripple for Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques in Three-Phase Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the complete analysis of the output current ripple in three-phase voltage source inverters considering the different discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM strategies. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically evaluated over the fundamental period and compared among the most used DPWMs, including positive and negative clamped (DPWM+ and DPWM−, and the four possible combinations between them, usually named as DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2, and DPWM3. The maximum and the average values of peak-to-peak current ripple are estimated, and a simple method to correlate the ripple envelope with the ripple rms is proposed and verified. Furthermore, all the results obtained by DPWMs are compared to the centered pulse-width modulation (CPWM, equivalent to the space vector modulation to identify the optimal pulse-width modulation (PWM strategy as a function of the modulation index, taking into account the different average switching frequency. In this way, the PWM technique providing for the minimum output current ripple is identified over the whole modulation range. The analytical developments and the main results are experimentally verified by current ripple measurements with a three-phase PWM inverter prototype supplying an induction motor load.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.254 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1910.254 Section 1910.254 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.254 Arc welding and cutting. (a... following limits shall not be exceeded: (i) Alternating-current machines (A) Manual arc welding and cutting...

  19. WELDING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  20. Plasma erosion opening switch in the double-pulse operation mode of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Lopatin, V.S.; Remnev, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of investigations of the operation of a fast current opening switch, with a 10/sup 13/-10/sup 16/ plasma density produced either by dielectric surface flashover or by explosive emission of graphite. A series of two pulses was applied to two diodes in parallel. The first pulse produced plasma in the first diode which closed that diode gap by the arrival time of the second pulse. The first, shorted, diode then acted as an erosion switch for the second pulse. A factor of 2.5-3 power multiplication was obtained under optimum conditions. The opening-switch resistance during the magnetic insulation phase, neglecting the electron losses between the switch and the generating diode, exceeded 100 Ω. The duration of the rapid opening phase was less than 5 ns under optimum conditions. This method of plasma production does not require external plasma sources, and permits a wide variation of plasma density, which in turn allows high inductor currents and stored energies

  1. Advances in welding science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments

  2. A photocatalytic approach in micro arc oxidation of WO3-TiO2 nano porous semiconductors under pulse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Molaei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: WO3-TiO2 layers were fabricated via microarc oxidation process and effect of the electrical current type on their photocatalytic performance under UV and visible illuminations was investigated. Highlights: → WO3-TiO2 layers were grown by MAO under pulse current for the first time. → Effect of the frequency and duty cycle on properties of the layers was studied. → A correlation between catalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. - Abstract: Since ultraviolet (UV) irradiation cannot be applied for a long time in practical applications, it is necessary to develop a narrow band gap photocatalyst to decompose environmental pollutants under visible irradiation. In this research, (WO 3 ) x -(TiO 2 ) 1-x nano-porous layers were fabricated by micro arc oxidation (MAO) and influence of the electrical current type on their physical and chemical properties was investigated. Morphological studies, performed by SEM technique, revealed that pore size and roughness decreased with the frequency and increased with the duty cycle. The pulse-grown layers had a finer structure when compared to those fabricated under direct current. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and tungsten oxide phases. Applying pulse current resulted in higher anatase relative contents. Band gap energies of the MAO-grown TiO 2 and WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were respectively measured as 3.14 and 2.96 eV. The layers fabricated under pulse current exhibited higher photoactivity under ultraviolet and visible illuminations as compared to the layers grown under direct current. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model material to examine photocatalytic performance of the layers. Maximum MB-photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-synthesized WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were measured as 0.0269 and 0.0129 min -1 for ultraviolet and visible irradiations. For layers grown under direct current, the rate constants were lower, i.e. 0.0228 and 0

  3. Effect on spot welding variables on nugget size and bond strength of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charde, Nachimani

    2012-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) has revolutionized mechanical assembly in the automotive industry since its introduction in the early 1970s. Currently, one mechanical assembly in five is welded using spot welding technology, with welding of stainless steel sheet becoming increasingly common. Consequently, this research paper examines the spot welding of 2 mm thick 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet. The size of a spot weld nugget is primarily determined by the welding parameters: welding current, welding time, electrode force and electrode tip diameter However, other factors such as electrode deformation, corrosion, dissimilar materials and material properties also affect the nugget size and shape. This paper analyzes only the effects of current, weld time and force variations with unchanged electrode tip diameter. A pneumatically driven 75kVA spot welder was used to accomplish the welding process and the welded samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterize the size and shape of the weld nugget and the bond strength.

  4. Study on the Effect of Laser Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Grained 304L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihane Nafar Dehsorkhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 300 nm was produced by a combination of cold rolling and annealing. Weldability of the UFG sample was studied by Nd: YAG laser welding under different welding conditions. Taguchi experimental design was used to optimize the effect of frequency, welding time, laser current and laser pulse duration on the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties. X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Optical Microscope (OM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, microhardness measurements and tension tests were conducted to characterize the sample after thermomechanical processing and laser welding. The results showed that the ultrafine grained steel had the yield strength of 1000 Mpa and the total elongation of 48%, which were almost three times higher than those of the as-received sample. The microstructure of the weld zone was shown to be a mixture of austenite and delta ferrite. The microhardness of the optimized welded sample (315 HV0.5 was found to be close to the UFG base metal (350 HV. It was also observed that the hardness of the heat affected zone (HAZ was  lower than that of the weld zone, which was related to the HAZ grain growth during laser welding. The results of optimization also showed that the welding time was the most important parameter affecting the weld strength. Overall, the study showed that laser welding could be an appropriate and alternative welding technique for the joining of UFG steels.

  5. Arc modeling for welding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional model of the welding arc that considers heat generation by the Joule effect and heat losses by radiation and conduction has been used to study the effects of various gases and gas mixtures currently employed for welding applications. Minor additions of low ionization potential impurities to these gases are shown to significantly perturb the electrical properties of the parent gas causing gross changes in the radial temperature distribution of the arc discharge. Such changes are reflected in the current density distribution and ultimately in the input energy distribution to the weldment. The result is observed as a variation in weld penetration. Recently published experiments and analyses of welding arcs are also evaluated and shown to contain erroneous data and results. Contrary to previous beliefs, the inclusion of a radiation loss term in the basic energy balance equation is important and cannot be considered as negligible in an argon arc at temperatures as low as 10,000 0 K. The one-dimensional analysis of the welding arc as well as the evaluation of these earlier published reports helps to explain the effects of various gases used for welding, improves our understanding of the physics of the welding arc, and provides a stepping stone for a more elaborate model which can be applied to help optimize welding parameters

  6. Design and study of photomultiplier pulse-shaping amplifier powered by the current flowing through a voltage divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Popov

    2003-01-01

    A new version of Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) pulse amplifier, entirely powered by the current flowing through the base voltage divider, was designed and tested. This amplifier was designed for application in the JLAB G0 Experiment E00-006 as a part of high voltage base for XP2262 Photonis PMT. According to JLAB G0 experiment requirement, these PMT's operate with plastic scintillators at high counting rate (about MHz). Tests in JLAB experimental Hall C indicate that low energy gamma background cause up to 0.1 mA of PMT average anode current (without amplifier). At this radiation condition, PMT gain decreases by 50% within about 1 month of operation. The amplifier needs to reduce PMT anode current and to shape PMT anode pulse prior to sending it through a long cable line (more then 400 ft of RG-213 and RG-58 coax cables). Shaping of the PMT output pulse helps to reduce attenuation effect of the long cable line without significant reduction of timing accuracy. The results of this study of designed amplifier and PMT plus amplifier system are presented

  7. Development of remote laser welding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Kim, Woong-Ki; Lee, Jung-Won; Yang, Myung-Seung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1999-01-01

    Various welding processes are now available for end cap closure of nuclear fuel element such as TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, magnetic resistance welding and laser welding. Even though the resistance and TIG welding process are widely used for manufacturing of the commercial fuel elements, it can not be recommended for the remote seal welding of fuel element at PIE facility due to its complexity of the electrode alignment, difficulty in the replacement of parts in the remote manner and its large heat input for thin sheath. Therefore, Nd:YAG laser system using the optical fiber transmission was selected for Zircaloy-4 end cap welding. Remote laser welding apparatus is developed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 500 watt average power with optical fiber transmission. The laser weldability is satisfactory in respect of the microstructures and mechanical properties comparing with the TIG and resistance welding. The optimum operation processes of laser welding and the optical fiber transmission system for hot cell operation in remote manner have been developed. (author)

  8. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  9. Numerical evaluation of pulse-echo damage detection in train rail

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A guided wave based monitoring system for welded freight rail, has previously been developed. The existing system was designed to only detect complete breaks. Current research efforts are focused on including a pulse-echo mode of operation in order...

  10. Dependence of fracture toughness of molybdenum laser welds on dendritic spacing and in situ titanium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellison, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture toughness of molybdenum welds has been improved by in situ gettering of oxygen by means of physically deposited titanium. The addition of titanium suppressed brittle intergranular fracture. Pulsed laser welds (both Nd:YAG and CO 2 ) exhibited superior toughness to that of continuous wave CO 2 laser welds. Also, welds of vacuum arc remelted grades were tougher than those of sintered molybdenum. However, weld toughness could not be correlated with either oxygen or carbon content

  11. Sustainability of Welding Process through Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sued, M. K.; Samsuri, S. S. M.; Kassim, M. K. A. M.; Nasir, S. N. N. M.

    2018-03-01

    Welding process is in high demand, which required a competitive technology to be adopted. This is important for sustaining the needs of the joining industries without ignoring the impact of the process to the environment. Friction stir welding (FSW) is stated to be benefitting the environment through low energy consumption, which cannot be achieved through traditional arc welding. However, this is not well documented, especially for bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW). Therefore, an investigation is conducted by measuring current consumption of the machine during the BFSW process. From the measurement, different phases of BFSW welding process and its electrical demand are presented. It is found that in general total energy in BFSW is about 130kW inclusive of all identified process phases. The phase that utilise for joint formation is in weld phase that used the highest total energy of 120kWs. The recorded total energy is still far below the traditional welding technology and the conventional friction stir welding (CFSW) energy demand. This indicates that BFSW technology with its vast benefit able to sustain the joining technology in near future.

  12. Design of a New Acceleration System for High-Current Pulsed Proton Beams from an ECR Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew L.; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Surbrook, Jason T.; Kelly, Keegan J.; Carlin, Bret P.; Champagne, Arthur E.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    2014-03-01

    A primary objective for accelerators at TUNL's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is to maximize target beam intensity to ensure a high rate of nuclear events during each experiment. Average proton target currents of several mA are needed from LENA's electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source because nuclear cross sections decrease substantially at energies of interest tube structures; and provide better heat dissipation by using deionized water to provide the current drain needed to establish the accelerating tube's voltage gradient. Details of beam optical modeling calculations, proposed accelerating tube design, and initial beam pulsing tests will be described. Work supported in part by USDOE Office of HE and Nuclear Physics.

  13. Method and device for weld deposit cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to get weld beads of good quality, uniform thickness and faultless transition regions between neighboring beads in weld deposit cladding of metallic workpoeces, it is proposed to use a device in which the electromagnets are arranged adjacent to th zone of molten welding powder and molten metal besides having got suitable supplies for applying the welding powder, the polarity of the magnets being chosen in such a way that the lines of flux between the poles are counteracting the lines of flux surrounding the electrode band because of the welding current. Several variants of arranging the electrodes are presented in detail. (UWI) [de

  14. Thermomechanical Modelling of Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a generic programme for analysis, optimization and development of resistance spot and projection welding. The programme includes an electrical model determining electric current and voltage distribution as well as heat generation, a thermal model calculating heat...

  15. Fiber Laser Welding of Dissimilar 2205/304 Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghusoon Ridha Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt on pulsed-fiber laser welding on an austenitic-duplex stainless steel butt joint configuration was investigated. The influence of various welding parameters, such as beam diameter, peak power, pulse repetition rate, and pulse width on the weld beads geometry was studied by checking the width and depth of the welds after each round of welding parameters combination. The weld bead dimensions and microstructural progression of the weld joints were observed microscopically. Finally, the full penetration specimens were subjected to tensile tests, which were coupled with the analysis of the fracture surfaces. From the results, combination of the selected weld parameters resulted in robust weldments with similar features to those of duplex and austenitic weld metals. The weld depth and width were found to increase proportionally to the laser power. Furthermore, the weld bead geometry was found to be positively affected by the pulse width. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of dendritic and fine grain structures within the weld zone at low peak power, while ferritic microstructures were found on the sides of the weld metal near the SS 304 and austenitic-ferritic microstructure beside the duplex 2205 boundary. Regarding the micro-hardness tests, there was an improvement when compared to the hardness of duplex and austenitic stainless steels base metals. Additionally, the tensile strength of the fiber laser welded joints was found to be higher when compared to the tensile strength of the base metals (duplex and austenitic in all of the joints.

  16. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  17. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.

    2017-09-01

    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 - 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  18. Development and application of network virtual instrument for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Network virtual instrument (VI) is a new development direction in current automated test. Based on LabVIEW, the software and hardware system of VI used for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current (DC) discharge is developed and applied to investigate pulsed high-voltage DC discharge of nitrogen. By doing so, various functions are realized including real time collection of emission spectrum of nitrogen, monitoring operation state of instruments and real time analysis and processing of data. By using shared variables and DataSocket technology in LabVIEW, the network VI system based on field VI is established. The system can acquire the emission spectrum of nitrogen in the test site, monitor operation states of field instruments, realize real time face-to-face interchange of two sites, and analyze data in the far-end from the network terminal. By employing the network VI system, the staff in the two sites acquired the same emission spectrum of nitrogen and conducted the real time communication. By comparing with the previous results, it can be seen that the experimental data obtained by using the system are highly precise. This implies that the system shows reliable network stability and safety and satisfies the requirements for studying the emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage discharge in high-precision fields or network terminals. The proposed architecture system is described and the target group gets the useful enlightenment in many fields including engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks.

  19. Differential Hall-sensor Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for the Detection of Wall thinning in an Insulated Stainless Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. G.; Angani, Chandra S.; Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The local wall thinning is one of the most important factors to limit the life-extension of large structures, such as the pipe lines in the NPPs. The pipelines are covered with a thermal insulator for low thermal loss. The PEC testing is the promising technological approach to the NDT, and it has been principally developed for the measurement of surface flaws, subsurface flaws and corrosion. In the pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique, the excitation coil is driven by repeated pulses. According to the skin - depth relationship multiple frequency components penetrate to different depths, hence the PEC technique has the potential for bringing up deeper information about the tested sample. Because of the potential advantages of the PEC, prevalent investigations on this technique have been done. In the present study a differential probe which is used in the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) system has been fabricated for the detection of wall thinning of insulated pipelines in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This technique can be used as a potential tool to detect the corrosion or the wall thinning of the pipelines without removing the insulation

  20. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…