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Sample records for pulse wave velocities

  1. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood pres...... that these traditional risk scores have underestimated the complicated impact of age and blood pressure on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk....

  2. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Greve, Sara; Blicher, Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood...... pressure and previously published equations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ePWV could predict CV events independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and/or cfPWV. DESIGN AND METHOD: cfPWV was measured and ePWV calculated in 2366 apparently healthy subjects from four age...

  3. Pulse-wave morphology and pulse-wave velocity in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, M; Nielsen, A H; Kamper, A-L

    2006-01-01

    as smoking caused significant changes in both PWA and PWV parameters and an inter-arm difference was observed. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was good. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse-wave measurements by applanation tonometry should be undertaken in the same arm during fasting and smoking abstinence.......OBJECTIVE: Applanation tonometry for pulse-wave analysis (PWA) and determination of pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive method for assessment of the central aortic pressure waveform and indices of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of eating...... and smoking on PWA and PWV measurements in order to establish standard examination conditions. Furthermore, intra- and interobserver reproducibility and the effects of varying the site of measurements were observed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Duplicate measurements of the radial pressure waveform...

  4. Measurement of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity With a Connected Bathroom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, David; Khettab, Hakim; Yu, Roger; Genain, Nicolas; Edouard, Paul; Buard, Nadine; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of arterial stiffness should be more available. Our aim was to show that aortic pulse wave velocity can be reliably measured with a bathroom scale combining the principles of ballistocardiography (BCG) and impedance plethysmography on a single foot. The calibration of the bathroom scale was conducted on a group of 106 individuals. The aortic pulse wave velocity was measured with the SphygmoCor in the supine position. Three consecutive measurements were then performed on the Withings scale in the standing position. This aorta-leg pulse transit time (alPTT) was then converted into a velocity with the additional input of the height of the person. Agreement between the SphygmoCor and the bathroom scale so calibrated is assessed on a separate group of 86 individuals, following the same protocol. The bias is 0.25 m·s-1 and the SE 1.39 m·s-1. This agreement with Sphygmocor is "acceptable" according to the ARTERY classification. The alPTT correlated well with cfPTT with (Spearman) R = 0.73 in pooled population (cal 0.79, val 0.66). The aorta-leg pulse wave velocity correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with R = 0.76 (cal 0.80, val 0.70). Estimation of the aortic pulse wave velocity is feasible with a bathroom scale. Further investigations are needed to improve the repeatability of measurements and to test their accuracy in different populations and conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension.

  5. [De-noising and measurement of pulse wave velocity of the wavelet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Zhu, Honglian; Ren, Xiaohua

    2011-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a vital index of the cardiovascular pathology, so that the accurate measurement of PWV can be of benefit for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The noise in the measure system of pulse wave signal, rounding error and selection of the recording site all cause errors in the measure result. In this paper, with wavelet transformation to eliminate the noise and to raise the precision, and with the choice of the point whose slope was maximum as the recording site of the reconstructing pulse wave, the measuring system accuracy was improved.

  6. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

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    Muramatsu Chie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently a new automatic device that measures brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity using an oscillometric method has been developed. However, the practical significance of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods One thousand sixty six patients with type 2 diabetes were studied cross-sectionally. Measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were made using the automatic device. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio for cerebral infarction. Results The presence of symptomatic cerebral infarction was confirmed in 86 patients. In these patients brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was found to be significantly higher than in patients without cerebral infarction (18.94 ± 4.95 versus 16.46 ± 3.62 m/s, p Conclusion Overall, we conclude that an increase in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Evaluation of arterial propagation velocity based on the automated analysis of the Pulse Wave Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clara, F M; Scandurra, A G; Meschino, G J; Passoni, L I

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the automatic estimation of the arterial propagation velocity from the pulse wave raw records measured in the region of the radial artery. A fully automatic process is proposed to select and analyze typical pulse cycles from the raw data. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, together with a heuristic search is used to find a functional approximation of the pulse wave. The estimation of the propagation velocity is carried out via the analysis of the functional approximation obtained with the fuzzy model. The analysis of the pulse wave records with the proposed methodology showed small differences compared with the method used so far, based on a strong interaction with the user. To evaluate the proposed methodology, we estimated the propagation velocity in a population of healthy men from a wide range of ages. It has been found in these studies that propagation velocity increases linearly with age and it presents a considerable dispersion of values in healthy individuals. We conclude that this process could be used to evaluate indirectly the propagation velocity of the aorta, which is related to physiological age in healthy individuals and with the expectation of life in cardiovascular patients.

  8. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

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    Posokhov IN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Igor N PosokhovHemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhniy Novgorod, RussiaAbstract: This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed.Keywords: pulse wave velocity, 24-hour monitoring, oscillometry

  9. The Effects of Hemodynamic Changes on Pulse Wave Velocity in Cardiothoracic Surgical Patients

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    Yurie Obata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blood pressure on pulse wave velocity (PWV is well established. However, PWV variability with acute hemodynamic changes has not been examined in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic changes on PWV in patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery. Using data from 25 patients, we determined blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT velocity-time integral. By superimposing the radial arterial waveform on the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the LVOT, obtained by transesophageal echo, we were able to determine pulse transit time and to calculate PWV, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Increases in BP, HR, and SVR were associated with higher values for PWV. In contrast increases in SV were associated with decreases in PWV. Changes in CO were not significantly associated with PWV.

  10. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.

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    Painter, Page R

    2008-07-29

    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  11. Non-invasive aortic systolic pressure and pulse wave velocity estimation in a primary care setting: An in silico study.

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    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Mesin, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Everyday clinical cardiovascular evaluation is still largely based on brachial systolic and diastolic pressures. However, several clinical studies have demonstrated the higher diagnostic capacities of the aortic pressure, as well as the need to assess the aortic mechanical properties (e.g., by measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity). In order to fill this gap, we propose to exploit a set of easy-to-obtain physical characteristics to estimate the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity. To this aim, a large population of virtual subjects is created by a validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system. Quadratic regressive models are then fitted and statistically selected in order to obtain reliable estimations of the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity starting from the knowledge of the subject age, height, weight, brachial pressure, photoplethysmographic measures and either electrocardiogram or phonocardiogram. The results are very encouraging and foster clinical studies aiming to apply a similar technique to a real population. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Judgment value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for lesion severity in hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis

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    Zhong Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the judgment value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for lesion severity in hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis. Methods: A total of 100 cases of hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis who received physical examination in Physical Examination Centre of our hospital were collected as research subjects of observation group, 100 cases patients with primary hypertension alone who received treatment in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ultrasound coronary area were detected, serum was collected to detect the levels of coronary arteriosclerosis illness-related indicators in it, and the judgment value of brachialankle pulse wave velocity for coronary arteriosclerosis severity was further analyzed. Results: PWV value of observation group was higher than that of control group while ABI value was lower than that of control group; intravascular ultrasound inspection showed that blood vessel volume, lumen volume and plaque volume of observation group were larger than those of control group; serum Hcy, Ox-LDL and ApoB/ApoA1 values of observation group were higher than those of control group while APN value was lower than that of control group; serum Lp-PLA2, sTWEAK, CML and bFGF values of observation group were higher than those of control group while secKlotho, Chrelin and MPO values were lower than those of control group; PWV and ABI values were directly correlated with disease severity-related factors. Conclusions: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity can effectively judge the lesion severity of hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis, can be used as one of the accurate indicators to guide treatment and judge prognosis in clinical practice, and has important clinical value.

  13. Correlations between ultrasonic pulse wave velocities and rock properties of quartz-mica schist

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    Bharti Chawre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-mechanical properties are critically important parameters for rocks. This study aims to examine some of the rock properties of quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks in a cost-effective manner by establishing correlations between non-destructive and destructive tests. Using simple regression analysis, good correlations were obtained between the pulse wave velocities and the properties of QMS rocks. The results were further improved by using multiple regression analysis as compared to those obtained by the simple linear regression analysis. The results were also compared to the ones obtained by other empirical equations available. The general equations encompassing all types of rocks did not give reliable results of rock properties and showed large relative errors, ranging from 23% to 1146%. It is suggested that empirical correlations must be investigated separately for different types of rocks. The general empirical equations should not be used for the design and planning purposes before they are verified at least on one rock sample from the project site, as they may contain large unacceptable errors. Keywords: Pulse wave velocity, Physico-mechanical properties, Quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks, Non-destructive methods, Static elastic constants, Dynamic elastic constants

  14. Short-term effects of a standardized glucose load on region-specific aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Tjeerdema, N.; Hensen, L.C.; Lamb, H.J.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.; Westenberg, J.J.; Roos, A. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the short-term effects of a standardized oral glucose load on regional aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) using two-directional in-plane velocity encoded MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention was performed in 16 male subjects (mean +/- standard deviation:

  15. Pulse Wave Velocity Measuring System using Virtual Instrumentation on Mobile Device

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    Razvan Alin Ciobotariu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual instrumentation is a concept that permits customizable modular software measurement and the development of the user-defined tools for control, process and visualization of data, creating versatile systems, using modular programming, intuitive and easy to use. In this paper we investigate a possibility of using virtual instrumentation in the development of two physiological parameters monitoring system, in order to assess a cardiovascular parameter, the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV. We choose to monitor this parameter due to major incidence and impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD.

  16. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H.; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U.; Ley, S.; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Arnold, R.; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg; Boese, J.; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim; Krug, R.; Fink, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods (≤ 2 %). (orig.)

  17. Identifying coronary artery disease in asymptomatic middle-aged sportsmen : The additional value of pulse wave velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H J; Mosterd, Arend; Mali, Willem P Th M; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Bots, Michiel L.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the

  18. Correlation of pulse wave velocity with left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension once blood pressure has been normalized

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    Siu H. Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stiffness has been proposed as a simple method to assess arterial loading conditions of the heart which induce left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. There is some controversy as to whether the relationship of vascular stiffness to LVH is independent of blood pressure, and which measurement of arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AI or pulse wave velocity (PWV is best. Carotid pulse wave contor and pulse wave velocity of patients (n=20 with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP was under control (<140/90 mmHg with antihypertensive drug treatment medications, and without valvular heart disease, were measured. Left ventricular mass, calculated from 2D echocardiogram, was adjusted for body size using two different methods: body surface area and height. There was a significant (P<0.05 linear correlation between LV mass index and pulse wave velocity. This was not explained by BP level or lower LV mass in women, as there was no significant difference in PWV according to gender (1140.1+67.8 vs 1110.6+57.7 cm/s. In contrast to PWV, there was no significant correlation between LV mass and AI. In summary, these data suggest that aortic vascular stiffness is an indicator of LV mass even when blood pressure is controlled to less than 140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients. The data further suggest that PWV is a better proxy or surrogate marker for LV mass than AI and the measurement of PWV may be useful as a rapid and less expensive assessment of the presence of LVH in this patient population.

  19. Pitfalls in the ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity

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    Ato D

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato Gakujutsu Shien Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Background: The ankle-brachial index (ABI and pulse wave velocity (PWV are indices of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. The Japan-made measuring devices of those indices have spread widely because of their convenience and the significance of the parameters. However, studies that comprehensively discuss the various pitfalls in using these indices are not available.Methods: This study presents several representative pitfalls in using the ABI and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV by showing the result sheets of the device, “the Vascular Profiler”. Furthermore, some considerations when utilizing these indices in the future are also discussed.Results: Several diseases such as arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO, arterial calcification in the lower limb, arterial stenosis in the right upper-limb, aortic valve diseases, arterial stenosis in the upper-limb of the contralateral side of the hemodialysis access, are the representative pitfalls when evaluating ABI and baPWV. Moreover, a measurement error is found to actually exist. Furthermore, same phenomena are considered most likely to occur when using other similar indices and devices.Conclusion: The ABI and baPWV are the useful and significant biomarkers. Nevertheless, caution is sometimes necessary when interpreting them. Moreover, rigorous patient exclusion criteria should be considered when using those indices in the severely conditioned patient population. And the results of this study can be applied to enhance the literacy using other indices, such as the cardio-ankle vascular index and other similar devices. Keywords: ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, peripheral arterial disease, aortic valve disease, hemodialysis

  20. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. van Bortel (Luc); S. Laurent (Stephane); P. Boutouyrie (Pierre); P. Chowienczyk (Phil); J.K. Cruickshank (Kennedy); T.L.M. de Backer (Tine); J. Filipovsky (Jan); S. Huybrechts (Sofie); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); A.D. Protogerou (Athanase); G. Schillaci (Giuseppe); P. Segers (Patrick); S. Vermeersch (Steve); T. Weber (Thomas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStiffness of elastic arteries like the aorta predicts cardiovascular risk. By directly reflecting arterial stiffness, having the best predictive value for cardiovascular outcome and the ease of its measurement, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is now considered the gold standard for

  1. Pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Susanne; Baumann, Marcus; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Mayer, Christopher Clemens; Steubl, Dominik; Hauser, Christine; Suttmann, Yana; Reichelt, Anna-Lena; Satanovskij, Robin; Lorenz, Georg; Lukas, Moritz; Haller, Bernhard; Heemann, Uwe; Grimmer, Timo; Schmaderer, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common and associated with adverse outcomes. So far, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between cognitive impairment and three different categories of risk factors with particular focus on arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). A total of 201 chronic hemodialysis patients underwent cognitive testing under standardized conditions using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic data including cardiovascular risk factors, dialysis-associated factors as well as factors related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) were analyzed. To account for arterial stiffness, PWV was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoried with an oscillometric device that records brachial blood pressure along with pulse waves. In our cohort, 60.2% of patients showed pathological MoCA test results indicating cognitive impairment. PWV was significantly associated with cognitive impairment apart from age, educational level, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. High prevalence of cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients was confirmed. For the first time, an association between cognitive impairment and arterial stiffness was detected in a larger cohort of hemodialysis patients. Concerning the underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment, current results revealed a potential involvement of arterial stiffness, which has to be further evaluated in future studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

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    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations.

  3. Pulse wave velocity as a diagnostic index: The effect of wall thickness

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    Hodis, Simona

    2018-06-01

    Vascular compliance is a major determinant of wave propagation within the vascular system, and hence the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) is commonly used clinically as a method of detecting vascular stiffening. The accuracy of that assessment is important because vascular stiffening is a major risk factor for hypertension. PWV is usually measured by timing a pressure wave as it travels from the carotid artery to the femoral or radial artery and estimating the distance that it traveled in each case to obtain the required velocity. A major assumption on which this technique is based is that the vessel wall thickness h is negligibly small compared with the vessel radius a . The extent to which this assumption is satisfied in the cardiovascular system is not known because the ratio h /a varies widely across different regions of the vascular tree and under different pathological conditions. Using the PWV as a diagnostic test without knowing the effect of wall thickness on the measurement could lead to error when interpreting the PWV value as an index of vessel wall compliance. The aim of the present study was to extend the validity of the current practice of assessing wall stiffness by developing a method of analysis that goes beyond the assumption of a thin wall. We analyzed PWVs calculated with different wall models, depending on the ratio of wall thickness to vessel radius and the results showed that PWV is not reliable when it is estimated with the classic thin wall theory if the vessel wall is not around 25% of vessel radius. If the arterial wall is thicker than 25% of vessel radius, then the wave velocity calculated with the thin wall theory could be overestimated and in the clinical setting, this could lead to a false positive. For thicker walls, a thick wall model presented here should be considered to account for the stresses within the wall thickness that become dominant compared with the wall inertia.

  4. An Advantage of the Equivalent Velocity Spectroscopy for Femtsecond Pulse Radiolysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kondoh, Takafumi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Tomosada, Hiroshi; Yang Jin Feng; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2005-01-01

    For studies of electron beam induced ultra-fast reaction process, femtosecond(fs) pulse radiolysis is under construction. To realize fs time resolution, fs electron and analyzing light pulses and their jitter compensation system are needed. About a 100fs electron pulse was generated by a photocathode RF gun linac and a magnetic pulse compressor. Synchronized Ti: Sapphire laser have a puleswidth about 160fs. And, it is significant to avoid degradation of time resolution caused by velocity difference between electron and analyzing light in a sample. In the 'Equivalent velocity spectroscopy' method, incident analyzing light is slant toward electron beam with an angle associated with refractive index of sample. Then, to overlap light wave front and electron pulse shape, electron pulse shape is slanted toward the direction of travel. As a result of the equivalent velocity spectroscopy for hydrated electrons, using slanted electron pulse shape, optical absorption rise time was about 1.4ps faster than normal electro...

  5. Analysis of sediment particle velocity in wave motion based on wave flume experiments

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    Krupiński, Adam

    2012-10-01

    The experiment described was one of the elements of research into sediment transport conducted by the Division of Geotechnics of West-Pomeranian University of Technology. The experimental analyses were performed within the framework of the project "Building a knowledge transfer network on the directions and perspectives of developing wave laboratory and in situ research using innovative research equipment" launched by the Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdańsk. The objective of the experiment was to determine relations between sediment transport and wave motion parameters and then use the obtained results to modify formulas defining sediment transport in rivers, like Ackers-White formula, by introducing basic parameters of wave motion as the force generating bed material transport. The article presents selected results of the experiment concerning sediment velocity field analysis conducted for different parameters of wave motion. The velocity vectors of particles suspended in water were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) apparatus registering suspended particles in a measurement flume by producing a series of laser pulses and analysing their displacement with a high-sensitivity camera connected to a computer. The article presents velocity fields of suspended bed material particles measured in the longitudinal section of the wave flume and their comparison with water velocity profiles calculated for the definite wave parameters. The results presented will be used in further research for relating parameters essential for the description of monochromatic wave motion to basic sediment transport parameters and "transforming" mean velocity and dynamic velocity in steady motion to mean wave front velocity and dynamic velocity in wave motion for a single wave.

  6. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum

    2010-01-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the ...

  7. Effects of Obesity and Hypertension on Pulse Wave Velocity in Children.

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    Kulsum-Mecci, Nazia; Goss, Charles; Kozel, Beth A; Garbutt, Jane M; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2017-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a biomarker of arterial stiffness. Findings from prior studies are conflicting regarding the impact of obesity on PWV in children. The authors measured carotid-femoral PWV in 159 children aged 4 to 18 years, of whom 95 were healthy, 25 were obese, 15 had hypertension (HTN), and 24 were both obese and hypertensive. Mean PWV increased with age but did not differ by race or sex. In adjusted analyses in children 10 years and older (n=102), PWV was significantly higher in children with hypertension (PWV±standard deviation, 4.9±0.7 m/s), obesity (5.0±0.9 m/s), and combined obesity-hypertension (5.2±0.6 m/s) vs healthy children (4.3±0.7 m/s) (each group, Pobesity and HTN both significantly and independently increased PWV, while African American children did not have a higher PWV than Caucasian children. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relations between diabetes, blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity in haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Dzeko, Mirela

    (HD) and 32 HD patients with DM (HD+DM). The SphygmoCor system was used for estimation of PWV. HD-duration, age, gender and BP medication were similar in the two groups. Mean DM-duration was 23±11 years and 25(78%) had type 2 DM. HD+DM had higher BMI (26±5 vs. 29±5 kg/m2, p=0.02), systolic BP (142......Diabetes (DM) is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and affects both blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects the stiffness of the aorta and is regarded as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in HD patients. However, PWV......±20 vs. 152±21 mmHg, p=0.02) and pulse pressure (65±17 vs. 80±18 mmHg, p2.5 in HD and 12.3±3.1 m/s in HD+DM. The mean PWV difference HD vs. HD+DM was 3.1(1.9-4.3)m/s, p

  9. Artificial Intelligence Estimation of Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity using Carotid Waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Peyman; Razavi, Marianne; Pahlevan, Niema M

    2018-01-17

    In this article, we offer an artificial intelligence method to estimate the carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) non-invasively from one uncalibrated carotid waveform measured by tonometry and few routine clinical variables. Since the signal processing inputs to this machine learning algorithm are sensor agnostic, the presented method can accompany any medical instrument that provides a calibrated or uncalibrated carotid pressure waveform. Our results show that, for an unseen hold back test set population in the age range of 20 to 69, our model can estimate PWV with a Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of 1.12 m/sec compared to the reference method. The results convey the fact that this model is a reliable surrogate of PWV. Our study also showed that estimated PWV was significantly associated with an increased risk of CVDs.

  10. The influence of tested body size upon longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    Low ultrasonic frequencies are used in nondestructive testing of heterogeneous materials,such as concrete,rocks and timber.When frequencies are low enough,size and shape of tested bodies may influence measured longitudinal pulse velocities(geometric dispersion).A simplified mathematical model is developed from known experimental and theoretical results obtained for elastic wave propagation in rods of uniform circular cross section.Wave propagation is described by a spatial averaged dilatational field in an approach which is named quasi fluid.A formula is obtained which relates group velocity with an effective lateral size of the body,with transducers a frequency,with a non-dimensional parameter and with asymptotic P-wave velocity.In principle it can be applied to bars of any uniform cross section.The limitations of this formula are discussed in relation to path length,threshold of detection,patterns of radiation and reception and other variables.A more general formula is proposed.Practical application of this formula is briefly exemplified using some experimental data obtained by the author.The problem of longitudinal pulse propagation in reinforcing steel bars embedded in concrete is briefly considered

  11. Arterial pulse wave velocity, inflammatory markers, pathological GH and IGF states, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: Blood pressure (BP measurements provide information regarding risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but only in a specific artery. Arterial stiffness (AS can be determined by measurement of arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV. Separate from any role as a surrogate marker, AS is an important determinant of pulse pressure, left ventricular function and coronary artery perfusion pressure. Proximal elastic arteries and peripheral muscular arteries respond differently to aging and to medication. Endogenous human growth hormone (hGH, secreted by the anterior pituitary, peaks during early adulthood, declining at 14% per decade. Levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I are at their peak during late adolescence and decline throughout adulthood, mirror imaging GH. Arterial endothelial dysfunction, an accepted cause of increased APWV in GH deficiency (GHD is reversed by recombinant human (rh GH therapy, favorably influencing the risk for atherogenesis. APWV is a noninvasive method for measuring atherosclerotic and hypertensive vascular changes increases with age and atherosclerosis leading to increased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Aerobic exercise training increases arterial compliance and reduces systolic blood pressure. Whole body arterial compliance is lowered in strength-trained individuals. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein are two infl ammatory markers directly linked with arterial endothelial dysfunction. Reviews of GH in the somatopause have not been favorable and side effects of treatment have marred its use except in classical GHD. Is it possible that we should be assessing the combined effects of therapy with rhGH and rh

  12. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Haberberger, D.; Bromage, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. We present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionization wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.

  13. Characteristics of light reflected from a dense ionization wave with a tunable velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidkov, A.; Esirkepov, T.; Fujii, T.; Nemoto, K.; Koga, J.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    An optically-dense ionization wave (IW) produced by two femtosecond laser pulses focused cylindrically and crossing each other is shown to be an efficient coherent x-ray converter. The resulting velocity of a quasi-plane IW in the vicinity of pulse intersection increases with the angle between the pulses from the group velocity of ionizing pulses to infinity allowing an easy tuning the wavelength of x-rays. The x-ray spectra of a converted, lower frequency coherent light change from the monoc...

  14. Association of pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure with decline in kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2014-05-01

    The association between arterial stiffness and decline in kidney function in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established. This study investigated whether pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure (PP) are independently associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and rapid decline in kidney function in early CKD. Carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), and PP were measured in a cohort of 913 patients (mean age, 63±10 years; baseline estimated GFR, 84±18 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Estimated GFR was measured at baseline and at follow-up. The renal outcome examined was rapid decline in kidney function (estimated GFR loss, >3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year). The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years. Multivariable adjusted linear regression model indicated that arterial PWV (both cfPWV and baPWV) and PP increased as estimated GFR declined, but neither was associated with kidney function after adjustment for various covariates. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that cfPWV and baPWV were not associated with rapid decline in kidney function (odds ratio [OR], 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-4.65; OR, 2.51, 95% CI, 0.66-9.46, respectively), but PP was (OR, 1.22, 95% CI, 1.01-1.48; P=.045). Arterial stiffness assessed using cfPWV and baPWV was not correlated with lower estimated GFR and rapid decline in kidney function after adjustment for various confounders. Thus, PP is an independent risk factor for rapid decline in kidney function in populations with relatively preserved kidney function (estimated GFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Long-term Saxagliptin Treatment Improves Endothelial Function but not Pulse Wave Velocity and Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Maloberti, Alessandro; Nicoli, Francesco; Villa, Paolo; Gamba, Pierluigi; Bombelli, Michele; Mancia, Giuseppe; Grassi, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 may represent a promising therapeutic approach for glucose control and vascular protection. No information is available on the effects of saxagliptin (S) on aortic pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilation (FMD, brachial artery) in diabetes. We investigated the long-term effects of S, as add-on therapy to metformin, on the above mentioned variables. In 16 patients with decompensated diabetes aortic pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and FMD, office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, anthropometric, biochemical and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. A group of 16 compensated diabetics served as controls. The two groups showed superimposable values of the different parameters, with the exception of glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose significantly (P function, related at least in part to the concomitant improvement in glucose metabolism. This may represent a first step in the chain of events leading to a reduction in the progression of the vascular atherogenic process.

  16. Wave fronts, pulses and wave trains in photoexcited superlattices behaving as excitable or oscillatory media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J I; Bonilla, L L; Grahn, H T

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and strongly photoexcited semiconductor superlattices with field-dependent recombination behave as excitable or oscillatory media with spatially discrete nonlinear convection and diffusion. Infinitely long, dc-current-biased superlattices behaving as excitable media exhibit wave fronts with increasing or decreasing profiles, whose velocities can be calculated by means of asymptotic methods. These superlattices can also support pulses of the electric field. Pulses moving downstream with the flux of electrons can be constructed from their component wave fronts, whereas pulses advancing upstream do so slowly and experience saltatory motion: they change slowly in long intervals of time separated by fast transitions during which the pulses jump to the previous superlattice period. Photoexcited superlattices can also behave as oscillatory media and exhibit wave trains. (paper)

  17. The association between pulse wave velocity and cognitive function: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Joel; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; O'Rourke, Michael F; Baune, Bernhard T; Brodaty, Henry; Samaras, Katherine; Kochan, Nicole A; Campbell, Lesley; Sachdev, Perminder S; Smith, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness and its increase with ageing has been associated with damage to cerebral microvessels and cognitive impairment. This study examined the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and specific domains of cognitive function in a non-demented elderly sample. Data were drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, a cohort study of non-demented community-dwelling individuals aged 70-90 years, assessed in successive waves two years apart. In Wave 2, PWV and cognitive function were measured in 319 participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the cross-sectional relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the whole sample, and separately for men and women. Analysis of covariance was used to assess potential differences in cognition between subjects with PWV measurements in the top and bottom tertiles of the cohort. Covariates were age, education, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, alcohol, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, use of anti-hypertensive medications, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes, and also sex for the whole sample analyses. There was no association between PWV and cognition after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. When examining this association for males and females separately, an association was found in males, with higher PWV being associated with lower global cognition and memory, however, a significant difference between PWV and cognition between males and females was not found. A higher level of PWV was not associated with lower cognitive function in the whole sample.

  18. Effects of bee venom acupuncture on heart rate variability, pulse wave, and cerebral blood flow for types of Sasang Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-min

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objectives: To evaluate effects of bee venom acupuncture on cardiovascular system and differences according to each constitution. 2. Methods: Heart rate variability, pulse wave and the velocity of cerebral blood flow were measured before bee venom acupuncture(BVA, right after and after 30 minuets, had been applied to 20 subjects. 3. Results: 1. BVA did not have effects on measurement variables of heart rate variability. 2. BVA had effects on pulse wave, showing total time, radial augmentation index up and height of percussion wave, time to percussion wave, sum of pulse pressure down. 3. BVA did not have effects on the cerebral blood flow velocity when considering not Sasang Constitution 4. Considering Sasang Constitution, BVA demonstrates different responses in time to preincisura wave, mean blood flow velocity, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity. 4.Conclusion: From those results, the following conclusions are obtained. Cause BVA alters pulse wave and makes differences in the cerebral blood flow velocity according to Sasang Constitution. Various methods of BVA treatment are needed considering Sasang Constitution.

  19. Characteristics of light reflected from a dense ionization wave with a tunable velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, A; Esirkepov, T; Fujii, T; Nemoto, K; Koga, J; Bulanov, S V

    2009-11-20

    An optically dense ionization wave (IW) produced by two femtosecond (approximately 10/30 fs) laser pulses focused cylindrically and crossing each other may become an efficient coherent x-ray converter in accordance with the Semenova-Lampe theory. The resulting velocity of a quasiplane IW in the vicinity of pulse intersection changes with the angle between the pulses from the group velocity of ionizing pulses to infinity allowing a tuning of the wavelength of x rays and their bunching. The x-ray spectra after scattering of a lower frequency and long coherent light pulse change from the monochromatic to high order harmoniclike with the duration of the ionizing pulses.

  20. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  1. Normal values of aortic dimensions, distensibility, and pulse wave velocity in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voges Inga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic enlargement and impaired bioelasticity are of interest in several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases as they can lead to cardiovascular complications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is increasingly accepted as a noninvasive tool in cardiovascular evaluation. Assessment of aortic anatomy and bioelasticity, namely aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV, by CMR is accurate and reproducible and could help to identify anatomical and bioelastic abnormalities of the aorta. However, normal CMR values for healthy children and young adults are lacking. Methods Seventy-one heart-healthy subjects (age 16.4 ± 7.6 years, range 2.3 - 28.3 years were examined using a 3.0 Tesla CMR scanner. Aortic cross-sectional areas and aortic distensibility were measured at four positions of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. PWV was assessed from aortic blood flow velocity measurements in a aortic segment between the ascending aorta and the proximal descending aorta. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method was used to obtain percentile curves for aortic cross-sectional areas, aortic distensibility and PWV according to age. Results Aortic areas, PWV and aortic distensibility (aortic cross-sectional areas: r = 0.8 to 0.9, p  Conclusions This study provides percentile curves for cross-sectional areas, distensibility and pulse wave velocity of the thoracic aorta in children and young adolescents between their 3rd and 29th year of life. These data may serve as a reference for the detection of pathological changes of the aorta in cardiovascular disease.

  2. Pilot Study: Estimation of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output from Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    Full Text Available Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is increasingly replacing thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters to assess hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity. However, one of the drawbacks of TEE compared to pulmonary artery catheters is the inability to measure real time stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO continuously. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to validate a novel method of SV estimation, based on pulse wave velocity (PWV in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.This is a retrospective observational study. We measured pulse transit time by superimposing the radial arterial waveform onto the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the left ventricular outflow tract, and calculated SV (SVPWV using the transformed Bramwell-Hill equation. The SV measured by TEE (SVTEE was used as a reference.A total of 190 paired SV were measured from 28 patients. A strong correlation was observed between SVPWV and SVTEE with the coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.71. A mean difference between the two (bias was 3.70 ml with the limits of agreement ranging from -20.33 to 27.73 ml and a percentage error of 27.4% based on a Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance rate of two methods was 85.0% based on a four-quadrant plot. The angular concordance rate was 85.9% with radial limits of agreement (the radial sector that contained 95% of the data points of ± 41.5 degrees based on a polar plot.PWV based SV estimation yields reasonable agreement with SV measured by TEE. Further studies are required to assess its utility in different clinical situations.

  3. The association between pulse wave velocity and cognitive function: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Singer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and its increase with ageing has been associated with damage to cerebral microvessels and cognitive impairment. This study examined the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and specific domains of cognitive function in a non-demented elderly sample. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, a cohort study of non-demented community-dwelling individuals aged 70-90 years, assessed in successive waves two years apart. In Wave 2, PWV and cognitive function were measured in 319 participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the cross-sectional relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the whole sample, and separately for men and women. Analysis of covariance was used to assess potential differences in cognition between subjects with PWV measurements in the top and bottom tertiles of the cohort. Covariates were age, education, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, alcohol, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, use of anti-hypertensive medications, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes, and also sex for the whole sample analyses. RESULTS: There was no association between PWV and cognition after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. When examining this association for males and females separately, an association was found in males, with higher PWV being associated with lower global cognition and memory, however, a significant difference between PWV and cognition between males and females was not found. CONCLUSION: A higher level of PWV was not associated with lower cognitive function in the whole sample.

  4. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  5. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddinika, M K; Ito, D; Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  6. PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND CENTRAL AORTIC PRESSURE IN OBESE CHILDREN ACCORDING TO THE NON-INVASIVE ARTERIOGRAPHY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kozhevnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information value of non-invasive arteriography, which reveals early signs of cardiovascular pathology formation in children, using a large number of trials in children. The authors examined predictors of cardiovascular catastrophes’ development, confirmed in adults: aortic wall’s stiffness, central aortic pressure and pulse pressure – that have not been sufficiently studied in children yet. The article shows that the high-technology method of non-invasive arteriography allows revealing changes of these parameters in children on the preclinical stage. It also shows their correlation with body mass index, fatty hepatosis, direct correlation of weight gain with connection of pulse wave velocity and central blood pressure and importance of follow-up evaluation of these parameters. Heterogeneity of the group of obese children in terms of these parameters is a premise for development of individual approach to control and prevention of cardiovascular complications’ development risk in childhood.

  7. Direct measurement technique for shock wave velocity with irradiation drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiaoshi; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Ding Yongkun

    2011-01-01

    According to the ionization mechanism of transparent material under super high pressure, the direct diagnosis method of shock wave has been analyzed. With the Drude free electron model, the reflectivity difference of shock wave front under different pressures was analyzed. The blank effect in the detector was studied, which is caused by the X-ray ionization of transparent material, after analyzing the reflectivity data in space-time scale. The experiment shows that the beginning point and duration of blank effect are consistent with the start point and duration of laser pulse, respectively. And the reflectivity of shock wave front is about 35% when the shock velocity is 32 km/s. The reason and solution for blank effect was presented. The formula to calculate the shock wave velocity in transparent material was also deduced and verified. (authors)

  8. Improved Pulse Wave Velocity and Renal Function in Individualized Calcineurin Inhibitor Treatment by Immunomonitoring: The Randomized Controlled Calcineurin Inhibitor-Sparing Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerer, Claudia; Brocke, Janina; Bruckner, Thomas; Schaier, Matthias; Morath, Christian; Meuer, Stefan; Zeier, Martin; Giese, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    A new immune monitoring tool which assesses the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-regulated genes measures the functional effects of cyclosporine A. This is the first prospective randomized controlled study to compare standard pharmacokinetic monitoring by cyclosporine trough levels to NFAT-regulated gene expression (NFAT-RE). Expression of the NFAT-regulated genes was determined by qRT-PCR at cyclosporine trough and peak level. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by change of pulse wave velocity from baseline to month 6. Clinical follow-up was 12 months. In total, 55 stable kidney allograft recipients were enrolled. Mean baseline residual NFAT-RE was 13.1 ± 9.1%. Patients in the NFAT-RE group showed a significant decline in pulse wave velocity from baseline to month 6 versus the standard group (-1.7 ± 2.0 m/s vs 0.4 ± 1.4 m/s, P function was significantly better with NFAT-RE versus standard monitoring (Nankivell glomerular filtration rate: 68.5 ± 17.4 mL/min vs 57.2 ± 19.0 mL/min; P = 0.009). NFAT-RE as translational immune monitoring tool proved efficacious and safe in individualizing cyclosporine therapy, with the opportunity to reduce the cardiovascular risk and improve long-term renal allograft function.

  9. Waves in microstructured solids and negative group velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, T.; Kartofelev, D.; Tamm, K.; Engelbrecht, J.

    2013-07-01

    Waves with negative group velocity (NGV) were discovered in optics by Sommerfeld and Brillouin, and experimentally verified in many cases, for example in left-handed media. For waves in solids, such an effect is described mostly in layered media. In this paper, it is demonstrated that in microstructured solids, waves with NGV may also exist leading to backwards pulse propagation. Two physical cases are analysed: a Mindlin-type hierarchical (a scale within a scale) material and a felt-type (made of fibres) material. For both cases, the dispersion analysis of one-dimensional waves shows that there exists certain ranges of physical parameters which lead to NGV. The results can be used in dispersion engineering for designing materials with certain properties.

  10. Pulse Pressure, Instead of Brachium-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity, is Associated with Reduced Kidney Function in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linpei; Zhang, Weiguang; Ma, Jie; Chen, Xizhao; Chen, Lei; Li, Zuoxiang; Cai, Guangyan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Jinping; Bai, Xiaojuan; Feng, Zhe; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aim to investigate the association between renal function and arterial stiffness in a Chinese Han population, and further to discuss the effects of smoking on renal function. We collected the data of the brachium-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, blood chemistry and smoking status. Then, the multiple linear regression was done to explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and baPWV. Further, the parameters were compared among the four groups divided according to the quartiles of baPWV. Finally, the baPWV, eGFR and albuminuria values were compared between smokers and non-smokers. baPWV is associated with eGFR in the correlation analysis and univariate linear regression model. After adjustment, the pulse pressure (PP) instead of baPWV showed a significant association with eGFR. Nevertheless, the eGFR values differed among the four baPWV groups; the baPWV values were significantly higher in the subjects at the CKD (eGFRfunction. Smokers have worse arterial stiffness and worse renal function. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Association between Pulse Wave Velocity and Coronary Artery Calcification in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Sayuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Saito, Yoshino; Miyagawa, Naoko; Zaid, Maryam; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Abbott, Robert D; Horie, Minoru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple and valid clinical method for assessing arterial stiffness. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an intermediate stage in the process leading to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an established determinant of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the association between PWV and CAC in a population-based sample of Japanese men. This is a cross-sectional study of 986 randomly selected men aged 40-79 years from Shiga, Japan. CVD-free participants were examined from 2006 to 2008. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. CAC was assessed using computed tomography. Agatston scores ≥ 10 were defined as the presence of CAC. Prevalence of CAC progressively increased with rising levels of baPWV: 20.6%, 41.7%, 56.3%, and 66.7% across baPWV quartiles < 1378, 1378-1563, 1564-1849, and > 1849 cm/s (P < 0.001 for trend). Associations remained significant after adjusting for age and other factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, drinking, smoking and exercise status, and the use of medication to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (P=0.042 for trend). The optimal cutoff level of baPWV to detect CAC was 1612 cm/s using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Arterial stiffness as defined by an elevated baPWV is associated with an increased prevalence of CAC in a general population-based setting among Japanese men.

  12. Estimating the Wet-Rock P-Wave Velocity from the Dry-Rock P-Wave Velocity for Pyroclastic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sair; Fener, Mustafa; Kilic, Cumhur Ozcan

    2017-07-01

    Seismic methods are widely used for the geotechnical investigations in volcanic areas or for the determination of the engineering properties of pyroclastic rocks in laboratory. Therefore, developing a relation between the wet- and dry-rock P-wave velocities will be helpful for engineers when evaluating the formation characteristics of pyroclastic rocks. To investigate the predictability of the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity for pyroclastic rocks P-wave velocity measurements were conducted on 27 different pyroclastic rocks. In addition, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theories and it was seen that estimates for saturated P-wave velocity from the theories fit well measured data. For samples having values of less and greater than 20%, practical equations were derived for reliably estimating wet-rock P-wave velocity as function of dry-rock P-wave velocity.

  13. Influence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia on flow velocities in the portal vein and caudal vena cava measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Policelli; Koenigshof, Amy M; Smith, Daniel J; Strom, Phillip R; Nelson, Nathan C

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups. RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.

  14. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  15. Proteome Analysis of Human Arterial Tissue Discloses Associations Between the Vascular Content of Small Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteoglycans and Pulse Wave Velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck Hansen, Maria; Beck, Hans Christian; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that arterial stiffness is associated with changes in the arterial protein profile, particularly of extracellular matrix components. We aimed at determining differentially expressed proteins by quantitative proteome analysis in arterial tissue from patients with differ......OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that arterial stiffness is associated with changes in the arterial protein profile, particularly of extracellular matrix components. We aimed at determining differentially expressed proteins by quantitative proteome analysis in arterial tissue from patients...... with different degrees of arterial stiffness. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Arterial stiffness, assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), central blood pressure and augmentation index by pulse wave analysis were measured the day before surgery in a group of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass...... grafting. Protein extracts of well-defined, homogenous, nonatherosclerotic individual samples of the left mammary artery from 10 of these patients with high PWV and 9 with low PWV were compared by quantitative proteome analysis, using tandem mass tag labeling and nano-liquid chromatography mass...

  16. Impact of ADMA, endothelial progenitor cells and traditional cardiovascular risk factors on pulse wave velocity among prediabetic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protopsaltis Ioannis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central arterial stiffness represents a well-established predictor of cardiovascular disease. Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, increased asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA levels, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance have all been associated with increased arterial stiffness. The correlations of novel and traditional cardiovascular risk factors with central arterial stiffness in prediabetic individuals were investigated in the present study. Methods The study population consisted of 53 prediabetic individuals. Individuals were divided into groups of isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and combined IGT-IFG. Age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking history, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, lipid profile, levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and history of antihypertensive or statin therapy were obtained from all participants. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR. Carotid -femoral pulse wave velocity was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Circulating EPC count and ADMA serum levels were also determined. Results Among studied individuals 30 (56.6% subjects were diagnosed with isolated IFG, 9 (17% with isolated IGT (17% and 14 with combined IFG-IGT (26.4%. In univariate analysis age, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and ADMA levels positively correlated with pulse-wave velocity while exercise and GFR correlated negatively. EPC count did not correlate with PWV. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis PWV correlated independently and positively with LDL-Cholesterol (low density lipoprotein and ADMA levels and negatively with exercise. Conclusions Elevated ADMA and LDL-C levels are strongly associated with increased arterial stiffness among

  17. Validity of the Water Hammer Formula for Determining Regional Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity: Comparison of One-Point and Two-Point (Foot-to-Foot) Measurements Using a Multisensor Catheter in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanya, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity in the aorta has impeded the direct validation of the water-hammer formula for estimating regional aortic pulse wave velocity (AO-PWV1) and has restricted the study of the change of beat-to-beat AO-PWV1 under varying physiological conditions in man. Aortic pulse wave velocity was derived using two methods in 15 normotensive subjects: 1) the conventional two-point (foot-to-foot) method (AO-PWV2) and 2) a one-point method (AO-PWV1) in which the pressure velocity-loop (PV-loop) was analyzed based on the water hammer formula using simultaneous measurements of flow velocity (Vm) and pressure (Pm) at the same site in the proximal aorta using a multisensor catheter. AO-PWV1 was calculated from the slope of the linear regression line between Pm and Vm where wave reflection (Pb) was at a minimum in early systole in the PV-loop using the water hammer formula, PWV1 = (Pm/Vm)/ρ, where ρ is the blood density. AO-PWV2 was calculated using the conventional two-point measurement method as the distance/traveling time of the wave between 2 sites for measuring P in the proximal aorta. Beat-to-beat alterations of AO-PWV1 in relationship to aortic pressure and linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop during a Valsalva maneuver were also assessed in one subject. The initial part of the loop became steeper in association with the beat-to-beat increase in diastolic pressure in phase 4 during the Valsalva maneuver. The linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop was maintained consistently during the maneuver. Flow velocity vs. pressure in the proximal aorta was highly linear during early systole, with Pearson's coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The average values of AO-PWV1 and AO-PWV2 were 6.3 ± 1.2 and 6.7 ± 1.3 m/s, respectively. The regression line of AO-PWV1 on AO-PWV2 was y = 0.95x + 0.68 (r = 0.93, p <0.001). This study concluded that the water-hammer formula (one-point method) provides

  18. Ageing and Pulse Wave Velocity in Relation to Serum Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P. Khodnapur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV is an important marker of arterial stiffness. Age related changes of arterial stiffness in relation to PWV and endothelial derived Nitric Oxide (NOx are least explored. Aim and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess a relationship between age associated vascular stiffness and endothelial derived nitric oxide in both males and females. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty healthy subjects male (n= 60 and female (n=60 subjects (20 to 95 years were randomly selected among general population of Vijayapur city, Karnataka. Subjects were divided into group I (20-29 years, II (30-39 years, III (40-49 years, IV (50-59 years, V (60-69 years and VI (>70 years. Physiological parameters like blood pressure and endothelial derived NOx were assessed. Vascular stiffness parameter like brachial-ankle PWV(b-aPWV and carotid femoral PWV (c-fPWV were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by using one way ANOVA and post hoc t test by using SPSS software. Results: Group I to group VI showed significant steady increase of b-a PWV and c-f PWV with concomitant significant decrease of serum NOx in both male and female subjects. Further a significant negative correlation between b-aPWV and c-f PWV with NOx in both male and female subjects were also observed. Conclusion: Results suggested possible influences of ageing on vascular stiffness which may be due to alteration of endothelial derived NOx.

  19. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity; Compliance der morphologisch unauffaelligen Aorta bei Jugendlichen mit Marfan Syndrom: Vergleich von MR-Messungen der aortalen Dehnbarkeit und der Pulswellengeschwindigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Arnold, R. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Boese, J. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany). Angiography, Fluoroscopic and Radiographic Systems; Krug, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Fink, C. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods ({<=} 2 %). (orig.)

  20. Supersonic Ionization Wave Driven by Radiation Transport in a Short-Pulse Laser-Produced Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmire, T.; Gumbrell, E.T.; Smith, R.A.; Mountford, L.; Hutchinson, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of an ultrashort (2ps) optical probe, we have time resolved the propagation of an ionization wave into solid fused silica. This ionization wave results when a plasma is created by the intense irradiation of a solid target with a 2ps laser pulse. We find that the velocity of the ionization wave is consistent with radiation driven thermal transport, exceeding the velocity expected from simple electron thermal conduction by nearly an order of magnitude. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Effect of group velocity mismatch on acousto-optic interaction of ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, K B; Molchanov, V Ya

    2011-01-01

    Equations describing acousto-optic diffraction of ultrashort laser pulses in an anisotropic medium are derived, taking into account the group velocity mismatch of optical eigenmodes. It is shown that the solution of the modified coupled-mode equations taking into account the group delay is characterised by an increase in the pulse duration, a decrease in diffraction efficiency, a change in the shape of the wave packet envelope, as well as by an increase in the width of the transmission function.

  2. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation

  3. Aortic pulse wave velocity measurement in systemic sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sebastiani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and widespread microangiopathy. However, a macrovascular damage could be also associated. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV is known to be a reliable indicator of arterial stiffness and a useful prognostic predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, aPWV may be easily measured by non-invasive, user-friendly tool. Aim of our study was to evaluate aPWV alterations in a series of SSc patients. Methods. The aPWV was evaluated in 35 consecutive female SSc patients and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. aPWV alterations were correlated with cardiopulmonary involvement. Results. A significant increase of aPWV was observed in SSc patients compared to controls (9.4±3.2 m/s vs 7.3±1 m/s; P=0.002. In particular, 14/35 (40% SSc patients and only 1/26 (4% controls (P=0.0009 showed increased aPWV (>9 m/s cut-off value. Moreover, echocardiography evaluation showed an increased prevalence of right atrial and ventricular dilatation (atrial volume: 23.6±6.2 mL vs 20.3±4.3 mL, P=0.026; ventricular diameter 19.5±4.9 mm vs 15.9±1.6 mm; P=0.001 associated to higher values of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAPs in SSc patients (31.5±10.4 mmHg vs 21.6±2.9 mmHg; P50 years old. Furthermore, altered aPWV was more frequently associated with limited cutaneous pattern, longer disease duration (≥5 years, and/or presence of anticentromere antibody (ACA. Conclusions. A significantly higher prevalence of abnormally increased aPWV was evidenced in SSc patients compared to healthy controls. The possibility of more pronounced and diffuse vascular damage in a particular SSc subset (ACA-positive subjects with limited cutaneous scleroderma and longer disease duration might be raised.

  4. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Castaño-Sánchez, Yolanda; de Cabo-Laso, Angela; Sánchez-Salgado, Benigna; Rodríguez-Martín, Carmela; Castaño-Sánchez, Carmen; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2010-03-18

    Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home) blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The medication used for diabetes, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia will be registered, together

  5. Daily dialysis reduces pulse wave velocity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Micco, Lucia; Torraca, Serena; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Tartaglia, Domenico; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2012-05-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Dialysis patients show cyclic changes in PWV related to their hydration status and blood pressure. Our aim is to assess the impact of daily dialysis on PWV. We performed a randomized crossover study of 60 patients who underwent standard hemodialysis (HD) three times per week for at least 6 months. Patients were classified into three groups according to their PWV values before (pre-) and after (post-) HD, with a cutoff value of 12 m s(-1), as follows: the low-low (LL) group had normal pre-HD and post-HD PWV; the high-low (HL) group had high pre-HD PWV and normal post-HD PWV; and the high-high (HH) group had high pre- and post-HD PWV. All patients continued standard HD for 2 weeks. A total of 10 patients from each group were randomly assigned to continue standard HD for 1 week and then underwent daily dialysis for 1 week. The remaining 10 patients underwent daily dialysis for 1 week and then underwent standard HD for 1 week. PWV values were measured before and 1 h after each dialysis session. With daily dialysis treatment, 2 of 20 patients (10%) moved from the PWV-HH group to the PWV-HL group, whereas 18 of 20 patients (90%) moved from the PWV-HL group to the PWV-LL group (P = 0.030). Daily dialysis reduces PWV in the ESRD patients. As PWV is a strong predictor of mortality in ESRD and has cyclic variations in patients who are on standard HD, we believe that daily dialysis may be used in patients with high PWV levels to reduce their mortality risk.

  6. Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.

  7. Impaired left ventricular systolic function and increased brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity are independently associated with rapid renal function progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2011-09-01

    Heart failure and increased arterial stiffness are associated with declining renal function. Few studies have evaluated the association between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) and renal function progression. The aim of this study was to assess whether LVEFfunction was estimated by eGFR slope. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. After a multivariate analysis, serum hematocrit was positively associated with eGFR slope, and diabetes mellitus, baPWV (P=0.031) and LVEFfunction decline and progression to the renal end point.

  8. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  9. Pulse Pressure, Instead of Brachium-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity, is Associated with Reduced Kidney Function in a Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linpei Jia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study, we aim to investigate the association between renal function and arterial stiffness in a Chinese Han population, and further to discuss the effects of smoking on renal function. Methods: We collected the data of the brachium-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, blood pressure, blood chemistry and smoking status. Then, the multiple linear regression was done to explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR and baPWV. Further, the parameters were compared among the four groups divided according to the quartiles of baPWV. Finally, the baPWV, eGFR and albuminuria values were compared between smokers and non-smokers. Results: baPWV is associated with eGFR in the correlation analysis and univariate linear regression model. After adjustment, the pulse pressure (PP instead of baPWV showed a significant association with eGFR. Nevertheless, the eGFR values differed among the four baPWV groups; the baPWV values were significantly higher in the subjects at the CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the early CKD stage (eGFR60–80 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baPWV values and the ratio of proteinuria were significantly increased in smokers. Conclusion: PP but not baPWV is a predictor of declined renal function. Smokers have worse arterial stiffness and worse renal function.

  10. Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sanny

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.

  11. Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Hasan; Khettab, Hakim; Marais, Louise; Hallab, Magid; Laurent, Stéphane; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (cf-PWV) is the gold standard for measuring aortic stiffness. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) is a simpler noninvasive method for measuring arterial stiffness. Although the validity of the method has been previously assessed, its accuracy can be improved. ft-PWV is determined on the basis of a patented height chart for the distance and the pulse transit time (PTT) between the finger and the toe pulpar arteries signals (ft-PTT). The objective of the first study, performed in 66 patients, was to compare different algorithms (intersecting tangents, maximum of the second derivative, 10% threshold and cross-correlation) for determining the foot of the arterial pulse wave, thus the ft-PTT. The objective of the second study, performed in 101 patients, was to investigate different signal processing chains to improve the concordance of ft-PWV with the gold-standard cf-PWV. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) was calculated using the four algorithms. The best correlations relating ft-PWV and cf-PWV, and relating ft-PTT and carotid-femoral PTT were obtained with the maximum of the second derivative algorithm [PWV: r = 0.56, P < 0.0001, root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.9 m/s; PTT: r = 0.61, P < 0.001, RMSE = 12 ms]. The three other algorithms showed lower correlations. The correlation between ft-PTT and carotid-femoral PTT further improved (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001, RMSE = 5.4 ms) when the maximum of the second derivative algorithm was combined with an optimized signal processing chain. Selecting the maximum of the second derivative algorithm for detecting the foot of the pressure waveform, and combining it with an optimized signal processing chain, improved the accuracy of ft-PWV measurement in the current population sample. Thus, it makes ft-PWV very promising for the simple noninvasive determination of aortic stiffness in clinical practice.

  12. Development of Coronary Pulse Wave Velocity: New Pathophysiological Insight Into Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaoui, Brahim; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Cividjian, Andrei; Lantelme, Pierre

    2017-02-02

    Although aortic stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease, the significance of local coronary stiffness has never been tackled. The first objective of this study was to describe a method of measuring coronary PWV (CoPWV) invasively and to describe its determinants. The second objective was to assess both CoPWV and aortic PWV in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes or stable coronary artery disease. In 53 patients, CoPWV was measured from the delay in pressure wave and distance traveled as a pressure wire was withdrawn from the distal to the proximal coronary segment. Similarly, aortic PWV was measured invasively when the wire was pulled across the ascending aorta; carotid-femoral PWV was also measured noninvasively using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical). Mean CoPWV was 10.3±6.1 m/s. Determinants of increased CoPWV were fractional flow reserve, diastolic blood pressure, and previous stent implantation in the recorded artery. CoPWV was lower in patients with acute coronary syndromes versus stable coronary artery disease (7.6±3 versus 11.5±6.4 m/s; P=0.02), and this persisted after adjustment for confounders. In contrast, aortic stiffness, assessed by aortic and carotid-femoral PWV, did not differ significantly. CoPWV seems associated with acute coronary events more closely than aortic PWV. High coronary compliance, whether per se or because it leads to a distal shift in compliance mismatch, may expose vulnerable plaques to high cyclic stretch. CoPWV is a new tool to assess local compliance at the coronary level; it paves the way for a new field of research. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Rayleigh wave group velocity and shear wave velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay region from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Thurber, Clifford

    2018-06-01

    We derive new Rayleigh wave group velocity models and a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust in the San Francisco Bay region using an adaptive grid ambient noise tomography algorithm and 6 months of continuous seismic data from 174 seismic stations from multiple networks. The resolution of the group velocity models is 0.1°-0.2° for short periods (˜3 s) and 0.3°-0.4° for long periods (˜10 s). The new shear wave velocity model of the upper crust reveals a number of important structures. We find distinct velocity contrasts at the Golden Gate segment of the San Andreas Fault, the West Napa Fault, central part of the Hayward Fault and southern part of the Calaveras Fault. Low shear wave velocities are mainly located in Tertiary and Quaternary basins, for instance, La Honda Basin, Livermore Valley and the western and eastern edges of Santa Clara Valley. Low shear wave velocities are also observed at the Sonoma volcanic field. Areas of high shear wave velocity include the Santa Lucia Range, the Gabilan Range and Ben Lomond Plutons, and the Diablo Range, where Franciscan Complex or Silinian rocks are exposed.

  14. On the Hartman paradox, electromagnetic wave tunneling and supraluminal velocities (comment on the paper 'Tunneling of electromagnetic waves: paradoxes and prospects' by A B Shvartsburg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    Some paradoxes are discussed concerning the interpretation of the passage of particles and electromagnetic waves (pulses) across potential barriers and through nonuniform media, in particular, those with frequency dispersion and therefore dissipation. It is emphasized that a rigorous nonstationary approach does not entail any supraluminal velocities for the transfer of physical substances, although supraluminal velocities are indeed possible for several kinematically defined velocities, e.g., for the group velocity. (letters to the editors)

  15. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-14

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations' vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  16. Numerical Investigation of Pulse Wave Propagation in Arteries Using Fluid Structure Interaction Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Elkenani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a reliable computational scheme to serve in pulse wave velocity (PWV assessment in large arteries. Clinicians considered it as an indication of human blood vessels’ stiffness. The simulation of PWV was conducted using a 3D elastic tube representing an artery. The constitutive material model specific for vascular applications was applied to the tube material. The fluid was defined with an equation of state representing the blood material. The onset of a velocity pulse was applied at the tube inlet to produce wave propagation. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL modeling technique with fluid structure interaction (FSI was implemented. The scaling of sound speed and its effect on results and computing time is discussed and concluded that a value of 60 m/s was suitable for simulating vascular biomechanical problems. Two methods were used: foot-to-foot measurement of velocity waveforms and slope of the regression line of the wall radial deflection wave peaks throughout a contour plot. Both methods showed coincident results. Results were approximately 6% less than those calculated from the Moens-Korteweg equation. The proposed method was able to describe the increase in the stiffness of the walls of large human arteries via the PWV estimates.

  17. Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.

  18. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño-Sánchez Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. Methods/Design Design: This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. Setting: The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Study population: Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Measurements: Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The

  19. Regression analysis and transfer function in estimating the parameters of central pulse waves from brachial pulse wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai Rui; Li Si-Man; Xu Li-Sheng; Yao Yang; Hao Li-Ling

    2017-07-01

    This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model. The accuracy of the parameters which were estimated by the regression model and the transfer function model was compared too. Our findings showed that in addition to the k value, the above parameters of the central pulse wave and the brachial pulse wave invasively measured had positive correlation. Both the regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR and the transfer function model parameters had good consistency with the parameters invasively measured, and they had the same effect of consistency. The regression equations of the three parameters were expressed by Y'=a+bx. The SBP, PP, SV, CO of central pulse wave could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  20. [Relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jian-hua; Yang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yi-yan; Li, Xiao-ying

    2014-06-18

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among the Chinese elderly and the gender difference. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in a representative urban area of Beijing, China. A sample of 2 102 community elderly (848 males, and 1 254 females) aged 60 to 95 years were included in the study. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. The prevalence of MetS was 59.1% (50.1% in males and 65.2% in females, P<0.001). The baPWV value was between 8.2 to 45.6 (20.0 ± 4.4) m/s, and showed an increasing trend with age (P<0.001). The partial correlation showed baPWV was positively associated with BMI (r=0.076, P=0.037), systolic blood pressure (r=0.380, P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.276, P<0.001), triglyceride (r=0.040, P=0.046), fasting blood glucose (r=0.140, P<0.001), 2-hour post-meal blood glucose (r=0.121, P<0.001), and negatively associated with HDL-C (r=-0.128, P=0.048). There was a strong association between baPWV and prevalence of MetS and its component number in females but not in males. Compared with the lowest quartile of baPWV, the adjusted ORs were 1.22 (95%CI 0.83-1.79), 1.32 (95%CI 0.90-1.93), 1.46(95%CI 1.00-2.14) in males and 1.28 (95%CI 0.93-1.77), 1.55 (95%CI 1.12-2.16), 1.86(95%CI 1.32-2.61) in females for the second, third and top quartiles. The prevalence of MetS increases substantially with increasing levels of baPWV among the Chinese elderly, especially in females.

  1. Factors associated with high brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity in non-hypertensive and appropriately treated hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato,1 Toshitami Sawayama2 1Gakujutsu Shien (Academic Support Co., Ltd. Tokyo, 2Sawayama Clinic, Okayama, Japan Abstract: While pulse wave velocity (PWV correlates with blood pressure (BP, its extent differs between patients, and some cases of high PWV in normotensives are present. Moreover, PWV frequently remains high in hypertensive patients despite adequate BP control. The factors associated with such phenomena are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the factors associated with brachial–ankle PWV (baPWV in 107 patients whose systolic BP was under 140 mmHg at their latest baPWV measurement. There were 64 controlled hypertensives and 43 normotensives. Multivariate regression analysis identified age, hypertension, body mass index (BMI, systolic BP, and heart rate (HR as independent factors for baPWV. Next, we divided the subjects into groups according to their age (in 5-year increments and calculated the mean and standard deviation (SD of the baPWV for each group. For each age group, we defined patients with a baPWV above the mean + SD baPWV for the group as the high-baPWV cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that BMI, hypertension, and smoking were independent determinants of a high-baPWV subject. This represents the first study to report the existence of the hypertensive state itself as one of the independent predictors of high baPWV in normotensive and well-treated hypertensive patients. This finding implies that the hypertensive state itself possibly worsens arterial stiffness independently from aging in spite of adequate BP maintenance. To prevent the early progression of arterial stiffness, the application of an appropriate intervention during the early stages of hypertension is important and the continuation of an appropriate BP treatment is suggested. Keywords: arterial stiffness, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity, heart failure, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease

  2. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the kidneys: is shear wave velocity affected by tissue fibrosis or renal blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichiro; Ogata, Ai; Tanaka, Keiko; Ide, Yoko; Sankoda, Akiko; Kawakita, Chieko; Nishikawa, Mana; Ohmori, Kazuyoshi; Kinomura, Masaru; Shimada, Noriaki; Fukushima, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main influencing factor of the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the kidneys measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. The SWV was measured in the kidneys of 14 healthy volunteers and 319 patients with chronic kidney disease. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the serum creatinine concentration and age. As an indicator of arteriosclerosis of large vessels, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured in 183 patients. Compared to the degree of interobserver and intraobserver deviation, a large variance of SWV values was observed in the kidneys of the patients with chronic kidney disease. Shear wave velocity values in the right and left kidneys of each patient correlated well, with high correlation coefficients (r = 0.580-0.732). The SWV decreased concurrently with a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. A low SWV was obtained in patients with a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Despite progression of renal fibrosis in the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, these results were in contrast to findings for chronic liver disease, in which progression of hepatic fibrosis results in an increase in the SWV. Considering that a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity represents the progression of arteriosclerosis in the large vessels, the reduction of elasticity succeeding diminution of blood flow was suspected to be the main influencing factor of the SWV in the kidneys. This study indicates that diminution of blood flow may affect SWV values in the kidneys more than the progression of tissue fibrosis. Future studies for reducing data variance are needed for effective use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  3. Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-01-01

    We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.

  4. A novel device for measuring arterial stiffness using finger-toe pulse wave velocity: Validation study of the pOpmètre®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivon, Maureen; Vo-Duc Phuong, Thao; Vignon, Virginie; Bozec, Erwan; Khettab, Hakim; Hanon, Olivier; Briet, Marie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Hallab, Magid; Plichart, Matthieu; Mohammedi, Kamel; Marre, Michel; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The finger-toe pathway could be a good alternative for assessing arterial stiffness conveniently. To evaluate the accuracy of the pOpmètre®--a new device that measures finger-toe pulse wave velocity (ft-PWV). The pOpmètre has two photodiode sensors, positioned on the finger and the toe. Pulse waves are recorded continuously for 20 seconds, and the difference in pulse wave transit time between toe and finger (ft-TT) is calculated. The travelled distance is estimated using subject height. Study 1 compared ft-PWV with carotid-femoral PWV (cf-PWV) obtained by the reference method (SphygmoCor®) in 86 subjects (mean age 53±20 years), including 69 patients with various pathologies and 17 healthy normotensives. Study 2 compared changes in ft-PWV and cf-PWV during a cold pressor test in 10 healthy subjects. Study 3 assessed repeatability in 45 patients. ft-PWV correlated significantly with cf-PWV (R2=0.43; P<0.0001). A better correlation was found in terms of transit time (R2=0.61; P<0.0001). The discrepancy between transit times was related to age. The cold pressor test induced parallel changes in cf-PWV and ft-PWV, with increased aortic stiffness that was reversible during recovery. Intra-session repeatability was very good, with a coefficient of variation of 4.52%. The pOpmètre® allows measurement of arterial stiffness in routine clinical practice. The greatest advantages of ft-PWV are simplicity, rapidity, feasibility, acceptability by patients and correct agreement with the reference technique. Further studies are needed to adjust for bias and to validate the pOpmètre in larger populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. High frequency measurement of P- and S-wave velocities on crystalline rock massif surface - methodology of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Slavík, Lubomír

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of non-destructive monitoring of rock properties in the underground excavation it is possible to perform repeated high-accuracy P- and S-wave velocity measurements. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained during the preparation of micro-seismic long-term monitoring system. The field velocity measurements were made by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock outcrop (granite) in Bedrichov gallery (northern Bohemia). The gallery at the experimental site was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) and it is used for drinking water supply, which is conveyed in a pipe. The stable measuring system and its automatic operation lead to the use of piezoceramic transducers both as a seismic source and as a receiver. The length of measuring base at gallery wall was from 0.5 to 3 meters. Different transducer coupling possibilities were tested namely with regard of repeatability of velocity determination. The arrangement of measuring system on the surface of the rock massif causes better sensitivity of S-transducers for P-wave measurement compared with the P-transducers. Similarly P-transducers were found more suitable for S-wave velocity determination then P-transducers. The frequency dependent attenuation of fresh rock massif results in limited frequency content of registered seismic signals. It was found that at the distance between the seismic source and receiver from 0.5 m the frequency components above 40 kHz are significantly attenuated. Therefore for the excitation of seismic wave 100 kHz transducers are most suitable. The limited frequency range should be also taken into account for the shape of electric impulse used for exciting of piezoceramic transducer. The spike pulse generates broad-band seismic signal, short in the time domain. However its energy after low-pass filtration in the rock is significantly lower than the energy of seismic signal generated by square wave pulse. Acknowledgments: This work was partially

  6. Pulse-wave propagation in straight-geometry vessels for stiffness estimation: theory, simulations, phantoms and in vitro findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Li, Ronny X; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2012-11-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for noninvasive characterization of arterial stiffness based on pulse wave propagation. Reliable numerical models of pulse wave propagation in normal and pathological aortas could serve as powerful tools for local pulse wave analysis and a guideline for PWI measurements in vivo. The objectives of this paper are to (1) apply a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a straight-geometry aorta to confirm the Moens-Korteweg relationship between the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the wall modulus, and (2) validate the simulation findings against phantom and in vitro results. PWI depicted and tracked the pulse wave propagation along the abdominal wall of canine aorta in vitro in sequential Radio-Frequency (RF) ultrasound frames and estimates the PWV in the imaged wall. The same system was also used to image multiple polyacrylamide phantoms, mimicking the canine measurements as well as modeling softer and stiffer walls. Finally, the model parameters from the canine and phantom studies were used to perform 3D two-way coupled FSI simulations of pulse wave propagation and estimate the PWV. The simulation results were found to correlate well with the corresponding Moens-Korteweg equation. A high linear correlation was also established between PWV² and E measurements using the combined simulation and experimental findings (R² =  0.98) confirming the relationship established by the aforementioned equation.

  7. On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of

  8. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-06-01

    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, a WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs is presented. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the computational cost and memory storage because they are directly calculated from prestack plane-wave migration, and the number of plane waves is often much smaller than the number of shots. In the case of an inaccurate migration velocity, the moveout of plane-wave CIGs is automatically picked by a semblance analysis method, which is then linked to the migration velocity update by a connective function. Numerical tests on two synthetic datasets and a field dataset validate the efficiency and effectiveness of this method.

  9. Design of a Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Pulse Wave and ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Qiang; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang; Deng, Gen-Qiang; Wang, Huihui; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Song, Houbing; Ming, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    With increasingly fierce competition for jobs, the pressures on people have risen in recent years, leading to lifestyle and diet disorders that result in significantly higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is one of the common chronic cardiovascular diseases; however, mainstream blood pressure measurement devices are relatively heavy. When multiple measurements are required, the user experience and the measurement results may be unsatisfactory. In this paper, we describe the design of a signal collection module that collects pulse waves and electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The collected signals are input into a signal processing module to filter the noise and amplify the useful physiological signals. Then, we use a wavelet transform to eliminate baseline drift noise and detect the feature points of the pulse waves and ECG signals. We propose the concept of detecting the wave shape associated with an instance, an approach that minimizes the impact of atypical pulse waves on blood pressure measurements. Finally, we propose an improved method for measuring blood pressure based on pulse wave velocity that improves the accuracy of blood pressure measurements by 58%. Moreover, the results meet the american medical instrument promotion association standards, which demonstrate the feasibility of our measurement system.

  10. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  11. Field test and theoretical analysis of electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on crossbonded cable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...

  12. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  13. Dispersion - does it degrade a pulse envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deighton, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In hostile environments, transmitting information as ultrasonic Lamb wave pulses has advantages, since the stainless steel strip serving as a waveguide is very durable. Besides attenuation, velocity dispersion (inherent in Lamb waves) can be important even in fairly short guides. Theory shows that unlimited propagation of a pulsed r.f. envelope is possible, even with dispersion present. The constant group velocity needed would favour asub(o)-mode pulses over other modes, provided ordinary attenuation is small. An approximate formula indicates the useful range of a pulse, when group velocity does vary. (author)

  14. Tracking nuclear wave-packet dynamics in molecular oxygen ions with few-cycle infrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Thumm, U.; Cocke, C. L.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have tracked nuclear wave-packet dynamics in doubly charged states of molecular oxygen using few-cycle infrared laser pulses. Bound and dissociating wave packets were launched and subsequently probed via a pair of 8-fs pulses of 790 nm radiation. Ionic fragments from the dissociating molecules were monitored by velocity-map imaging. Pronounced oscillations in the delay-dependent kinetic energy release spectra were observed. The occurrence of vibrational revivals permits us to identify the potential curves of the O 2 dication which are most relevant to the molecular dynamics. These studies show the accessibility to the dynamics of such higher-charged molecules.

  15. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  16. Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function

  17. Pulse wave velocity and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorepsima, Stamatina; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Tentolouris, Anastasios; Moyssakis, Ioannis; Protogerou, Athanasios; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-05-19

    Increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes and has been associated with reduced aortic distensibility. However, the association of cardiac autonomic dysfunction with PWV is not known. In this study we examined the association between cardiac autonomic function and PWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 290 patients with type 2 diabetes were examined. PWV was measured at the carotid-femoral segment with applanation tonometry. Central mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) was determined by the same apparatus. Participants were classified as having normal (n = 193) or abnormal (n = 97) PWV values using age-corrected values. Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity was determined by measurement of parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects with abnormal PWV were older, had higher arterial blood pressure and higher heart rate than those with normal PWV. Most of the values of HRV were significantly lower in subjects with abnormal than in those with normal PWV. Multivariate analysis, after controlling for various confounding factors, demonstrated that abnormal PWV was associated independently only with peripheral MBP [odds ratio (OR) 1.049, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.015-1.085, P = 0.005], central MBP (OR 1.052, 95% CI 1.016-1.088, P = 0.004), log total power (OR 0.490, 95% CI 0.258-0.932, P = 0.030) and log high frequency power (OR 0.546, 95% CI 0.301-0.991, P = 0.047). In subjects with type 2 diabetes, arterial blood pressure and impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated independently with abnormal PWV.

  18. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ronny X; Luo, Jianwen; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E; Balaram, Sandhya K; Chaudhry, Farooq A

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r 2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s −1 , respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p 2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p 2 ) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics. (paper)

  19. Surface-Wave Pulse Routing around Sharp Right Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Xu, H.; Gao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2018-04-01

    Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs), or localized electromagnetic surface waves propagating on a metal-dielectric interface, are deemed promising information carriers for future subwavelength terahertz and optical photonic circuitry. However, surface waves fundamentally suffer from scattering loss when encountering sharp corners in routing and interconnection of photonic signals. Previous approaches enabling scattering-free surface-wave guidance around sharp corners are limited to either volumetric waveguide environments or extremely narrow bandwidth, being unable to guide a surface-wave pulse (SPP wave packet) on an on-chip platform. Here, in a surface-wave band-gap crystal implemented on a single metal surface, we demonstrate in time-domain routing a surface-wave pulse around multiple sharp right angles without perceptible scattering. Our work not only offers a solution to on-chip surface-wave pulse routing along an arbitrary path, but it also provides spatiotemporal information on the interplay between surface-wave pulses and sharp corners, both of which are desirable in developing high-performance large-scale integrated photonic circuits.

  20. Estimación de la velocidad de propagación aórtica basada en el análisis de la onda de pulso radial Velocity estimation of aortic propagation based on radial pulse wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Clara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar la morfología del registro de onda de pulso radial obtenida mediante un transductor de movimiento para evaluar la velocidad de propagación aórtica. Se efectuó el registro de onda de pulso en arteria radial mediante un transductor apoyado sobre la zona de palpación del pulso, sobre un conjunto de 167 voluntarios varones sanos normotensos de edades comprendidas entre la 2ª y la 7ª década. Se identificó en los registros la onda reflejada y se definió un coeficiente de velocidad como el cociente entre la talla del individuo y el tiempo transcurrido entre el máximo de la onda sistólica y el instante de llegada de dicha onda. Se halló que en los normotensos el coeficiente mencionado aumentó en forma lineal con la edad, en una proporción similar al aumento de velocidad de propagación aórtica medido con otros métodos. Se repitió el procedimiento en otro conjunto de 125 varones hipertensos sin otros factores de riesgo, de edades entre la 3ª y la 7ª década, hallándose valores similares a los normotensos solamente en la 3ª década, a partir de la cual se registró un incremento significativo de dicho índice. Tales hallazgos sustentan la factibilidad de utilizar tal tipo de registros para evaluar indirectamente la velocidad de propagación junto con el índice de aumentación, un parámetro habitualmente utilizado en el análisis de onda de pulso.We analyzed the possibility of using the radial pulse wave morphology, obtained by a movement transducer, to evaluate the aortic pulse wave velocity. The radial pulse wave signals were obtained by using a transducer, located on the pulse palpation area, in 167 healthy normotensive male volunteers, ages 20 to 70. The reflected wave was identified in every case. Also, a speed coefficient was defined as the ratio between the individual's height and the time between the maximum systolic wave and the arrival time of the reflected wave. We found that the

  1. Collective cell migration without proliferation: density determines cell velocity and wave velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sham; Gauquelin, Estelle; Li, Brigitte; Cardoso, Olivier; Ladoux, Benoît; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Graner, François

    2018-05-01

    Collective cell migration contributes to embryogenesis, wound healing and tumour metastasis. Cell monolayer migration experiments help in understanding what determines the movement of cells far from the leading edge. Inhibiting cell proliferation limits cell density increase and prevents jamming; we observe long-duration migration and quantify space-time characteristics of the velocity profile over large length scales and time scales. Velocity waves propagate backwards and their frequency depends only on cell density at the moving front. Both cell average velocity and wave velocity increase linearly with the cell effective radius regardless of the distance to the front. Inhibiting lamellipodia decreases cell velocity while waves either disappear or have a lower frequency. Our model combines conservation laws, monolayer mechanical properties and a phenomenological coupling between strain and polarity: advancing cells pull on their followers, which then become polarized. With reasonable values of parameters, this model agrees with several of our experimental observations. Together, our experiments and model disantangle the respective contributions of active velocity and of proliferation in monolayer migration, explain how cells maintain their polarity far from the moving front, and highlight the importance of strain-polarity coupling and density in long-range information propagation.

  2. Wave velocity characteristic for Kenaf natural fibre under impact damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleha, M.; Mahzan, S.; Fitri, Muhamad; Kamarudin, K. A.; Eliza, Y.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to determining the wave velocity characteristics for kenaf fibre reinforced composite (KFC) and it includes both experimental and simulation results. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on the panel. In order to demonstrate the wave velocity, an impacts was introduced onto the panel. It is based on a classical sensor triangulation methodology, combines with experimental strain wave velocity analysis. Then the simulation was designed to replicate panel used in the experimental impacts test. This simulation was carried out using ABAQUS. It was shown that the wave velocity propagates faster in the finite element simulation. Although the experimental strain wave velocity and finite element simulation results do not match exactly, the shape of both waves is similar.

  3. Comparison of Regression Analysis and Transfer Function in Estimating the Parameters of Central Pulse Waves from Brachial Pulse Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rui; Xu, Li-Sheng; Yao, Yang; Hao, Li-Ling; Qi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. Invasively measured parameters were compared with parameters measured from brachial pulse waves by regression model and transfer function model. Accuracy of parameters estimated by regression and transfer function model, was compared too. Findings showed that k value, central pulse wave and brachial pulse wave parameters invasively measured, correlated positively. Regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR, and transfer function model parameters had good consistency with parameters invasively measured. They had same effect of consistency. SBP, PP, SV, and CO could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  4. Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.

  5. Feasibility of waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for shallow shear-wave velocity using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Tsoflias, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional surface wave inversion for shallow shear (S)-wave velocity relies on the generation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. This constrains the method to only laterally homogeneous (or very smooth laterally heterogeneous) earth models. Waveform inversion directly fits waveforms on seismograms, hence, does not have such a limitation. Waveforms of Rayleigh waves are highly related to S-wave velocities. By inverting the waveforms of Rayleigh waves on a near-surface seismogram, shallow S-wave velocities can be estimated for earth models with strong lateral heterogeneity. We employ genetic algorithm (GA) to perform waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for S-wave velocities. The forward problem is solved by finite-difference modeling in the time domain. The model space is updated by generating offspring models using GA. Final solutions can be found through an iterative waveform-fitting scheme. Inversions based on synthetic records show that the S-wave velocities can be recovered successfully with errors no more than 10% for several typical near-surface earth models. For layered earth models, the proposed method can generate one-dimensional S-wave velocity profiles without the knowledge of initial models. For earth models containing lateral heterogeneity in which case conventional dispersion-curve-based inversion methods are challenging, it is feasible to produce high-resolution S-wave velocity sections by GA waveform inversion with appropriate priori information. The synthetic tests indicate that the GA waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves has the great potential for shallow S-wave velocity imaging with the existence of strong lateral heterogeneity. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  7. Velocity-space diffusion due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reija

    1991-01-01

    The velocity-space diffusion equation describing distortion of the velocity distribution function due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized plasma is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by perturbation theory. The conservation laws for total energy and momentum densities of waves and particles are verified, and the time evolutions of the energy and momentum densities of particles are given in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave coupling coefficient in the kinetic wave equation. (author)

  8. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  9. Compressive and Shear Wave Velocity Profiles using Seismic Refraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziman, M; Hazreek, Z A M; Azhar, A T S; Haimi, D S

    2016-01-01

    Seismic refraction measurement is one of the geophysics exploration techniques to determine soil profile. Meanwhile, the borehole technique is an established way to identify the changes of soil layer based on number of blows penetrating the soil. Both techniques are commonly adopted for subsurface investigation. The seismic refraction test is a non-destructive and relatively fast assessment compared to borehole technique. The soil velocities of compressive wave and shear wave derived from the seismic refraction measurements can be directly utilised to calculate soil parameters such as soil modulus and Poisson’s ratio. This study investigates the seismic refraction techniques to obtain compressive and shear wave velocity profile. Using the vertical and horizontal geophones as well as vertical and horizontal strike directions of the transient seismic source, the propagation of compressive wave and shear wave can be examined, respectively. The study was conducted at Sejagung Sri Medan. The seismic velocity profile was obtained at a depth of 20 m. The velocity of the shear wave is about half of the velocity of the compression wave. The soil profiles of compressive and shear wave velocities were verified using the borehole data and showed good agreement with the borehole data. (paper)

  10. Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas

  11. Rotary wave-ejector enhanced pulse detonation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. R.; Izzy, Z. A.; Akbari, P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a non-steady ejector based on wave rotor technology is modeled for pulse detonation engine performance improvement and for compatibility with turbomachinery components in hybrid propulsion systems. The rotary wave ejector device integrates a pulse detonation process with an efficient momentum transfer process in specially shaped channels of a single wave-rotor component. In this paper, a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model is developed to help design the basic geometry and operating parameters of the device. The unsteady combustion and flow processes are simulated and compared with a baseline PDE without ejector enhancement. A preliminary performance assessment is presented for the wave ejector configuration, considering the effect of key geometric parameters, which are selected for high specific impulse. It is shown that the rotary wave ejector concept has significant potential for thrust augmentation relative to a basic pulse detonation engine.

  12. Shear-wave velocities beneath the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia, using ambient seismic noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Mooney, W.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Zahran, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present seismic shear-velocities for Harrat Rahat, a Cenozoic bimodal alkaline volcanic field in west-central Saudi Arabia, using seismic tomography from natural ambient noise. This project is part of an overall effort by the Saudi Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey to describe the subsurface structure and assess hazards within the Saudi Arabian shield. Volcanism at Harrat Rahat began approximately 10 Ma, with at least three pulses around 10, 5, and 2 Ma, and at least several pulses in the Quaternary from 1.9 Ma to the present. This area is instrumented by 14 broadband Nanometrics Trillium T120 instruments across an array aperture of approximately 130 kilometers. We used a year of recorded natural ambient noise to determine group and phase velocity surface wave dispersion maps with a 0.1 decimal degree resolution for radial-radial, transverse-transverse, and vertical-vertical components of the empirical Green's function. A grid-search method was used to carry out 1D shear-velocity inversions at each latitude-longitude point and the results were interpolated to produce pseudo-3D shear velocity models. The dispersion maps resolved a zone of slow surface wave velocity south-east of the city of Medina spatially correlated with the 1256 CE eruption. A crustal layer interface at approximately 20 km depth was determined by the inversions for all components, matching the results of prior seismic-refraction studies. Cross-sections of the 3D shear velocity models were compared to gravity measurements obtained in the south-east edge of the field. We found that measurements of low gravity qualitatively correlate with low values of shear-velocity below 20 km along the cross-section profile. We apply these methods to obtain preliminary tomography results on the entire Arabian Shield.

  13. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...... loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface...

  14. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  15. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  16. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  17. Effect of pulse slippage on resonant second harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitikant; Sharma, A K

    2004-01-01

    The process of second harmonic generation of an intense short pulse laser in a plasma is resonantly enhanced by the application of a magnetic wiggler. The wiggler of suitable wave number k-vector 0 provides necessary momentum to second harmonic photons to make harmonic generation a resonant process. The laser imparts an oscillatory velocity to electrons and exerts a longitudinal ponderomotive force on them at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 ), where ω 1 and k-vector 1 are the frequency and the wave number of the laser, respectively. As the electrons acquire oscillatory velocity at the second harmonic, the wiggler magnetic field beats with it to produce a transverse second harmonic current at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 +k-vector 0 ), driving the second harmonic electromagnetic radiation. However, the group velocity of the second harmonic wave is greater than that of the fundamental wave, hence, the generated pulse slips out of the main laser pulse and its amplitude saturates

  18. Relationship between resistant hypertension and arterial stiffness assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the older patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Min Chung,1,2 Hui-Wen Cheng,2 Jung-Jung Chang,2 Yu-Sheng Lin,2 Ju-Feng Hsiao,2 Shih-Tai Chang,1 Jen-Te Hsu2,31School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 2Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, TaiwanBackground: Resistant hypertension (RH is a common clinical condition associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older patients. Several factors and conditions interfering with blood pressure (BP control, such as excess sodium intake, obesity, diabetes, older age, kidney disease, and certain identifiable causes of hypertension are common in patients resistant to antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, is increasingly recognized as an important prognostic index and potential therapeutic target in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between RH and arterial stiffness. Methods: This study included 1,620 patients aged ≥65 years who were referred or self-referred to the outpatient hypertension unit located at a single cardiovascular center. They were separated into normotensive, controlled BP, and resistant hypertension groups. Home BP, blood laboratory parameters, echocardiographic studies and baPWV all were measured. Results: The likelihood of diabetes mellitus was significantly greater in the RH group than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 2.114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.194–3.744, P=0.010. Systolic BP was correlated in the RH group significantly more than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 1.032, 95% CI 1.012–1.053, P=0.001. baPWV (odds ratio 1.084, 95% CI 1.016–1.156, P=0.015 was significantly correlated with the presence of RH. The other factors were negatively correlated with the existence of RH.Conclusion: In

  19. Temporal change in shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy inferred from coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Takeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent progresses in theoretical and observational researches on seismic interferometry reveal the possibility to detect subtle change in subsurface seismic structure. This high sensitivity of seismic interferometry to the medium properties may thus one of the most important ways to directly observe the time-lapse behavior of shallow crustal structure. Here, using the coda wave interferometry, we show the co-seismic and post-seismic changes in P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). In this study, we use the acceleration data recorded at KiK-net stations operated by NIED, Japan. Each KiK-net station has a borehole whose typical depth is about 100m, and two three-component accelerometers are installed at the top and bottom of the borehole. To estimate the shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy between two sensors and their temporal change, we select about 1000 earthquakes that occurred between 2004 and 2012, and extract body waves propagating between borehole sensors by computing the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of 3 x 3 component pairs. We use frequency bands of 2-4, 4-8, 8-16 Hz in our analysis. Each averaged CCF shows clear wave packets traveling between borehole sensors, and their travel times are almost consistent with those of P- and S-waves calculated from the borehole log data. Until the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the estimated travel time at each station is rather stable with time except for weak seasonal/annual variation. On the other hand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its aftershocks cause sudden decrease in the S-wave velocity at most of the KiK-net stations in eastern Japan. The typical value of S-wave velocity changes, which are measured by the time-stretching method, is about 5-15%. After this co-seismic change, the S-wave velocity gradually recovers with time, and the recovery continues for over one year following the

  20. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in a healthy adult sample: The ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Cunha, Roberto S; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Chór, Dora; Griep, Rosane H; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-15

    Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18.5 or ≥25kg/m 2 , current and former smokers, and those with self-report of previous cardiovascular disease. After exclusions, the sample consisted of 2158 healthy adults (1412 women). Although cf-PWV predictors were similar between sex (age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate), cf-PWV was higher in men (8.74±1.15 vs. 8.31±1.13m/s; adjusted for age and MAP, PELSA-Brasil population (n=15,105) increased by twice the age-related slope of cf-PWV growth, regardless of sex (0.0919±0.182 vs. 0.0504±0.153m/s per year for men, 0.0960±0.173 vs. 0.0606±0.139m/s per year for women). cf-PWV is different between men and women and even in an optimal and normal range of MAP and free of other classical risk factors for arterial stiffness, reference values for cf-PWV should take into account MAP levels. Also, the presence of major risk factors in the general population doubles the age-related rise in cf-PWV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kil Ha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV is known to be a good surrogate marker of clinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a major predictor for developing neuropathy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between baPWV and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted involving 692 patients with type 2 diabetes. The correlation between increased baPWV and DPN, neurological symptoms, and neurological assessment was analyzed. DPN was examined using the total symptom score (TSS, ankle reflexes, the vibration test, and the 10-g monofilament test. DPN was defined as TSS ≥2 and an abnormal neurological assessment. Data were expressed as means±standard deviation for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile range for non-normally distributed data. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups, and a multiple logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent predictors of DPN. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to adjust for age.ResultsPatients with DPN had higher baPWV and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be older and female, when compared to the control group. According to univariate analysis of risk factors for DPN, the odds ratio of the baPWV ≥1,600 cm/sec was 1.611 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.072 to 2.422; P=0.021 and the odds ratio in female was 1.816 (95% CI, 1.195 to 2.760; P=0.005.ConclusionIncreased baPWV was significantly correlated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. High Dynamic Velocity Range Particle Image Velocimetry Using Multiple Pulse Separation Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg S. O’Donovan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS technique (i records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods.

  3. High dynamic velocity range particle image velocimetry using multiple pulse separation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Tim; O'Donovan, Tadhg S

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV) is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets) still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS) technique (i) records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii) processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii) yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods.

  4. Thermal Cracking in Westerly Granite Monitored Using Direct Wave Velocity, Coda Wave Interferometry, and Acoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L.; Lengliné, O.; Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Schmittbuhl, J.

    2018-03-01

    To monitor both the permanent (thermal microcracking) and the nonpermanent (thermo-elastic) effects of temperature on Westerly Granite, we combine acoustic emission monitoring and ultrasonic velocity measurements at ambient pressure during three heating and cooling cycles to a maximum temperature of 450°C. For the velocity measurements we use both P wave direct traveltime and coda wave interferometry techniques, the latter being more sensitive to changes in S wave velocity. During the first cycle, we observe a high acoustic emission rate and large—and mostly permanent—apparent reductions in velocity with temperature (P wave velocity is reduced by 50% of the initial value at 450°C, and 40% upon cooling). Our measurements are indicative of extensive thermal microcracking during the first cycle, predominantly during the heating phase. During the second cycle we observe further—but reduced—microcracking, and less still during the third cycle, where the apparent decrease in velocity with temperature is near reversible (at 450°C, the P wave velocity is decreased by roughly 10% of the initial velocity). Our results, relevant for thermally dynamic environments such as geothermal reservoirs, highlight the value of performing measurements of rock properties under in situ temperature conditions.

  5. Human Heart Pulse Wave Responses Measured Simultaneously at Several Sensor Placements by Two MR-Compatible Fibre Optic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Myllylä

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental measurements conducted using two noninvasive fibre optic methods for detecting heart pulse waves in the human body. Both methods can be used in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. For comparison, the paper also performs an MRI-compatible electrocardiogram (ECG measurement. By the simultaneous use of different measurement methods, the propagation of pressure waves generated by each heart pulse can be sensed extensively in different areas of the human body and at different depths, for example, on the chest and forehead and at the fingertip. An accurate determination of a pulse wave allows calculating the pulse transit time (PTT of a particular heart pulse in different parts of the human body. This result can then be used to estimate the pulse wave velocity of blood flow in different places. Both measurement methods are realized using magnetic resonance-compatible fibres, which makes the methods applicable to the MRI environment. One of the developed sensors is an extraordinary accelerometer sensor, while the other one is a more common sensor based on photoplethysmography. All measurements, involving several test patients, were performed both inside and outside an MRI room. Measurements inside the MRI room were conducted using a 3-Tesla strength closed MRI scanner in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  6. Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.

    1987-10-01

    The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.

  7. Shear wave velocities of unconsolidated shallow sediments in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate shear-wave velocities for shallow sediments are important for a variety of seismic applications such as inver-sion and amplitude versus offset analysis. During the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, shear-wave velocities were measured at six wells in the Gulf of Mexico using the logging-while-drilling SonicScope acoustic tool. Because the tool measurement point was only 35 feet from the drill bit, the adverse effect of the borehole condition, which is severe for the shallow unconsolidated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, was mini-mized and accurate shear-wave velocities of unconsolidated sediments were measured. Measured shear-wave velocities were compared with the shear-wave velocities predicted from the compressional-wave velocities using empirical formulas and the rock physics models based on the Biot-Gassmann theory, and the effectiveness of the two prediction methods was evaluated. Although the empirical equation derived from measured shear-wave data is accurate for predicting shear-wave velocities for depths greater than 500 feet in these wells, the three-phase Biot-Gassmann-theory -based theory appears to be optimum for predicting shear-wave velocities for shallow unconsolidated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Experiments on second-sound shock waves in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.C.; Schmidt, D.W.; Wagner, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The waveform and velocity of second-sound waves in superfluid helium have been studied experimentally using superconducting, thin-film probes. The second-sound waves were generated with electrical pulses through a resistive film. Variations in pulse power, pulse duration, and bath temperature were examined. As predicted theoretically, the formation of a shock was observed at the leading or trailing edge of the waves depending on bath temperature. Breakdown of the theoretical model was observed for large pulse powers. Accurate data for the acoustic second-sound speed were derived from the measurements of shock-wave velocities and are compared with previous results

  9. Following dynamic nuclear wave packets in N2,O2, and CO with few-cycle infrared pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Bocharova, I. A.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Laurent, G.; Thumm, U.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Znakovskaya, I.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of nuclear wave packets launched in molecular nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon monoxide by intense 8-fs infrared pulses. We use velocity map imaging to measure the momentum of the ion fragments when these wave packets are interrogated by a second such pulse after a variable time delay. Both quasibound and dissociative wave packets are observed. For the former, measurements of bound-state oscillations are used to identify the participating states and, in some cases, extract properties of the relevant potential-energy surfaces. Vibrational structure is resolved in both energy and oscillation frequencies for the cations of oxygen and carbon monoxide, displaying the same quantum wave-packet motion in both energy and time domains. In addition, vibrational structure is seen in the dication of carbon monoxide in a situation where the energy resolution by itself is inadequate to resolve the structure.

  10. Following dynamic nuclear wave packets in N2,O2, and CO with few-cycle infrared pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, S.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Bocharova, I. A.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Znakovskaya, I.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Laurent, G.; Thumm, U.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.

    2011-10-01

    We study the evolution of nuclear wave packets launched in molecular nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon monoxide by intense 8-fs infrared pulses. We use velocity map imaging to measure the momentum of the ion fragments when these wave packets are interrogated by a second such pulse after a variable time delay. Both quasibound and dissociative wave packets are observed. For the former, measurements of bound-state oscillations are used to identify the participating states and, in some cases, extract properties of the relevant potential-energy surfaces. Vibrational structure is resolved in both energy and oscillation frequencies for the cations of oxygen and carbon monoxide, displaying the same quantum wave-packet motion in both energy and time domains. In addition, vibrational structure is seen in the dication of carbon monoxide in a situation where the energy resolution by itself is inadequate to resolve the structure.

  11. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, F.; Mammo, T.; Panza, G.F.; Vuan, A.; Costa, G.

    1995-10-01

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Velocity width of the resonant domain in wave-particle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firpo, Marie-Christine; Doveil, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction is a ubiquitous physical mechanism exhibiting locality in velocity space. A single-wave Hamiltonian provides a rich model by which to study the self-consistent interaction between one electrostatic wave and N quasiresonant particles. For the simplest nonintegrable Hamiltonian coupling two particles to one wave, we analytically derive the particle velocity borders separating quasi-integrable motions from chaotic ones. These estimates are fully retrieved through computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. For the large-N particle self-consistent case, we numerically investigate the localization of stochasticity in velocity space and test a qualitative estimate of the borders of chaos

  13. The VELOCE pulsed power generator for isentropic compression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Asay, James Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Chantrenne, Sophie J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hickman, Randall John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Willis, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Shay, Andrew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Grine-Jones, Suzi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hall, Clint Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Baer, Melvin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2007-12-01

    Veloce is a medium-voltage, high-current, compact pulsed power generator developed for isentropic and shock compression experiments. Because of its increased availability and ease of operation, Veloce is well suited for studying isentropic compression experiments (ICE) in much greater detail than previously allowed with larger pulsed power machines such as the Z accelerator. Since the compact pulsed power technology used for dynamic material experiments has not been previously used, it is necessary to examine several key issues to ensure that accurate results are obtained. In the present experiments, issues such as panel and sample preparation, uniformity of loading, and edge effects were extensively examined. In addition, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the ALEGRA code were performed to interpret the experimental results and to design improved sample/panel configurations. Examples of recent ICE studies on aluminum are presented.

  14. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a change in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3-12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine-specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose-dependent manner in the intervention group as compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI 0.2-4.4; p = 0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7% (95% CI 0.9-10.2; p = 0.02) higher high-frequency component and a 0.72% (95% CI 0.40-1.05; p < 0.001) lower PWV. PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk.

  16. Analysis of the effect of the fluid-structure interface on elastic wave velocity in cornea-like structures by OCE and FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Larin, Kirill V; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Air-pulse optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a promising technique for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea. This technique typically involves imaging and analysis of the propagation of the air-pulse induced elastic waves to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties using an analytical model. However, the effect of the fluid-structure interface (FSI) at the corneal posterior surface on the elastic wave velocity is not accounted for in many models. In this study, we examined the effect of the FSI with OCE experiments on contact lenses with and without fluid in the posterior gap. Finite element models (FEM), also with and without the FSI, were constructed to simulate the elastic wave propagation based on the OCE measurements. The FEM and OCE results were in good agreement demonstrating the feasibility of the method. To further investigate the effect of the FSI, OCE experiments and subsequent FEM simulations were conducted on in situ rabbit corneas before and after rose bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX). Both the OCE experiments and the FE simulations demonstrated that the FSI significantly reduced the group velocity of the elastic wave, and thus, should be considered when determining corneal biomechanical properties from an appropriate mechanical model. By matching the FEM-calculated velocity to the OCE-measured velocity, the corneal elasticity was quantified. The Young’s modulus of the rabbit cornea before RGX was E  =  65  ±  10 kPa at a controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15 mmHg. After RGX, the Young’s modulus increased to E  =  102  ±  7 kPa at the same IOP. (letter)

  17. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of shells conveying pulsatile flow with pulse-wave propagation. Theory and numerical results for a single harmonic pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2017-05-01

    In deformable shells conveying pulsatile flow, oscillatory pressure changes cause local movements of the fluid and deformation of the shell wall, which propagate downstream in the form of a wave. In biomechanics, it is the propagation of the pulse that determines the pressure gradient during the flow at every location of the arterial tree. In this study, a woven Dacron aortic prosthesis is modelled as an orthotropic circular cylindrical shell described by means of the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory. Flexible boundary conditions are considered to simulate connection with the remaining tissue. Nonlinear vibrations of the shell conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated taking into account the effects of the pulse-wave propagation. For the first time in literature, coupled fluid-structure Lagrange equations of motion for a non-material volume with wave propagation in case of pulsatile flow are developed. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian inviscid pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model based on the linear potential flow theory and considering the unsteady viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Contributions of pressure and velocity propagation are also considered in the pressure drop along the shell and in the pulsatile frictional traction on the internal wall in the axial direction. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior of a pressurized Dacron aortic graft conveying blood flow. A pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is considered by applying the first harmonic of the physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pulsatile pressure, considering the propagation of pressure and velocity changes inside the shell, is here presented via frequency-response curves, time histories, bifurcation

  19. Non-destructive evaluation of concrete using ultrasonic pulse velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, I.

    2008-06-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques used in the assessment of concrete properties. This thesis investigates the relationship between using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and the conventional compressive strength tests to determine concrete uniformity. The specimens used in the studies were made of concrete with a paste content of 18% and the constituents of the specimens varied in different water-cement ratios (w/c). The UPV measurement and compressive strength tests were carried out at the concrete age of 2, 7, 15 and 28 days. The UPV and the compressive strength of concrete increase with age, but the growth rate varies with mixture proportion. A relationship curve is drawn between UPV and compressive strength for concrete having different w/c from 0.35 to 0.7. Tests were also performed using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method (UPVM) in detecting discontinuity and determining its depth during the early age of concrete. The test results indicate that the UPVM can be used to assess the in-situ properties of concrete or for quality control on site. The accuracy of the UPVM in detecting discontinuities ranges from 55.75 to 98.70% for ages 3 to 28 (full strength) respectively. (au)

  20. Measurement of electroosmotic and electrophoretic velocities using pulsed and sinusoidal electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical

  2. Ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity are risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes is increasing. While brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV and ankle-brachial index (ABI are known to be associated with ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, whether these measures predict the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in diabetic patients remains unclear. 117 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. According to the results of head magnetic resonance imaging, the patients were divided into a diabetes-only group (n = 55 and a diabetes and ischemic stroke group (n = 62. We then performed ABI and BaPWV examinations for all patients. Compared with the diabetes-only group, we found decreased ABI and increased BaPWV in the diabetes and ischemic stroke group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BaPWV and ABI were risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that decreased ABI and increased BaPWV are objective indicators of increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  4. Multiple pulse traveling wave excitation of neon-like germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Nilsen, J.; Silva, L. B. da

    1995-01-01

    Traveling wave excitation has been shown to significantly increase the output intensity of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser. The driving laser pulse consisted of three 100 ps Gaussian laser pulses separated by 400 ps. Traveling wave excitation was employed by tilting the wave front of the driving laser by 45 degrees to match the propagation speed of the x-ray laser photons along the length of the target. We show results of experiments with the traveling wave, with no traveling wave, and against the traveling wave and comparisons to a numerical model. Gain was inferred from line intensity measurements at two lengths

  5. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  6. Relation between respiratory function and arterial stiffness assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. We collected participant information and measured hemodynamics, body composition, and respiratory function. [Results] In the correlation analysis, baPWV showed a significant positive correlation with age, smoking index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative correlation with height, fat free mass, lower limb muscle mass, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In multiple regression analysis using factors other than baPWV and respiratory function as adjustment variables, both FVC and FEV1 showed a significant negative relationship with baPWV (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). FEV1/FVC was not significantly related to baPWV (p=0.704). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that FEV1/FVC and the proportion of FEV1 predicted, which are indicators of airflow limitation, are not predictors of baPWV in workers without airflow limitation. However, since baPWV showed a significant negative relationship with FVC and FEV 1, the reduction in respiratory function that does not cause airflow limitation, such as FVC or FEV1 decline, may be related to an increase in the risk of arterial stiffness.

  7. Measuring and engineering the atomic mass density wave of a Gaussian mass-polariton pulse in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that only the energy of the field propagates inside the medium. Consequently, they neglect the transport of mass density by the medium atoms. We have recently presented foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a nondispersive medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces [Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017)]. In particular, we have shown that the mass is transferred by an atomic mass density wave (MDW), which gives rise to mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, i.e., covariant coupled states of the field and matter having a nonzero rest mass. Another key observation of the mass-polariton theory of light is that, in common semiconductors, most of the momentum of light is transferred by moving atoms, e.g., 92% in the case of silicon. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media and consider experimental measurement of the mass transferred by the MDW atoms when an intense light pulse propagates in a silicon fiber. In particular, we consider optimal intensity and time dependence of a Gaussian pulse and account for the breakdown threshold irradiance of the material. The optical shock wave property of the MDW, which propagates with the velocity of light instead of the velocity of sound, prompts for engineering of novel device concepts like very high frequency mechanical oscillators not limited by the acoustic cutoff frequency.

  8. LDL-oxidation, serum uric acid, kidney function and pulse-wave velocity: Data from the Brisighella Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Kuwabara, Masanari; Johnson, Richard; Bove, Marilisa; Fogacci, Federica; Rosticci, Martina; Giovannini, Marina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2018-06-15

    Serum uric acid (SUA) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be associated with arterial aging. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between SUA, oxLDL and arterial stiffness in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. From the database of the 2012 Brisighella Heart Study, we compared age-matched adult, non-smoker subjects without cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function (n = 205), subjects with stage II chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 118) and subjects with stage III CKD (n = 94). All subjects underwent a determination of the LDL oxidative susceptibility, oxLDL levels, SUA and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). By univariate analysis, PWV correlated with a large number of clinical, haemodynamic and metabolic parameters, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal renal function and in those with stage II or III CKD. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that in the presence of normal renal function or stage II CKD, the main predictors of PWV were age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), ox-LDL, apolipoprotein B and SUA (p function, but not in the subjects with more compromised eGFR. This study confirms the complex relationship of SUA with cardiovascular and metabolic disease in the patient with established renal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  10. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  11. Pulse Wave Variation during the Menstrual Cycle in Women with Menstrual Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyung Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study is performed to obtain objective diagnostic indicators associated with menstrual pain using pulse wave analysis. Methods. Using a pulse diagnostic device, we measured the pulse waves of 541 women aged between 19 and 30 years, placed in either an experimental group with menstrual pain (n=329 or a control group with little or no menstrual pain (n=212. Measurements were taken during both the menstrual and nonmenstrual periods, and comparative analysis was performed. Results. During the nonmenstrual period, the experimental group showed a significantly higher value in the left radial artery for the radial augmentation index (RAI (p=0.050 but significantly lower values for pulse wave energy (p=0.021 and time to first peak from baseline (T1 (p=0.035 in the right radial artery. During the menstrual period, the experimental group showed significantly lower values in the left radial artery for cardiac diastole and pulse wave area during diastole and significantly higher values for pulse wave area during systole, ratio of systolic phase to the full heartbeat, and systolic-diastolic ratio. Conclusion. We obtained indicators of menstrual pain in women during the menstrual period, including prolonged systolic and shortened diastolic phases, increases in pulse wave energy and area of representative pulse wave, and increased blood vessel resistance.

  12. Relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity test result and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test result showed an inverse relationship (of -0.935) with the crushed concrete compressive strength. Correlation test, multiple regression analysis, graphs and visual inspection were used to analyze the results. The conclusion drawn is that there exists a relationship between UPV test results and ...

  13. A Pulse Wave Velocity Based Method to Assess the Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Limits of Autoregulation in Peripheral Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Tripathi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constant blood flow despite changes in blood pressure, a phenomenon called autoregulation, has been demonstrated for various organ systems. We hypothesized that by changing hydrostatic pressures in peripheral arteries, we can establish these limits of autoregulation in peripheral arteries based on local pulse wave velocity (PWV.Methods: Electrocardiogram and plethysmograph waveforms were recorded at the left and right index fingers in 18 healthy volunteers. Each subject changed their left arm position, keeping the right arm stationary. Pulse arrival times (PAT at both fingers were measured and used to calculate PWV. We calculated ΔPAT (ΔPWV, the differences between the left and right PATs (PWVs, and compared them to the respective calculated blood pressure at the left index fingertip to derive the limits of autoregulation.Results: ΔPAT decreased and ΔPWV increased exponentially at low blood pressures in the fingertip up to a blood pressure of 70 mmHg, after which changes in ΔPAT and ΔPWV were minimal. The empirically chosen 20 mmHg window (75–95 mmHg was confirmed to be within the autoregulatory limit (slope = 0.097, p = 0.56. ΔPAT and ΔPWV within a 20 mmHg moving window were not significantly different from the respective data points within the control 75–95 mmHg window when the pressure at the fingertip was between 56 and 110 mmHg for ΔPAT and between 57 and 112 mmHg for ΔPWV.Conclusions: Changes in hydrostatic pressure due to changes in arm position significantly affect peripheral arterial stiffness as assessed by ΔPAT and ΔPWV, allowing us to estimate peripheral autoregulation limits based on PWV.

  14. Pulsed discharges produced by high-power surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhle, A.; Ivanov, O.; Kolisko, A.; Kortshagen, U.; Schlüter, H.; Vikharev, A.

    1996-02-01

    The mechanisms of the ionization front advance in surface-wave-produced discharges are investigated using two experimental set-ups. The high-power surface waves are excited in a 3 cm wavelength band by a surfaguide and a novel type of launcher (an E-plane junction). The ionization front velocity of the surface wave is measured for a wide range of gas pressures, incident microwave power and initial pre-ionization. The experimental results are compared with theoretical ones based on three different models. The comparison between theory and experiment allows one to suggest a new interpretation of the ionization front's advance. The ionization front velocity is determined by a breakdown wave or an ionization wave in the electric field of a high-power surface wave in the zone near the ionization front.

  15. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  16. Age-Specific Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity among Metabolic Syndrome Components, Inflammatory Markers, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Seung Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2018-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is thought to have different relationships with metabolic syndrome (MS) components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress, according to age. However, age-specific determinants of PWV have not yet been studied. We investigated age-dependent relationships among PWV and MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. A total of 4,318 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19-34 y (n=687), 35-44 y (n=1,413), 45-54 y (n=1,384), and 55-79 y (n=834). MS components, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress markers were measured. There were age-related increases in MS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), triglycerides, glucose, hs-CRP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 8-epi-prostaglandin F 2α (8-epi-PGF 2α ), and baPWV. BaPWV was significantly associated with sex and elevated BP in the 19-34 y group; with age, sex, BMI, elevated BP and triglycerides in the 35-44 y group; with age, sex, elevated BP, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and oxidized LDL in the 45-54 y group; and with age, BMI, elevated BP, fasting glucose and oxidized LDL in the 55-79 y group. Our results show that age-related increases in baPWV are associated with age-related changes in MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. However, each of these factors has an age-specific, different impact on arterial stiffness. In particular, oxidative stress may be independently associated with arterial stiffness in individuals older than 45 y.

  17. Phase and group velocities for Lamb waves in DOP-26 iridium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A.; McGuire, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The relatively coarse grain structure of iridium weldments limits the ultrasonic inspection of these structures to frequencies in the low megahertz range. As the material thickness is nominally 0.635 mm for clad vent set capsules, the low frequencies involved necessarily entail the generation of Lamb waves m the specimen. These waves are, of course, dispersive and detailed knowledge of both the phase and group velocities is required in order to determine accurately the location of flaws detected using Lamb waves. Purpose of this study is to elucidate the behavior of Lamb waves propagating in the capsule alloy and to quantify the velocities so that accurate flaw location is ensured. We describe a numerical technique for computing the phase velocities of Lamb waves (or of any other type of guided wave) and derive the group velocities from this information. A frequency-domain method is described for measuring group velocity when multiple Lamb modes are present and mutually interfering in the time domain, and experimental confirmation of the group velocity is presented for the capsule material

  18. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  19. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images

  20. Numerical modeling of the pulse wave propagation in large blood vessels based on liquid and wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rup, K; Dróżdż, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a non-linear, one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in the arterial cardiovascular system. The model includes partial differential equations resulting from the balance of mass and momentum for the fluid-filled area and the balance equation for the area of the wall and vessels. The considered mathematical model of pulse wave propagation in the thoracic aorta section takes into account the viscous dissipation of fluid energy, realistic values of parameters describing the physicochemical properties of blood and vessel wall. Boundary and initial conditions contain the appropriate information obtained from in vivo measurements. As a result of the numerical solution of the mass and momentum balance equations for the blood and the equilibrium equation for the arterial wall area, time- dependent deformation, respective velocity profiles and blood pressure were determined.

  1. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  2. FPGA-based design and implementation of arterial pulse wave generator using piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Zhao, Dazhe; Yao, Yang; Song, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Because arterial pulse waves contain vital information related to the condition of the cardiovascular system, considerable attention has been devoted to the study of pulse waves in recent years. Accurate acquisition is essential to investigate arterial pulse waves. However, at the stage of developing equipment for acquiring and analyzing arterial pulse waves, specific pulse signals may be unavailable for debugging and evaluating the system under development. To produce test signals that reflect specific physiological conditions, in this paper, an arterial pulse wave generator has been designed and implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which can produce the desired pulse waves according to the feature points set by users. To reconstruct a periodic pulse wave from the given feature points, a method known as piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting is also proposed in this paper. Using a test database that contains four types of typical pulse waves with each type containing 25 pulse wave signals, the maximum residual error of each sampling point of the fitted pulse wave in comparison with the real pulse wave is within 8%. In addition, the function for adding baseline drift and three types of noises is integrated into the developed system because the baseline occasionally wanders, and noise needs to be added for testing the performance of the designed circuits and the analysis algorithms. The proposed arterial pulse wave generator can be considered as a special signal generator with a simple structure, low cost and compact size, which can also provide flexible solutions for many other related research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High resolution 3-D shear wave velocity structure in South China from surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, S.; Guo, Z.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using continuous data from a total of 638 seismic stations, including 484 from CEArray between 2008 and 2013 and 154 from SINOPROBE between 2014 and 2015, we perform both ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave tomography across South China. Combining Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 6and 40s periods from ambient noise tomography and Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 20and 140s from teleseismic two-plane-wave tomography, we obtain phase velocity maps between 6 and140 s periods. We then invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity to construct a 3-D shear wave velocity structure of South China by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Similar to other inversion results, our results correspond topography well. Moreover, our results also reveal that velocity structure of the eastern South China in mantle depth is similar to eastern North China, the core of the western South China, Sichuan Block (SB),still exists thick lithosphere. However, owing to much more data employed and some data quality control techniques in this research, our results reveal more detailed structures. Along Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt (QDOB), North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and the Sichuan-Yunnan Rhombic Block (SYRB), there are obvious high speed anomalies in depths of 10-20 km, which possibly imply ancient intrusions. Moreover, it seems that Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) has already cut through QDOB, forming a deep fracture cutting through the crust of the whole China continent. Although SB still exists thick lithosphere, there are indications for thermal erosion. At the same time, the lithosphere of the central SYRB seems to be experiencing delamination process, obviously forming a barrier to prevent the hot Tibetan Plateau (TP) mantle material from flowing further southeast. Upwelling hot mantle material possibly triggered by this delamination process might be the cause of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. There exists an intercontinental low velocity layer in the crust of the TP

  5. Effect of carbohydrate restriction-induced weight loss on aortic pulse wave velocity in overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Abdul, Majid M; Hu, Qiong; Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Padilla, Jaume; Manrique-Acevedo, Camila; Heimowitz, Colette; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2018-05-10

    Increased aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and past data have shown that low-fat and low-energy diets, fed for 8-24 wks lower PWV. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a reduction in PWV would be achieved by dietary carbohydrate (CHO) restriction, shown to bring about weight loss over a shorter timeframe. Men [n=10, age: 41.8 ± 3.2 y, BMI: 34.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2 (mean±SE)] and women (n=10, age: 38.6 ± 1.9 y, BMI: 33.5 ± 1.2 kg/m2) with characteristics of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, consumed a structured, CHO-restricted diet (CRD) for 4 wks (energy deficit, 645 kcal/d). For the whole group, subjects lost 5.4 ± 0.5 % (Pwomen, it fell significantly (from 7.2 ± 0.3 m/s to 6.3 ± 0.3 m/s, P=0.028), while no changes were observed in men (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.0 ± 0.3 m/s, P=0.144). This is the first study to demonstrate that weight loss can improve PWV in as little as 4 wks and that dietary CHO restriction may be an effective treatment for reducing aortic stiffness in women. Future studies are needed to establish the mechanisms by which dietary CHO restriction may confer more cardiovascular benefits to women compared to men.

  6. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in f...

  7. Third-harmonic generation in isotropic media by focused pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasgal, Richard S.; Band, Y.B.

    2004-01-01

    For focused pulses of light in isotropic nonlinear media, third-harmonic generation can be strongly affected by group-velocity mismatch between the fundamental and third-harmonic. There is a characteristic time determined by the group-velocity mismatch and the Rayleigh range of the focused pulse. The dynamics depend on two dimensionless quantities, namely the ratio of the characteristic time to the pulse duration and the phase-velocity mismatch times the Rayleigh range. Pulses shorter than the characteristic time have physics described by simple analytic formulas. Pulses near the characteristic time have an intermediate behavior given by an explicit but more complicated formula. Pulses longer than the characteristic time tend to the continuous-wave case

  8. Effect of physical activity on pulse wave velocity in elderly subjects with normal glucose, prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsämarttila, Erja; Rodilla, Enrique; Jokelainen, Jari; Herrala, Sauli; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-23

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ((cf)PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, predicting cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity (PA) is correlated with reduced arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. 570 subjects from the 1945 Oulu birth cohort were included in the analysis. (cf)PWV was determined by a non-invasive applanation tonometry. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and LDL and HDL cholesterol analyzed. PA was registered daily with a wrist-worn acceleration meter for two weeks. (cf)PWV values in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D were higher than in normal glycemic subjects (P < 0.001). PA, fasting and 2 h glucose and HbA1c correlated significantly with (cf)PWV, but HDL or LDL cholesterol did not. The 2 h glucose, heart rate and alcohol consumption in T2D subjects had independent effects on (cf)PWV in multiple regression analysis. T2D and IGM were significantly associated to (cf)PWV. Interestingly, lipids did not have an additional effect on (cf)PWV. Subjects walking more than 10 000 steps/day had 0.2 m/s lower (cf)PWV than those walking less than 6000 steps/day. Presence of T2D, elevated heart rate and alcohol consumption in males were associated with increased aortic stiffening in elderly subjects.

  9. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Malene Hovgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations...... to be determined directly from the sampled velocities. It was found that both velocities and accelerations differ from the ones predicted from common wave theories such as streamfunction theory. This was especially evident at the top part of the wave close to the surface. This was not surprising, since...... the breaking event is a highly non-linear process. The results presented here may facilitate computations of the impact force on offshore structures and furthermore be used for validation of CFD models while altogether shedding light on the mechanisms behind breaking waves....

  10. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  11. Identifying Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Sportsmen: The Additional Value of Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs L Braber

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the additional value of PWV measurements to traditional CAD risk factors for identifying CAD.From the Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC cohort of asymptomatic, middle-aged sportsmen who underwent low-dose Cardiac CT (CCT after routine sports medical examination (SME, 193 consecutive sportsmen (aged 55 ± 6.6 years were included with additional PWV measurements before CCT. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PWV values (>8.3 and >7.5 m/s assessed by Arteriograph were used to identify CAD (coronary artery calcium scoring ≥ 100 Agatston Units or coronary CT angiography luminal stenosis ≥ 50% and to assess the additional diagnostic value of PWV to established cardiovascular risk factors.Forty-seven sportsmen (24% had CAD on CCT. They were older (58.9 vs. 53.8 years, p8.3m/s respectively >7.5 m/s sensitivity to detect CAD on CT was 43% and 74%, specificity 69% and 45%, positive predictive value 31% and 30%, and negative predictive value 79% and 84%. Adding PWV to traditional risk factor models did not change the area under the curve (from 0.78 (95% CI = 0.709-0.848 to AUC 0.78 (95% CI 0.710-0.848, p = 0.99 for prediction of CAD on CCT.Limited additional value was found for PWV on top of established risk factors to identify CAD. PWV might still have a role to identify CAD in middle-aged sportsmen if risk factors such as cholesterol are unknown.

  12. The association between pulse wave velocity and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Anastasios; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Siasos, Gerasimos; Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common diabetic complication, affecting up to half of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Increased aortic stiffness, measured with the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), has been associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease independently of traditional risk factors. Previous data showed associations between risk factors for macroangiopathy and DPN in diabetes. However, the association between PWV and DPN is not well known. In this study we examined the association between PWV and presence as well as severity of DPN in subjects with T2DM. A total of 381 patients with T2DM were recruited. Participants were classified as having DPN and not having DPN. PWV was measured at the carotid-femoral segment with a non-invasive method using applanation tonometry. DPN was assessed by determination of the Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS) and the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS). A hundred and seven participants (28.1%) had DPN. Patients with DPN were significantly more often male and older, had longer diabetes duration, higher height, larger waist circumference, higher systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP) and higher PWV (all Pperipheral arterial disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, SBP, nephropathy and use of b-blockers, demonstrated that the odds [OR (95% confidence intervals)] of peripheral neuropathy were associated significantly and independently only with diabetes duration [1.044 (1.009-1.081), P=0.013], height [1.075 (1.041-1.110), Pperipheral arterial disease [4.658 (2.264-9.584), Pperipheral arterial disease (beta=0.374, P<0.001). Increased PWV is associated strongly and independently not only with the presence but also with the severity of DPN in patients with T2DM, irrespective of known risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Angle-domain Migration Velocity Analysis using Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2012-11-04

    The main difficulty with an iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in a local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly non-linear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. The residual movemout analysis in the angle-domain common image gathers provides a robust estimate of the depth residual which is converted to the reflection traveltime residual for the velocity inversion. We present numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency in inverting seismic data for complex velocity model.

  14. Approximation of wave action flux velocity in strongly sheared mean flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Saeideh; Kirby, James T.; Dong, Zhifei

    2017-08-01

    Spectral wave models based on the wave action equation typically use a theoretical framework based on depth uniform current to account for current effects on waves. In the real world, however, currents often have variations over depth. Several recent studies have made use of a depth-weighted current U˜ due to [Skop, R. A., 1987. Approximate dispersion relation for wave-current interactions. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng. 113, 187-195.] or [Kirby, J. T., Chen, T., 1989. Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1013-1027.] in order to account for the effect of vertical current shear. Use of the depth-weighted velocity, which is a function of wavenumber (or frequency and direction) has been further simplified in recent applications by only utilizing a weighted current based on the spectral peak wavenumber. These applications do not typically take into account the dependence of U˜ on wave number k, as well as erroneously identifying U˜ as the proper choice for current velocity in the wave action equation. Here, we derive a corrected expression for the current component of the group velocity. We demonstrate its consistency using analytic results for a current with constant vorticity, and numerical results for a measured, strongly-sheared current profile obtained in the Columbia River. The effect of choosing a single value for current velocity based on the peak wave frequency is examined, and we suggest an alternate strategy, involving a Taylor series expansion about the peak frequency, which should significantly extend the range of accuracy of current estimates available to the wave model with minimal additional programming and data transfer.

  15. SLIP VELOCITY IN PULSED DISC AND DOUGHNUT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Outokesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, slip velocity has been measured in a 76 mm diameter pulsed disc and doughnut extraction column for four different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operating variables including pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on slip velocity have been investigated. The existence of three different operational regimes, namely mixersettler, transition, and emulsion regimes, was observed when the energy input was changed. Empirical correlations are derived for prediction of the slip velocity in terms of operating variables, physical properties of the liquid systems, and column geometry for different regimes. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.

  16. Measurement of longitudinal and rayleigh wave velocities by advanced one-sided technique in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovics, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    A new procedure for the advanced one-sided measurement of longitudinal wave and surface wave velocities in concrete is presented in this paper. Stress waves are generated in a consistent fashion with a DC solenoid. Two piezoelectric accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a specimen as receivers. Stress waves propagate along the surface of the specimen and are detected by the receivers. In order to reduce the large incoherent noise levels of the signals, signals are collected and manipulated by a computer program for each velocity measurement. For a known distance between the two receivers and using the measured flight times, the velocities of the longitudinal wave and the surface wave are measured. The velocities of the longitudinal wave determined by this method are compared with those measured by conventional methods on concrete, PMMA and steel.

  17. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2016-03-21

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  19. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  20. Surface wave phase velocities between Bulgaria and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaždová, Renata; Kolínský, Petr; Popova, I.; Dimitrova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 16-23 ISSN 1803-1447. [OVA´11 – New Knowledge and Measurements in Seismology, Engineering Geophysics and Geotechnics. Ostrava, 12.04.2011-14.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : surface waves * phase velocity * shear wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.caag.cz/egrse/2011-2/03%20gazdova_ova.pdf

  1. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  2. Development of integrated photoplethysmographic recording circuit for trans-nail pulse-wave monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengyang; Takezawa, Yoshiki; Shimokawa, Kenji; Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    Health monitoring and self-management have become increasingly more important because of health awareness improvement, the aging of population, and other reasons. In general, pulse waves are among the most useful physiological signals that can be used to calculate several parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure for health monitoring and self-management. To realize an automatic and real-time pulse-wave monitoring system that can be used in daily life, we have proposed a trans-nail pulse-wave monitoring system that was placed on the fingernail to detect photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals as pulse waves. In this study, we designed a PPG recording circuit that was composed of a 600 × 600 µm2 photodiode (PD), an LED driver with pulse wave modulation (PWM) and a low-frequency ring oscillator (RING), and a PPG signal readout circuit. The proposed circuit had a very small area of 2.2 × 1.1 mm2 designed with 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The proposed circuit was used to detect pulse waves on the human fingernail in both the reflection and transmission modes. Electrical characteristics of the prototype system were evaluated precisely and PPG waveforms were obtained successfully.

  3. Plasma Renalase is Not Associated with Blood Pressure and Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Adults With Normal Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lv, Yong-Bo; Chu, Chao; Wang, Man; Xie, Bing-Qing; Wang, Lan; Yang, Fan; Yan, Ding-Yi; Yang, Rui-Hai; Yang, Jun; Ren, Yong; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of renalase with blood pressure (BP) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in order to better understand the role of renalase in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. A total of 344 subjects with normal kidney function were recruited from our previously established cohort in Shaanxi Province, China. They were divided into the normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) groups or high baPWV and normal baPWV on the basis of BP levels or baPWV measured with an automatic waveform analyzer. Plasma renalase was determined through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma renalase did not significantly differ between HT and NT groups (3.71 ± 0.69 µg/mL vs. 3.72 ± 0.73 μg/mL, P = 0.905) and between subjects with and without high baPWV (3.67 ± 0.66 µg/mL vs. 3.73 ± 0.74 µg/mL, P = 0.505). However, baPWV was significantly higher in the HT group than in the NT group (1460.4 ± 236.7 vs. 1240.7 ± 174.5 cm/s, P function. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Measuring aortic pulse wave velocity using high-field cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparison of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Jean M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of arterial stiffness is increasingly used for evaluating patients with different cardiovascular diseases as the mechanical properties of major arteries are often altered. Aortic stiffness can be noninvasively estimated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV. Several methods have been proposed for measuring PWV using velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, including transit-time (TT, flow-area (QA, and cross-correlation (XC methods. However, assessment and comparison of these techniques at high field strength has not yet been performed. In this work, the TT, QA, and XC techniques were clinically tested at 3 Tesla and compared to each other. Methods Fifty cardiovascular patients and six volunteers were scanned to acquire the necessary images. The six volunteer scans were performed twice to test inter-scan reproducibility. Patient images were analyzed using the TT, XC, and QA methods to determine PWV. Two observers analyzed the images to determine inter-observer and intra-observer variabilities. The PWV measurements by the three methods were compared to each other to test inter-method variability. To illustrate the importance of PWV using CMR, the degree of aortic stiffness was assessed using PWV and related to LV dysfunction in five patients with diastolic heart failure patients and five matched volunteers. Results The inter-observer and intra-observer variability results showed no bias between the different techniques. The TT and XC results were more reproducible than the QA; the mean (SD inter-observer/intra-observer PWV differences were -0.12(1.3/-0.04(0.4 for TT, 0.2(1.3/0.09(0.9 for XC, and 0.6(1.6/0.2(1.4 m/s for QA methods, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r for the inter-observer/intra-observer comparisons were 0.94/0.99, 0.88/0.94, and 0.83/0.92 for the TT, XC, and QA methods, respectively. The inter-scan reproducibility results showed low variability between the repeated

  5. Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired

  6. Strong ion accelerating by collisionless magnetosonic shock wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)

  7. Prediction of ultrasonic pulse velocity for enhanced peat bricks using adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Shervin; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Hashim, Roslan; Petković, Dalibor; Song, Ki-Il

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity is affected by defects in material structure. This study applied soft computing techniques to predict the ultrasonic pulse velocity for various peats and cement content mixtures for several curing periods. First, this investigation constructed a process to simulate the ultrasonic pulse velocity with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Then, an ANFIS network with neurons was developed. The input and output layers consisted of four and one neurons, respectively. The four inputs were cement, peat, sand content (%) and curing period (days). The simulation results showed efficient performance of the proposed system. The ANFIS and experimental results were compared through the coefficient of determination and root-mean-square error. In conclusion, use of ANFIS network enhances prediction and generation of strength. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the suggested strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  9. Using piezoelectric sensors for ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Seong-Hoon; Zhu, Jinying

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test has been a widely used non-destructive testing method for concrete structures. However, the conventional UPV test has limitations in consistency of results and applicability in hard-to-access regions of structures. The authors explore the feasibility of embedded piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for ultrasonic measurements in concrete structures. Two PZT sensors were embedded in a reinforced concrete specimen. One sensor worked as an actuator driven by an ultrasonic pulse-receiver, and another sensor worked as a receiver. A series of ultrasonic tests were conducted to investigate the performance of the embedded sensors in crack-free concrete and concrete specimens having a surface-breaking crack under various external loadings. Signals measured by the embedded sensors show a broad bandwidth with a centre frequency around 80 kHz, and very good coherence in the frequency range from 30 to 180 kHz. Furthermore, experimental variability in ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation is substantially reduced compared to previously reported values from conventional UPV equipment. Findings from this study demonstrate that the embedded sensors have great potential as a low-cost solution for ultrasonic transducers for health monitoring of concrete in structures. (paper)

  10. Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground nuclear explosions were analyzed. The cone of more intense radiation is defined by the ratio of sound speeds in the ground and air. The pressure history of the radiated pulse is a function of the vertical ground-motion history, the range, the burial depth, and the velocity of longitudinal seismic waves. The analysis of short-pulse propagation employed an N-wave model with and without enegy conservation. Short pulses with initial wave lengths less than 100 m are severely attenuated by the energy loss in shocks and viscous losses in the wave interior. The methods developed in this study should be useful for system analysis

  11. Towards a new technique to construct a 3D shear-wave velocity model based on converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Colavitti, L.

    2017-12-01

    A 3D model is essential in all branches of solid Earth sciences because geological structures can be heterogeneous and change significantly in their lateral dimension. The main target of this research is to build a crustal S-wave velocity structure in 3D. The currently popular methodologies to construct 3D shear-wave velocity models are Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) and Local Earthquake Tomography (LET). Here we propose a new technique to map Earth discontinuities and velocities at depth based on the analysis of receiver functions. The 3D model is obtained by simultaneously inverting P-to-S converted waveforms recorded at a dense array. The individual velocity models corresponding to each trace are extracted from the 3D initial model along ray paths that are calculated using the shooting method, and the velocity model is updated during the inversion. We consider a spherical approximation of ray propagation using a global velocity model (iasp91, Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) for the teleseismic part, while we adopt Cartesian coordinates and a local velocity model for the crust. During the inversion process we work with a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity, with a flexible mesh for the depth of the interfaces. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter space. Depending on the studied area, this method can accommodate possible independent and complementary geophysical data (gravity, active seismics, LET, ANT, etc.), helping to reduce the non-linearity of the inversion. Our first focus of application is the Central Alps, where a 20-year long dataset of

  12. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  13. Spectrally modified chirped pulse generation of sustained shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrane, S.D.; Moore, D.S.; Funk, D.J.; Rabie, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for generating shock waves with 10-20 ps risetime followed by >200 ps constant pressure, using spectrally modified (clipped) chirped laser pulses. The degree of spectral clipping alters the chirped pulse temporal intensity profile and thereby the time-dependent pressure (tunable via pulse energy) generated in bare and nitrocellulose-coated Al thin films. The method is implementable in common chirped amplified lasers, and allows synchronous probing with a <200 fs pulse

  14. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...... focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance...

  15. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  16. Comparison of shear-wave velocity measurements by crosshole, downhole and seismic cone penetration test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthaker, N.; Tweedie, R. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Shear wave velocity measurements are an integral part of geotechnical studies for major structures and are an important tool in their design for site specific conditions such as site-specific earthquake response. This paper reported on a study in which shear wave velocities were measured at a proposed petrochemical plant site near Edmonton, Alberta. The proposed site is underlain by lacustrine clay, glacial till and upper Cretaceous clay shale and sandstone bedrock. The most commonly used methods for determining shear wave velocity include crosshole seismic tests, downhole seismic tests, and seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT). This paper presented the results of all 3 methods used in this study and provided a comparison of the various test methods and their limitations. The crosshole test results demonstrated a common trend of increasing shear wave velocity with depth to about 15 m, below which the velocities remained relatively constant. An anomaly was noted at one site, where the shear wave velocity was reduced at a zone corresponding to clay till containing stiff high plastic clay layers. The field study demonstrated that reasonable agreement in shear wave velocity measurements can be made using crosshole, downhole and seismic tests in the same soil conditions. The National Building Code states that the shear wave velocity is the fundamental method for determining site classification, thus emphasizing the importance of obtaining shear wave velocity measurements for site classification. It was concluded that an SCPT program can be incorporated into the field program without much increase in cost and can be supplemented by downhole or crosshole techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Near-surface fault detection by migrating back-scattered surface waves with and without velocity profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2016-04-26

    We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.

  18. 3D shear wave velocity structure revealed with ambient noise tomography on a DAS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.

    2017-12-01

    An 8700-m Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable was deployed at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 in a 1.5 by 0.5 km study area. The layout of the DAS array was designed with a zig-zag geometry to obtain relatively uniform areal and varied angular coverage, providing very dense coverage with a one-meter channel spacing. This array continuously recorded signals of a vibroseis truck, earthquakes, and traffic noise during the 15-day deployment. As shown in a previous study (Zeng et al., 2017), ambient noise tomography can be applied to DAS continuous records to image shear wave velocity structure in the near surface. To avoid effects of the vibroseis truck operation, only continuous data recorded during the nighttime was used to compute noise cross-correlation functions for channel pairs within a given linear segment. The frequency band of whitening was set at 5 to 15 Hz and the length of the cross-correlation time window was set to 60 second. The phase velocities were determined using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methodology. The phase velocity dispersion curve was then used to invert for shear wave velocity profiles. A preliminarily velocity model at Brady's Hot Springs (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2015) was used as the starting model and the sensitivity kernels of Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities were computed with this model. As the sensitivity kernel shows, shear wave velocity in the top 200 m can be constrained with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities in our frequency band. With the picked phase velocity data, the shear wave velocity structure can be obtained via Occam's inversion (Constable et al., 1987; Lai 1998). Shear wave velocity gradually increases with depth and it is generally faster than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2015) model. Furthermore, that model has limiting constraints at shallow depth. The strong spatial variation is interpreted to reflect the different sediments and

  19. Renal shear wave velocity by acoustic radiation force impulse did not reflect advanced renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tomoaki; Koda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Takaaki; Sugihara, Shinobu; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Hosho, Keiko; Mae, Yukari; Iyama, Takuji; Fukui, Takeaki; Fukuda, Satoko; Munemura, Chishio; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse is a noninvasive method for evaluating tissue elasticity on ultrasound. Renal shear wave velocity measured by this technique has not been fully investigated in patients with renal disease. The aim of the present study was to compare renal shear wave velocity in end-stage renal disease patients and that in patients without chronic kidney disease and to investigate influencing factors. Renal shear wave velocities were measured in 59 healthy young subjects (control group), 31 subjects without chronic kidney disease (non-CKD group), and 39 end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD group). Each measurement was performed 10 times at both kidneys, and the mean value of eight of 10 measurements, excluding the maximum and minimum values, was compared. Renal shear wave velocity could be measured in all subjects. Renal shear wave velocity in the control group was higher than in the non-CKD group and in the ESRD group, and no difference was found between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group. Age and depth were negatively correlated to the renal shear wave velocity. In multiple regression analysis, age and depth were independent factors for renal shear wave velocity, while renal impairment was not. There was no difference between the non-CKD group and the ESRD group, even when ages were matched and depth was adjusted. Renal shear wave velocity was not associated with advanced renal impairment. However, it reflected alteration of renal aging, and this technique may be useful to detect renal impairment in the earlier stages. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Shear Wave Velocity for Evaluation of State of Cohesionless Soils with Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Mirosław J.; Wdowska, Małgorzata K.; Jaroń, Łukasz

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns evaluation of cohesionless soils containing fines. In clean sands, state of soil is usually quantified by relative density DR with use of field techniques like static or dynamic probes. However, in cohesionless soils containing considerable amount of fines, relative density alone, which is based solely on void ratio values, is not representative. This results from the fact that in case of cohesionless soil there is no unique intrinsic compressibility line, like it is in case of cohesive soils. Thus state of soil depends not only on void ratio but also state of stress. For this reason it is necessary to look for an alternative means to quantify state of soils with fines. The paper concerns possibility of evaluation of state of soil containing various amount of fines on the basis of shear wave velocity measurement. The idea rests on the fact that void ratio and state of stress are the major factors which contribute to a state of soil and shear wave velocity as well. When measured shear wave velocities are normalised with respect to stresses the resulting values might be strictly correlated to void ratio. To validate this approach, an experimental test programme (based on series of sophisticated triaxial tests) was carried out on four kinds of sandy material containing various amount of fines up to 60%. The experimental data made possible to establish basic correlation between soil states and shear wave velocity for each kind of soil. Normalized shear wave velocity was compared with void ratio and state parameter as well. The obtained results revealed that determination of void ratio on the basis of shear wave velocity in a certain range of fines can be much more adequate than for clean sands. However, if the fines content exceeds certain value, the obtained correlation is no longer as good.

  1. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  2. Large amplitude solitary waves in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tsukabayashi, I.; Ludwig, G.O.; Ferreira, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    When the concentration of negative ions is larger than a critical value, a small compressive pulse evolves into a subsonic wave train and a large pulse develops into a solitary wave. The threshold amplitude and velocity of the solitary waves are measured and compared with predictions using the pseudopotential method. (author) [pt

  3. Ultra-low velocity zone heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary from diffracted PKKPab waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Sun, Xinlei

    2017-08-01

    Diffracted waves around Earth's core could provide important information of the lowermost mantle that other seismic waves may not. We examined PKKPab diffraction waves from 52 earthquakes occurring at the western Pacific region and recorded by USArray to probe the velocity structure along the core-mantle boundary (CMB). These diffracted waves emerge at distances up to 10° past the theoretical cutoff epicentral distance and show comparable amplitudes. We measured the ray parameters of PKKPab diffraction waves by Radon transform analysis that is suitable for large-aperture arrays. These ray parameters show a wide range of values from 4.250 to 4.840 s/deg, suggesting strong lateral heterogeneities in sampling regions at the base of the mantle. We further estimated the P-wave velocity variations by converting these ray parameters and found the CMB regions beneath the northwestern edge of African Anomaly (Ritsma et al. in Science 286:1925-1928, 1999) and southern Sumatra Islands exhibit velocity reductions up to 8.5% relative to PREM. We suggest that these low velocity regions are Ultra-low velocity zones, which may be related to partial melt or iron-enriched solids.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples and Plane-wave Migration Velocity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-08-28

    Seismic imaging is a technique that uses seismic echoes to map and detect underground geological structures. The conventional seismic image has the resolution limit of λ/2, where λ is the wavelength associated with the seismic waves propagating in the subsurface. To exceed this resolution limit, this thesis develops a new imaging method using resonant multiples, which produces superresolution images with twice or even more the spatial resolution compared to the conventional primary reflection image. A resonant multiple is defined as a seismic reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypath. This reverberated raypath is the reason for superresolution imaging because it increases the differences in reflection times associated with subtle changes in the spatial location of the reflector. For the practical implementation of superresolution imaging, I develop a post-stack migration technique that first enhances the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of resonant multiples by a moveout-correction stacking method, and then migrates the post-stacked resonant multiples with the associated Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration formula. I show with synthetic and field data examples that the first-order resonant multiple image has about twice the spatial resolution compared to the primary reflection image. Besides resolution, the correct estimate of the subsurface velocity is crucial for determining the correct depth of reflectors. Towards this goal, wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) is an image-domain method which inverts for the velocity model that maximizes the similarity of common image gathers (CIGs). Conventional WEMVA based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag CIGs requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, I present a new WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the

  5. Normal Reflection Characteristics of One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Shock Waves on Rigid Walls from Pulse Discharge in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong shock waves can be generated by pulse discharge in water, and the characteristics due to the shock wave normal reflection from rigid walls have important significance to many fields, such as industrial production and defense construction. This paper investigates the effects of hydrostatic pressures and perturbation of wave source (i.e., charging voltage on normal reflection of one-dimensional unsteady flow shock waves. Basic properties of the incidence and reflection waves were analyzed theoretically and experimentally to identify the reflection mechanisms and hence the influencing factors and characteristics. The results indicated that increased perturbation (i.e., charging voltage leads to increased peak pressure and velocity of the reflected shock wave, whereas increased hydrostatic pressure obviously inhibited superposition of the reflection waves close to the rigid wall. The perturbation of wave source influence on the reflected wave was much lower than that on the incident wave, while the hydrostatic pressure obviously affected both incident and reflection waves. The reflection wave from the rigid wall in water exhibited the characteristics of a weak shock wave, and with increased hydrostatic pressure, these weak shock wave characteristics became more obvious.

  6. Shear wave crustal velocity model of the Western Bohemian Massif from Love wave phase velocity dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/

  7. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  8. Recovery of Stokes waves from velocity measurements on an axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2015-01-01

    We provide a new method to recover the profile of Stokes waves, and more generally of waves with smooth vorticity, from measurements of the horizontal velocity component on a vertical axis of symmetry of the wave surface. Although we consider periodic waves only, the extension to solitary waves is straightforward. (paper)

  9. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  10. Shear-wave velocity compilation for Northridge strong-motion recording sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole and other geotechnical information collected at the strong-motion recording sites of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994 provide an important new basis for the characterization of local site conditions. These geotechnical data, when combined with analysis of strong-motion recordings, provide an empirical basis to evaluate site coefficients used in current versions of US building codes. Shear-wave-velocity estimates to a depth of 30 meters are derived for 176 strong-motion recording sites. The estimates are based on borehole shear-velocity logs, physical property logs, correlations with physical properties and digital geologic maps. Surface-wave velocity measurements and standard penetration data are compiled as additional constraints. These data as compiled from a variety of databases are presented via GIS maps and corresponding tables to facilitate use by other investigators.

  11. Measurement of the velocity of sound in crystals by pulsed neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, B.T.M.; Carlile, C.J.; Ward, R.C.; David, W.I.F.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-03-01

    The diffraction method of observing elementary excitations in crystals has been applied to the study of one-phonon thermal diffuse scattering from pyrolytic graphite on a high resolution pulsed neutron diffractometer. The variation of the phase velocity of sound as a function of direction in the crystal and efficient method of determining sound velocities in crystals under extreme conditions. (author)

  12. Validation of a Piezoelectric Sensor Array-Based Device for Measurement of Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: The Philips Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shao-Kun; Hong, Xiang-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Yin, Bin; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2018-03-01

    Multiple piezoelectric pressure mechanotransducers topologized into an array might improve efficiency and accuracy in collecting arterial pressure waveforms for measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV). In the present study, we validated a piezoelectric sensor array-based prototype (Philips) against the validated and clinically widely used Complior device (Alam Medical). We recruited 33 subjects with a wide distribution of PWV. For the validation, PWV was measured sequentially with the Complior device (four times) and the Philips prototype (three times). With the 99 paired PWV values, we investigated the agreement between the Philips prototype and the Complior device using Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot. We also performed analysis on the determinants and reproducibility of PWV measured with both devices. The correlation coefficient for PWV measured with the two devices was 0.92 ( p prototype slightly overestimated PWV by 0.24 (± 2 standard deviations, ± 1.91) m/s, especially when PWV was high. The correlation coefficient between the difference and the average of the Philips and Complior measurements was 0.21 ( p = 0.035). Nonetheless, they had similar determinants. Age, mean arterial pressure, and sex altogether explained 81.6 and 83.9% of the variance of PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and Complior device, respectively. When the two extremes of the three PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and the Complior device were investigated, the coefficients of variation were 8.26 and 3.26%, respectively. Compared with the Complior device, the Philips prototype had similar accuracy, determinants, and reproducibility in measuring PWV.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of coronary atherosclerosis and age on aortic and pulmonary arterial pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanya, Shizuo

    2008-01-01

    The effect of coronary artery disease (CAD) and age on aortic (AO-PWV) and pulmonary arterial pulse wave velocity (PA-PWV) was studied. Aortic and pulmonary arterial pressure were measured at two sites (ascending and abdominal aorta, and the main pulmonary trunk and one of its principle branches, respectively) using a catheter-tip micromanometer in 24 patients divided in two groups. Control group (n=12) consisted of patients with normal coronaries, while the CAD group (n=12) consisted of patients with coronary artery disease estimated by coronary angiography. The interval between these two sites was determined by measuring the withdrawal distance of the microtip-catheter. AO-PWV was significantly higher (p<0.02) in the CAD group (12.0±4.1 m/sec) than in the control group (8.2±2.7 m/sec). There was no significant difference between the two groups in PA-PWV. AO-PWV was significantly (r=0.731, p<0.01) increased with age in the control group, while no significant correlation between the two was observed in the CAD group. There was no significant correlation between PA-PWV and age in control group. The results of this study indicate that only coronary atherosclerosis and age have significant predictive value regarding AO-PWV, but there was no significant correlation with PA-PWV for any of these parameters. The PA-PWV invasively measured in the 12 control subjects in this study was 2.3±0.7 m/sec, which is very close to values reported in the recent literatures using MRI. (author)

  14. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  15. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  16. Research on definition of hard rock shear wave velocity of site for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhenkun; Xia Zufeng

    2013-01-01

    Background: The definition of hard rock shear wave velocity is one of the most critical issues in the work of site selection. Purpose: To make a definition of hard rock site on which the model can be assumed as fixed-base condition, a series of research had been done. Several possible hard rock site soil models were developed. Methods: Shear wave velocity of hard rock had been assumed from 1100 m/s to 3200 m/s. For each case, free field analysis and soil structure analysis had been performed. And responses in soil and key nodes of structure were compared. Results: In free field analysis, responses of models that shear wave velocity below 2400 m/s decreased a lot. In SSI analysis, structure responses didn't change much when shear wave velocity was above 2400 m/s. Conclusions: 2400 m/s was the lowest shear wave velocity for hard rock site for fixed-base assumption. (authors)

  17. Plasma Renalase is Not Associated with Blood Pressure and Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Adults With Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association of renalase with blood pressure (BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV in order to better understand the role of renalase in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Methods: A total of 344 subjects with normal kidney function were recruited from our previously established cohort in Shaanxi Province, China. They were divided into the normotensive (NT and hypertensive (HT groups or high baPWV and normal baPWV on the basis of BP levels or baPWV measured with an automatic waveform analyzer. Plasma renalase was determined through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Plasma renalase did not significantly differ between HT and NT groups (3.71 ± 0.69 µg/mL vs. 3.72 ± 0.73 μg/mL, P = 0.905 and between subjects with and without high baPWV (3.67 ± 0.66 µg/mL vs. 3.73 ± 0.74 µg/mL, P = 0.505. However, baPWV was significantly higher in the HT group than in the NT group (1460.4 ± 236.7 vs. 1240.7 ± 174.5 cm/s, P Conclusion: Plasma renalase may not be associated with BP and baPWV in Chinese subjects with normal renal function.

  18. Determination of elastic anisotropy of rocks from P- and S-wave velocities: numerical modelling and lab measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitek, Tomáš; Vavryčuk, Václav; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Petružálek, Matěj

    2014-12-01

    The most common type of waves used for probing anisotropy of rocks in laboratory is the direct P wave. Information potential of the measured P-wave velocity, however, is limited. In rocks displaying weak triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends just on 15 linear combinations of 21 elastic parameters, called the weak-anisotropy parameters. In strong triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends on the whole set of 21 elastic parameters, but inversion for six of them is ill-conditioned and these parameters are retrieved with a low accuracy. Therefore, in order to retrieve the complete elastic tensor accurately, velocities of S waves must also be measured and inverted. For this purpose, we developed a lab facility which allows the P- and S-wave ultrasonic sounding of spherical rock samples in 132 directions distributed regularly over the sphere. The velocities are measured using a pair of P-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized along the radial direction and using two pairs of S-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized tangentially to the spherical sample in mutually perpendicular directions. We present inversion methods of phase and ray velocities for elastic parameters describing general triclinic anisotropy. We demonstrate on synthetic tests that the inversion becomes more robust and stable if the S-wave velocities are included. This applies even to the case when the velocity of the S waves is measured in a limited number of directions and with a significantly lower accuracy than that of the P wave. Finally, we analyse velocities measured on a rock sample from the Outokumpu deep drill hole, Finland. We present complete sets of elastic parameters of the sample including the error analysis for several levels of confining pressure ranging from 0.1 to 70 MPa.

  19. Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.

    1985-01-01

    We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem

  20. THE EFFECT OF VARIATION CONCRETE CUBE OF AXIAL LOAD ON ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY TRANSMITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqih Ma’arif

    2015-05-01

    The test result showed that the increase of ultrasonic pulse velocity effect on cube II due to axial load variation was optimum at 0,35P0 and was minimum at 0,7P0, if compared to the one without axial load, the results were 4,17% and 11,60 respectively. The decrease of pulse velocity on cube III due to axial load variation was at 0,25P0 and 0,7P0; if compared to the one without axial load the result were 0,47% and 20,87% respectively. And the increase of ultrasonic pulse velocity effect on cube IV due to axial load variation was optimum at 0,35P0 and was minimum at 0,7P0; if compared to the one without axial load the result were 0,52% and 21,63% respectively. The maximum limit of effective load step at structure experiencing compressive load ranged from 0,35P0 up to 0,4P0. At high stress level, the crack that occurred was spread evenly to the concrete cubic components and was giving an exponential equation y = y= 5,11e0,0467x. The result of analysis of cubes II, III and IV showed that on paired sample t-test 0,00<0,025, the significant value (2-tailed (0,00<(0,025; meaning there was a difference of pulse velocity due to axial load variation on concrete cube.

  1. Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.

  2. Theory of spin and lattice wave dynamics excited by focused laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-06-01

    We develop a theory of spin wave dynamics excited by ultrafast focused laser pulses in a magnetic film. We take into account both the volume and surface spin wave modes in the presence of applied, dipolar and magnetic anisotropy fields and include the dependence on laser spot exposure size and magnetic damping. We show that the sound waves generated by local heating by an ultrafast focused laser pulse can excite a wide spectrum of spin waves (on top of a dominant magnon–phonon contribution). Good agreement with recent experiments supports the validity of the model.

  3. The effect of gradational velocities and anisotropy on fault-zone trapped waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, A. K.; Eccles, J. D.; Kaipio, J. P.; Malin, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic fault-zone trapped wave (FZTW) dispersion curves and amplitude responses for FL (Love) and FR (Rayleigh) type phases are analysed in transversely isotropic 1-D elastic models. We explore the effects of velocity gradients, anisotropy, source location and mechanism. These experiments suggest: (i) A smooth exponentially decaying velocity model produces a significantly different dispersion curve to that of a three-layer model, with the main difference being that Airy phases are not produced. (ii) The FZTW dispersion and amplitude information of a waveguide with transverse-isotropy depends mostly on the Shear wave velocities in the direction parallel with the fault, particularly if the fault zone to country-rock velocity contrast is small. In this low velocity contrast situation, fully isotropic approximations to a transversely isotropic velocity model can be made. (iii) Fault-aligned fractures and/or bedding in the fault zone that cause transverse-isotropy enhance the amplitude and wave-train length of the FR type FZTW. (iv) Moving the source and/or receiver away from the fault zone removes the higher frequencies first, similar to attenuation. (v) In most physically realistic cases, the radial component of the FR type FZTW is significantly smaller in amplitude than the transverse.

  4. A Numerical Method for Predicting Rayleigh Surface Wave Velocity in Anisotropic Crystals (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    velocity, preventing the use of gradient-based optimization routines. The typical approach to solving this problem is to perform the inverse many times...is dependent on the wave velocity. However, the wave velocity is unknown at this point, which means p and v must be determined simultaneously . One way...defined as: Z=−iBA−1 (11) where A is the matrix formed by combining the displacement vectors, a into a single matrix. The inverse is guaranteed to exist

  5. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.

  7. Video measurements of fluid velocities and water levels in breaking waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost-effective measurement of the velocity flow fields in breaking water waves, using particle and correlation image velocimetry, is described. The fluid velocities are estimated by tracking the motion of neutrally buoyant particles and aeration...

  8. Pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and color tissue Doppler echocardiography: calibration with M-mode, agreement, and reproducibility in a clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Jons, Christian; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial velocities can be measured with both pulsed-wave tissue Doppler (PWTD) and color tissue Doppler (CTD) echocardiography. We aimed to (A) to explore which of the two methods better approximates true tissue motion and (B) to examine the agreement and the reproducibility...... of the two methods in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: For Study A, the displacements of 63 basal myocardial segments from 13 patients were examined with M-mode and compared with the velocity-time integral of PWTD and CTD velocities. For Study B, the basal lateral segments from 58 patients were examined...... with PWTD and CTD, and the peak myocardial velocities during systole (Sm), early diastole (Em), and late diastole (Am) were measured. RESULTS: Study A: CTD-based measurements of displacement were 12% lower than M-mode measurements (95% CI: -18%; -6%). PWTD velocity-time integrals measured at the outer edge...

  9. Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Plasmas: Compression, Frequency Shifting, and Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avitzour, Yoav; Shvets, Gennady

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to manipulating the duration and frequency of microwave pulses using magnetized plasmas is demonstrated. The plasma accomplishes two functions: (i) slowing down and spatially compressing the incident wave, and (ii) modifying the propagation properties (group velocity and frequency) of the wave in the plasma during a uniform in space adiabatic in time variation of the magnitude and/or direction of the magnetic field. The increase in the group velocity results in the shortening of the temporal pulse duration. Depending on the plasma parameters, the frequency of the outgoing compressed pulse can either change or remain unchanged. Such dynamic manipulation of radiation in plasma opens new avenues for manipulating high power microwave pulses

  10. Elimination of spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos by the pulse with a specific spatiotemporal configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Yang Shiping; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2008-01-01

    Spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are sometimes harmful and should be controlled. In this paper spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are successfully eliminated by the pulse with a very specific spatiotemporal configuration. The excited position D of spiral waves or spatiotemporal chaos is first recorded at an arbitrary time (t 0 ). When the system at the domain D enters a recovering state, the external pulse is injected into the domain. If the intensity and the working time of the pulse are appropriate, spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos can finally be eliminated because counter-directional waves can be generated by the pulse. There are two advantages in the method. One is that the tip can be quickly eliminated together with the body of spiral wave, and the other is that the injected pulse may be weak and the duration can be very short so that the original system is nearly not affected, which is important for practical applications

  11. Different velocities in wave trains: early definitions and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Anna M

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments force us to re-examine the physical significance of the different velocities which one can introduce to describe the propagation of a wave train. In this paper we collect together the early definitions of these velocities, and their physical interpretations, dating back to the end of the 19th and to the first decades of the 20th century. Our purpose is to examine the scientific contexts in which some relevant definitions of velocities emerged, with particular attention paid to the early definitions of the group velocity. We recall some debates in which the group velocity had a dominant role, in order to follow the evolution of the physical meanings that have been ascribed to it. Finally, we focus our attention on the connection between the introduction of the group velocity and the problem of white light

  12. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Claude Ahyi, A.; Raju, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier studies regarding acoustic scattering resonances and the dispersive phase velocities of the surface waves that generate them, have demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves from the known acoustic resonance frequencies, and their accuracy. This possi...

  13. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.

    1990-01-01

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10 4 K, 10 2 atmospheres, 10 7 w/cm 2 ) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition of the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the Program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research question still outstanding in this area

  14. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  15. Application of advanced one sided stress wave velocity measurement in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovices, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    It is of interest to reliably measure the velocity of stress waves in concrete. At present, reliable measurement is not possible for dispersive and attenuating materials such as concrete when access to only one surface of the structure is available, such as in the case of pavement structures. In this paper, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity determination in concrete is applied to investigate the effects of composition, age and moisture content. This method uses a controlled impact as a stress wave source and two sensitive receivers mounted on the same surface as the impact sites. The novel aspect of the technique is the data collection system which automatically determines the arrival of the generated longitudinal and surface wave arrivals. A conventional ultrasonic through transmission method is used to compare with the results determined by the one-sided method.

  16. Allowable Pressure In Soils and Rocks by Seismic Wave Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, S.; Keceli, A.; Oezdemir, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, the historical background is presented for the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The principles of plastic equilibrium used in the classical formulation of the ultimate bearing capacity are reviewed, followed by a discussion about the sources of approximations inherent in the classical theory. Secondly, based on a variety of case histories of site investigations, including extensive bore hole data, laboratory testing and geophysical prospecting, an empirical formulation is proposed for the determination of allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The proposed expression corroborates consistently with the results of the classical theory and is proven to be reliable and safe, also from the view point of maximum allowable settlements. It consists of only two soil parameters, namely, the Institut measured shear wave velocity, and the unit weight. The unit weight may be also determined with sufficient accuracy, by means of another empirical expression, using the P-wave velocity. It is indicated that once the shear and P-wave velocities are measured Institut by an appropriate geophysical survey, the allowable bearing capacity is determined reliably through a single step operation. Such an approach, is considerably cost and time-saving, in practice

  17. Heat wave propagation in a thin film irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Gwon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lim, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A thermal wave solution of a hyperbolic heat conduction equation in a thin film is developed on the basis of the Green's function formalism. Numerical computations are carried out to investigate the temperature response and the propagation of the thermal wave inside a thin film due to a heat pulse generated by ultra-short laser pulses with various laser pulse durations and thickness of the film

  18. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  19. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2∼1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm 2 . Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves

  20. Velocity locking and pulsed invasions of fragmented habitats with seasonal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill; Wang, Ching-Hao

    From crystal growth to epidemics, spatial spreading is a common mechanism of change in nature. Typically, spreading results from two processes: growth and dispersal in ecology or chemical reactions and diffusion in physics. These two processes combine to produce a reaction-diffusion wave, an invasion front advancing at a constant velocity. We show that the properties of these waves are remarkably different depending whether space and time are continuous, as they are for a chemical reaction, or discrete, as they are for a pest invading a patchy habitat in seasonal climates. For discrete space and time, we report a new type of expansions with velocities that can lock into specific values and become insensitive to changes in dispersal and growth, i.e. the dependence of the velocity on model parameters exhibits plateaus or pauses. As a result, the evolution and response to perturbations in locked expansions can be markedly different compared to the expectations based on continuous models. The phenomenon of velocity locking requires cooperative growth and does not occur when per capita growth rate decline monotonically with population density. We obtain both numerical and analytical results describing highly non-analytic properties of locked expansions.

  1. Oscillatory pulses and wave trains in a bistable reaction-diffusion system with cross diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemskov, Evgeny P; Tsyganov, Mikhail A; Horsthemke, Werner

    2017-01-01

    We study waves with exponentially decaying oscillatory tails in a reaction-diffusion system with linear cross diffusion. To be specific, we consider a piecewise linear approximation of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, also known as the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol model. We focus on two types of traveling waves, namely solitary pulses that correspond to a homoclinic solution, and sequences of pulses or wave trains, i.e., a periodic solution. The effect of cross diffusion on wave profiles and speed of propagation is analyzed. We find the intriguing result that both pulses and wave trains occur in the bistable cross-diffusive FitzHugh-Nagumo system, whereas only fronts exist in the standard bistable system without cross diffusion.

  2. High C reactive protein associated with increased pulse wave velocity among urban men with metabolic syndrome in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Amilia; Zakaria, Zaiton; Fuad, Ahmad F; Kamsiah, Jaarin; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Kamisah, Yusof; Qodriyah, Haji S; Jubri, Zakiah; Nordin, Nor Anita M; Ngah, Wan Z

    2013-03-01

    To determine the association between carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF); augmentation index (AI); and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and to determine the influence of ethnicity on PWVCF and AI, and the association between high hs-CRP and increased PWV, and AI in MetS. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from September 2009 to September 2011. Three hundred and eighty men (Chinese and Malays) were recruited from the study. The PWVCF and AI were measured by Vicorder (SMT Medical, Wuerzburg, Germany). The hs-CRP level was also determined. We defined MetS using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and harmonized criteria. Malays had higher AI compared to the Malaysian Chinese. Patients with MetS had higher PWVCF (IDF criteria: 8.5 [8.3-8.7] versus 8.2 [8.0-8.4] m/s, p=0.03; harmonized criteria: 8.5 [8.4-8.7] versus 8.2 [8.0-8.4] m/s, p=0.007) and hs-CRP (IDF criteria: 0.9+/-2.0 versus 0.4+/-1.1 mg/L, p=0.0007; harmonized criteria: 0.8+/-1.9 versus 0.4+/-1.1 mg/L, p=0.002) compared to non-MetS. In subjects with MetS, those with high hs-CRP (>3 mg/L) had higher PWVCF. Augmentation index values were significantly higher in Malays compared with Malaysian Chinese. Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased PWVCF and hs-CRP. Patients with MetS and high hs-CRP were associated with higher PWVCF. The measurement of hs-CRP reflects the degree of subclinical vascular damage in MetS.

  3. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  4. Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziepke, A., E-mail: ziepke@itp.tu-berlin.de; Martens, S.; Engel, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Hardenbergstraße 36, EW 7-1, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-07

    We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube’s modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.

  5. Shock wave generation in laser ablation studied using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjoedahl, Mikael [Division of Experimental Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)], E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se, E-mail: per.gren@ltu.se, E-mail: mikael.sjodahl@ltu.se

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the shock wave induced by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm and pulse duration 12 ns) on a polycrystalline boron nitride (PCBN) ceramic target under atmospheric air pressure. A special setup based on using two synchronized wavelengths from the same laser for processing and measurement simultaneously has been introduced. Collimated laser light ({lambda} = 532 nm) passed through the volume along the target and digital holograms were recorded for different time delays after processing starts. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps showing the propagation of the shock wave generated by the process. The location of the induced shock wave front was observed for different focusing and time delays. The amount of released energy, i.e. the part of the incident energy of the laser pulse that is eventually converted to a shock wave has been estimated using the point explosion model. The released energy is normalized by the incident laser pulse energy and the energy conversion efficiency between the laser pulse and PCBN target has been calculated at different power densities. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency seems to be constant around 80% at high power densities.

  6. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge

  7. Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Tieng Wu

    Full Text Available We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.

  8. Radial extension of drift waves in presence of velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Weiland, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a radially varying poloidal velocity field on the recently found radially extended toroidal drift waves is investigated analytically. The role of velocity curvature (υ φ '') is found to have robust effects on the radial model structure of the mode. For a positive value of the curvature (Usually found in the H-mode edges) the radial model envelope, similar to the sheared slab case, becomes fully outgoing. The mode is therefore stable. On the other hand, for a negative value of the curvature (usually observed in the L-mode edges) all the characteristics of conventional drift waves return back. The radial mode envelope reduces to a localized Gaussian shape and the mode is therefore unstable again for typical (magnetic) shear values in tokamaks. Velocity shear (υ φ ??) on the other hand is found to have rather insignificant role both in determining the radial model structure and stability

  9. Improving the shear wave velocity structure beneath Bucharest (Romania) using ambient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Elena Florinela; Michel, Clotaire; Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat; Radulian, Mircea; Balan, Florin Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Large earthquakes from the intermediate-depth Vrancea seismic zone are known to produce in Bucharest ground motion characterized by predominant long periods. This phenomenon has been interpreted as the combined effect of both seismic source properties and site response of the large sedimentary basin. The thickness of the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits beneath the city is more than 200 m, the total depth of sediments is more than 1000 m. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic wave velocities of the sediments are primarily responsible for the large amplification and long duration experienced during earthquakes. For a better understanding of the geological structure under Bucharest, a number of investigations using non-invasive methods have been carried out. With the goal to analyse and extract the polarization and dispersion characteristics of the surface waves, ambient vibrations and low-magnitude earthquakes have been investigated using single station and array techniques. Love and Rayleigh dispersion curves (including higher modes), Rayleigh waves ellipticity and SH-wave fundamental frequency of resonance (f0SH) have been inverted simultaneously to estimate the shear wave velocity structure under Bucharest down to a depth of about 8 km. Information from existing borehole logs was used as prior to reduce the non-uniqueness of the inversion and to constrain the shallow part of the velocity model (array (the URS experiment) installed by the National Institute for Earth Physics and by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology during 10 months in the period 2003-2004. The array consisted of 32 three-component seismological stations, deployed in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones. The large size of the array and the broad-band nature of the available sensors gave us the possibility to characterize the surface wave dispersion at very low frequencies (0.05-1 Hz) using frequency-wavenumber techniques. This is essential to explore and resolve the deeper

  10. Soliton generation via continuous stokes acoustic self-scattering of hypersonic waves in a paramagnetic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible

  11. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  12. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  13. Relativistic solitary waves modulating long laser pulses in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Lefebvre, E

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of solitary electromagnetic waves trapped in a self-generated Langmuir wave and embedded in an infinitely long circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through a plasma. From a mathematical point of view they are exact solutions of the one-dimensional relativistic cold fluid plasma model with nonvanishing boundary conditions. Under the assumption of travelling wave solutions with velocity V and vector potential frequency ω, the fluid model is reduced to a Hamiltonian system. The solitary waves are homoclinic (grey solitons) or heteroclinic (dark solitons) orbits to fixed points. Using a dynamical systems description of the Hamiltonian system and a spectral method, we identify a large variety of solitary waves, including asymmetric ones, discuss their disappearance for certain parameter values and classify them according to (i) grey or dark character, (ii) the number of humps of the vector potential envelope and (iii) their symmetries. The solutions come in continuous families in the parametric V-ω plane and extend up to velocities that approach the speed of light. The stability of certain types of grey solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate their propagation for a few tens of the inverse of the plasma frequency.

  14. Group velocity measurement from the propagation of the ionization front in a surface-wave-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrino, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Lao, C.

    1989-01-01

    During the first instant, previous to steady-state in a surface-wave-produced plasma, an ionization front advance front the launcher to the plasma column end. The velocity of the ionization front is much slower than the group velocity of the surface wave, this give a reflection of the incident signal on the moving ionization front. In this paper, the authors use this effect to calculate the surface wave group velocity

  15. Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.

  16. Amplification of Frequency-Modulated Similariton Pulses in Length-Inhomogeneous Active Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zolotovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of an effective gain of the self-similar frequency-modulated (FM wave packets is studied in the length-inhomogeneous active fibers. The dynamics of parabolic pulses with the constant chirp has been considered. The optimal profile for the change of the group-velocity dispersion corresponding to the optimal similariton pulse amplification has been obtained. It is shown that the use of FM pulses in the active (gain and length-inhomogeneous optical fibers with the normal group-velocity dispersion can provide subpicosecond optical pulse amplification up to the energies higher than 1 nJ.

  17. Stress wave velocity patterns in the longitudinal-radial plane of trees for defect diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiang Weng; Xiaocheng Du; Xiping Wang; Hailin Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic tomography for urban tree inspection typically uses stress wave data to reconstruct tomographic images for the trunk cross section using interpolation algorithm. This traditional technique does not take into account the stress wave velocity patterns along tree height. In this study, we proposed an analytical model for the wave velocity in the longitudinal–...

  18. Self-action of few-cycle pulses in a dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the nonlinear wave equation as the reflection-free approximation, we study the self-focusing dynamics of laser pulses under rather general assumptions about media dispersion. The methods for qualitative investigation of the self-action dynamics of ultrashort pulses are developed. It is shown that a new effect here is steepening of the longitudinal pulse profile, which is determined by the dependence of group velocity on the amplitude. Results of numerical simulation in media without dispersion and with anomalous dispersion confirm the conclusion about outrunning formation of a shock wave during pulse self-focusing. The formation of a power spectrum of the field, which is characteristic for a shock wave, is retained also when medium ionization is taken into account. In the case of a normal-dispersion medium, nonlinear dispersion leads to a violation of the symmetry in the longitudinal splitting of the pulse in the process of self-focusing. The possibility of tuning of the optical-pulse frequency into the short-wave area is shown for the pulse self-action near the zero-dispersion point.

  19. Identifying coronary artery disease in men with type 2 diabetes: osteoprotegerin, pulse wave velocity, and other biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with type 2 diabetes, high serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular events. However, it remains unclear how well OPG performs when compared with traditional biomarkers of cardiovascular risk such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Furthermore, OPG levels are also high in the presence of diabetes-related microvascular disease, and it is unclear whether OPG can distinguish microvascular disease from large-vessel atherosclerosis. The first aim of this study was to compare OPG levels against other biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in the identification of patients with documented multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). The second aim was to compare OPG levels in patients with microvascular complications (microalbuminuria) against those with established CAD. METHODS: Three groups of male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited: patients without microvascular complications or large-vessel atherosclerosis (n = 24), patients with microalbuminuria only (n = 23), and patients with microalbuminuria and documented multivessel CAD (n = 25). OPG, hsCRP, interleukin 6, urate, and pulse wave velocity were measured. RESULTS: Serum OPG levels were significantly higher in patients with a combination of microalbuminuria and CAD than in those with microalbuminuria alone. There were no significant differences in any of the other biomarkers between the groups. CONCLUSION: OPG was found to be superior to the other biomarkers studied in identifying patients with documented CAD. The presence of CAD was a greater determinant of serum OPG levels than microalbuminuria in our population. These findings support the use of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk.

  20. Application of one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Won Su

    1998-01-01

    It is well recognized that damage resulting from freeze-thaw cycles is a serious problems causing deterioration and degradation of concrete. In general, freeze-thaw cycles change the microstructure of the concrete ultimately leading to internal stresses and cracking. In this study, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity measurement has been applied to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete by monitoring the velocity change of longitudinal and surface waves. The freeze-thaw damage was induced in a 400 x 150 x 100 mm concrete specimen in accordance with ASTM C666 using s commercial testing apparatus. A cycle consisted of a variation of the temperature from -14 to 4 degrees Celsius. A cycle takes 4-5 hours with approximately equal times devoted to freezing-thawing. Measurement of longitudinal and surface wave velocities based on one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique was made every 5 freeze-thaw cycle. The variation of longitudinal and surface wave velocities due to increasing freeze-thaw damage is demonstrated and compared to determine which one is more effective to monitor freeze-thaw cyclic damage progress. The variation in longitudinal wave velocity measured by one-sided technique is also compared with that measured by the conventional through transmission technique.

  1. Fracturing process and effect of fracturing degree on wave velocity of a crystalline rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Saroglou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the effect of fracturing degree on P- and S-wave velocities in rock. The deformation of intact brittle rocks under loading conditions is characterized by a microcracking procedure, which occurs due to flaws in their microscopic structure and propagates through the intact rock, leading to shear fracture. This fracturing process is of fundamental significance as it affects the mechanical properties of the rock and hence the wave velocities. In order to determine the fracture mechanism and the effect of fracturing degree, samples were loaded at certain percentages of peak strength and ultrasonic wave velocity was recorded after every test. The fracturing degree was recorded on the outer surface of the sample and quantified by the use of the indices P10 (traces of joints/m, P20 (traces of joints/m2 and P21 (length of fractures/m2. It was concluded that the wave velocity decreases exponentially with increasing fracturing degree. Additionally, the fracturing degree is described adequately with the proposed indices. Finally, other parameters concerning the fracture characteristics, rock type and scale influence were found to contribute to the velocity decay and need to be investigated further.

  2. Comparison by Magnetic Resonance Phase Contrast of Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients with Single Ventricle and Reconstructed Aortas versus Those Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Li, Christine; Nicolson, Susan C; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Whitehead, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Single ventricle patients who undergo aortic to pulmonary anastomosis (recon) have non-compliant patch material inserted into the neo-aorta, possibly increasing vessel stiffness and afterload. The purpose of this study is to determine if PWV differed in single ventricle patients who did and did not undergo aortic reconstruction (no-recon). We retrospectively reviewed cardiac magnetic resonance anatomic, cine and phase contrast evaluations in the ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (DAo) at the level of the diaphragm data from 126 single ventricle patients (8.6±8.0 years) from January 2012 to May, 2013. Significance = P 13 years had a higher PWV than those < 7 years (4.5±0.6 vs 3.5±0.7 m/s, P=0.004). DAo distensibility was similar between both groups. There was no difference in age, body surface area or cardiac index between recon and no-recon. No correlations between various hemodynamic and ventricular function parameters with PWV were noted. In conclusion, PWV in recon is higher than in no-recon with similar DAo distensibility implicating the aortic reconstruction as a possible cause of increased afterload; older recon have stiffer aortas than younger ones possibly imposing an additional cardiovascular risk in the future. Other biomaterials may potentially moderate PWV if clinical outcome is adversely affected. PMID:25432153

  3. Plasma acceleration in a wave with varying frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The averaged velocity of a test particle and the averaged velocity of a plasma in an electromagnetic wave packet with varying frequency (e.g., a radiation pulse from pulsar) is derived. The total momentum left by the wave packet in regions of plasma inhomogeneity is found. In case the plasma concentration is changing due to ionization the plasma may be accelerated parallelly or antiparallelly to the direction of the wave packet propagation which is relevant for a laser induced breakdown in gas. (author)

  4. Agradient velocity, vortical motion and gravity waves in a rotating shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutyrin Georgi, G.

    2004-07-01

    A new approach to modelling slow vortical motion and fast inertia-gravity waves is suggested within the rotating shallow-water primitive equations with arbitrary topography. The velocity is exactly expressed as a sum of the gradient wind, described by the Bernoulli function,B, and the remaining agradient part, proportional to the velocity tendency. Then the equation for inverse potential vorticity,Q, as well as momentum equations for agradient velocity include the same source of intrinsic flow evolution expressed as a single term J (B, Q), where J is the Jacobian operator (for any steady state J (B, Q) = 0). Two components of agradient velocity are responsible for the fast inertia-gravity wave propagation similar to the traditionally used divergence and ageostrophic vorticity. This approach allows for the construction of balance relations for vortical dynamics and potential vorticity inversion schemes even for moderate Rossby and Froude numbers assuming the characteristic value of |J(B, Q)| = to be small. The components of agradient velocity are used as the fast variables slaved to potential vorticity that allows for diagnostic estimates of the velocity tendency, the direct potential vorticity inversion with the accuracy of 2 and the corresponding potential vorticity-conserving agradient velocity balance model (AVBM). The ultimate limitations of constructing the balance are revealed in the form of the ellipticity condition for balanced tendency of the Bernoulli function which incorporates both known criteria of the formal stability: the gradient wind modified by the characteristic vortical Rossby wave phase speed should be subcritical. The accuracy of the AVBM is illustrated by considering the linear normal modes and coastal Kelvin waves in the f-plane channel with topography.

  5. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the

  6. Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György

    2017-04-01

    The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter

  7. Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remetter, T.; Ruchon, T.; Johnsson, P.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The well controlled generation and characterization of attosecond XUV light pulses provide an unprecedented tool to study electron wave packets (EWPs). Here a train of attosecond pulses is used to create and study the phase of an EWP in momentum space. There is a clear analogy between electronic wave functions and optical fields. In optics, methods like SPIDER or wave front shearing interferometry, allow to measure the spectral or spatial phase of a light wave. These two methods are based on the same principle: an interferogram is produced when recombining two sheared replica of a light pulse, spectrally (SPIDER) or spatially (wave front shearing interferometry). This enables the comparison of two neighbouring different spectral or spatial slices of the original wave packet. In the experiment, a train of attosecond pulses is focused in an Argon atomic gas jet. EWPs are produced from the single XUV photon ionization of Argon atoms. If an IR beam is synchronized to the EWPs, it is possible to introduce a shear in momentum space between two consecutive s wave packets. A Velocity Map Imaging Spectrometer (VMIS) enables us to detect the interference pattern. An analysis of the interferograms will be presented leading to a conclusion about the symmetry of the studied wave packet.

  8. [Research on vigilance detection based on pulse wave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Jiao, Xuejun; Pan, Jinjin; Jiang, Jin; Fu, Jiahao; Xu, Fenggang; Yang, Hanjun

    2017-12-01

    This paper studied the rule for the change of vigilance based on pulse wave. 10 participants were recruited in a 95-minute Mackworth clock test (MCT) experiment. During the experiment, the vigilance of all participants were evaluated by Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and behavior data (the reaction time and the accuracy of target) and pulse wave signal of the participants were recorded simultaneously. The result indicated that vigilance of the participants can be divided into 3 classes: the first 30 minutes for high vigilance level, the middle 30 minutes for general vigilance level, and the last 30 minutes for low vigilance level. Besides, time domain features such as amplitude of secondary peak, amplitude of peak and the latency of secondary peak decreased with the decrease of vigilance, while the amplitude of troughs increased. In terms of frequency domain features, the energy of 4 frequency band including 8.600 ~ 9.375 Hz, 11.720 ~ 12.500 Hz, 38.280 ~ 39.060 Hz and 39.060 ~ 39.840 Hz decreased with the decrease of vigilance. Finally, under the recognition model established by the 8 characteristics mentioned above, the average accuracy of three-classification results over the 10 participants was as high as 88.7%. The results of this study confirmed the feasibility of pulse wave in the evaluation of vigilance, and provided a new way for the real-time monitoring of vigilance.

  9. Liberation of a pinned spiral wave by a rotating electric pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Ma, Jun; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Spiral waves may be pinned to anatomical heterogeneities in the cardiac tissue, which leads to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by electric pulses in one direction (EP) is a promising method for liberating such waves by using heterogeneities as internal virtual pacing sites. Here, based on the WEH effect, a new mechanism of liberation by means of a rotating electric pulse (REP) is proposed in a generic model of excitable media. Compared with the EP, the REP has the advantage of opening wider time window to liberate pinned spiral. The influences of rotating direction and frequency of the REP, and the radius of the obstacles on this new mechanism are studied. We believe this strategy may improve manipulations with pinned spiral waves in heart experiments.

  10. Association between the severity of coronary artery stenosis and the combination of the difference in blood pressure between arms and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyase, Yuiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Yano, Masaya; Suematsu, Yasunori; Adachi, Sen; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    A difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥10 mmHg between the arms is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality in high-risk patients. Four hundred and fourteen patients were divided into three groups according to the percent most severe luminal narrowing of a coronary artery as diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography: no or mild coronary stenosis (0-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (≥70%) groups. The relative difference in SBP between arms in the severe group was significantly lower than those in the no or mild and moderate groups. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) significantly increased as the severity of coronary stenosis increased. We confirmed that severe coronary stenosis was independently associated with both the relative difference in SBP between arms and baPWV, in addition to age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and ankle-brachial index by a logistic regression analysis. The group with a relative difference in SBP between arms of difference in SBP between arms and baPWV may be a more effective approach for the non-invasive assessment of the severity of CAD.

  11. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  12. Potential and limitations of wave intensity analysis in coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, M.; Kolyva, C.; Verhoeff, B.J.; Piek, J.J.; Spaan, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is beginning to be applied to the coronary circulation both to better understand coronary physiology and as a diagnostic tool. Separation of wave intensity (WI) into forward and backward traveling components requires knowledge of pulse wave velocity at the point of

  13. In-situ changes in the elastic wave velocity of rock with increasing temperature using high-resolution coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baud, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Rock undergoes fluctuations in temperature in various settings in Earth's crust, including areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, or industrial environments such as hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs. Changes in temperature can cause thermal stresses that can result in the formation of microcracks, which affect the mechanical, physical, and transport properties of rocks. Of the affected physical properties, the elastic wave velocity of rock is particularly sensitive to microcracking. Monitoring the evolution of elastic wave velocity during the thermal stressing of rock therefore provides valuable insight into thermal cracking processes. One monitoring technique is Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), which infers high-resolution changes in the medium from changes in multiple-scattered elastic waves. We have designed a new experimental setup to perform CWI whilst cyclically heating and cooling samples of granite (cylinders of 20 mm diameter and 40 mm length). In our setup, the samples are held between two pistons within a tube furnace and are heated and cooled at a rate of 1 °C/min to temperatures of up to 300 °C. Two high temperature piezo-transducers are each in contact with an opposing face of the rock sample. The servo-controlled uniaxial press compensates for the thermal expansion and contraction of the pistons and the sample, keeping the coupling between the transducers and the sample, and the axial force acting on the sample, constant throughout. Our setup is designed for simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring (AE is commonly used as a proxy for microcracking), and so we can follow thermal microcracking precisely by combining the AE and CWI techniques. We find that during the first heating/cooling cycle, the onset of thermal microcracking occurs at a relatively low temperature of around 65 °C. The CWI shows that elastic wave velocity decreases with increasing temperature and increases during cooling. Upon cooling, back to room temperature, there is an

  14. Kidney transplantation improves arterial function measured by pulse wave analysis and endothelium-independent dilatation in uraemic patients despite deterioration of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter; Idorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for kidney transplantation (uraemic control group, age 47 ± 11 years). Arterial function was estimated by the pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the carotid-femoral pulse wave, aortic augmentation index (AIX), flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-induced vasodilatation (NID) of the brachial artery performed......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kidney transplantation on arterial function in relation to changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: Included were 40 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 38 ± 13 years) and 40 patients without known diabetes remaining on the waiting list...... before transplantation and after 12 months. PWV recorded sequentially at the carotid and femoral artery is an estimate of arterial stiffness; AIX is an integrated index of vascular and ventricular function. FMD and NID are the dilatory capacities of the brachial artery after increased flow (endothelium...

  15. A stability investigation of two-dimensional surface waves on evaporating, isothermal or condensing liquid films - Part I, Thermal non-equilibrium effects on wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunxi, L.; Xuemin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The temporal stability equation of the two-dimensional traveling waves of evaporating or condensing liquid films falling down on an inclined wall is established based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The model indicates that the wave velocity is related to the effects of evaporating, isothermal and condensing states, thermo-capillarity, Reynolds number, fluid property and inclined angle, and the effects of above factors are distinctly different under different Reynolds numbers. The theoretical studies show that evaporation process induces the wave velocity to increase slightly compared with the isothermal case, and condensation process induces the wave velocity to decrease slightly. Furthermore, the wave velocity decreases because of the effects of thermo-capillarity under evaporation and increases because of the effects of thermo-capillarity under condensation. The effects of thermal non-equilibrium conditions have relatively obvious effects under lower Reynolds numbers and little effects under higher Reynolds numbers

  16. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    OpenAIRE

    MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...

  17. Transdimensional inversion of scattered body waves for 1D S-wave velocity structure - Application to the Tengchong volcanic area, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Bodin, Thomas; Lin, Xu; Wu, Tengfei

    2018-06-01

    Inversion of receiver functions is commonly used to recover the S-wave velocity structure beneath seismic stations. Traditional approaches are based on deconvolved waveforms, where the horizontal component of P-wave seismograms is deconvolved by the vertical component. Deconvolution of noisy seismograms is a numerically unstable process that needs to be stabilized by regularization parameters. This biases noise statistics, making it difficult to estimate uncertainties in observed receiver functions for Bayesian inference. This study proposes a method to directly invert observed radial waveforms and to better account for data noise in a Bayesian formulation. We illustrate its feasibility with two synthetic tests having different types of noises added to seismograms. Then, a real site application is performed to obtain the 1-D S-wave velocity structure beneath a seismic station located in the Tengchong volcanic area, Southwestern China. Surface wave dispersion measurements spanning periods from 8 to 65 s are jointly inverted with P waveforms. The results show a complex S-wave velocity structure, as two low velocity zones are observed in the crust and uppermost mantle, suggesting the existence of magma chambers, or zones of partial melt. The upper magma chambers may be the heart source that cause the thermal activity on the surface.

  18. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Grüner-Nielsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain is charac......We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain...... bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations, leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion-orders....

  19. Nonlinear Wave-Particle Interaction: Implications for Newborn Planetary and Backstreaming Proton Velocity Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, N.; Mazelle, C.; Meziane, K.

    2018-02-01

    Seen from the solar wind (SW) reference frame, the presence of newborn planetary protons upstream from the Martian and Venusian bow shocks and SW protons reflected from each of them constitutes two sources of nonthermal proton populations. In both cases, the resulting proton velocity distribution function is highly unstable and capable of giving rise to ultralow frequency quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic plasma waves. When these instabilities take place, the resulting nonlinear waves are convected by the SW and interact with nonthermal protons located downstream from the wave generation region (upstream from the bow shock), playing a predominant role in their dynamics. To improve our understanding of these phenomena, we study the interaction between a charged particle and a large-amplitude monochromatic circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to a background magnetic field, from first principles. We determine the number of fix points in velocity space, their stability, and their dependence on different wave-particle parameters. Particularly, we determine the temporal evolution of a charged particle in the pitch angle-gyrophase velocity plane under nominal conditions expected for backstreaming protons in planetary foreshocks and for newborn planetary protons in the upstream regions of Venus and Mars. In addition, the inclusion of wave ellipticity effects provides an explanation for pitch angle distributions of suprathermal protons observed at the Earth's foreshock, reported in previous studies. These analyses constitute a mean to evaluate if nonthermal proton velocity distribution functions observed at these plasma environments present signatures that can be understood in terms of nonlinear wave-particle processes.

  20. Limited Diffraction Maps for Pulsed Wave Annular Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure is provided for decomposing the linear field of flat pulsed wave annular arrays into an equivalent set of known limited diffraction Bessel beams. Each Bessel beam propagates with known characteristics, enabling good insight into the propagation of annular fields to be obtained...

  1. Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.

  2. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions using Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Biryol, C. B.; Ward, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian Plate consists of various lithospheric terranes amalgamated during the closure of the Tethys Ocean, and is currently extruding to the west in response to a combination of the collision of the Arabian plate in the east and the roll back of the Aegean subduction zone in the west. We used Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) at periods structure of the Anatolian Plate. We computed a total of 13,779 unique cross-correlations using one sample-per-second vertical component broadband seismic data from 215 stations from 8 different networks over a period of 7 years to compute fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves following the method of Benson et al. (2007). We then inverted the dispersion data to calculate phase velocity maps for 11 periods from 8 s - 40 s throughout Anatolia and the Aegean regions (Barmin et al. 2001). Using smoothed Moho values derived from Vanacore et al. (2013) in our starting models, we inverted our dispersion curves using a linear least-squares iterative inversion scheme (Herrmann & Ammon 2004) to produce a 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle throughout Anatolia and the Aegean. We find a good correlation between our seismic shear wave velocities and paleostructures (suture zones) and modern deformation (basin formation and fault deformation). The most prominent crustal velocity contrasts occur across intercontinental sutures zones, resulting from the juxtaposition of the compositionally different basements of the amalgamated terranes. At shallow depths, seismic velocity contrasts correspond closely with surficial features. The Thrace, Cankiri and Tuz Golu basins, and accretionary complexes related to the closure of the Neotethys are characterized by slow shear wave velocities, while the Menderes and Kirsehir Massifs, Pontides, and Istanbul Zone are characterized by fast velocities. We find that the East Anatolia Plateau has slow shear-wave velocities, as expected due to high heat flow and active

  3. The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers with inclusion of the beam velocity spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ling-Bao; Wang, Hong-Yu; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Jin, Hai-Bo; Du, Chao-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) with an initially straight electron beam is developed. The evolution equation of the nonlinear beam electron energy is derived. The numerical studies of the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam velocity spread are presented. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. -- Highlights: •The theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers is considered. •The calculation of efficiency under the resonance condition is presented. •The efficiency under Gaussian velocity spreads has been obtained

  4. The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers with inclusion of the beam velocity spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ling-Bao, E-mail: konglingbao@gmail.com [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Assessment, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Hong-Yu [School of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Hou, Zhi-Ling, E-mail: houzl@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Assessment, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Jin, Hai-Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Du, Chao-Hai [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) with an initially straight electron beam is developed. The evolution equation of the nonlinear beam electron energy is derived. The numerical studies of the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam velocity spread are presented. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. -- Highlights: •The theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers is considered. •The calculation of efficiency under the resonance condition is presented. •The efficiency under Gaussian velocity spreads has been obtained.

  5. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  6. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of apparent wave velocity on seismic performance of a super-long-span triple-tower suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.

  8. S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles

  9. Sensitivities of surface wave velocities to the medium parameters in a radially anisotropic spherical Earth and inversion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar N. Bhattacharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity kernels or partial derivatives of phase velocity (c and group velocity (U with respect to medium parameters are useful to interpret a given set of observed surface wave velocity data. In addition to phase velocities, group velocities are also being observed to find the radial anisotropy of the crust and mantle. However, sensitivities of group velocity for a radially anisotropic Earth have rarely been studied. Here we show sensitivities of group velocity along with those of phase velocity to the medium parameters VSV, VSH , VPV, VPH , h and density in a radially anisotropic spherical Earth. The peak sensitivities for U are generally twice of those for c; thus U is more efficient than c to explore anisotropic nature of the medium. Love waves mainly depends on VSH while Rayleigh waves is nearly independent of VSH . The sensitivities show that there are trade-offs among these parameters during inversion and there is a need to reduce the number of parameters to be evaluated independently. It is suggested to use a nonlinear inversion jointly for Rayleigh and Love waves; in such a nonlinear inversion best solutions are obtained among the model parameters within prescribed limits for each parameter. We first choose VSH, VSV and VPH within their corresponding limits; VPV and h can be evaluated from empirical relations among the parameters. The density has small effect on surface wave velocities and it can be considered from other studies or from empirical relation of density to average P-wave velocity.

  10. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  11. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10% metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to −15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11–166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11–200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

  12. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)

  13. Estimation of S-wave Velocity Structures by Using Microtremor Array Measurements for Subsurface Modeling in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ridwan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is located on a thick sedimentary layer that potentially has a very high seismic wave amplification. However, the available information concerning the subsurface model and bedrock depth is insufficient for a seismic hazard analysis. In this study, a microtremor array method was applied to estimate the geometry and S-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer. The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC method was applied to estimate the dispersion curve, while the S-wave velocity was estimated using a genetic algorithm approach. The analysis of the 1D and 2D S-wave velocity profiles shows that along a north-south line, the sedimentary layer is thicker towards the north. It has a positive correlation with a geological cross section derived from a borehole down to a depth of about 300 m. The SPT data from the BMKG site were used to verify the 1D S-wave velocity profile. They show a good agreement. The microtremor analysis reached the engineering bedrock in a range from 359 to 608 m as depicted by a cross section in the north-south direction. The site class was also estimated at each site, based on the average S-wave velocity until 30 m depth. The sites UI to ISTN belong to class D (medium soil, while BMKG and ANCL belong to class E (soft soil.

  14. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo

    2009-06-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  15. Effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Chong-Do; Wee, Sang Ouk; Fernhall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-09-01

    The effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were investigated. Twenty-six patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were randomly assigned to either the combined aerobic and resistance exercise group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 12). The exercise intervention group received a combined aerobic and resistance exercise training (1 hr/day, three times/week for 16 wks), whereas the control group received usual care. Central arterial stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Gait velocity was assessed using the 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, and the Timed Up-and-Go test. Patients in the exercise intervention group had greater improvement of mean pulse wave velocity (P hemiparesis.

  16. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdulich, P; Prentza, A; Wesseling, K H

    1997-03-01

    To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by the Finapres technique in 53 adult human subjects. Mean pressure was subtracted from each pressure waveform and Fourier analysis applied to the pulsations. A distortion model was estimated for each subject and averaged over the group. The average inverse model was applied to the full finger pressure waveform. The pressure decrement was modelled by multiple regression on finger systolic and diastolic levels. Waveform distortion could be described by a general, frequency dependent model having a resonance at 7.3 Hz. The general inverse model has an anti-resonance at this frequency. It converts finger to brachial pulsations thereby reducing average waveform distortion from 9.7 (s.d. 3.2) mmHg per sample for the finger pulse to 3.7 (1.7) mmHg for the converted pulse. Systolic and diastolic level differences between finger and brachial arterial pressures changed from -4 (15) and -8 (11) to +8 (14) and +8 (12) mmHg, respectively, after inverse modelling, with pulse pressures correct on average. The pressure decrement model reduced both the mean and the standard deviation of systolic and diastolic level differences to 0 (13) and 0 (8) mmHg. Diastolic differences were thus reduced most. Brachial to finger pulse wave distortion due to wave reflection in arteries is almost identical in all subjects and can be modelled by a single resonance. The pressure decrement due to flow in arteries is greatest for high pulse pressures superimposed on low means.

  17. Determination of group velocity of propagation of Lamb waves in aluminium plate using piezoelectric transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lašová Z.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A prior knowledge of group velocities of Lamb wave modes is a key for analysis of time signals in guidedwave based structural health monitoring. The identification of multiple wave modes may be complicated due to dependency of group velocity on frequency (dispersion. These dependencies for infinite plate of constant thickness can be calculated by a numerical solution of analytic equation. Two alternative approaches to determine group velocities of zero-order Lamb wave modes in aluminum plate were used in this work: Two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT and methods of time-frequency processing. 2D-FFT requires a high number of time signals in equidistant points, therefore it was applied on data from finite element analysis of wave propagation in the plate. Group velocities for chosen frequencies were also determined using wavelet transform (WT of signals as differencies of times of arrival measured by a pair of piezoelectric transducers. The results from 2D-FFT and wavelet transform were compared to the analytic solution.

  18. Ionization by a pulsed plasma surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloyet, E.; Leprince, P.; Marec, J.; Llamas Blasco, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization mechanism is studied of a pulsed surface wave generating a microwave discharge. When the plasma is dominated by collisions, it is found that the velocity of the ionization front depends on the ponderomotive force due to the field gradient in the front. (orig.)

  19. A novel velocity estimator using multiple frequency carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Jakobsson, Andreas; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2004-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator. Typically, NLS estimators are computationally cumbersome, in general requiring the minimization of a multidimensional and often multimodal cost function. Here, by noting that the unknown velocity will result in a common known frequency......Most modern ultrasound scanners use the so-called pulsed-wave Doppler technique to estimate the blood velocities. Among the narrowband-based methods, the autocorrelation estimator and the Fourier-based method are the most commonly used approaches. Due to the low level of the blood echo, the signal......-to-noise ratio is low, and some averaging in depth is applied to improve the estimate. Further, due to velocity gradients in space and time, the spectrum may get smeared. An alternative approach is to use a pulse with multiple frequency carriers, and do some form of averaging in the frequency domain. However...

  20. Two-wave generator of subnanosecond radiation pulses on an yttrium-aluminium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babikov, Yu.I.; Ir, K.S.; Mironov, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    Great attention is paid to the electron accelerator based on the mechanism of electron accelerator in the field of plasma wave, excited by laser radiation. The laser system master generator based on serial LTIPC-8 laser is described. The system is intended for investigating the plasma excitation processes initiated by two-frequency laser radiation beats. Pulse duration is ≤1 ns at 3-4 pulse train. Radiation on 1.0615 and 1.0641 μm wave length is generated. 5 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Effects of dispersion on electromagnetic parameters of tape-helix Blumlein pulse forming line of accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.L.; Feng, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the tape-helix model is introduced in the field of intense electron beam accelerator to analyze the dispersion effects on the electromagnetic parameters of helical Blumlein pulse forming line (PFL). Work band and dispersion relation of the PFL are analyzed, and the normalized coefficients of spatial harmonics are calculated. Dispersion effects on the important electromagnetic parameters of PFL, such as phase velocity, slow-wave coefficient, electric length and pulse duration, are analyzed as the central topic. In the PFL, electromagnetic waves with different frequencies in the work band of PFL have almost the same phase velocity. When de-ionized water, transformer oil and air are used as the PFL filling dielectric, respectively, the pulse duration of the helical Blumlein PFL is calculated as 479.6 ns, 81.1 ns and 53.1 ns in order. Electromagnetic wave simulation and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theoretical calculations of the electric length and pulse duration which directly describe the phase velocity and dispersion of the PFL. Simulation results prove the theoretical analysis and calculation on pulse duration. Experiment is carried out based on the tape-helix Blumlein PFL and magnetic switch system. Experimental results show that the pulse durations are tested as 460 ns, 79 ns and 49 ns in order when de-ionized water, transformer oil and air are used respectively. Experimental results basically demonstrate the theoretical calculations and the analyses of dispersion. (authors)

  2. Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives

  3. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  4. P-Wave and S-Wave Velocity Structure of Submarine Landslide Associated With Gas Hydrate Layer on Frontal Ridge of Northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, T.; Lu, H.; Yelisetti, S.; Spence, G.

    2015-12-01

    The submarine landslide associated with gas hydrate is a potential risk for environment and engineering projects, and thus from long time ago it has been a hot topic of hydrate research. The study target is Slipstream submarine landslide, one of the slope failures observed on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin off Vancouver Island. The previous studies indicated a possible connection between this submarine landslide feature and gas hydrate, whose occurrence is indicated by a prominent bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), at a depth of ~265-275 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). The OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) data collected during SeaJade (Seafloor Earthquake Array - Japan Canada Cascadia Experiment) project were used to derive the subseafloor velocity structure for both P- and S-wave using travel times picked from refraction and reflection events. The P-wave velocity structure above the BSR showed anomalous high velocities of about 2.0 km/s at shallow depths of 100 mbsf, closely matching the estimated depth of the glide plane (100 ± 10 m). Forward modelling of S-waves was carried out using the data from the OBS horizontal components. The S-wave velocities, interpreted in conjunction with the P-wave results, provide the key constraints on the gas hydrate distribution within the pores. The hydrate distribution in the pores is important for determining concentrations, and also for determining the frame strength which is critical for controlling slope stability of steep frontal ridges. The increase in S-wave velocity suggests that the hydrate is distributed as part of the load-bearing matrix to increase the rigidity of the sediment.

  5. Helioseismic measurements in the solar envelope using group velocities of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gryaznov, V. K.

    2014-07-01

    At intermediate- and high-degree l, solar p and f modes can be considered as surface waves. Using variational principle, we derive an integral expression for the group velocities of the surface waves in terms of adiabatic eigenfunctions of normal modes, and address the benefits of using group-velocity measurements as a supplementary diagnostic tool in solar seismology. The principal advantage of using group velocities, when compared with direct analysis of the oscillation frequencies, comes from their smaller sensitivity to the uncertainties in the near-photospheric layers. We address some numerical examples where group velocities are used to reveal inconsistencies between the solar models and the seismic data. Further, we implement the group-velocity measurements to the calibration of the specific entropy, helium abundance Y, and heavy-element abundance Z in the adiabatically stratified part of the solar convective envelope, using different recent versions of the equation of state. The results are in close agreement with our earlier measurements based on more sophisticated analysis of the solar oscillation frequencies. These results bring further support to the downward revision of the solar heavy-element abundances in recent spectroscopic measurements.

  6. High resolution Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Lihua; Wu Jianping; Ding Zhifeng; Panza, G.F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China performed using ambient seismic noise observed at 190 broadband and 10 very broadband stations of the North-China Seismic Array. All available vertical component time-series for the 14 months span between January, 2007 and February, 2008 are cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave Green functions that are subsequently processed, with the multiple filter method, to isolate the group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave. Tomographic maps, with a grid spacing of 0.25 deg. x 0.25 deg., are computed at the periods of 4.5s, 12s, 20s, 28s. The maps at short periods reveal an evident lateral heterogeneity in the crust of North-China, quite well in agreement with known geological and tectonic features. The North China Basin is imaged as a broad low velocity area, while the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts and Ordos block are imaged as high velocity zones, and the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. The group velocity contours at 4.5s, 12s and 20s are consistent with the Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in the area of the Taihangshan fault, that cuts through the lower crust at least. Most of the historical strong earthquakes (M≥6.0) are located where the tomographic maps show zones with moderate velocity gradient. (author)

  7. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  8. Eulerian-Lagrangian analysis for particle velocities and trajectories in a pure wave motion using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeyama, Motohiko

    2012-04-13

    This paper investigates the velocity and the trajectory of water particles under surface waves, which propagate at a constant water depth, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The vector fields and vertical distributions of velocities are presented at several phases in one wave cycle. The third-order Stokes wave theory was employed to express the physical quantities. The PIV technique's ability to measure both temporal and spatial variations of the velocity was proved after a series of attempts. This technique was applied to the prediction of particle trajectory in an Eulerian scheme. Furthermore, the measured particle path was compared with the positions found theoretically by integrating the Eulerian velocity to the higher order of a Taylor series expansion. The profile of average travelling distance is also presented with a solution of zero net mass flux in a closed wave flume.

  9. The effect of austenitizing conditions in the ductile iron hardening process on longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Orłowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a research on the effect of austenitizing temperature and time adopted in the hardening operation on the ultrasonic wave velocity in ductile iron. It has been found that with increasing austenitizing temperature and with the passage of the austenitizing time, a monotonic decrease of the ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity value occurred. Implementation of ultrasonic testing of results obtained in the course of the cast iron hardening process both in production and as-cast conditions, requires development of a test methodology that must take into account the influence of base material structure (degree of nodularization, graphite precipitation count on the ultrasound wave velocity.

  10. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  11. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  12. Bootstrap inversion for Pn wave velocity in North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eva

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion of Pn arrival times from regional distance earthquakes (180-800 km, recorded by 94 seismic stations operating in North-Western Italy and surrounding areas, was carried out to image lateral variations of P-wave velocity at the crust-mantle boundary, and to estimate the static delay time at each station. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed using both synthetic tests and the bootstrap Monte Carlo resampling technique. Numerical simulations demonstrated the existence of a trade-off between cell velocities and estimated station delay times along the edge of the model. Bootstrap inversions were carried out to determine the standard deviation of velocities and time terms. Low Pn velocity anomalies are detected beneath the outer side of the Alps (-6% and the Western Po plain (-4% in correspondence with two regions of strong crustal thickening and negative Bouguer anomaly. In contrast, high Pn velocities are imaged beneath the inner side of the Alps (+4% indicating the presence of high velocity and density lower crust-upper mantle. The Ligurian sea shows high Pn velocities close to the Ligurian coastlines (+3% and low Pn velocities (-1.5% in the middle of the basin in agreement with the upper mantle velocity structure revealed by seismic refraction profiles.

  13. Comparison by magnetic resonance phase contrast imaging of pulse-wave velocity in patients with single ventricle who have reconstructed aortas versus those without.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Nicolson, Susan C; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Whitehead, Kevin K

    2014-12-15

    Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Patients with single ventricle who undergo aortic to pulmonary anastomosis (recon) have noncompliant patch material inserted into the neoaorta, possibly increasing vessel stiffness and afterload. The purpose of this study is to determine if PWV in patients with single ventricle differed between those who did and those who did not undergo aortic reconstruction (nonrecon). We retrospectively reviewed cardiac magnetic resonance anatomic, cine, and phase contrast evaluations in the ascending aorta and descending aorta (DAo) at the level of the diaphragm data from 126 patients with single ventricle (8.6 ± 8.0 years) from January 2012 to May 2013. Significance = p 13 years old had a higher PWV than those 13 years old, PWV of those with recon was higher than nonrecon DAo distensibility was similar between both groups. There was no difference in age, body surface area, or cardiac index between recon and nonrecon. No correlations between various hemodynamic and ventricular function parameters with PWV were noted. In conclusion, PWV in recon is higher than in nonrecon with similar DAo distensibility implicating the aortic reconstruction as a possible cause of increased afterload; older recon patients have stiffer aortas than younger ones, possibly imposing an additional cardiovascular risk in the future. Other biomaterials may potentially moderate PWV if clinical outcome is adversely affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsed Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging in Asymptomatic Beta- Thalassemia Major Children and Young Adults; Relation to Chemical Biomarkers of Left Ventricular Function and Iron Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Seham M; Fathy, Waleed M; El-Aziz, Walaa FAbd; Helal, Rasha T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among β-halassaemia major (TM) patients. Once heart failure becomes overt, it is difficult to reverse. To investigate non-overt cardiac dysfunctions in TM patients using pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging (TD I) and its relation to iron overload and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Thorough clinical, conventional echo and pulsed wave TDI parameters were compared between asymptomatic 25 β-TM patients and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels were assayed by ELISA. TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E) wave and non significant other conventional echo parameters. In the patient group, pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic dysfunctions, in the form of significant higher isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), and lower ejection time (E T), with diastolic dysfunction in the form of higher isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), and lower mitral annulus early diastolic velocity E' (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65, P= 0.003) compared to the controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls. Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had a significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions. Patients with E/E' ≥ 8 had significant higher serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels compared to those with ratio wave TDI is an important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron-loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP.

  15. CALCULATION OF SHOCK-WAVE PULSE EFFECT ON OUTSTRETCHED SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Esman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of a shock-wave pulse method and mechanotherapy on a spine is considered as an alternative to conservative and operative methods.Methodology for spinal disease treatment while applying a shock-wave therapy is characterized by the following specific features. Firstly, it is necessary to limit a penetration depth of shock pulses in a biological object in order to exclude damage to a spinal cord. Secondly, it is necessary to limit an energy flux density:Imax≤ 0,280 J∕m2and  pressure in focus:PFmax≤ 0,040 MPа,in order to exclude traumatizing of spinal tissue and only stimulate blood  circulation and metabolic processes in them.Where an acceptable value of the force acting on the inter-vertebral disc while a shock wave is passing is determined by the following formula: F max = PFmaxS = PFmax πr02 = 0,040 ∙106 ∙3,14 ∙(8∙10-32 = 9 N, where r0 – a focal spot radius, mm.Mechanotherapy is applied in combination with the shock-wave therapy and it presupposes the following: an outstretching force acts created in a longitudinal direction of the spine and it is directed across a vertebral column, whose value usually ranges from 50 to 500 N.   

  16. Amplification of pressure waves in laser-assisted endodontics with synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Jezeršek, Matija

    2018-05-01

    When attempting to clean surfaces of dental root canals with laser-induced cavitation bubbles, the resulting cavitation oscillations are significantly prolonged due to friction on the cavity walls and other factors. Consequently, the collapses are less intense and the shock waves that are usually emitted following a bubble's collapse are diminished or not present at all. A new technique of synchronized laser-pulse delivery intended to enhance the emission of shock waves from collapsed bubbles in fluid-filled endodontic canals is reported. A laser beam deflection probe, a high-speed camera, and shadow photography were used to characterize the induced photoacoustic phenomena during synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses in a confined volume of water. A shock wave enhancing technique was employed which consists of delivering a second laser pulse at a delay with regard to the first cavitation bubble-forming laser pulse. Influence of the delay between the first and second laser pulses on the generation of pressure and shock waves during the first bubble's collapse was measured for different laser pulse energies and cavity volumes. Results show that the optimal delay between the two laser pulses is strongly correlated with the cavitation bubble's oscillation period. Under optimal synchronization conditions, the growth of the second cavitation bubble was observed to accelerate the collapse of the first cavitation bubble, leading to a violent collapse, during which shock waves are emitted. Additionally, shock waves created by the accelerated collapse of the primary cavitation bubble and as well of the accompanying smaller secondary bubbles near the cavity walls were observed. The reported phenomena may have applications in improved laser cleaning of surfaces during laser-assisted dental root canal treatments.

  17. Development and Validation of a Path Length Calculation for Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement: A TASCFORCE, SUMMIT, and Caerphilly Collaborative Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Brown, Liam; Summersgill, Jennifer; Talarczyk, Piotr; Bonnici-Mallia, Michael; Chin, Sook C; Khan, Faisel; Struthers, Allan D; Sullivan, Frank; Colhoun, Helen M; Shore, Angela C; Aizawa, Kunihiko; Groop, Leif; Nilsson, Jan; Cockcroft, John R; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Houston, J Graeme

    2018-05-01

    Current distance measurement techniques for pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation are susceptible to intercenter variability. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a formula for this distance measurement. Based on carotid femoral distance in 1183 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms, a formula was derived for calculating distance. This was compared with distance measurements in 128 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms from a second study. The effects of recalculation of PWV using the new formula on association with risk factors, disease discrimination, and prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events were examined within 1242 participants from the multicenter SUMMIT study (Surrogate Markers of Micro- and Macrovascular Hard End-Points for Innovative Diabetes Tools) and 825 participants from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. The distance formula yielded a mean error of 7.8 mm (limits of agreement =-41.1 to 56.7 mm; P measurement, the distance formula did not change associations between PWV and age, blood pressure, or creatinine ( P accounting for differences in age, sex, and mean arterial pressure, intercenter differences in PWV persisted using the external distance measurement ( F =4.6; P =0.004), whereas there was a loss of between center difference using the distance formula ( F =1.4; P =0.24). PWV odds ratios for cardiovascular mortality remained the same using both the external distance measurement (1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.24; P =0.001) and the distance formula (1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.28; P measurement variability without impacting the diagnostic utility of carotid-femoral PWV. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. [Pulse wave velocity of the leg minus that of the arm measured with a custom device correlates to the coronary calcium quantification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Martín, S; de Nicolás Jiménez, J M; Moyano Calvente, S L; Mogollón Jiménez, M V; Vega Fernández, J; Calderón García, J F; Bacaicoa Lopez de Sabando, M A; Tardio, M; Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero, J F

    2016-05-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the great arteries is an indicator of vascular risk. Our objective was to identify the PWV index between the arms and legs that best correlates with the coronary calcium quantification (CCQ) and to compare it with other methods. Eight-one patients without vascular disease underwent the following measurements: CCQ; carotid intima-media thickness (IMT); carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), using COMPLIOR; and PWV in the arms and legs, with our own device (abiPWV, ankle brachial index PWV). The difference in PWVs between the leg and arm (l-a PWV) measured with abiPWV was the index that best correlated with CCQ (r=0.401, P<.001). The correlation between IMT and CCQ and between CF-PWV and CCQ were r=0.366, P=.001; and r=0.385, P=.001, respectively. For a CCQ score higher than 100 as a marker of significant coronary arteriosclerosis, the areas under the curve for l-a PWV, IMT and cfPWV were 0.721 (P=.002), 0.758 (P<.001) and 0.636 (P=.058), respectively. For patients without vascular disease, the l-a PWV measured with abiPWV appears to be the index that best correlates with the CCQ. This association is comparable to that between IMT and CCQ and between cfPWV and CCQ. The abiPWV is an easy-to-use device that can help improve vascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using -wave velocity (p). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock types were determined in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis.

  20. Elastic Wave Velocity Measurements on Mantle Peridotite at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, G. W.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, B.

    2002-12-01

    With the success of conducting ultrasonic measurements at high pressure and high temperature in large volume high pressure apparatus with in-situ measurement of the sample length by X-ray imaging, it is now possible to measure elastic wave velocities on aggregate samples with candidate compositions of the mantle to the conditions of the Earth's transition zone in the laboratory. These data can be directly compared with seismic data to distinguish the compositional models in debate. In this work, we carried out velocity measurements on natural peridotite KLB-1 at the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Fine powered sample of natural KLB-1 was used as starting material. Specimens for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed and equilibrated at various pressure and temperature conditions along geotherm up to the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized with density measurement, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. Bench top P and S wave velocities of KLB-1 sample sintered at 3-4 GPa and 1400 degree centigrade showed a very good agreement with the VRH average of pyrolite. High pressure and high temperature measurements was conducted up to 7 GPa and 800 degree centigrade using ultrasonic interferometric method in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging. The utilization of X-ray imaging technique provides direct measurements of sample lengths at high pressure and high temperature, ensuring a precise determination of velocities. The results of P and S wave velocities at high pressure and high temperature as well as their comparison with calculated pyrolite model will be presented.

  1. Usefulness of pulse-wave doppler tissue sampling and dobutamine stress echocardiography for identification of false positive inferior wall defects in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinmakas, S.; Dagdeviren, B.; Turkmen, M.; Gursurer, M.; Say, B.; Tezel, T.; Ersek, B.

    2000-01-01

    False positive inferior wall perfusion defects restrict the accuracy of SPECT in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pulse-Wave Tissue Doppler (PWTD) has been recently proposed to assess regional wall motion velocities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of CAD by using PWTD during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an inferior perfusion defect detected by SPECT and compare PWTD parameters of normal cases with patients who had inferior perfusion defect and CAD. Sixty-five patients (mean age 58±8 years, 30 men) with a normal LV systolic function at rest according to echocardiographic evaluation with an inferior ischemia determined by SPECT and a control group (CG) of 34 normal cases (mean age 56±7 years, 16 men) were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard DSE (up to 40 μg/kg/min with additional atropine during sub-maximum heart rate responses). Pulse-wave Doppler tissue sampling of inferior wall was performed in the apical 2-chamber view at rest and stress. The coronary angiography was performed within 24 hours. The results were evaluated for the prediction of significant right coronary artery (RCA) and/or left circumflex coronary artery (CX) with narrowing (≥50% diameter stenosis, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography). It was observed that the peak stress mean E/A ratio was lower in patients with CAD when compared to patients without CAD (0.78±0.2 versus 1.29±0.11 p<0.0001). Also the peak stress E/A ratio of normal cases was significantly higher than patients who had CAD (1.19±0.3 versus 0.78±0.2 p<0.0001). When the cut off point for the E/A ratio was determined as 1, the sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine stress PWTD E/A were 89% and 86%, respectively. The peak stress E/A ratio was higher than 1 in all patients with a false positive perfusion defect. Systolic S velocity increase during DSE was significantly lower in patients with CAD (54%±17 versus 99%±24 p=0

  2. Experimental research on time-resolved evolution of cathode plasma expansion velocity in a long pulsed magnetically insulated coaxial diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Ge, Xingjun; Gao, Jingming

    2018-02-01

    Unlike planar diodes, separate research of the axial and radial plasma expansion velocities is difficult for magnetically insulated coaxial diodes. Time-resolved electrical diagnostic which is based on the voltage-ampere characteristics has been employed to study the temporal evolution of the axial and radial cathode plasma expansion velocities in a long pulsed magnetically insulated coaxial diode. Different from a planar diode with a "U" shaped profile of temporal velocity evolution, the temporal evolution trend of the axial expansion velocity is proved to be a "V" shaped profile. Apart from the suppression on the radial expansion velocity, the strong magnetic field is also conducive to slowing down the axial expansion velocity. Compared with the ordinary graphite cathode, the carbon velvet and graphite composite cathode showed superior characteristics as judged by the low plasma expansion velocity and long-term electrical stability as a promising result for applications where long-pulsed and reliable operation at high power is required.

  3. Evolution of microstructure and elastic wave velocities in dehydrated gypsum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike

    2012-12-01

    We report on changes in P and S-wave velocities and rock microstructure induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air, at ambient pressure, and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Dehydration did not proceed homogeneously but via a reaction front moving sample inwards separating an outer highly porous rim from the remaining gypsum which, above approximately 393 (±5) K, concurrently decomposed into hemihydrate. Overall porosity was observed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% for fully hydrated samples to 30% for completely dehydrated ones. Concurrently, P and S-wave velocities linearly decreased with porosity from 5.2 and 2.7 km/s to 1.0 and 0.7 km/s, respectively. It is concluded that a linearized empirical Raymer-type model extended by a critical porosity term and based on the respective time dependent mineral and pore volumes reasonably replicates the P and S-wave data in relation to reaction progress and porosity.

  4. Electromechanical wave imaging and electromechanical wave velocity estimation in a large animal model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n  =  5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.

  5. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  6. Effect of wind waves on air-sea gas exchange: proposal of an overall CO2 transfer velocity formula as a function of breaking-wave parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Komori, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new formula for gas transfer velocity as a function of the breaking-wave parameter is proposed based on correlating gas transfer with whitecap coverage. The new formula for gas transfer across an air-sea interface depends not only on wind speed but also on wind-wave state. At the same wind speed, a higher gas transfer velocity will be obtained for a more developed wind-sea, which is represented by a smaller spectral peak frequency of wind waves. We suggest that the large uncertainties in the traditional relationship of gas transfer velocity with wind speed be ascribed to the neglect of the effect of wind waves. The breaking-wave parameter can be regarded as a Reynolds number that characterizes the intensity of turbulence associated with wind waves in the downward-bursting boundary layer (DBBL). DBBL provides an effective way to exchange gas across the air-sea interface, which might be related to the surface renewal

  7. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PULSED WAVE TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING IN ASYMPTOMATIC BETA- THALASSEMIA MAJOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS ; RELATION TO CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND IRON OVERLOAD .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among  β-halassaemia major (TM  patients.  Once  heart failure becomes overt , it will be  difficult to reverse . Objectives: To investigate non overt cardiac dysfunctions  in TM patients using  pulsed wave Tissue Doppler  Imaging (TD I and its relation to the iron overload and brain natruritic peptide (BNP. Methods: Thorough  clinical , conventional echo and  pulsed  wave TDI  parameters were compared between  asymtomatic 25 β-TM  patients  and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP  levels were assayed by  ELISA .  Results: TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E wave and  non significant other conventional echo  parameters. Pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in the form of significant higher  isovolumetric contraction time (ICT , ejection time ( E T and  isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT with significantly lower  mitral annulus  early diastolic velocity E` (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65 ,P= 0.003  in patients compared to  controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls.  Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions.  Patients with E/E` ≥ 8 had  significant higher  serum ferritin  and plasma BNP levels compared to those with E/E` ratio < 8 without difference in Hb levels .Conclusion:  Pulsed wave TDI  is an  important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP .

  8. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  10. Propagation of optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing medium: Observation of negative velocity in Rb vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Hayami, K.; Furue, S.; Nakayama, K.; Niwa, H.; Kohmoto, T.; Kunitomo, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Propagation of optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing medium is studied. Propagation time of nanosecond pulses was measured for the Rb D 1 transition. At the center of two absorption lines, delay of the pulse peak which is about ten times as large as the pulse width was observed, where zero delay is defined for the propagation with the light velocity in vacuum. On the other hand, at the peak of an absorption line, negative delay was observed for large absorption, where the advance time is as large as 25% of the pulse width. Simulation including the effect of absorption and phase shift reproduced well the experimental results

  11. Effects of Wind Velocity Driven by Alfven Waves on the Line Profiles for 32 CYG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Mee Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the theoretical line profiles for 32 Cyg in order to investigate the influence of various velocity fields. Line profiles are calculated with wind accelerations driven by Alfven waves and described by velocity parameters. The results for Alfvenic wave model show weakened line profiles. For the orbital phases ¥÷=0.78 and ¥÷=0.06 the Alfvenic models show strong absorption part due to very low densities at the surface of the supergiant. Hence, we conclude the velocity gradient of the wind near the supergiant could influence on the theoretical line formation.

  12. Systolic Blood Pressure Accuracy Enhancement in the Electronic Palpation Method Using Pulse Waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorvoja, H

    2001-01-01

    .... Systolic pressure errors were defined and correlations with other specific values, like pressure rise time, pulse wave velocity, systolic pressure, augmentation, arm circumference and body mass index were calculated...

  13. Flow velocity anemometer using ultrasonic waves in underground airways. Choonpa wo mochiita chika fudo fusokukei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Imai, T.; Miyakoshi, H. (Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College); Onozuka, T.; Yasunaga, K. (Hanaoka Mining Co. Ltd., Akita (Japan))

    1993-10-25

    In a facility utilizing the subterranean space at the great depth of about 50m or less from the surface in particular, the airflow velocity monitor utilizing ultrasonic waves is considered as an airflow anemometer suitable for the environment of an underground airway network. In this paper, the results of the application test and the long term demonstration test both conducted at Matsumine Mine and Fukazawa Mine of Hanaoka Mining Industry are mentioned which concern the newly developed airflow velocity monitor utilizing ultrasonic waves. The features and performance of this ultrasonic wave monitor are roughly as follows; since a small ultrasonic wave transceiver can be installed on the surface of the airway wall, the transceiver does not become an obstacle for traffic in the airway and the average airflow velocity in the airflow path can be estimated with accuracy better than that of the anemometer for point measurement. The airflow direction at the underground airway can be detected. The responsiveness to airflow velocity fluctuations is relatively good. The abrupt ups and downs of output due to passing transportation machines can be detected. The measuring circuit has been simplified by the analogue treatment of time measurement. The average airflow velocity at the airflow velocity profile can be estimated through multiplication by 0.93 of the airflow velocity value measured with the monitor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Angle-domain Migration Velocity Analysis using Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.; Luo, Yi

    2012-01-01

    way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. The residual movemout analysis in the angle-domain common image gathers provides a robust estimate of the depth residual which is converted to the reflection traveltime residual for the velocity

  15. Internal properties assessment in agar wood trees using ultrasonic velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Fakhruzi, M.; Hashim, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of ultrasonic velocity in agar wood trees (Aquilaria crassna) with the purpose of evaluating the relationship of the ultrasonic velocity to the variations of internal properties of trees. In this study, three circular cross-sectional discs from the freshly cut tree were selected as samples. First sample with a big hole (decay) in the middle, second sample with internal resinous and the last one is the sample with no defects. The through transmission ultrasonic testing method was carried out using Tico ultrasonic pulse velocity tester which is from Switzerland. Two-dimensional image of internal properties evaluation by an ultrasonic investigation was obtained using Matlab. The results showed that the ultrasonic wave cannot pass through the internal decay or resinous so that the wave went round it and thus ultrasonic wave velocity significantly decreased by increasing the hole or resinous. The difference in color of the image generated by Matlab software based on variation of ultrasonic velocity between the internal decay area and its surrounding area was obvious. Therefore, the properties of internal properties of the three could be detected by ultrasonic line imaging technique. (author)

  16. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  17. Gas-hydrate concentration estimated from P- and S-wave velocities at the Mallik 2L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Gei, Davide

    2004-05-01

    We estimate the concentration of gas hydrate at the Mallik 2L-38 research site using P- and S-wave velocities obtained from well logging and vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The theoretical velocities are obtained from a generalization of Gassmann's modulus to three phases (rock frame, gas hydrate and fluid). The dry-rock moduli are estimated from the log profiles, in sections where the rock is assumed to be fully saturated with water. We obtain hydrate concentrations up to 75%, average values of 37% and 21% from the VSP P- and S-wave velocities, respectively, and 60% and 57% from the sonic-log P- and S-wave velocities, respectively. The above averages are similar to estimations obtained from hydrate dissociation modeling and Archie methods. The estimations based on the P-wave velocities are more reliable than those based on the S-wave velocities.

  18. Shear wave velocities in the upper mantle of the Western Alps: new constraints using array analysis of seismic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle A.; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Solarino, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    It remains challenging to obtain absolute shear wave velocities of heterogeneities of small lateral extension in the uppermost mantle. This study presents a cross-section of Vs across the strongly heterogeneous 3-D structure of the western European Alps, based on array analysis of data from 92 broad-band seismic stations from the CIFALPS experiment and from permanent networks in France and Italy. Half of the stations were located along a dense sublinear array. Using a combination of these stations and off-profile stations, fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were calculated using a combined frequency-time beamforming approach. We calculated dispersion curves for seven arrays of approximately 100 km aperture and 14 arrays of approximately 50 km aperture, the latter with the aim of obtaining a 2-D vertical cross-section of Vs beneath the western Alps. The dispersion curves were inverted for Vs(z), with crustal interfaces imposed from a previous receiver function study. The array approach proved feasible, as Vs(z) from independent arrays vary smoothly across the profile length. Results from the seven large arrays show that the shear velocity of the upper mantle beneath the European plate is overall low compared to AK135 with the lowest velocities in the internal part of the western Alps, and higher velocities east of the Alps beneath the Po plain. The 2-D Vs model is coherent with (i) a ∼100 km thick eastward-dipping European lithosphere west of the Alps, (ii) very high velocities beneath the Po plain, coherent with the presence of the Alpine (European) slab and (iii) a narrow low-velocity anomaly beneath the core of the western Alps (from the Briançonnais to the Dora Maira massif), and approximately colocated with a similar anomaly observed in a recent teleseismic P-wave tomography. This intriguing anomaly is also supported by traveltime variations of subvertically propagating body waves from two teleseismic events that are approximately located on

  19. Design of a bounded wave EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevat, P. A. A.

    1989-06-01

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulators are used to simulate the EMP generated by a nuclear weapon and to harden equipment against the effects of EMP. At present, DREO has a 1 m EMP simulator for testing computer terminal size equipment. To develop the R and D capability for testing larger objects, such as a helicopter, a much bigger threat level facility is required. This report concerns the design of a bounded wave EMP simulator suitable for testing large size equipment. Different types of simulators are described and their pros and cons are discussed. A bounded wave parallel plate type simulator is chosen for it's efficiency and the least environmental impact. Detailed designs are given for 6 m and 10 m parallel plate type wire grid simulators. Electromagnetic fields inside and outside the simulators are computed. Preliminary specifications for a pulse generator required for the simulator are also given. Finally, the electromagnetic fields radiated from the simulator are computed and discussed.

  20. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  1. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  2. Apparatus and method for determining movements and velocities of moving objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    in the apparatus is applicable where wave energy is used to sense or detect an object by its scattering properties when using either sound waves or electro-magnetic waves. The movement can be detected according to the field properties. The field represented by the sampling pulse must feature a spatial oscillation...... in the directions, where the velocity components are of interest. Such a transversely oscillating field is e.g. generated by using apodization on individual transducer elements and a special focusing scheme. The apparatus uses waves of either sound or electro-magnetic radiation. The temporal characteristics...

  3. Modeling ionization by helicon waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeling, A.W.; Boswell, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The response of the electron distribution function in one dimension to a traveling wave electric field is modeled for parameters relevant to a low-pressure helicon wave plasma source, and the resulting change in the ionization rate calculated. This is done by calculating the trajectories of individual electrons in a given wave field and assuming no collisions to build up the distribution function as the distance from the antenna is increased. The ionization rate is calculated for argon by considering the ionization cross section and electron flux at a specified position and time relative to the left-hand boundary, where the distribution function is assumed to be Maxwellian and the wave travels to the right. The simulation shows pulses in the ionization rate that move away from the antenna at the phase velocity of the wave, demonstrating the effect of resonant electrons trapped in the wave close-quote s frame of reference. It is found that the ionization rate is highest when the phase velocity of the wave is between 2 and 3x10 6 m/s, where the electrons interacting strongly with the wave (i.e., electrons with velocities inside the wave close-quote s open-quotes trapping widthclose quotes) have initial energies just below the ionization threshold. Results from the model are compared with experimental data and show reasonable qualitative agreement. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Characteristics of Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation in Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, M.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Fulton, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the solution of the diffusion equation for an electromagnetic field with a time harmonic term, e(sup iwt), is in the form of a traveling wave whose amplitude attenuates over distance into a conducting medium. As the attenuation is an increasing function of frequency, the high frequency components attenuate more rapidly than those of low ones upon entering a well conducting object. At the same time, the phase velocity of an individual component is also an increasing function of frequency causing a broadening of the pulse traveling inside a conductor. In the results of our previous study of numerical simulations, the problem of using a gaussian input pulse was immediately clear. First, having the dominant frequency components distributed around zero, the movement of the peak was not well defined. Second, with the amplitude of fourier components varying slowly over a wide range, the dispersion-induced blurring of the peak position was seen to be severe. For the present study, we have used a gaussian modulated single frequency sinusoidal wave, i. e., the carrier, as an input pulse in an effort to improve the issues related to the unclear movement of peak and dispersion as described above. This was based on the following two anticipated advantages: First, the packet moves in a conductor at the group velocity calculated at the carrier frequency, which means it is well controllable. Second, the amplitude of frequency components other than that of the carrier can be almost negligible, such that the effect of dispersion can be significantly reduced. A series of experiments of transmitting electromagnetic pulses through aluminum plates of various thickness was performed to test the validity of the above points. The results of numerical simulation based on wave propagation are discussed with respect to the experimental results. Finally, a simple simulation was performed based on diffusion of a continuous sine wave input and the results are compared with

  5. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  6. A program to calculate pulse transmission responses through transversely isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zou, Changchun; Chen, Xiwei

    2018-05-01

    We provide a program (AOTI2D) to model responses of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through arbitrarily oriented transversely isotropic rocks. The program is built with the distributed point source method that treats the transducers as a series of point sources. The response of each point source is calculated according to the ray-tracing theory of elastic plane waves. The program could offer basic wave parameters including phase and group velocities, polarization, anisotropic reflection coefficients and directivity patterns, and model the wave fields, static wave beam, and the observed signals for pulse transmission measurements considering the material's elastic stiffnesses and orientations, sample dimensions, and the size and positions of the transmitters and the receivers. The program could be applied to exhibit the ultrasonic beam behaviors in anisotropic media, such as the skew and diffraction of ultrasonic beams, and analyze its effect on pulse transmission measurements. The program would be a useful tool to help design the experimental configuration and interpret the results of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through either isotropic or transversely isotropic rock samples.

  7. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F.; Hafizi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 μm, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Generation of spin waves by a train of fs-laser pulses: a novel approach for tuning magnon wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savochkin, I V; Jäckl, M; Belotelov, V I; Akimov, I A; Kozhaev, M A; Sylgacheva, D A; Chernov, A I; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Berzhansky, V N; Yakovlev, D R; Zvezdin, A K; Bayer, M

    2017-07-18

    Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with the spectrum of the optically generated spin waves. Here we tackle this problem by launching spin waves by a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses with pulse interval much shorter than the relaxation time of the magnetization oscillations. This leads to the cumulative phenomenon and allows us to generate magnons in a specific narrow range of wavenumbers. The wavelength of spin waves can be tuned from 15 μm to hundreds of microns by sweeping the external magnetic field by only 10 Oe or by slight variation of the pulse repetition rate. Our findings expand the capabilities of the optical spin pump-probe technique and provide a new method for the spin wave generation and control.

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of travelling pulses and spiral waves in the lattice Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, Alexei G; Kurkina, Elena S; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2012-06-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the stochastic two-species Lotka-Volterra model on a square lattice. For certain values of the model parameters, the system constitutes an excitable medium: travelling pulses and rotating spiral waves can be excited. Stable solitary pulses travel with constant (modulo stochastic fluctuations) shape and speed along a periodic lattice. The spiral waves observed persist sometimes for hundreds of rotations, but they are ultimately unstable and break-up (because of fluctuations and interactions between neighboring fronts) giving rise to complex dynamic behavior in which numerous small spiral waves rotate and interact with each other. It is interesting that travelling pulses and spiral waves can be exhibited by the model even for completely immobile species, due to the non-local reaction kinetics.

  10. Clinical value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Da-Feng; Zhang, Mei-Wu; Fan, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-12-07

    To explore the relationship of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in patients with liver cirrhosis combined with portal hypertension, and assess the value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension. All 67 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed as portal hypertension by hepatic venous pressure gradient in our hospital from June 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study. The baseline information of these patients was recorded. Furthermore, 67 patients were followed-up at 20 mo after treatment, and liver and spleen shear wave velocity were measured by acoustic radiation force impulse at the 1 st week, 3 rd month and 9 th month after treatment. Patients with favorable prognosis were assigned into the favorable prognosis group, while patients with unfavorable prognosis were assigned into the unfavorable prognosis group. The variation and difference in liver and spleen shear wave velocity in these two groups were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the effect of liver and spleen shear wave velocity on the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension, Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis was applied. The ability of those factors in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The liver and spleen shear wave velocity in the favorable prognosis group revealed a clear decline, while those in the unfavorable prognosis group revealed an increasing tendency at different time points. Furthermore, liver and spleen shear wave velocity was higher in the unfavorable prognosis group, compared with the favorable prognosis group; the differences were statistically significant ( P portal hypertension was significantly affected by spleen hardness at the 3 rd month after treatment [relative risk (RR) = 3.481]. At the 9 th month after treatment, the prognosis

  11. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  12. Ratio of left ventricular peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity assessed by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography in first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Seward, J B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of the ratio of peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity (E/Vp) measured with color M-mode Doppler echocardiography to predict in-hospital heart failure and cardiac mortality in an unselected consecutive population with first myocardial infarction (MI...

  13. STUCTURE OF PULSED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bokun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of pulsed layer is proposed which can be suggested as a state of particulates that is blown by intermittent gas flow with speed which has the force to start material moving. Layer during one cycle is in a suspension, falling down and immobile state resulting in changes of particles arrangement as well as ways of gas flowing through layer. Moreover, it allows carrying out effective interphase heat exchange even adamant real granulation.The process of formation of impact flows is considered aw well as their influence on formation of air bubbles in pulsed layer. At startup of air blast the balance between the force of hydro-dynamic resistance is broken, on one side, and forces of gravity, particles inertia and their links with walls on the other side. The layer is transferred in the state of pulsed pseudo-fluidization, and presents gas-disperse mixture, inside of which impulse of pressure increasing is spreading to all sides as pressure waves (compression. These waves are the sources of impact flows’ formation, the force of which is two times more than during the stationary flow.The waves of pressure are divided into weak and strong ones depending on movement velocity within gas-disperse system. Weak waves are moving with a sound speed and strong ones in active phase of pulsed layer are moving over the speed of sound limit within gas-disperse system. The peculiarity of strong wave is that parameters of system (pressure, density and others are changing in discrete steps.The article describes the regime of layer’s falling down in the passive stage of cycle, which begins after finishing of gas impulse action. And suspension layer of moving up granular material is transferred in the state of falling resulting in change of the layer structure.

  14. Relationships between gastric slow wave frequency, velocity, and extracellular amplitude studied by a joint experimental-theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T H-H; Du, P; Angeli, T R; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Erickson, J C; Abell, T L; Cheng, L K; O'Grady, G

    2018-01-01

    Gastric slow wave dysrhythmias are accompanied by deviations in frequency, velocity, and extracellular amplitude, but the inherent association between these parameters in normal activity still requires clarification. This study quantified these associations using a joint experimental-theoretical approach. Gastric pacing was conducted in pigs with simultaneous high-resolution slow wave mapping (32-256 electrodes; 4-7.6 mm spacing). Relationships between period, velocity, and amplitude were quantified and correlated for each wavefront. Human data from two existing mapping control cohorts were analyzed to extract and correlate these same parameters. A validated biophysically based ICC model was also applied in silico to quantify velocity-period relationships during entrainment simulations and velocity-amplitude relationships from membrane potential equations. Porcine pacing studies identified positive correlations for velocity-period (0.13 mm s -1 per 1 s, r 2 =.63, Prelationships and demonstrated dependence on the slow wave recovery phase. Simulated membrane potential relationships were close to these experimental results (100 μV per 1 mm s -1 ). These data quantify the relationships between slow wave frequency, velocity, and extracellular amplitude. The results from both human and porcine studies were in keeping with biophysical models, demonstrating concordance with ICC biophysics. These relationships are important in the regulation of gastric motility and will help to guide interpretations of dysrhythmias. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with an electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with a plasma consisting of two groups of electrons and immobile ions has been studied. It is shown that the interaction is governed by a nonlinear equation for the electromagnetic wave envelope and a driven nonlinear equation for the low-frequency electron fluctuations. The driver for the latter depends explicitly on the spatio-temporal evolution of the electromagnetic wave flux. It is found that, depending on the cold-to-hot electron density ratio, the localized pulse can propagate with sub- as well as supersonic velocities accompanied by compressional or rarefactional density perturbations. The conditions of existence for the different types of solitary pulses are obtained. The present investigation may be relevant to the study of wave-plasma interaction devices such as inertial fusion confinement as well as to ionospheric modification experiments. (author)

  16. Steering dissociation of Br2 molecules with two femtosecond pulses via wave packet interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Hu, Wen-Hui; Yan, Tian-Min; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2008-04-07

    The dissociation dynamics of Br2 molecules induced by two femtosecond pump pulses are studied based on the calculation of time-dependent quantum wave packet. Perpendicular transition from X 1Sigma g+ to A 3Pi 1u+ and 1Pi 1u+ and parallel transition from X 1Sigma g+ to B 3Pi 0u+, involving two product channels Br (2P3/2)+Br (2P3/2) and Br (2P3/2)+Br* (2P1/2), respectively, are taken into account. Two pump pulses create dissociating wave packets interfering with each other. By varying laser parameters, the interference of dissociating wave packets can be controlled, and the dissociation probabilities of Br2 molecules on the three excited states can be changed to different degrees. The branching ratio of Br*/(Br+Br*) is calculated as a function of pulse delay time and phase difference.

  17. Seismic Wave Velocity in Earth's Shallow Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Eaton, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Studies of the outer core indicate that it is composed of liquid Fe and Ni alloyed with a ~10% fraction of light elements such as O, S or Si. Recently, unusual features, such as sediment accumulation, immiscible fluid layers or stagnant convection, have been predicted in the shallow core region. Secular cooling and compositional buoyancy drive vigorous convection that sustains the geodynamo, although critical details of light-element composition and thermal regime remain uncertain. Seismic velocity models can provide important constraints on the light element composition, however global reference models, such as Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), IASP91 and AK135 vary significantly in the 200 km below the core-mantle boundary. Past studies of the outermost core velocity structure have been hampered by traveltime uncertainties due to lowermost mantle heterogeneities. The recently published Empirical Transfer Function (ETF) method has been shown to reduce the uncertainty using a waveform stacking approach to improve global observations of SmKS teleseismic waves. Here, we apply the ETF method to achieve a precise top-of-core velocity measurement of 8.05 ± 0.03 km/s. This new model accords well with PREM. Since PREM is based on the adiabatic form of the Adams-Williamson equation, it assumes a well mixed (i.e. homogeneous) composition. This result suggests a lack of heterogeneity in the outermost core due to layering or stagnant convection.

  18. Ionization waves in the pre-breakdown phase of a pulsed capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, M.; Lenero, A.M.; Chuaqui, H.; Mitchell, I.; Wyndham, E.; Choi, P.; Dumitrescu, C.; Mond, M.; Rutkevich, I.; Kaufman, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We present experimental observations of ionization waves in pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges. When the capillary shield is at the anode potential, an anode directed ionization wave, with characteristic speed ∼10 7 m/s, is observed. When the capillary shield is at the cathode potential, a cathode directed slower ionization wave, with characteristic speed ∼10 4 m/s, is observed. The several orders of magnitude difference in the ionization wave speed can be attributed to the different initial electric field configuration in both polarities

  19. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    P-wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field ... ditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. .... nent elements in the study area and rich in molds of reed ... Kocabas crystals 5–10 μm in size with no internal architecture ... organic matter.

  20. Lithospheric structure of the Arabian Shield and Platform from complete regional waveform modelling and surface wave group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Walter, William R.; Mellors, Robert J.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.; Zhang, Yu-Shen

    1999-09-01

    Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The group velocities constrain the average crustal thickness and velocities as well as the crustal velocity gradients. Because the group velocity fitting is computationally much faster than the synthetic seismogram calculation this method allows us to determine good average starting models quickly. Waveform fits of the Pn and Sn body wave arrivals constrain the mantle velocities. The resulting lithospheric structures indicate that the Arabian Platform has an average crustal thickness of 40 km, with relatively low crustal velocities (average crustal P- and S-wave velocities of 6.07 and 3.50 km s^-1 , respectively) without a strong velocity gradient. The Moho is shallower (36 km) and crustal velocities are 6 per cent higher (with a velocity increase with depth) for the Arabian Shield. Fast crustal velocities of the Arabian Shield result from a predominantly mafic composition in the lower crust. Lower velocities in the Arabian Platform crust indicate a bulk felsic composition, consistent with orogenesis of this former active margin. P- and S-wave velocities immediately below the Moho are slower in the Arabian Shield than in the Arabian Platform (7.9 and 4.30 km s^-1 , and 8.10 and 4.55 km s^-1 , respectively). This indicates that the Poisson's ratios for the uppermost mantle of the Arabian Shield and Platform are 0.29 and 0.27, respectively. The lower mantle velocities and higher Poisson's ratio beneath the Arabian Shield probably arise from a partially molten mantle associated with Red Sea spreading and continental

  1. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32 μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ~ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  2. Crack wave propagation along fracture with an induced low-velocity layer; Teisokudo no chika kiretsu zone wo denpasuru kiretsuha no bunsan tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    A study has been performed on underground cracks working as a geothermy reservoir layer, with respect to characteristics of elastic waves propagating with their energy concentrated on a boundary between rocks around the cracks and fluid in the underground cracks, or `crack waves`. The study has modeled a multi-crack reservoir layer according to the three-layer structure of the fluid layer and low-velocity solid layers around the former layer, whereas crack waves propagating therein were discussed for their dispersion characteristics. As a result of discussions, a guideline to the crack wave measurement at actual fields was put together as follows: because the low-velocity layer affects the dispersion characteristics of the crack waves, the structure and characteristics of the multi-crack reservoir layer may possibly be evaluated by measuring the velocity of the crack waves; evaluating the low-velocity layers requires proper selection of frequency of the crack wave to be measured; for example, at the Higashi Hachimantai field, a crack wave of several hundred hertz must be analyzed; and thickness of the low-velocity layers around main cracks, which can be estimated from the velocity of the crack wave is two meters at the greatest. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Comparative analysis of pulsed doppler ultrasonography of portal vein vs indirect photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jae Chun; Kwon, Huck Po; Hwang, Mi Soo; Kim, Sun Youn; Park, Bok Hwan; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hong Jin

    1990-01-01

    There are some limitation of interpretation in indirect photography via superior mesenteric artery. In order to supplement and predict indirect photography, we compared indirect photographic findings with pulsed doppler flowmetry in 38 hepatobiliary patients, and the results were as follow: 1. In case of normal main portal vein(MPV) filling, Pulsed Doppler always showed antegrade, continuous parabolic wave form and cases of abnormal MPV filling, showed unusual wave form and flow direction. 2. In normal filling case of proximal right portal vein, Pulsed Doppler almost showed normal continuous parabolic wave form but in normal filling cases of proximal left portal vein, occasionally showed undulating wave form. 3. In each side proximal portal vein abnormal filling case, we could observe abnormal doppler wave form and could obtain additional information using doppler wave form. 4. Mean portal flow velocity was significantly increased in higher photography grade(p=0.01) and congestion index was significantly decreased in higher photography grade(p=0.01). 5. We concluded that doppler ultrasonography could supplement incomplete indirect photography

  4. Weak-anisotropy approximations of P-wave phase and ray velocities for anisotropy of arbitrary symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2016), s. 403-418 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : weak anisotropy * P-wave * phase velocity * ray velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  5. Pulsed Traveling-wave Quadrature Squeezing Using Quasi-phase Matched Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    Interests in generating higher quantum noise squeezing in order to develop methods to enhance optical measurement below the shot-noise limit in various applications has grown in recent years. The noise suppression from squeezing can improve the SNR in coherent optical systems when the returning signal power is weak, such as optical coherence tomography, LADAR, confocal microscopy and low-light coherent imaging. Unlike the generation of squeezing with a continuous wave, which is currently developed mainly for gravitational wave detection in LIGO project, the study of pulsed-traveling waves is focused on industrial, medical and other commercial interests. This dissertation presents the experimental results of pulsed traveling wave squeezing. The intention of the study is to explore the possibility of using quasi-phase matched crystals to generate the highest possible degree of quadrature squeezing. In order to achieve this goal, efforts to test the various effects from spatial Gaussian modes and relative beam waist placement for the second-harmonic pump were carried out in order to further the understanding of limiting factors to pulsed traveling wave squeezing. 20mm and 30mm-long periodically poled lithium noibate (PPLN) crystals were used in the experiment to generate a squeezed vacuum state. A maximum of 4.2+/-0.2dB quadrature squeezing has been observed, and the measured anti-squeezing exceeds 20dB.The phase sensitive amplification (PSA) gain and de-gain performance were also measured to compare the results of measured squeezing. The PPLN crystals can produce high conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) without a cavity. When a long PPLN crystal is used in a squeezer, the beam propagation in the nonlinear medium does not follow the characteristics in thin crystals. Instead, it is operated under the long-crystal criteria, which the crystal length is multiple times longer than the Rayleigh range of the injected beam i n the crystals. Quasi

  6. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  7. Evaluation of interlayer interfacial stiffness and layer wave velocity of multilayered structures by ultrasonic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro

    2014-07-01

    An ultrasonic evaluation procedure for the interlayer interfacial normal stiffness and the intralayer longitudinal wave velocity of multilayered plate-like structures is proposed. Based on the characteristics of the amplitude reflection spectrum of ultrasonic wave at normal incidence to a layered structure with spring-type interlayer interfaces, it is shown that the interfacial normal stiffness and the longitudinal wave velocity in the layers can be simultaneously evaluated from the frequencies of local maxima and minima of the spectrum provided that all interfaces and layers have the same properties. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is investigated from the perspective of the sensitivity of local extremal frequencies of the reflection spectrum. The feasibility of the proposed procedure is also investigated when the stiffness of each interface is subjected to small random fluctuations about a certain average value. The proposed procedure is applied to a 16-layered cross-ply carbon-fiber-reinforced composite laminate. The normal stiffness of resin-rich interfaces and the longitudinal wave velocity of plies in the thickness direction evaluated from the experimental reflection spectrum are shown to be consistent with simple theoretical estimations.

  8. Recent results on the beat wave acceleration of externally injected electrons on a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Josh, C.; Williams, R.; Katsouleas, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) two laser beams of slightly different frequencies resonantly beat in a plasma in such a way that their frequency and wavenumber differences correspond to the plasma wave frequency and wavenumber. The amplitude-modulated electromagnetic wave envelope of the laser pulse exerts a periodic nonlinear force on the plasma electrons, causing them to bunch. The resulting space-charge wave can have a phase velocity nearly equal to the speed of light. If an electron bunch is injected with a velocity close to this it can be trapped and accelerated. The UCLA program investigating PBWA has found that tunnel or multi-photon ionized plasmas a re homogeneous enough for coherent macroscopic acceleration. The laser pulse should be short, and the peak laser intensity should be such that Iλ 2 ∼ 2 x 10 16 W/cm 2 μm 2 in order to get substantial beat wave amplitudes. tab., 3 refs

  9. Traveling waves in a spatially-distributed Wilson-Cowan model of cortex: From fronts to pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeremy D.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2018-04-01

    Wave propagation in excitable media has been studied in various biological, chemical, and physical systems. Waves are among the most common evoked and spontaneous organized activity seen in cortical networks. In this paper, we study traveling fronts and pulses in a spatially-extended version of the Wilson-Cowan equations, a neural firing rate model of sensory cortex having two population types: Excitatory and inhibitory. We are primarily interested in the case when the local or space-clamped dynamics has three fixed points: (1) a stable down state; (2) a saddle point with stable manifold that acts as a threshold for firing; (3) an up state having stability that depends on the time scale of the inhibition. In the case when the up state is stable, we look for wave fronts, which transition the media from a down to up state, and when the up state is unstable, we are interested in pulses, a transient increase in firing that returns to the down state. We explore the behavior of these waves as the time and space scales of the inhibitory population vary. Some interesting findings include bistability between a traveling front and pulse, fronts that join the down state to an oscillation or spatiotemporal pattern, and pulses which go through an oscillatory instability.

  10. S-Wave Velocity Structure of the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) Site Using Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Huey-Chu

    2015-10-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep hole 2.4 km east of the surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake ( M w 7.6), near the town of Dakeng. Geophysical well logs at the TCDP site were run over depths ranging from 500 to 1,900 m to obtain the physical properties of the fault zones and adjacent damage zones. These data provide good reference material for examining the validity of velocity structures using microtremor array measurement; therefore, we conduct array measurements for a total of four arrays at two sites near the TCDP drilling sites. The phase velocities at frequencies of 0.2-5 Hz are calculated using the frequency-wavenumber ( f- k) spectrum method. Then the S-wave velocity structures are estimated by employing surface wave inversion techniques. The S-wave velocity from the differential inversion technique gradually increases from 1.52 to 2.22 km/s at depths between 585 and 1,710 m. This result is similar to those from the velocity logs, which range from 1.4 km/s at a depth of 597 m to 2.98 km/s at a depth of 1,705 m. The stochastic inversion results are similar to those from the seismic reflection methods and the lithostratigraphy of TCDP-A borehole, comparatively. These results show that microtremor array measurement provides a good tool for estimating deep S-wave velocity structure.

  11. Wave-Kinetic Simulations of the Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic VLF Waves through Velocity Ring Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.; Mithaiwala, M.

    2014-12-01

    Velocity ring instabilities are a common naturally occuring magnetospheric phenomenon that can also be generated by man made ionospheric experiments. These instabilities are known to generate lower-hybrid waves, which generally cannot propagte out of the source region. However, nonlinear wave physics can convert these linearly driven electrostatic lower-hybrid waves into electromagnetic waves that can escape the source region. These nonlinearly generated waves can be an important source of VLF turbulence that controls the trapped electron lifetime in the radiation belts. We develop numerical solutions to the wave-kinetic equation in a periodic box including the effects of nonlinear (NL) scattering (nonlinear Landau damping) of Lower-hybrid waves giving the evolution of the wave-spectra in wavenumber space. Simultaneously we solve the particle diffusion equation of both the background plasma particles and the ring ions, due to both linear and nonlinear Landau resonances. At initial times for cold ring ions, an electrostatic beam mode is excited, while the kinetic mode is stable. As the instability progresses the ring ions heat, the beam mode is stabilized, and the kinetic mode destabilizes. When the amplitude of the waves becomes sufficient the lower-hybrid waves are scattered (by either nearly unmagnetized ions or magnetized electrons) into electromagnetic magnetosonic waves [Ganguli et al 2010]. The effect of NL scattering is to limit the amplitude of the waves, slowing down the quasilinear relaxation time and ultimately allowing more energy from the ring to be liberated into waves [Mithaiwala et al. 2011]. The effects of convection out of the instability region are modeled, additionally limiting the amplitude of the waves, allowing further energy to be liberated from the ring [Scales et al., 2012]. Results are compared to recent 3D PIC simulations [Winske and Duaghton 2012].

  12. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  13. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  14. Velocity ratio measurement using the frequency of gyro backward wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1990-10-01

    The operating diagram of a low quality factor, 8GHz TE 01 0 gyrotron exhibits oscillations between 6.8 and 7.3GHz. These oscillations are identified as the backward wave component of the TE 21 0 traveling mode. As the resonance condition of this mode depends on the average parallel velocity [ > of the beam electrons (ω BW ≅Ω C /γ - k [ [ >), the measurement of ω BW for given Ω C and γ, is used as a diagnostic for the beam electrons velocity ratio α= / [ >. The values of α, deduced from ω BW through the linear dispersion relation for the electron cyclotron instability in an infinite waveguide, are unrealistic. A non-linear simulation code gives α values which are in very good agreement with the ones predicted by a particle trajectory code (+10% to +20%). We find numerically that the particles' velocity dispersion in vperpendicular and v [ increases ω BW . This effect explains part of the discrepancy between the values of α inferred from ω BW without velocity dispersion and the expected values. (author) 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Shear wave velocity versus quality factor: results from seismic noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of the shear wave velocity (vs) and shear wave quality factor (Qs) for the shallow structure below a site is necessary to characterize its site response. In the past, methods based on the analysis of seismic noise have been shown to be very efficient for providing a sufficiently accurate estimation of the vs versus depth at reasonable costs for engineering seismology purposes. In addition, a slight modification of the same method has proved to be able to provide realistic Qs versus depth estimates. In this study, data sets of seismic noise recorded by microarrays of seismic stations in different geological environments of Europe and Central Asia are used to calculate both vs and Qs versus depth profiles. Analogous to the generally adopted approach in seismic hazard assessment for mapping the average shear wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m (vs30) as a proxy of the site response, this approach was also applied to the quality factor within the uppermost 30 m (Qs30). A slightly inverse correlation between both parameters is found based on a methodological consistent determination for different sites. Consequently, a combined assessment of vs and Qs by seismic noise analysis has the potential to provide a more comprehensive description of the geological structure below a site.

  16. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase ...

  17. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  18. Spherical wave particle velocities in geologic materials from laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J.C.; Florence, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Particle velocity records that describe spherical waves in rock simulants, tuffs, salt, and granite have been obtained in laboratory experiments. The records aid the modeling of constitutive equations for continuum mechanics codes used in DNA containment research. The technique has also been applied to investigate containment-related problems involving material poperties, failure criteria, scaling, decoupling, and residual strain field relaxation. 22 figures

  19. The focusing effect of P-wave in the Moon's and Earth's low-velocity core. Analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatyanov, A. G.; Burmin, V. Yu

    2018-04-01

    The important aspect in the study of the structure of the interiors of planets is the question of the presence and state of core inside them. While for the Earth this task was solved long ago, the question of whether the core of the Moon is in a liquid or solid state up to the present is debatable up to present. If the core of the Moon is liquid, then the velocity of longitudinal waves in it should be lower than in the surrounding mantle. If the core is solid, then most likely, the velocity of longitudinal waves in it is higher than in the mantle. Numerical calculations of the wave field allow us to identify the criteria for drawing conclusions about the state of the lunar core. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing an analytical solution for wave fields in a layered sphere of arbitrary radius. A stable analytic solution is obtained for the wave fields of longitudinal waves in a three-layer sphere. Calculations of the total wave fields and rays for simplified models of the Earth and the Moon with real parameters are presented. The analytical solution and the ray pattern showed that the low-velocity cores of the Earth and the Moon possess the properties of a collecting lens. This leads to the emergence of a wave field focusing area. As a result, focused waves of considerable amplitude appear on the surface of the Earth and the Moon. In the Earth case, they appear before the first PKP-wave arrival. These are so-called "precursors", which continue in the subsequent arrivals of waves. At the same time, for the simplified model of the Earth, the maximum amplitude growth is observed in the 147-degree region. For the Moon model, the maximum amplitude growth is around 180°.

  20. Comparison of the Complior Analyse device with Sphygmocor and Complior SP for pulse wave velocity and central pressure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Francesco; Bozec, Erwan; Millasseau, Sandrine; Khettab, Hakim; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Complior device (Alam Medical, France) was used in epidemiological studies which established pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a cardiovascular risk marker. Central pressure is related, but complementary to PWV and also associated to cardiovascular outcomes. The new Complior Analyse measures both PWV and central blood pressure during the same acquisition. The aim of this study was to compare PWV values from Complior Analyse with the previous Complior SP (PWVcs) and with Sphygmocor (PWVscr; AtCor, Australia), and to compare central systolic pressure from Complior Analyse and Sphygmocor. Peripheral and central pressures and PWV were measured with the three devices in 112 patients. PWV measurements from Complior Analyse were analysed using two foot-detection algorithms (PWVca_it and PWVca_cs). Both radial (ao-SBPscr) and carotid (car-SBPscr) approaches from Sphygmocor were compared to carotid Complior Analyse measurements (car-SBPca). The same distance and same calibrating pressures were used for all devices. PWVca_it was strongly correlated to PWVscr (R(2) = 0.93, P < 0.001) with a difference of 0.0 ± 0.7  m/s. PWVca_cs was also correlated to PWVcs (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.001) with a difference of 0.1 ± 0.7  m/s. Central systolic pressures were strongly correlated. The difference between car-SBPca and ao-SBPscr was 3.1 ± 4.2  mmHg (P < 0.001), statistically equivalent to the difference between car-SBPscr and ao-SBPscr (3.9 ± 5.8  mmHg, P < 0.001), whilst the difference between car-SBPca and car-SBPscr was negligible (-0.7 ± 5.6  mmHg, P = NS). The new Complior Analyse device provides equivalent results for PWV and central pressure values to the Sphygmocor and Complior SP. It reaches Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standard for central blood pressure and grades as excellent for PWV on the Artery Society criteria. It can be interchanged with existing devices.

  1. Full Waveform Inversion of Diving & Reflected Waves based on Scale Separation for Velocity and Impedance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Romain; Zhou, Wei; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is an appealing method for quantitative high-resolution subsurface imaging (Virieux et al., 2009). For crustal-scales exploration from surface seismic, FWI generally succeeds in recovering a broadband of wavenumbers in the shallow part of the targeted medium taking advantage of the broad scattering-angle provided by both reflected and diving waves. In contrast, deeper targets are often only illuminated by short-spread reflections, which favor the reconstruction of the short wavelengths at the expense of the longer ones, leading to a possible notch in the intermediate part of the wavenumber spectrum. To update the velocity macromodel from reflection data, image-domain strategies (e.g., Symes & Carazzone, 1991) aim to maximize a semblance criterion in the migrated domain. Alternatively, recent data-domain strategies (e.g., Xu et al., 2012, Ma & Hale, 2013, Brossier et al., 2014), called Reflection FWI (RFWI), inspired by Chavent et al. (1994), rely on a scale separation between the velocity macromodel and prior knowledge of the reflectivity to emphasize the transmission regime in the sensitivity kernel of the inversion. However, all these strategies focus on reflected waves only, discarding the low-wavenumber information carried out by diving waves. With the current development of very long-offset and wide-azimuth acquisitions, a significant part of the recorded energy is provided by diving waves and subcritical reflections, and high-resolution tomographic methods should take advantage of all types of waves. In this presentation, we will first review the issues of classical FWI when applied to reflected waves and how RFWI is able to retrieve the long wavelength of the model. We then propose a unified formulation of FWI (Zhou et al., 2014) to update the low wavenumbers of the velocity model by the joint inversion of diving and reflected arrivals, while the impedance model is updated thanks to reflected wave only. An alternate inversion of

  2. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend  100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend  100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Shock Waves Generated by Pulsed Electric Discharges in Water on Yeast Cells and Virus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdyuk, A. E.; Gorshkov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kolikov, V. A.; Snetov, V. N.; Shneerson, G. A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal parameters of the electric pulses and shock waves generated by them for the soft destruction of the virus and yeast envelopes with no changes in the structure of antigenic surface albumin and in the cell morphology in order to use them to produce antivirus vaccines and in biotechnology. The pulse electric discharges in water have been studied for different values of amplitude, pulse duration and the rate of the rise in the current. A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the optimal parameters of pulsed electric charges and shock waves for the complete destruction of the yeast cell envelopes and virus particles at a minimum of pulses.

  4. Exploration of deep S-wave velocity structure using microtremor array technique to estimate long-period ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Higashi, Sadanori; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2007-01-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 9 sites in the Niigata plain to explore deep S-wave velocity structures for estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion. The 1D S-wave velocity profiles in the Niigata plain are characterized by 5 layers with S-wave velocities of 0.4, 0.8, 1.5, 2.1 and 3.0 km/s, respectively. The depth to the basement layer is deeper in the Niigata port area located at the Japan sea side of the Niigata plain. In this area, the basement depth is about 4.8 km around the Seirou town and about 4.1 km around the Niigata city, respectively. These features about the basement depth in the Niigata plain are consistent with the previous surveys. In order to verify the profiles derived from microtremor array exploration, we estimate the group velocities of Love wave for four propagation paths of long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake by multiple filter technique, which were compared with the theoretical ones calculated from the derived profiles. As a result, it was confirmed that the group velocities from the derived profiles were in good agreement with the ones from long-period earthquake ground motion records during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. Furthermore, we applied the estimation method of design basis earthquake input for seismically isolated nuclear power facilities by using normal mode solution to estimate long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. As a result, it was demonstrated that the applicability of the above method for the estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion were improved by using the derived 1D S-wave velocity profile. (author)

  5. Lithospheric shear velocity structure of South Island, New Zealand, from amphibious Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Justin S.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Yeck, William L.; Collins, John A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a crust and mantle 3-D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath the South Island as well as the Campbell and Challenger Plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18-70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8-25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 4 land-based and 29 ocean bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa experiment with 28 land-based seismometers from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs 50 km) beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with upper mantle earthquake hypocenters beneath the Alpine Fault. The ~400 km long low-velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island and the inner Bounty Trough underlies Cenozoic volcanics and the locations of mantle-derived helium measurements, consistent with asthenospheric upwelling in the region.

  6. Application of the Spatial Auto-Correlation Method for Shear-Wave Velocity Studies Using Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, M. W.; Hayashi, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise or microtremor observations used in spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) array methods consist of a wide frequency range of surface waves from the frequency of about 0.1 Hz to several tens of Hz. The wavelengths (and hence depth sensitivity of such surface waves) allow determination of the site S-wave velocity model from a depth of 1 or 2 m down to a maximum of several kilometres; it is a passive seismic method using only ambient noise as the energy source. Application usually uses a 2D seismic array with a small number of seismometers (generally between 2 and 15) to estimate the phase velocity dispersion curve and hence the S-wave velocity depth profile for the site. A large number of methods have been proposed and used to estimate the dispersion curve; SPAC is the one of the oldest and the most commonly used methods due to its versatility and minimal instrumentation requirements. We show that direct fitting of observed and model SPAC spectra generally gives a superior bandwidth of useable data than does the more common approach of inversion after the intermediate step of constructing an observed dispersion curve. Current case histories demonstrate the method with a range of array types including two-station arrays, L-shaped multi-station arrays, triangular and circular arrays. Array sizes from a few metres to several-km in diameter have been successfully deployed in sites ranging from downtown urban settings to rural and remote desert sites. A fundamental requirement of the method is the ability to average wave propagation over a range of azimuths; this can be achieved with either or both of the wave sources being widely distributed in azimuth, and the use of a 2D array sampling the wave field over a range of azimuths. Several variants of the method extend its applicability to under-sampled data from sparse arrays, the complexity of multiple-mode propagation of energy, and the problem of precise estimation where array geometry departs from an

  7. Automatic Wave Equation Migration Velocity Analysis by Focusing Subsurface Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-11-03

    Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.

  8. Automatic Wave Equation Migration Velocity Analysis by Focusing Subsurface Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.

  9. S-wave velocity below Europe from delay-time and waveform inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielhuis, A.

    1992-01-01

    The upper mantle of Europe has been the subject of many tomographic studies of variations in P-wave velocity (e.g., Romanowicz 1980; Hovland et al., 1981; Spakman, 1988, 1991; and Spakman et aI., in preparation). In particular the studies of Spakman (1988, 1991) and Spakman et aI. (in

  10. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); A.J. Loeve (Arjo J.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPhotoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of

  11. Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of pre-chirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion. (paper)

  12. Pulse picker for synchrotron radiation driven by a surface acoustic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Petsiuk, Andrei; Dolbnya, Igor; Sawhney, Kawal; Erko, Alexei

    2017-05-15

    A functional test for a pulse picker for synchrotron radiation was performed at Diamond Light Source. The purpose of a pulse picker is to select which pulse from the synchrotron hybrid-mode bunch pattern reaches the experiment. In the present work, the Bragg reflection on a Si/B4C multilayer was modified using surface acoustic wave (SAW) trains. Diffraction on the SAW alters the direction of the x rays and it can be used to modulate the intensity of the x rays that reach the experimental chamber. Using electronic modulation of the SAW amplitude, it is possible to obtain different scattering conditions for different x-ray pulses. To isolate the single bunch, the state of the SAW must be changed in the short time gap between the pulses. To achieve the necessary time resolution, the measurements have been performed in conical diffraction geometry. The achieved time resolution was 120 ns.

  13. Pulsed-induced electromagnetically induced transparency in the acetylene-filled hollow-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nayeli Casillas; Stepanov, Serguei; Miramontes, Manuel Ocegueda; Hernández, Eliseo Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Experimental results on pulsed excitation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at pressures 0.1-0.4 Torr are reported. The EIT was observed both in Λ and V interaction configurations with the continuous probe wave tuned to R9 (1520.08 nm) acetylene absorption line and with the control pulses tuned to P11 (1531.58 nm) and P9 (1530.37 nm) lines, respectively. The utilized control pulses were of up to 40 ns duration with EIT was up to 40 and 15% for the co- and counter-propagation of the probe and control waves, respectively, and importance of the waves polarization matching was demonstrated. For a qualitative explanation of reduction in the counter-propagation EIT efficiency a simple model of the accelerated mismatch of the two-frequency EIT resonance with deviation of the molecule thermal velocity from the resonance value was utilized. It was shown experimentally that the EIT efficiencies in both configurations do not depend on the longitudinal velocity of the molecules. The characteristic relaxation time of the of the EIT response was found to be about 9 ns, i.e., is close to the relaxation times T 1,2 of the acetylene molecules under the utilized experimental conditions.

  14. Velocity and Q Structure of the Quaternary Sediment in Bohai Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, J.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Heavily populated by Beijing and Tianjin cities, Bohai Basin is a seismically active Cenozoic basin suffering from huge lost by devastating earthquakes, such as Tangshan earthquake. There have been some studies about three dimensional structure of the lithosphere in this region; however the attenuation (Qp and Qs) of the surfacial quaternary sediment has not been studied at natural seismic frequency (1-10HZ), which is crucial to earthquake hazards study. Borehole seismic records of micro earthquake provide us a good way to study the velocity and Q attenuation of the surfacial structure (0-500m). We found that there are two pulses well separated with simple waveforms while analyzing borehole seismic records from the 2006 Mw4.9 WenAn earthquake sequence. Then we performed waveform modeling with Generalized Ray Theory (GRT) to confirm that the two pulses are direct wave and surface reflected wave, and found that the average Vp and Vs of the top 300m in this region are about 1.83km/s and 0.42km/s while Vp/Vs falls in a high value of 4.4. We also modeled surface reflected wave with Propagating Matrix method to study the value of Qs and the surfacial velocity structure. Our modeling indicates that Qs should be larger than 30, even up to 100, this is quite larger than the typically assumed extremely low Q (~=10) found by Hauksson et al (Hauksson et al, 1987; Blakeslee and Malin, 1991) but much similar to that of Langston (2002). Also, the velocity gradient just beneath the free surface (0-50m) is very large and velocity increases slowly at larger depth. Our modeling demonstrates the value of borehole seismic records in resolving shallow velocity and attenuation structure, and hence their significance in earthquake hazard simulation.

  15. Examples of invasive and non-invasive methods for estimation of shear-wave velocity profile in Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, A.; Albota, E.; Yamanaka, H.; Fukumoto, S.; Poiata, N.

    2007-01-01

    The estimation of subsurface shear-wave velocity is of major importance for understanding and modelling site-response and surface ground motion. The shear-wave velocity profile strongly influence the shear-wave part of the seismic motion that proved to be the most damaging one. The improvement of input seismic ground motion for design is one of the long-term objectives within the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Project in Romania. Two approaches were used: installation of a digital seismic network and soil investigations (in situ and in laboratory). National Center for Seismic Risk Reduction (NCSRR, Romania), the implementing agency of JICA Project, performed these activities in cooperation with Japanese partner institutions, and an efficient know-how transfer was achieved. Between the soil investigation activities, a special importance was given to the estimation of shear-wave velocity profile. The present paper presents results from PS logging tests at NCSRR seismic station sites, and from single-station and array microtremor measurements. Other results from PS logging tests, surface-wave method and in situ and laboratory geotechnical investigations are presented in other papers in these proceedings. In future, a joint-collaborative effort of Romanian institutions may allow an improved characterisation of the soil profile beneath Bucharest. (authors)

  16. Phase and group velocity tracing analysis of projected wave packet motion along oblique radar beams – qualitative analysis of QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kuo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of shock wave and spallation phenomena in metal foils irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Demaske, Brian; Inogamov, Nail; Oleynik, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Femtosecond laser irradiation of metals is an effective technique to create a high-pressure frontal layer of 100-200 nm thickness. The associated ablation and spallation phenomena can be studied in the laser pump-probe experiments. We present results of a large-scale MD simulation of ablation and spallation dynamics developing in 1,2,3μm thick Al and Au foils irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. Atomic-scale mechanisms of laser energy deposition, transition from pressure wave to shock, reflection of the shock from the rear-side of the foil, and the nucleation of cracks in the reflected tensile wave, having a very high strain rate, were all studied. To achieve a realistic description of the complex phenomena induced by strong compression and rarefaction waves, we developed new embedded atom potentials for Al and Au based on cold pressure curves. MD simulations revealed the complex interplay between spallation and ablation processes: dynamics of spallation depends on the pressure profile formed in the ablated zone at the early stage of laser energy absorption. It is shown that the essential information such as material properties at high strain rate and spall strength can be extracted from the simulated rear-side surface velocity as a function of time.

  18. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, M.H.N.; Loeve, A.J.; Niehof, S.P.; Mik, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW

  19. S-wave velocity below Europe from delay-time and waveform inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielhuis, A.

    1992-01-01

    The upper mantle of Europe has been the subject of many tomographic studies of variations in P-wave velocity (e.g., Romanowicz 1980; Hovland et al., 1981; Spakman, 1988, 1991; and Spakman et aI., in preparation). In particular the studies of Spakman (1988, 1991) and Spakman et aI. (in preparation)

  20. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizdulich, P.; Prentza, A.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Methods: Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by

  1. Visible continuum pulses based on enhanced dispersive wave generation for endogenous fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.

  2. Preliminary study of flow velocity measurement by means of ultrasonic waves; Estudo preliminar de medicao de vazao atraves de ondas ultra-sonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pio, Ronald Ribeiro; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio; Lamy, Carlos Alfredo; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.

    1995-10-01

    Different flow velocities of a water loop were associated with different ultrasonic wave velocities that traveled in the water. It was also observed that water temperature influenced the ultrasonic wave velocity but in an inverse manner to that of the water flow velocity. This experiment showed the possibility of using the ultrasonic system to measure a liquid flow velocity with precision. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Influence of laser-supported detonation waves on metal drilling with pulsed CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, E.; von Allmen, M.

    1978-01-01

    Drilling of highly reflective metals in an ambient atmosphere with single TEA-CO 2 -laser pulses of fluences between 300 and 6000 J/cm 2 is reported. The drilling process was investigated by measuring the time-resolved laser power reflected specularly from the targets during the interaction and by analyzing the craters produced. Experiments were performed in ambient air, argon, and helium. Target damage was found to be strongly influenced by a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave in the ambient gas. If the laser fluence exceeded a material-dependent damage threshold (copper: 300 J/cm 2 ), drilling occurred, but the efficiency was inversely related to the duration of the LSD wave. Efficient material removal is possible if the LSD wave can be dissipated within a small fraction of the laser pulse duration. This was achieved by small-F-number focusing of TEM 00 laser pulses of 5-μs duration. Replacing the ambient air at the target by a gas of lower density results in a further significant reduction of LSD-wave lifetime, and a correlated increase of the drilling yield. On copper targets a maximum drilling yield of 10 -5 cm 3 /J was observed in ambient helium at a laser fluence of 1 kJ/cm 2

  4. Inversion of Surface Wave Phase Velocities for Radial Anisotropy to an Depth of 1200 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate three dimensional radial anisotropy to an depth of 1200 km. Radial anisotropy describes the difference in velocity between horizontally polarized Rayleigh waves and vertically polarized Love waves. Its presence in the uppermost 200 km mantle has well been documented by different groups, and has been regarded as an indicator of mantle convection which aligns the intrinsically anisotropic minerals, largely olivine, to form large scale anisotropy. However, there is no global agreement on whether anisotropy exists in the region below 200 km. Recent models also associate a fast vertically polarized shear wave with vertical upwelling mantle flow. The data used in this study is the globally isotropic phase velocity models of fundamental and higher mode Love and Rayleigh waves (Visser, 2008). The inclusion of higher mode surface wave phase velocity provides sensitivities to structure at depth that extends to below the transition zone. While the data is the same as used by Visser (2008), a quite different parameterization is applied. All the six parameters - five elastic parameters A, C, F, L, N and density - are now regarded as independent, which rules out possible biased conclusions induced by scaling relation method used in several previous studies to reduce the number of parameters partly due to limited computing resources. The data need to be modified by crustal corrections (Crust2.0) as we want to look at the mantle structure only. We do this by eliminating the perturbation in surface wave phase velocity caused by the difference in crustal structure with respect to the referent model PREM. Sambridge's Neighborhood Algorithm is used to search the parameter space. The introduction of such a direct search technique pales the traditional inversion method, which requires regularization or some unnecessary priori restriction on the model space. On the contrary, the new method will search the full model space, providing probability density

  5. The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in Westerly granite. [for seismic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. W., Jr.; Nur, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of an experimental assembly which has been developed to conduct concurrent measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities in rocks at high temperatures and confining pressures and with independent control of the pore pressure. The apparatus was used in studies of the joint effects of temperature, external confining pressure, and internal pore water on sonic velocities in Westerly granite. It was found that at a given temperature, confining pressure has a larger accelerating effect on compressional waves in dry rock, whereas at a given confining pressure, temperature has a larger retarding effect on shear waves.

  6. Aortic-Radial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio in End-stage Renal Disease Patients: Association with Age, Body Tissue Hydration Status, Renal Failure Etiology and Five Years of Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, Daniel; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Galli, Cintia; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Zócalo, Yanina; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the hydration status may be involved in the arterial stiffening process observed in hemodialyzed patients. The ratio between carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV ratio) was recently proposed to characterize the patient-specific stiffening process. to analyze: (1) the PWV-ratio in healthy and hemodialyzed subjects, analyzing potential changes associated to etiologies of the ESRD, (2) the PWV-ratio and hydration status using multiple-frequency bioimpedance and, (3) the effects of hemodialysis on PWV-ratio in a 5-year follow-up. PWV-ratio was evaluated in 151 patients differentiated by the pathology determining their ESRD. Total body fluid (TBF), intra and extra cellular fluid (ICF, ECF) were measured in 65 of these patients using bioelectrical-impedance. The association between arterial, hemodynamic or fluid parameters was analyzed. PWV-ratio was evaluated in a group of patients (n = 25) 5 years later (follow-up study). PWV-ratio increased in the ESRD cohort with respect to the control group (1.03 ± 0.23 vs. 1.31 ± 0.37; p hydration status, but not with the blood pressure. PWV-ratio could be considered a blood pressure-independent parameter, associated with the age and hydration status of the patient.

  7. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song

    2011-01-01

    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  8. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  9. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  10. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2014-07-04

    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  11. Lower Mantle S-wave Velocity Model under the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Grand, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Deep mantle plumes created by thermal instabilities at the core-mantle boundary has been an explanation for intraplate volcanism since the 1970's. Recently, broad slow velocity conduits in the lower mantle underneath some hotspots have been observed (French and Romanowicz, 2015), however the direct detection of a classical thin mantle plume using seismic tomography has remained elusive. Herein, we present a seismic tomography technique designed to image a deep mantle plume under the Yellowstone Hotspot located in the western United States utilizing SKS and SKKS waves in conjunction with finite frequency tomography. Synthetic resolution tests show the technique can resolve a 235 km diameter lower mantle plume with a 1.5% Gaussian velocity perturbation even if a realistic amount of random noise is added to the data. The Yellowstone Hotspot presents a unique opportunity to image a thin plume because it is the only hotspot with a purported deep origin that has a large enough aperture and density of seismometers to accurately sample the lower mantle at the length scales required to image a plume. Previous regional tomography studies largely based on S wave data have imaged a cylindrically shaped slow anomaly extending down to 900km under the hotspot, however they could not resolve it any deeper (Schmandt et al., 2010; Obrebski et al., 2010).To test if the anomaly extends deeper, we measured and inverted over 40,000 SKS and SKKS waves' travel times in two frequency bands recorded at 2400+ stations deployed during 2006-2012. Our preliminary model shows narrow slow velocity anomalies in the lower mantle with no fast anomalies. The slow anomalies are offset from the Yellowstone hotspot and may be diapirs rising from the base of the mantle.

  12. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  13. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C; Lopes, N C

    2009-01-01

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v f of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a 0 ≅ 1), 0.815 μm laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n e = 1.3 x 10 19 cm -3 ) showed no measurable changes in v f over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n e = 5 x 10 19 cm -3 ) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v f as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v f evolution are discussed.

  14. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF AN EIT WAVE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS AND SDO/AIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Goemoery, P. [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-05960 Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, 1000 Zagreb (Croatia); Warren, H. P., E-mail: astrid.veronig@uni-graz.at [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T Almost-Equal-To 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20 km s{sup -1}. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5 km s{sup -1} indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few km s{sup -1} up to 20 km s{sup -1} and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 A line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no H{alpha} Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a Almost-Equal-To -540 m s{sup -2} and a start velocity of v{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 590 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base.

  15. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  16. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2013-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  17. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  18. A mechanical velocity selector for a small angle scattering instrument on a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meardon, B.H.; Stewart, R.J.; Williams, W.G.

    1978-11-01

    Design parameters and performance calculations are given for a straight-slot velocity selector which can be used for discriminating between elastic and inelastic scattering events in small angle scattering experiments on a pulsed neutron source. The selector has a high transmittance over the wavelength range 3 A 5%. (author)

  19. Generalization of Bateman-Hillion progressive wave and Bessel-Gauss pulse solutions of the wave equation via a separation of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A

    2003-01-01

    Two new families of exact solutions of the wave equation u sub x sub x + u sub y sub y + u sub z sub z - c sup - sup 2 u sub t sub t = 0 generalizing Bessel-Gauss pulses and Bateman-Hillion relatively undistorted progressive waves, respectively are presented. In each of these families new simple solutions describing localized wave propagation are found. The approach is based on a kind of separation of variables. (letter to the editor)

  20. Whole-mantle P-wave velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    There are some hotspot volcanoes on Earth, such as Hawaii and Iceland. The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed forty years ago to explain hotspot volcanoes (e.g., Wilson, 1963; Morgan, 1971). Seismic tomography is a powerful technique to detect mantle plumes and determine their detailed structures. We determined a new whole-mantle 3-D P-wave velocity model (Tohoku model) using a global tomography method (Zhao, 2004, 2009). A flexible-grid approach with a grid interval of ~200 km is adopted to conduct the tomographic inversion. Our model shows that low-velocity (low-V) anomalies with diameters of several hundreds of kilometers are visible from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) to the surface under the major hotspot regions. Under South Pacific where several hotspots including Tahiti exist, there is a huge low-V anomaly from the CMB to the surface. This feature is consistent with the previous models. We conducted extensive resolution tests in order to understand whether this low-V anomaly shows a single superplume or a plume cluster. Unfortunately this problem is still not resolved because the ray path coverage in the mantle under South Pacific is not good enough. A network of ocean bottom seismometers is necessary to solve this problem. To better understand the whole-mantle structure and dynamics, we also conducted P-wave tomographic inversions for the 3-D velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy. At each grid node there are three unknown parameters: one represents the isotropic velocity, the other two represent the azimuthal anisotropy. Our results show that in the shallow part of the mantle (Japan trench axis. In the Tonga subduction zone, the FVD is also perpendicular to the trench axis. Under the Tibetan region the FVD is NE-SW, which is parallel to the direction of the India-Asia collision. In the deeper part of the upper mantle and in the lower mantle, the amplitude of anisotropy is reduced. One interesting feature is that the FVD aligns in a radiated fashion

  1. Four-Wave Mixing of Gigawatt Power, Long-Wave Infrared Radiation in Gases and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Jeremy James

    The nonlinear optics of gigawatt power, 10 microm, 3 and 200 ps long pulses propagating in gases and semiconductors has been studied experimentally and numerically. In this work, the development of a high-repetition rate, picosecond, CO2 laser system has enabled experiments using peak intensities in the range of 1-10 GW/cm2, approximately one thousand times greater than previous nonlinear optics experiments in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region. The first measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of the atomic and molecular gases Kr, Xe, N2, O2 and the air at a wavelength near 10 microm were accomplished by studying the four-wave mixing (FWM) of dual-wavelength, 200 ps CO2 laser pulses. These measurements indicate that the nonlinearities of the diatomic molecules N2, O2 and the air are dominated by the molecular contribution to the nonlinear refractive index. Supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the infrared spectral range, from 2-20 microm, was realized by propagating 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in an approximately 7 cm long, Cr-doped GaAs crystal. Temporal measurements of the SC radiation show that pulse splitting accompanies the generation of such broadband light in GaAs. The propagation of 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in GaAs was studied numerically by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (GNLSE). These simulations, combined with analytic estimates, were used to determine that stimulated Raman scattering combined with a modulational instability caused by the propagation of intense LWIR radiation in the negative group velocity dispersion region of GaAs are responsible for the SC generation process. The multiple FWM of a 106 GHz, 200 ps CO2 laser beat-wave propagating in GaAs was used to generate a broadband FWM spectrum that was compressed by the negative group velocity dispersion of GaAs and NaCl crystals to form trains of high-power, picosecond pulses at a wavelength near 10 microm. Experimental FWM spectra obtained using 165 and 882

  2. Impulse excitation scanning acoustic microscopy for local quantification of Rayleigh surface wave velocity using B-scan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M.; Dierken, J.; Boehnlein, T.; Pilchak, A.; Sathish, S.; Grandhi, R.

    2018-01-01

    A new technique for performing quantitative scanning acoustic microscopy imaging of Rayleigh surface wave (RSW) velocity was developed based on b-scan processing. In this technique, the focused acoustic beam is moved through many defocus distances over the sample and excited with an impulse excitation, and advanced algorithms based on frequency filtering and the Hilbert transform are used to post-process the b-scans to estimate the Rayleigh surface wave velocity. The new method was used to estimate the RSW velocity on an optically flat E6 glass sample, and the velocity was measured at ±2 m/s and the scanning time per point was on the order of 1.0 s, which are both improvement from the previous two-point defocus method. The new method was also applied to the analysis of two titanium samples, and the velocity was estimated with very low standard deviation in certain large grains on the sample. A new behavior was observed with the b-scan analysis technique where the amplitude of the surface wave decayed dramatically on certain crystallographic orientations. The new technique was also compared with previous results, and the new technique has been found to be much more reliable and to have higher contrast than previously possible with impulse excitation.

  3. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  4. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering

    1994-07-20

    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Bit rate and pulse width dependence of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, S.; Mecozzi, A.; Mørk, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate....... In particular, the signal-to-background ratio can be optimized for a specific amplifier gain. This behavior, which is coherently described in experiment and theory, is attributed to the dynamics of the amplified spontaneous emission, which is the main source of noise in a semiconductor optical amplifier....

  6. Vascular aging processes accelerate following a cubic kinetic: pulse wave velocity as an objective counterpart that time, as we age, goes by faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabutti L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Luca Gabutti, Rosaria Del Giorno Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Bellinzona Regional Hospital, Bellinzona, SwitzerlandArterial stiffness is a marker of vascular aging and is considered to be the most reliable parameter expressing, like an integral in mathematics, the cumulative consequences, on the vascular wall, of degenerative and adaptive changes occurring throughout life.1 The efficiency of the reparative processes, the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF, and early life and genetic determinants, all play a relevant role.1 Among CVRF, the acceleration in arterial stiffness progression related to age is mainly influenced by hypertension.1 A pathological acceleration translates into the concept of early vascular aging, a concept that can be quantified calculating the gap between the subject’s chronological (estimated on the basis of the epidemiological data obtained in the normal population and effective vascular age.2 Data of subpopulations without active risk factors for accelerated vascular aging can be found mainly in three large epidemiological studies, performed respectively in Portugal,3 Argentina,4 and seven different European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and UK gathered in a collaborative investigation.5 Those doing this secondary analysis were aware of the limitation related to the use of cross-sectional data to extrapolate longitudinal changes, and their aims were combining the abovementioned epidemiological data concerning the normal population to calculate with the highest possible accuracy 1 the age-related increase in acceleration of the pulse wave velocity (PWV and to estimate both 2 the age-specific relative amount of time equivalent to that necessary to progress 1 year in vascular age at 20, and 3 the cumulative relative age calculated in year equivalents. 

  7. South Ilan Plain High-Resolution 3-D S-Wave Velocity from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Xun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located at a pivotal point where the Ryukyu trench subduction zone, the northern Taiwan crustal stretching zone, and the ongoing arc-continent collision zone converge. In contrast to the North Ilan Plain, the South Ilan Plain exhibits a thin unconsolidated sedimentary layer with depths ranging from 0 - 1 km, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements relative to Penghu island. We deployed a dense network of 43 short-period vertical component Texan instruments from June to November 2013 in this study, covering most of the South Ilan Plain and its vicinity. We then used the ambient noise tomography method for simultaneous phase and group Rayleigh wave velocity measurements to invert a high-resolution 3-D S-wave for shallow structures (up to a depth of 2.5 km in the South Ilan Plain. We used the fast marching method for ray tracing to deal with ray bending in an inhomogeneous medium. The resulting rays gradually bend toward high velocity zones with increasing number of iterations. The high velocity zone results are modified by more iterations and the resolutions become higher because ray crossings are proportional to ray densities for evenly distributed stations. The final results agreed well with known sedimentary basement thickness patterns. We observed nearly EW trending fast anomalies beneath the mountainous terrain abutting to the South Ilan Plain. The Chingshui location consistently exhibited a low S-wave velocity zone to a depth of 1.5 km.

  8. Measurement of Rayleigh wave Z/H ratio and joint inversion for a high-resolution S wave velocity model beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, W.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge on the 3D sediment structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin is not only important to explore the oil and gas resources in the area, but also essential to decipher the deep crust and mantle structure beneath the margin with teleseismic data. In this study, we conduct a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocity at 6-40 s to construct a 3-D S wave velocity model in a rectangular area of 100°-87° west and 28°-37° north. We use ambient noise data from a total of 215 stations of the Transportable Array deployed under the Earthscope project. Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave Z/H (vertical to horizontal) amplitude ratio is mostly sensitive to shallow sediment structure, while the dispersion data are expected to have reasonably good resolution to uppermost mantle depths. The Z/H ratios measured from stations inside the Gulf Coastal Plain are distinctly lower in comparison with those measured from the inland stations. We also measured the phase velocity dispersion from the same ambient noise dataset. Our preliminary 3-D model is featured by strong low-velocity anomalies at shallow depth, which are spatially well correlated with Gulf Cost, East Texas, and the Lower Mississippi basins. We will discuss other features of the 3-D models once the model is finalized.

  9. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  10. Near surface velocity and Q S structure of the Quaternary sediment in Bohai basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jiajun; Ni, Sidao

    2009-10-01

    Heavily populated by Beijing and Tianjin cities, Bohai basin is a seismically active Cenozoic basin suffering from huge lost by devastating earthquakes, such as Tangshan earthquake. The attenuation ( Q P and Q S) of the surficial Quaternary sediment has not been studied at natural seismic frequency (1-10 Hz), which is crucial to earthquake hazards study. Borehole seismic records of micro earthquake provide us a good way to study the velocity and attenuation of the surficial structure (0-500 m). We found that there are two pulses well separated with simple waveforms on borehole seismic records from the 2006 M W4.9 Wen’an earthquake sequence. Then we performed waveform modeling with generalized ray theory (GRT) to confirm that the two pulses are direct wave and surface reflected wave, and found that the average ν P and ν S of the top 300 m in this region are about 1.8 km/s and 0.42 km/s, leading to high ν P/ ν S ratio of 4.3. We also modeled surface reflected wave with propagating matrix method to constrain Q S and the near surface velocity structure. Our modeling indicates that Q S is at least 30, or probably up to 100, much larger than the typically assumed extremely low Q (˜10), but consistent with Q S modeling in Mississippi embayment. Also, the velocity gradient just beneath the free surface (0-50 m) is very large and velocity increases gradually at larger depth. Our modeling demonstrates the importance of borehole seismic records in resolving shallow velocity and attenuation structure, and hence may help in earthquake hazard simulation.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, Nirmol K.

    2009-01-01

    In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas

  12. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  13. Concrete deterioration: detection by ultrasonic pulse velocity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutan, N.M.; Jaafar, M.S.; Hamdan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method (UPVM) in detecting defect and determining its depth during the early age concrete. Five reinforced concrete (RC) slabs of grade 30, 40 and 50 specimens at day 3, 7,14 and 28 with a fabricated void at a known location were used. The results obtained were compared to determine the accuracy of the method hence the effectiveness of the method with different strength and as the concrete matures. This method detects defects in specimens during the early age The accuracy varies with concrete strength and as the concrete mature. The test results indicate the method can be used to assess the in-situ properties of concrete or for quality control on site. The method showed better accuracy with stronger concrete detects defects with the accuracy ranging from 55.75-99.62% from day 3-28 (full strength) respectively. (author)

  14. Planar time-resolved PIV for velocity and pressure retrieval in atmospheric boundary layer over surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Bopp, Maximilian; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea coupling in general is important for weather, climate, fluxes. Wind wave source is crucially important for surface waves' modeling. But the wind-wave growth rate is strongly uncertain. Using direct measurements of pressure by wave-following Elliott probe [1] showed, weak and indefinite dependence of wind-wave growth rate on the wave steepness, while Grare et.al. [2] discuss the limitations of direct measurements of pressure associated with the inability to measure the pressure close to the surface by contact methods. Recently non-invasive methods for determining the pressure on the basis of technology of time-resolved PIV are actively developed [3]. Retrieving air flow velocities by 2D PIV techniques was started from Reul et al [4]. The first attempt for retrieving wind pressure field of waves in the laboratory tank from the time-resolved PIV measurements was done in [5]. The experiments were performed at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m). For 18 regimes with wind speed up to 14 m/s including presence of puddle waves, a combination of time resolved PIV technique and optical measurements of water surface form was applied to detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. Ammonium chloride smoke was used for flow visualization illuminated by two 6 Wt blue diode lasers combined into a vertical laser plane. Particle movement was captured with high-speed camera using Scheimpflug technique (up to 20 kHz frame rate with 4-frame bursts, spatial resolution about 190 μm, field of view 314x12 mm). Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave form. The resulting time resolved instantaneous velocity fields on regular grid allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from measured air velocity fluctuations. The average wind velocity patterns were

  15. Acoustic and Shear-Wave Velocities in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Offshore Southwestern Taiwan: Tomography, Converted Waves Analysis and Reverse-Time Migration of OBS Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schnurle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-D combined seismic reflection and refraction survey has been conducted in the accretionary complex offshore of southwestern Taiwan where BSRs (Bottom Simulating Reflectors are highly concentrated and geochemical signals for the presence of gas hydrate are strong. In this study, we perform velocity analysis of the 6 4-component OBS (Ocean-Bottom Seismometer records along the southernmost transect of this seismic experiment. We utilize 3 independent methods in order to accurately determine the acoustic and shear-wave velocities of the sediments: 1-D Root Mean Square (RMS analysis of the P-P and P-S reflected events on individual datumed components, 2-D inversion of the P-P and P-S reflected and refracted events along the in-line transect, and 3-D acoustic inversion of the first arrivals. The principal sources of bias in the determination of the velocities are the 3-dimentional nature of the topography and the complexity of the underlying structures. The three methods result in consistent velocity profiles. Rapid lateral and vertical variations of the velocities are observed. We then investigate the large scale gas hydrate content through rock physic modeling: at the vertical of each OBS, shear-waves velocities are utilized to estimate the water-filled porosities, and the acoustic velocities predicted for a set of gas hydrate, quartz and clay contents are compared to the observed profiles.

  16. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  17. A First Layered Crustal Velocity Model for the Western Solomon Islands: Inversion of Measured Group Velocity of Surface Waves using Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C. S.; Kuo, Y. T.; Chao, W. A.; You, S. H.; Huang, B. S.; Chen, Y. G.; Taylor, F. W.; Yih-Min, W.

    2017-12-01

    Two earthquakes, MW 8.1 in 2007 and MW 7.1 in 2010, hit the Western Province of Solomon Islands and caused extensive damage, but motivated us to set up the first seismic network in this area. During the first phase, eight broadband seismic stations (BBS) were installed around the rupture zone of 2007 earthquake. With one-year seismic records, we cross-correlated the vertical component of ambient noise recorded in our BBS and calculated Rayleigh-wave group velocity dispersion curves on inter-station paths. The genetic algorithm to invert one-dimensional crustal velocity model is applied by fitting the averaged dispersion curves. The one-dimensional crustal velocity model is constituted by two layers and one half-space, representing the upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle respectively. The resulted thickness values of the upper and lower crust are 6.4 and 14.2 km, respectively. Shear-wave velocities (VS) of the upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle are 2.53, 3.57 and 4.23 km/s with the VP/VS ratios of 1.737, 1.742 and 1.759, respectively. This first layered crustal velocity model can be used as a preliminary reference to further study seismic sources such as earthquake activity and tectonic tremor.

  18. [A quick algorithm of dynamic spectrum photoelectric pulse wave detection based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Li, Na; Li, Gang

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic spectrum (DS) detection is attractive among the numerous noninvasive blood component detection methods because of the elimination of the main interference of the individual discrepancy and measure conditions. DS is a kind of spectrum extracted from the photoelectric pulse wave and closely relative to the artery blood. It can be used in a noninvasive blood component concentration examination. The key issues in DS detection are high detection precision and high operation speed. The precision of measure can be advanced by making use of over-sampling and lock-in amplifying on the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave in DS detection. In the present paper, the theory expression formula of the over-sampling and lock-in amplifying method was deduced firstly. Then in order to overcome the problems of great data and excessive operation brought on by this technology, a quick algorithm based on LabVIEW and a method of using external C code applied in the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave were presented. Experimental verification was conducted in the environment of LabVIEW. The results show that by the method pres ented, the speed of operation was promoted rapidly and the data memory was reduced largely.

  19. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low-velocity

  20. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  1. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas; Interaction d'impulsions laser ultra-courtes et ultra-intenses avec des plasmas sous denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodov, A

    2000-12-15

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  2. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs

  3. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  4. The impact of left ventricular preload reduction on cardiac pulsed doppler indices during hemodialysis and its relation to intra-dialysis hypotension: A pulsed doppler study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarrayed, Sameer; Garadah Taysir Said; Alawdi, Abdulhai Ali

    2009-01-01

    Fluid status in the body plays an important role on left ventricular (LV) filling in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD), and plays a role in intra-dialysis hemodynamic derangement. Fifty-two patients with ESRD on regular HD, including 34 males with a mean age of 45.5 +- 13 years (range 18-72 years), were studied. All patients underwent Echo-pulsed Doppler study before and immediately after a HD session. The Echo Doppler indices noted were: LV cavity dimension and wall thickness, LV ejection fraction (LVEF%), trans-mitral early diastolic filling velocity (E wave), atrial filling diastolic velocity (A wave), E/A ratio, Deceleration Time (DT) of E wave, Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), Aortic Velocity Integral (AVI) and Inferior Vena Cava Diameter (VCD) at expiration. Patients were divided into two groups according to the amount of net ultra filtrate loss after HD. Group I comprised of 25 patients with fluid loss of 2 liters. During the HD session, each patient was observed for the development of acute clinical events such as arterial hypotension (systolic BP less than 90 mmHg), chest pain and arrhythmias. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the mean values, pre- and post- HD, of reduction of E wave velocity (p < 0.01), the reduction of E/A ratio (p< 0.05), the increment in DT of E wave (p< 0.05), the reduction in AVI (p< 0.01) and the reduction of VCD (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the reduction of A wave velocity and the reduction of IVRT. Among the study patients, 11 (21%) developed systolic hypo-tension during HD. The pre-dialysis mean values of E/A ratio and DT of E wave in patients who developed hypotension compared to those who did not was 0.7 +- 0.2 vs 1.1 +- 0.2.1 (p< 0.001) and 246 +- 40 vs 224 +- 34 msec (p< 0.05), respectively. Our study suggests that preload reduction in patients with ESRD on regular HD is directly proportional to the reduction of left

  5. Shear-wave velocity models and seismic sources in Campanian volcanic areas: Vesuvius and Phlegraean fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidarelli, M; Zille, A; Sarao, A [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Natale, M; Nunziata, C [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    This chapter summarizes a comparative study of shear-wave velocity models and seismic sources in the Campanian volcanic areas of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields. These velocity models were obtained through the nonlinear inversion of surface-wave tomography data, using as a priori constraints the relevant information available in the literature. Local group velocity data were obtained by means of the frequency-time analysis for the time period between 0.3 and 2 s and were combined with the group velocity data for the time period between 10 and 35 s from the regional events located in the Italian peninsula and bordering areas and two station phase velocity data corresponding to the time period between 25 and 100 s. In order to invert Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, we applied the nonlinear inversion method called hedgehog and retrieved average models for the first 30-35 km of the lithosphere, with the lower part of the upper mantle being kept fixed on the basis of existing regional models. A feature that is common to the two volcanic areas is a low shear velocity layer which is centered at the depth of about 10 km, while on the outside of the cone and along a path in the northeastern part of the Vesuvius area this layer is absent. This low velocity can be associated with the presence of partial melting and, therefore, may represent a quite diffused crustal magma reservoir which is fed by a deeper one that is regional in character and located in the uppermost mantle. The study of seismic source in terms of the moment tensor is suitable for an investigation of physical processes within a volcano; indeed, its components, double couple, compensated linear vector dipole, and volumetric, can be related to the movements of magma and fluids within the volcanic system. Although for many recent earthquake events the percentage of double couple component is high, our results also show the presence of significant non-double couple components in both volcanic areas. (author)

  6. Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  8. Hohlraum glint and laser pre-pulse detector for NIF experiments using velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Clancy, T J; Frieders, G; Celliers, P M; Ralph, J; Turnbull, D P

    2014-11-01

    Laser pre-pulse and early-time laser reflection from the hohlraum wall onto the capsule (termed "glint") can cause capsule imprint and unwanted early-time shocks on indirect drive implosion experiments. In a minor modification to the existing velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic on NIF a fast-response vacuum photodiode was added to detect this light. The measurements show evidence of laser pre-pulse and possible light reflection off the hohlraum wall and onto the capsule.

  9. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  10. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...

  11. Cross-correlation analysis of pulse wave propagation in arteries: in vitro validation and in vivo feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Apostolakis, Iason; McGarry, Matthew; Konofagou, Elisa

    2018-05-29

    The stiffness of the arteries is known to be an indicator of the progression of various cardiovascular diseases. Clinically, the pulse wave velocity (PWV) is used as a surrogate for arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a non-invasive, ultrasound-based imaging technique capable of mapping the motion of the vessel walls, allowing the local assessment of arterial properties. Conventionally, a distinctive feature of the displacement wave (e.g. the 50% upstroke) is tracked across the map to estimate the PWV. However, the presence of reflections, such as those generated at the carotid bifurcation, can bias the PWV estimation. In this paper, we propose a two-step cross-correlation based method to characterize arteries using the information available in the PWI spatio-temporal map. First, the area under the cross-correlation curve is proposed as an index for locating the regions of different properties. Second, a local peak of the cross-correlation function is tracked to obtain a less biased estimate of the PWV. Three series of experiments were conducted in phantoms to evaluate the capabilities of the proposed method compared with the conventional method. In the ideal case of a homogeneous phantom, the two methods performed similarly and correctly estimated the PWV. In the presence of reflections, the proposed method provided a more accurate estimate than conventional processing: e.g. for the soft phantom, biases of  -0.27 and -0.71 m · s -1 were observed. In a third series of experiments, the correlation-based method was able to locate two regions of different properties with an error smaller than 1 mm. It also provided more accurate PWV estimates than conventional processing (biases:  -0.12 versus -0.26 m · s -1 ). Finally, the in vivo feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in eleven healthy subjects. The results indicate that the correlation-based method might be less precise in vivo but more accurate than the conventional method.

  12. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lopes, N C [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: cclayton@ucla.edu

    2009-02-15

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v{sub f} of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a{sub 0} {approx_equal} 1), 0.815 {mu}m laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n{sub e} = 1.3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) showed no measurable changes in v{sub f} over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v{sub f} as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v{sub f} evolution are discussed.

  13. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  14. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  15. Hybrid ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm for prediction of shear wave velocity from a carbonate reservoir in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Fattahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocity (Vs data are key information for petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical studies. Although compressional wave velocity (Vp measurements exist in almost all wells, shear wave velocity is not recorded for most of elderly wells due to lack of technologic tools. Furthermore, measurement of shear wave velocity is to some extent costly. This study proposes a novel methodology to remove aforementioned problems by use of hybrid adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS with ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO based on fuzzy c–means clustering (FCM and subtractive clustering (SCM. The ACO is combined with two ANFIS models for determining the optimal value of its user–defined parameters. The optimization implementation by the ACO significantly improves the generalization ability of the ANFIS models. These models are used in this study to formulate conventional well log data into Vs in a quick, cheap, and accurate manner. A total of 3030 data points was used for model construction and 833 data points were employed for assessment of ANFIS models. Finally, a comparison among ANFIS models, and six well–known empirical correlations demonstrated ANFIS models outperformed other methods. This strategy was successfully applied in the Marun reservoir, Iran.

  16. Determination of testicular blood flow in camelids using vascular casting and color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P = 0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P = 0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P = 0.486) and marginal arteries (P = 0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography.

  17. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kutzler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P=0.0004. In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P=0.0325. Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P=0.0104. However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P=0.121. In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P=0.486 and marginal arteries (P=0.144. The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography.

  18. Space-time evolution of whistler mode wave growth in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.; Helliwell, R.A.; Inan, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    A new model is developed to simulate the space-time evolution of a propagating coherent whistler mode wave pulse in the magnetosphere. The model is applied to the case of single frequency (2-6 kHz) wave pulses injected into the magnetosphere near L ≅ 4, using the VLF transmitting facility at Siple Station, Antarctica. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons of the radiation belts. Application of this model reproduces observed exponential wave growth up to a saturated level. Additionally, the model predicts the observed initial linear increase in the output frequency versus time. This is the first time these features have been reproduced using applied wave intensities small enough to be consistent with satellite measurements. The center velocities of the electrons entering the wave pulse are selected in a way which maximizes the growth rate. The results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave growth process. The growth established as the wave propagates toward the geomagnetic equator results in a spatially advancing wave phase structure due mainly to the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are established which result in a linearly increasing output frequency with time

  19. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cocco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  20. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  1. Impact of a systolic parameter, defined as the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time, on the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and left ventricular diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Chee-Siong; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    Arterial stiffness is correlated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function as well as susceptibility to LV systolic function. Therefore, if LV systolic function is not known, the relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function is difficult to determine. A total of 260 patients were included in the study. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time (rbPEP/rbET) were measured using an ABI-form device. Patients were classified into four groups. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were patients with rbPEP/rbET and baPWV below the median, rbPEP/rbET above but baPWV below the median, rbPET/rbET below but baPWV above the median, and rbPET/rbET and baPWV above the median, respectively. The LV ejection fractions in groups 1 and 3 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 (Pwave velocity to Ea that were comparable to those in groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, rbPEP/rbET had an impact on the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function. In patients with high rbPEP/rbET but low baPWV, low baPWV may not indicate good LV diastolic function but implies that cardiac dysfunction may precede vascular dysfunction in such patients. When interpreting the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function, the rbPEP/rbET value obtained from the same examination should be considered.

  2. Propagation of acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.

    1994-01-01

    This work is motivated by the chromospheric 3 minute oscillations observed in the K(sub 2v) bright points. We study acoustic gravity waves in a one-dimensional, gravitationally stratified, isothermal atmosphere. The oscillations are excited either by a velocity pulse imparted to a layer in an atmosphere of infinite vertical extent, or by a piston forming the lower boundary of a semi-infinite medium. We consider both linear and non-linear waves.

  3. A constant velocity Moessbauer spectrometer free of long-term instrumental drifts in the count rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, P.R.; Sharma, A.K.; Tripathi, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two new control circuits to be used with a constant velocity Moessbauer spectrometer with a loud-speaker drive have been described. The wave-forms generated in the circuits are of the stair-case type instead of the usual square wave-form, so that in each oscillation of the source it remains stationary for a fraction of the time-period. The gamma-rays counted during this period are monitored along with the positive and negative velocity counts and are used to correct any fluctuation in the count rate by feeding these pulses into the timer. The associated logic circuits have been described and the statistical errors involved in the circuits have been computed. (auth.)

  4. P-wave pulse analysis to retrieve source and propagation effects in the case of Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Popa, M.; Placinta, A.; Grecu, B.; Radulian, M.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic source parameters and attenuation structure properties are obtained from the first P-wave pulse analysis and empirical Green's function deconvolution. The P pulse characteristics are combined effects of source and path properties. To reproduce the real source and structure parameters it is crucial to apply a method able to distinguish between the different factors affecting the observed seismograms. For example the empirical Green's function deconvolution method (Hartzell, 1978) allows the retrieval of the apparent source time function or source spectrum corrected for path, site and instrumental effects. The apparent source duration is given by the width of the deconvoluted source pulse and is directly related to the source dimension. Once the source time function established, next we can extract the parameters related to path effects. The difference between the pulse recorded at a given station and the source pulse obtained by deconvolution is a measure of the attenuation along the path from focus to the station. On the other hand, the pulse width variations with azimuth depend critically on the fault plane orientation and source directivity. In favourable circumstances (high signal/noise ratio, high resolution and station coverage), the method of analysis proposed in this paper allows the constraint of the rupture plane among the two nodal planes characterizing the fault plane solution, even for small events. P-wave pulse analysis was applied for 25 Vrancea earthquakes recorded between 1999 and 2003 by the Romanian local network to determine source parameters and attenuation properties. Our results outline high-stress drop seismic energy release with relatively simple rupture process for the considered events and strong lateral variation of attenuation of seismic waves across Carpathians Arc. (authors)

  5. Aortic pulse wave velocity and HeartSCORE: improving cardiovascular risk stratification. a sub-analysis of the EDIVA (Estudo de DIstensibilidade VAscular) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, T; Maldonado, J; Polónia, J; Silva, J A; Morais, J; Rodrigues, T; Marques, M

    2014-04-01

    HeartSCORE is a tool for assessing cardiovascular risk, basing its estimates on the relative weight of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. However, new markers of cardiovascular risk have been identified, such as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The purpose of this study was to evaluate to what extent the incorporation of PWV in HeartSCORE increases its discriminative power of major cardiovascular events (MACE). This study is a sub-analysis of the EDIVA project, which is a prospective cohort, multicenter and observational study involving 2200 individuals of Portuguese nationality (1290 men and 910 women) aged between 18 and 91 years (mean 46.33 ± 13.76 years), with annual measurements of PWV (Complior). Only participants above 35 years old were included in the present re-analysis, resulting in a population of 1709 participants. All MACE - death, cerebrovascular accident, coronary accidents (coronary heart disease), peripheral arterial disease and renal failure - were recorded. During a mean follow-up period of 21.42 ± 10.76 months, there were 47 non-fatal MACE (2.1% of the sample). Cardiovascular risk was estimated in all patients based on the HeartSCORE risk factors. For the analysis, the refitted HeartSCORE and PWV were divided into three risk categories. The event-free survival at 2 years was 98.6%, 98.0% and 96.1%, respectively in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories of HeartSCORE (log-rank p factor model. The C statistics improved from 0.69 to 0.78 (adding PWV, p = 0.005). The net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were also determined, and indicated further evidence of improvements in discrimination of the outcome when including PWV in the risk-factor model (NRI = 0.265; IDI