WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulpwood

  1. Southern pulpwood production, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the South's production of pulpwood declined 5 percent to 71.1 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 49.2 million cords and accounted for 69 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 21.9 million cords. Alabama continues to lead the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity....

  2. Pulpwood production in the Northern Region, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    Discusses 2006 production and receipts of pulpwood in the Northern Region. Breaks down production from four subregions: Central States, Lake States, Mid-Atlantic States, and New England States, by species group for each state and compares production with that of previous years. Production for 2006 for the Plains States by species group and product form are included....

  3. Precision forestry for pulpwood re-establishment silviculture | Pallett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to low cost “fit for purpose” fibre and to enhancing our competitive advantage. ... 1) Sustaining and increasing fibre supply from a fixed production area 2) ... of the furnish to achieve uniformity and add value through the supply chain. Forest management units for pulpwood are relatively large compared to other crops.

  4. Future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander N. Moiseyev; Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    The North American Pulp And Paper (NAPAP) model and USDA POLYSYS agricultural policy analysis model were linked to project future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the United States. Results suggest that pulpwood supply from fast- growing hybrid poplars and cottonwoods will become marginally economical but fairly...

  5. Feasibility study about handling plant and logistics of rotted spruce for energy and pulpwood; Esiselvitys energia- ja teollisuuspuun kaesittelylaitteistosta ja logistiikasta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, P. [Biowatti Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this feasibility study is to clarify the handling demands, technical and logistical possibilities, profitabilities both outlays and benefits in combined energy- and pulpwood production from rotted spruce raw material. The results of the study will be taken into consideration, if a handling plant will be decided to build and demonstrate beside the Forssa biomass power plant. (orig.)

  6. Impact of spacing and rotation length on nutrient budgets of poplar plantations for pulpwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation by poplar plantations were evaluated for pulpwood production in China. Experimental treatments applied in a split-plot design included four planting densities (1111, 833, 625 and 500 stems·hm-2), three rotation lengths (4a, 5a and 6a) and three poplar clones (I-69,NL-80351 and 1-72). The highest biomass was achieved in the highest stocked stand (1111 stem·hm-2) at 6 of rotation age for both clone 1-69 and clone 1-72, which is about two times that in the stands of 500 stems·hm-2 at 4 of rotation age. However, the highest occurred in the stand of 833 stems·hm-2 at 6-year rotation for NL-80351. Ranking of the plantation biomass production by component was stem > branches > foliage > stem-bark and the production of the support components of the plantation was 10-fold that of the productive component, i.e., foliage. The pattern of accumulation of nutrients by the plantations was similar to the biomass. Nutrient accumulation in the plantations was in the order of Ca > N > K > Mg > P, but some differences existed in annual nutrient accumulation rates for four planting densities and three poplar clones. The mean annual accumulation of N and P in the plantations was 13.2 and 2.8 kg·hm-2 in stem, 12.1 and 1.9 kg·hm-2 in branch, and 98.5 and 9.5 kg·hm-2 in foliage. The mean Ca, K and Mg accumulations were 28.2, 18.5 and 2.9 kg·hm-2· a-1, 26.9, 11.0 and 2.3 kg·hm-2·a-1 in branch,and 116.5, 81.3 and 16.1 kg·hm-2· a-1 in foliage, respectively. Biomass utilization standards markedly affected the export of nutrients from the site. Whole tree utilization yields the most biomass and removes the most nutrients.Removal of stem with ≥ 10-cm diameter exports about half of the biomass, but N and nutrients removals are only 23% and 28% of the total, respectively. Removal of the entire stem provides about two-thirds of the total biomass and removes 31.1% total N and 37.5 % total nutrients respectively

  7. NaarvaSyke - single grip cutting device in cutting of pulpwood and fuelwood; NaarvaSyke-yksiotehakkuulaite kuitu- ja polttopuun hakkuussa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihonen, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Forestry of the TTS Institute conducted a time study on the stroke-feed NaarvaSyke felling-delimbing-cross-cutting device. The study is a part of the national Bioenergy research programme with the TTS-Institute`s contribution being a sub-projects called `The Energy-wood Harvesting Techniques Used by Forest Owners (1996-98)`. The study sites used were two pine first-thinning stands. The timber was processed into pulpwood and fuelwood. Fuelwood was obtained from the tops of the pulpwood stems and from the stems below the pulpwood size. The fuelwood was not delimbed. The pre-thinning density on the study site was 1 was 2300 trees and the post-thinning density 1100 trees per hectare. The corresponding numbers on the study site 2 were 2100 trees and 990 trees per hectare. On study site 1 the average volume of the removed pulpwood stems was 0.076 m{sup 3} and the removed fuelwood stems (including branches) 0.016 m{sup 3}. On the study site 2 the corresponding numbers were 0.089 m{sup 3} and 0.017 m{sup 3}. The base machine was a Valmet 6600 agricultural tractor with a Kronos hydraulic loader (reach 6.5 m). The combined productivity in preparing pulpwood and non-delimbed fuelwood on study site 1 was 3.2 m{sup 3} and on the study site 2 3.6 m{sup 3} per effective hour. Thus the productivity of the NaarvaSyke cutting device was 45-64 % higher than that of corresponding device as revealed in an earlier study conducted at the TTS-Institute. Good productivity was due to matters such as the operator`s long experience in using the cutting device and the machine combination, which formed a balanced entity. During the time study the device proved to be reliable in operation. The productivity in preparing fuelwood was 2.2 m{sup 3} per effective hour on both study sites Tyoetehoseuran Maataloustiedote. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Integrated production of wood fuels and pulpwood using chain-flail delimbing-debarking technology; Puupolttoaineen ja selluhakkeen integroitu tuotanto ketjukarsinta-kuorintatekniikalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland); Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Aho, V.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research was to develop a procurement method for small-diameter pulpwood based on chain-flail delimbing-debarking method. The study consisted of four parts: Development of the chain-flail delimbing-debarking method (based on Peterson Pacific DDC 5000 device); Combined chain-flail delimbing and drum-debarking; Processing and procurement of the chain-flail delimbing chips and; Intensifying of the timber debarking in chain-flail delimbing. The project was coordinated by Metsaeteho, and it was carried out as cooperation between Metsaeteho, the Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), VTT Energy, Pertti Szepaniak Oy and Enso-Gutzeit Oy. A calculation model, by which it is possible to determine the costs of pulpwood chips and fuel-rawmaterials formed beside the pulpwood chips while using different kinds of procurement methods and chains, was developed for chain-flail delimbing-debarking-chipping method based on utilization of Peterson Pacific device. By the model it is possible to optimize the utilization of the method in practice. A new fixed version of the combined chain-flail delimbing drum-debarking equipment was constructed in 1995. Tests with this equipment started in February 1996. A debarking simulator, by which it is possible to study the effects of the lengths of the chains and brushes, the positioning, the hit-angles and speeds on the removal of branches and bark, has been compiled in the `Intensification of wood debarking in chain-flail delimbing` sub-task. Preliminary tests have been made using mainly frozen first thinning pine as test material

  9. Harvesting of fuel wood and/or pulpwood in early thinnings, roadsides and on overgrown arable land; Skoerd av skogsbraensle och/eller massaved i foerstagallringar, vaegkanter och paa igenvaext aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulvio, Di Fulvio; Bergstroem, Dan; Nordfjell, Tomas

    2011-07-01

    In early thinnings where either pulpwood or energy wood is harvested, the same logging machines are generally used for both products. The choice between pulpwood or energy wood is therefore mostly dependent on the harvestable volumes of the two assortments and the price difference. During the years 2009-2010 follow up studies on machine performance in early thinnings were performed in the coastal region of Vaesterbotten. The purpose was to study the time consumption, production and costs for harvesting of energy wood and pulpwood, either in separate operations or through integrated harvest of both assortments. In total 43 different harvesting objects were included in the study of which 34 were early thinning stands and 9 were harvesting of e.g. road sides and overgrown arable land. During the year 2010 the follow up studies were complemented with time studies of three of the machine systems; three harvester and forwarder systems and a small harwarder system were studied. In the follow up study, a total of 16179 m3solid energy wood and 1906 m3solid on bark pulpwood were harvested from an area of 295 ha. In the thinning stands the average harvested stem size was 25 dm3solid and on average 49 m3solid biomass per ha of energy wood. In 9 of these stands an integrated harvest of pulpwood and energy wood was performed. The average stem size of the removed stems was 36 dm3solid, and in average 37 m3solid energy wood per ha and 11 m3solid pulpwood per ha were harvested. The harvesting costs for the harvester and forwarder system were on average 15965 SEK/ha. The time study shows that a harvesting system with a medium sized harvester and forwarder in energy wood thinning is profitable when the harvested tree size reaches ca 30-35 dm3solid (diameter at breast height ca 8-9 cm). These results are in line with previous finding from both Sweden and Finland. Further development of harvesting systems for integrated harvesting of energy wood and pulpwood will make the extraction of

  10. THE GROWTH RESPONSE OF MASSON PINE PULPWOOD TO DIFFERENT THINNING INTENSITIES%马尾松纸浆原料林对不同间伐强度的生长反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志翔; 高方彬; 徐有明; 庄尔奇; 洪信谱

    2001-01-01

    The growth responses of Gaozhou masson pine pulpwood to 4 thinning intensities were studied by comparative analysis.The results indicate d that,under the identical characteristics of soil profile and ground vegefation in different thinning intensities,the variations of DBH and height under branch have significant differences with the maximum accretion of DBH and the lowest a ccretion of height under branch in 1.5m×2.0m stand,while the average incr ements of tree height and crown diameter were not obviously different.The aboveg round biomass increments of 1.5m×1.5m and 1.5m×2.0m stands were higher than those of other stands by thinning within 3 years.Under the comprehe nsive survey of the growth responses of pulpwood to thinning intensity and the w ood property for papermaking,the proper density of Gaozhou masson pine pulpwood should be 1.5m×2.0m with 15 years cutting period of return on hilly land of central Hubei Province.

  11. The economy of chip, whole-tree and short-wood methods in the pulpwood and fuelwood procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Branch-mass models, applicable for different kinds of technical/economical inspections of timber procurement, based on large data collections of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, were developed in the project. These models are based on the assumption that the branch-mass distribution inside the top-end of different tree-species resembles each-other. The production costs of pulp produced from first-thinning pine were lowest when the minimum diameter of the pulpwood varied between 6 - 9 cm, then the relative costs varied between 101 - 99. The production costs consisted of timber procurement costs, variable industrial timber processing and pulping costs, and secondary product reimbursements. In addition to the calculational inspections, the effects of the dimensions of pulpwood and the harvesting technology on profitability of harvesting of first thinning pine, on debarking, on the chip-size distribution and on fiber properties, were studied in the research. The profitability of harvesting is increased by about 10 % when the minimum diameter is decreased from 7 cm to 5 cm. This requires, however, that the size of the minimum-stem is not decreased

  12. Superior tree selection of Pinus manssoniana for pulpwood purpose in Guizhou province%贵州省马尾松纸浆材的优树选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢维斌; 赵杨; 王琼; 莫周卫; 广春勇

    2012-01-01

    By taking the method of 5 dominant trees comparison, 20 superior trees and 100 dominant trees of Pinus manssoniana were selected from the natural stand in 2 counties of Guizhou province. On the basis of statistical analysis, the selection standard of P. manssoniana plus tree was formulated that the superior tree DBH should be greater than or equal to average DBH's 111 % of the five-dominant-tree, the holocellulose content of the plus tree should be no less than that of five-dominant-tree's mean value, and 1% NaOH extraction content of the superior tree no higher than that of mean value. Crown/height, curvature, cone index, bark index and ormquotient were regarded as the form quality of plus trees, and the comprehensive scoring standard for selection superior trees was established by combing with growth characters and material quality. The selection standard of P. manssoniana plus tree was that the comprehensive scores should be no less than 60 scores. With this standard, the primary selective 20 superior trees were comprehensively evaluated, thus 11 plus trees were finally chosen, the selection rate was 55%, the wood volume of selected plus trees increased by 62% than the control averagely, and wood property was improved. The 11 plus trees can be applied to the construction of the pulpwood orchard of P. manssoniana in Guizhou.%采用5株优势木对比法,在贵州省2个县的马尾松天然林中,共初选出马尾松优树20株,优势木100株.经统计分析,确定贵州省马尾松天然林中的优树初选标准为:优树胸径≥5株优势木平均胸径的111%,综纤维含量不低于优势木均值,1% NaOH抽提物含量不高于均值.以树皮指数、冠高比、结实指数等性状作为优树形质指标,结合生长性状和材性性状,制定了综合评分标准,以综合得分不低于60分为贵州省马尾松纸浆材优树选择标准.对初选的20株优树进行综合评定,从而决选出马尾松优树11株,入选率为55%,入选

  13. Product Recovery From Hemlock "Pulpwood" From Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Fahey

    1983-01-01

    A total of 363 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logs from Alaska were sawn to compare recovery at a stud mill and at a dimension mill. Recovery at both mills varied by log diameters and by log scaling system. Lumber grade recovery was primarily in Stud grade at the stud mill and in Standard and Construction grade at the dimension...

  14. 杂种落叶松F2代自由授粉家系纸浆材遗传变异及多性状联合选择%Genetic Variations in Pulpwood Qualities of F2 Generation of Open-Pollinated Larch Hybrid Families and Multi-Traits Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓继峰; 张含国; 张磊; 朱航勇; 贯春雨

    2011-01-01

    results showed that there were variations within the families as well as between families. Latewood had greater coefficient of variation than earlywood. There were abundant variations in the volume, tracheid length-width ratio,resin canal proportion and the coefficients of variation were between 26. 2% - 85.3%. There was small variation in the Holo cellulose (HC), early wood microfibrillar angle (MFA) and tracheid proportion and the coefficients of variation were between 1.4% -8. 1%. There were significant differences in HC, early wood and latewood MFA, tracheid length-width ratio, latewood radial diameter, latewood cell wall ratio, latewood tracheid wall thickness-diameter ratio and tracheid proportion between treatments. There were differences in volume, tracheid length, tangential diameter, early wood and latewood number of cells per square millimeter between treatments. The family heritability were between 59.3% -92.7%, suggesting that these traits had potential for pulpwood selection. There was significantly positive correlation between volume and HC, and there were positive correlations between volume and MFA, tangential diameter, late wood tracheid wall thickness-diameter ratio and tracheid proportion, while there was negative correlation between tracheid length-width ratio and late wood number of cells per square millimeter. Correlations were negatively high between basic density and volume, significantly negatively high between basic density and HC, positively high between basic density and tracheid length-width ratio, early wood MFA, latewood number of cells per square millimeter, negatively high between HC and late wood number of cells per square millimeter, significantly negatively high between tracheid length-width ratio and late wood cell wall ratio, and significantly positively high between early wood MFA and tracheid proportion. Ⅰ3, Ⅰ4, and Ⅰ9 were the idealist index. Based on growth and wood traits, 3 families were selected for pulpwood

  15. Resolving the pulpwood canvass with inventory harvest information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. McCollum; Tony G. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The Resource Use section of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has done a canvas of wood processing mills for timber product output (TPO) throughout the southern United States. Pulpmills in the South are canvassed on an annual basis, while all other mills (e.g., sawmills, veneer mills, etc.) are canvassed every two years. Attempts have been made to graph...

  16. Improved method of in vitro regeneration in Leucaena leucocephala - a leguminous pulpwood tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Noor M; Arha, Manish; Nookaraju, A; Gupta, Sushim K; Srivastava, Sameer; Yadav, Arun K; Kulkarni, Pallavi S; Abhilash, O U; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Tatkare, Rajeshri; Chinnathambi, Kannan; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2009-10-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast growing multipurpose legume tree used for forage, leaf manure, paper and pulp. Lignin in Leucaena pulp adversely influences the quality of paper produced. Developing transgenic Leucaena with altered lignin by genetic engineering demands an optimized regeneration system. The present study deals with optimization of regeneration system for L. leucocephala cv. K636. Multiple shoot induction from the cotyledonary nodes of L. leucocephala was studied in response to cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) and N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented in half strength MS (½-MS) medium and also their effect on in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots. Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes at varied frequencies depending on the type and concentration of cytokinin used in the medium. TDZ was found to induce more number of shoots per explant than BA, with a maximum of 7 shoots at an optimum concentration of 0.23 µM. Further increase in TDZ concentration resulted in reduced shoot length and fasciation of the shoots. Liquid pulse treatment of the explants with TDZ did not improve the shoot production further but improved the subsequent rooting of the shoots that regenerated. Regenerated shoots successfully rooted on ½-MS medium supplemented with 0.54 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots of Leucaena were transferred to coco-peat and hardened plantlets showed ≥ 90 % establishment in the green house.

  17. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... those producers who use canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel. The... canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel, and only if EPA determines.... Additionally, EPA is required to set the cellulosic biofuel standard each year based on the volume projected...

  18. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... shippers of Christmas trees, shrubs, logs, pulpwood, and other articles from gypsy moth-infested provinces...) imported from Canada. These regulated articles are: Trees without roots (e.g., Christmas trees), trees with roots, shrubs with roots and persistent woody stems, logs and pulpwood with back attached,...

  19. Development of an upland hardwood demonstration forest on the Mary Olive Thomas Demonstration Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth D. Hunt; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2016-01-01

    Landowners have experienced a dizzying array of timber prices over the past several years. At one time, hardwood pulpwood brought very little per ton and today it brings as much or more than pine pulpwood. In some markets in the Southeast today, oak sawtimber is bringing more than pine poles. Many landowners, who previously said they wanted their hardwood stands left...

  20. Economics of small timer production from the grower's point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauendorfer, R.

    1976-01-01

    This article surveys pulpwood and saw timber prices on the Austrian market from 1964 to 1976, and their prices relative to one another from 1962 to 1975. Various factor affecting market prices are discussed. Forest management strategies to increase net revenue in the short term are considered. It is felt that the long-term outlook for short-rotation pulpwood is unfavorable. 6 references.

  1. Joint production and substitution in timber supply: a panel data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjus F Bolkesjo; Joseph Buongiorno; Birger Solberg

    2010-01-01

    Supply equations for sawlog and pulpwood were developed with a panel of data from 102 Norwegian municipalities, observed from 1980 to 2000. Static and dynamic models were estimated by cross-section, time-series andpanel data methods. A static model estimated by first differencing gavethe best overall results in terms of theoretical expectations, pattern ofresiduals,...

  2. Tropical landscapes in transition? : Widespread land-use change and measures to maintain forests, carbon stocks and biodiversity in North and East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, C.

    2016-01-01

    The production of commodities such as palm oil and pulpwood is leading to large-scale land use change in the rural tropics to fulfil the demands of the increasing world population and overall living standard. On the one hand, such land use changes provide income to companies, smallholders and govern

  3. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  4. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  5. 19 CFR 134.33 - J-List exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., steel. Beads, unstrung. Bearings, ball, 5/8-inch or less in diameter. Blanks, metal, to be plated... concrete reinforcement bars; billets, blocks, blooms; ingots; pigs; plates; sheets, except galvanized.... Plugs, tie. Poles, bamboo. Posts (wood), fence. Pulpwood. Rags (including wiping rags) Rails, joint...

  6. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  7. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 2 (1) January,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    the pulpwood production rotation of 8 years (Akachukwu 1981; Evans,. 1992). .... specify a Weibull distribution which is used to generate the relative frequency of trees by dbh .... A goodness of fit with high coefficient of determination (R2). .... This research work was supported by the International Foundation for. Science ...

  8. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cultivation and management of forests, the felling and trimming of timber, the cutting, hauling, and transportation of timber, logs, pulpwood, cordwood, lumber, and like products, the sawing of logs into lumber or... logging operations in which not more than eight employees are employed.) “Wood working” as such is...

  9. Planning hydrological restoration of peatlands in Indonesia to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaenicke, J.; Wösten, H.; Budiman, A.; Siegert, F.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive degradation of Indonesian peatlands by deforestation, drainage and recurrent fires causes release of huge amounts of peat soil carbon to the atmosphere. Construction of drainage canals is associated with conversion to other land uses, especially plantations of oil palm and pulpwood trees,

  10. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  11. Pulp and paper markets peaking amid slow economy, rising input costs, and erosion of profits : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Eduard L. Akim; Bernard Lombard; Tomas Parik

    2008-01-01

    In mid-2008, pulp and paper prices were at or near historic peak levels, but global demand conditions were weakening. Industry profits were eroded in 2007 and 2008 as sharply higher energy costs led to higher prices for fuel, freight, pulpwood, recovered paper, chemicals, and other inputs. Expanding pulp and paper capacity in China is having a huge impact on paper and...

  12. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; Daniel P. Stratton; Peter S. Bischoff

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from South Carolina’s forests totaled 622 million cubic feet, 5 percent less than in 1994. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 4 percent to 203 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 320 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  13. Florida's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; Tom S. Haxby

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, volume of roundwood removed from Florida's forests totaled 527 million cubic feet, 2 percent more than in 1993. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 6 percent to 162 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 321 million cubic feet;...

  14. Louisiana's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana's forests totaled 802 million cubic feet, 28 percent more than in 1996. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 50 percent to 285 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 349 million cubic...

  15. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  16. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Florida's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet;...

  2. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  3. Klabin’s influence in roudwood market of Parana state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Klabin is the largest forest company of Parana. The company owns most of the Parana’s reforestation, provide the majority of sawnwood supply and it is responsible by highest consumption of Parana’s pulpwood. These characteristics give the company a considerable market power and an ability to influence the formation of timber price. The objective was to contribute to the understanding of the Klabin’s influence on the formation of timber prices in Parana. By using Student t test the price of pulpwood and sawnwood within and outside of Klabin’s operation area in 2008 was compared. The results indicated no difference among prices in regions that could be considered justified by the power of oligopoly and oligopsony from the company; in other words, the company has market power, but does not use it.

  4. Planning hydrological restoration of peatlands in Indonesia to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenicke, J.; H. Wösten; Budiman, A.; Siegert, F.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive degradation of Indonesian peatlands by deforestation, drainage and recurrent fires causes release of huge amounts of peat soil carbon to the atmosphere. Construction of drainage canals is associated with conversion to other land uses, especially plantations of oil palm and pulpwood trees, and with widespread illegal logging to facilitate timber transport. A lowering of the groundwater level leads to an increase in oxidation and subsidence of peat. Therefore, the groundwater level is...

  5. Growth and performance of loblolly pine genetic planting stock through eight years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Scott D. Roberts; Billy L. Herrin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the need in the pine market is to develop higher sawtimber quality trees. The pine biomass and pulpwood market supports the low end of the product chain. However, we must improve on the quality of the southern pine for construction lumber if the southern region is expected to capture the shortfall of the sawtimber market expected in the future. Various pine...

  6. Georgia's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; John L. Wells

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Georgia’s forests totaled 1.3 billion cubic feet, 7 percent more than in 1992. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 10 percent to 474 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 617 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked...

  7. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Peter S. Bischoff

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, roundwood output from South Carolina’s forests totaled 628 million cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 1995. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 1 percent to 200 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulp-wood was the leading roundwood product at 322 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  8. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  9. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  10. Leucaena: its cultivation and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, B.; Martinez Cairo, L.

    1983-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the literature on Leucaena leucocephala for research and extension workers, students, and farmers and foresters. The work is divided into the following parts: description of the plant; agronomy; utilization as livestock feed; utilization as a forestry tree (fuelwood, charcoal, timber, pulpwood, conversion methods, reforestation and erosion control, fencing, windbreaks, firebreaks); farming/forestry systems; minor uses; and conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include tables of physical characteristics and chemical composition of products obtained from Leucaena, and a list of sources of seed and (Rhizobium) inoculum.

  11. Grand Marais Harbor, Cook County, Minnesota, Operation and Maintenance Activities, Environment Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    the Ojibway, who called the harbor "great pond". Later the French voyageurs gave the harbor the name it now carries. Interpreted literally, Grand...Marais means "great swamp" but in the special vocabu- lary of the voyageurs , "usrais" referred to a harbor-of-refuge or a protected cove. " 2.621 The...total commerce for Grand Marais Harbor consisted of logs and pulpwood. Commerce reached a peak of over 78,000 tons in 1958, then diminished somewhat

  12. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  13. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  14. FIBER RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FOR THE CHINESE PULP AND PAPERINDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangJu; Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Total P & B production in Mainland China has been reported to be 37.8 million metric tons for the year 2002. A goal of 50-60 million metric tons of total P & B production has been set for the year 2010. By that time, domestic virgin woodpulp production will be doubled, with pulpwood supply from plantations in the country and supplemented by imported woodchips and pulpwoods. Imported market woodpulp will still play an important role in the Chinese industry. Non-wood fibers will stay as an indispensable sustaining fibers source for the growth of the Chinese industry. Increases in reed, bamboo and wheat straw pulping capacities will be expected within the years. Efforts will have to be taken for the promotion of domestic wastepaper recycling, hoping to have the recycling rate upgraded to 35-38% by the end of this decade. Aside from the intensified domestic wastepaper recovery, a 6-8% average annual increase in wastepaper importation will be expected in the foreseeable future.

  15. FIBER RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FOR THE CHINESE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangJu Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Total P & B production in Mainland China has been reported to be 37.8 million metric tons for the year 2002. A goal of 50-60 million metric tons of total P & B production has been set for the year 2010. By that time, domestic virgin woodpulp production will be doubled, with pulpwood supply from plantations in the country and supplemented by imported woodchips and pulpwoods. Imported market woodpulp will still play an important role in the Chinese industry. Non-wood fibers will stay as an indispensable sustaining fibers source for the growth of the Chinese industry. Increases in reed, bamboo and wheat straw pulping capacities will be expected within the years. Efforts will have to be taken for the promotion of domestic wastepaper recycling, hoping to have the recycling rate upgraded to 35-38% bythe end of this decade. Aside from the intensified domestic wastepaper recovery, a 6-8% average annual increase in wastepaper importation will be expected in the foreseeable future.

  16. Device for making firewood; Laite polttopuun tekoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen, E. [Haemeen Teraesrakenne Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    By present equipment it is impossible to make firewood with single-stage processing of the trees. Pulpwood and logs are collected from the forests, but energy wood has to be collected separately and processed in a different place. The aim of the project was to develop a device, by which it is possible to make firewood on the felling site using single-stage processing, and packing the firewood directly to large packages ready for delivery or utilization. It is possible to make e.g. either 3 m long pulpwood or small-logs by the device. A farming tractor is used as traction and power supply unit of the device. The method is especially useful in first thinnings. A study and costs analysis were made for the basis of the research in Evo unit of the Haeme Polytechnic Institute of Technology. Logic control of the device was developed in the Haemeenlinna unit of the Haeme Polytechnic. Two prototype devices have been made. The test results have shown that firewood production speed will be multiplied in comparison to the previous devices, and the out-look of firewood is remarkable better. The method has been patented

  17. Follow-up study of the MASSAHAKE-demonstration plant; MASSAHAKE-demonstraatiolaitoksen seuranta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T. [Pohjois-Satakunnan Massahake Oy, Kankaanpaeae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    First thinnings of high harvesting costs and low timber accumulation have often remained unharvested in Northern Satakunta due to unprofitability of harvesting. One possible solution for the problem is a harvesting chain based on partial-tree harvesting combined with the MASSAHAKE method. The pulpwood-chipping plant owned by Pohjois-Satakunnan MASSAHAKE Oy started operation in May 1995. The objective of this research is to clear-up the technical operability and profitability of the Kankaanpaeae demonstration plant, and the suitability of the products for industrial purposes. The second aim is to develop a delivery method, based on partial-tree harvesting, and the delivery organisation suitable for the conditions in Pohjois-Satakunta. The wood delivery of the MASSAHAKE is concentrated to first thinning forests. The first thinning area, given in the felling plan, located at the delivery area of MASSAHAKE, is 8870 ha/a. This corresponds to 283 000 m{sup 3} pulpwood, the total amount of biomass being 360 000 m{sup 3}. Felling is mainly carried out as labour input using conveyance-felling method. The biomass yield in typical birch first-thinning cut as partial-trees with top diameter of 4 cm is about 40 % higher than in harvesting with short-wood method. The unit costs of harvesting are about a third lower

  18. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  19. Shifts in composition of avian communities related to temperate-grassland afforestation in southeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of temperate grasslands with fast-growing trees for industrial pulpwood production is spreading in South America. Despite high afforestation rates resulting from governmental policies that stimulate pulpwood production in grasslands of southern Brazil and Uruguay, the impact of this activity on biodiversity remains to be properly assessed. We used an Impact-Reference study design to evaluate how grassland afforestation affects the composition of grassland bird assemblages. We sampled eucalyptus plantations and neighboring natural grasslands in southern Brazil from 2006-2009, and relied on nested sampling and analysis to separate the effects of afforestation from the natural variability of grasslands. We recorded a significant difference in composition between assemblages from grasslands and tree plantations. Species adapted to open, treeless areas tended to be negatively affected in relation to edge or forest birds in eucalyptus plantations. Afforestation is systematically replacing the bird assemblage of hilltop grasslands by a collection of common edge and forest species that occur in nearby riverine and hillside forests. Although most grassland birds negatively affected by tree plantations are common and widespread, observed and predicted afforestation rates in southeastern South America may result in regional population reductions in the near future.

  20. Possibilities of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from energy-intensive industries by the increased use of forest-derived fuels in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Neil [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bazilian, Morgan [Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buckley, Pearse [Sustainable Energy Ireland, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2009-09-15

    A range of EU environmental policies support the goal of reducing fossil-fuel use in commercial thermal applications. Combustion installations which are covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme now face a substantial opportunity cost for fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. However, it is unclear whether the EU ETS will provide a sufficient incentive for switching to forest-derived biomass fuel by energy-intensive installations currently firing on coal or peat. Using Ireland as a case study, the paper analyses the availability and cost competitiveness of forest residues produced within the vicinity of three cement kilns. EU Allowance prices observed during much of 2007 and 2008 would appear to be sufficient to equalise the carbon-adjusted purchase costs between chipped pulpwood and bituminous coal. However, no such fuel switching has been observed to date by kiln operators and none appears to be envisaged. The apparent reasons for this include (1) a ready availability of cheaper substitute fuels such as Meat and Bone Meal; (2) technical issues regarding the chemical consistency of the woodchip; and (3) the prospect of pulpwood prices rising in the medium term due a growing supply shortage. The prospect of such a constraint is an unintended consequence of Irish government policy to promote biomass co-firing in peat-fired power stations. (author)

  1. Using Different Approaches to Approximate a Pareto Front for a Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm: Optimal Thinning Regimes for Eucalyptus fastigata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Chikumbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stand-level, multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA for determining a set of efficient thinning regimes satisfying two objectives, that is, value production for sawlog harvesting and volume production for a pulpwood market, was successfully demonstrated for a Eucalyptus fastigata trial in Kaingaroa Forest, New Zealand. The MOEA approximated the set of efficient thinning regimes (with a discontinuous Pareto front by employing a ranking scheme developed by Fonseca and Fleming (1993, which was a Pareto-based ranking (a.k.a Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm—MOGA. In this paper we solve the same problem using an improved version of a fitness sharing Pareto ranking algorithm (a.k.a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm—NSGA II originally developed by Srinivas and Deb (1994 and examine the results. Our findings indicate that NSGA II approximates the entire Pareto front whereas MOGA only determines a subdomain of the Pareto points.

  2. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  3. Energy and industrial wood harvesting from young forests; Energia- ja ainespuun korjuu nuorista metsistae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.; Jouhiaho, A. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    In the METKA Forest Energy Profitably project TTS (Work Efficiency Institute) compared methods suitable for the harvesting of energy wood and industrial wood. During the thinning of a young forest by a forest worker, the whole-tree logging method was one-third less expensive than the pulpwood method, including terrain transport. In harvesting whole trees as part of the thinning of young forests, methods based on combinations of manual and mechanized workproved to be several dozen per cent less expensive than the entirely mechanized method. When cutting energy wood with a Harveri small harwarder productivity was slightly higher when using 40-metre distances two cutting trails than when using 20-metre distances. When using a Tehojaetkae small harvester, creating two cutting trails in addition to the standard four-metre-wide cutting trail resulted in slightly higher productivity than creating three narrow cutting trails. A Risutec L3A energy head was used in tests involving both clearing and energy wood cutting. This method proved to be very promising, and it seems highly proable that advance clearing will no longer be needed in energy wood harvesting under all circumstances. When using traditional harvester-forwarder chains and a harvarder for first thinning in pine stands, the harvesting of entirely or partly non-delimbed trees was 20 to 40 per cent less expensive per harvested cubic meter than the harvesting of delimbed trees. In tests carried out using the Naarva RS25 harvester head for first thinning in pine stands, the integrated method resulted in approximately one-third productivity than the traditional cutting of industrial wood. In a spruce-dominant site with delayed first thinning, the unit costs of harvesting delimbed energy wood were 16 per cent lower than those of the harvesting of pulpwood. In the future development of machinery, it will be important to aim at continuous motion, at least in terms of cutting small trees. (orig.)

  4. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  5. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.

    1996-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  6. Raw material balance and yield of biomass from early thinnings; Biomassatase ja energiapuun kertymae ensiharvennuksissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Utilization of small-sized wood from early thinnings is a serious problem in the Finnish forestry. The cost of harvesting is high, loss of potential pulpwood in logging and debarking is excessive, and the technical properties of wood are not well known. Project 105 of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Program is aimed to promote the utilization of biomass from early thinnings for pulp and energy. The variation of technical properties of wood (percentage of bark, basic density of wood and bark, amount of acetone extractive and ash, fiber length, moisture content, and fuel value) within the tree, between trees and between sites is studied. Distribution of the above-ground biomass of trees into potential pulpwood and energy wood is determined, and efficient delimbing-debarking methods for segregation of the fiber component from the fuel component are developed. The methods studied include single-log debarking with ring debarkers, and multiple-treatment of logs or tree-sections with drum debarkers and flail delimber-debarkers. A new method, combination of flail debarking-delimbing and dry-drum debarking, is introduced. Biomass balance, showing the recovery and loss of fiber and fuel in the process, is calculated for the options studied. The new method has great development potential for segregation of the fiber and energy components in small-diameter tree-sections. It is shown that high-quality chips can be produced from tree-sections, and it is suggested that special pulps are produced from the raw material under consideration

  7. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  8. Assortment structure in beech coppice stands in Boljevac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in beech coppice stands was studied in the area of Boljevac. Assortment structure was evaluated according to the articles of the valid standard (JUS. The assortments represented in the assortment structure, based on the stemwood quality are: Logs for matches, sawlogs I II and III classes, mine timber, technical roundwood, pulpwood, wood for excelsior and fuelwood, I and II classes. The results of the analyses show that the value assortment structure (sum of the values of assortments produced from one tree grows significantly with the increase of tree diameter and this dependence is presented by a degree function. The value percentage of logs for matches, sawlogs of the I and II classes, technical roundwood, mine timber, fuelwood and pulpwood, grows with the increase of the tree diameter. The occurrence of better quality logs (sawlogs in these stands, in contrast to the beech coppice stand in the area of Crni Vrh results from the more favourable diameter structure. There are no statistically significant differences between the value assortment structure on the established sample plot series within the same locality, consequently the data ere united. Because of the differences in stand age, the data are not unified for the localities, although there are no statistically significant differences between value assortment structure for diameter degrees represented in them. False heart (red heart is one of very significant defects of beech wood, and its incidence, inter alia, depends on tree age. The low effect of this defect of wood resulted in a significant percentage of logs for matches. Along with the value assortment structure this paper also presents the percentage of assortments depending on tree diameter.

  9. Multisource Single-Tree Inventory in the Prediction of Tree Quality Variables and Logging Recoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stem diameter distribution, stem form and quality information must be measured as accurately as possible to optimize cutting. For a detailed measurement of the stands, we developed and demonstrated the use of a multisource single-tree inventory (MS-STI. The two major bottlenecks in the current airborne laser scanning (ALS-based single-tree-level inventory, tree detection and tree species recognition, are avoided in MS-STI. In addition to airborne 3D data, such as ALS, MS-STI requires an existing tree map with tree species information as the input information. In operational forest management, tree mapping would be carried out after or during the first thinning. It should be highlighted that the tree map is a challenging prerequisite, but that the recent development in mobile 2D and 3D laser scanning indicates that the solution is within reach. In our study, the tested input tree map was produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and by using a Global Navigation Satellite System. Predictors for tree quality attributes were extracted from ALS data or digital stereo imagery (DSI and used in the nearest-neighbor estimation approach. Stem distribution was compiled by summing the predicted single-tree measures. The accuracy of the MS-STI was validated using harvester data (timber assortments and field measures (stem diameter, tree height. RMSEs for tree height, diameter, saw log volume and pulpwood volume varied from 4.2% to 5.3%, from 10.9% to 19.9%, from 28.7% to 43.5% and from 125.1% to 134.3%, respectively. Stand-level saw log recoveries differed from −2.2% to 1.3% from the harvester measurements, as the respective differences in pulpwood recovery were between −3.0% and 10.6%. We conclude that MS-STI improves the predictions of stem-diameter distributions and provides accurate estimates for tree quality variables if an accurate tree map is available.

  10. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  11. Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Chua, Beng Hui; Wang, Chew Wen

    2002-06-01

    In late 1998, a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus, emerged in Malaysia, causing fatal disease in domestic pigs and humans with substantial economic loss to the local pig industry. Pteropid fruitbats have since been identified as a natural reservoir host. Over the last two decades, the forest habitat of these bats in Southeast Asia has been substantially reduced by deforestation for pulpwood and industrial plantation. In 1997/1998, slash-and-burn deforestation resulted in the formation of a severe haze that blanketed much of Southeast Asia in the months directly preceding the Nipah virus disease outbreak. This was exacerbated by a drought driven by the severe 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. We present data suggesting that this series of events led to a reduction in the availability of flowering and fruiting forest trees for foraging by fruitbats and culminated in unprecedented encroachment of fruitbats into cultivated fruit orchards in 1997/1998. These anthropogenic events, coupled with the location of piggeries in orchards and the design of pigsties allowed transmission of a novel paramyxovirus from its reservoir host to the domestic pig and ultimately to the human population.

  12. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  13. Field test of new poplar clone in Shangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Guang-hua; JIANG Yue-zhong; QIAO Yu-ling; B.Nottola

    2003-01-01

    Poplar is one of the dominant tree species for the establishment of fast growing plantations in Shandong Province. Eighteen poplar clones belonging to Populus aigeiros section were introduced from Italy, Turkey and domestic regions. Populus deltoides cv. 'Lux' I-69/55 (I-69), which was widely used in Shandong Province, China, was taken as control clone (I-69). Following a randomized complete block design, seedling test and controlled afforestation trials were carried out at Juxian County, Caoxian County and Laiyang City. The results showed that the poplar clone (Populus × euramericana cv. '102/74'), namely 102/74, performed well both in terms of adaptability and growth rate. The mean height of 13.9 m (H), diameter at breast height of 18.0 cm (DBH) and volume growth of 0.1445 m3 (V) were 2.2 %, 21.6% and 52.9 % higher than those of I-69 (CK), respectively, at the age of 5 years at three experimental sites. Moreover, the clone can be propagated easily and showed high resistance to poplar disease, pest as well as salinity and had longer growing period. Furthermore, wood basic density and fiber length of new poplar clone (102/74) were as same as I-69 (CK). It was concluded that the selected clone (102/74) was ideal for the establishment of fast-growing poplar plantations, especially for the pulpwood plantations in Shandong Province.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98% unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%, Amborella trichopoda (9.83%, and Pinus taeda (4.15%. A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18% and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  16. Influence of Heartwood on Wood Density and Pulp Properties Explained by Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a tool to predict some pulp properties e.g., pulp yield, Kappa number, ISO brightness (ISO 2470:2008, fiber length and fiber width, using the sapwood and heartwood proportion in the raw-material. For this purpose, Acacia melanoxylon trees were collected from four sites in Portugal. Percentage of sapwood and heartwood, area and the stem eccentricity (in N-S and E-W directions were measured on transversal stem sections of A. melanoxylon R. Br. The relative position of the samples with respect to the total tree height was also considered as an input variable. Different configurations were tested until the maximum correlation coefficient was achieved. A classical mathematical technique (multiple linear regression and machine learning methods (classification and regression trees, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machines were tested. Classification and regression trees (CART was the most accurate model for the prediction of pulp ISO brightness (R = 0.85. The other parameters could be predicted with fair results (R = 0.64–0.75 by CART. Hence, the proportion of heartwood and sapwood is a relevant parameter for pulping and pulp properties, and should be taken as a quality trait when assessing a pulpwood resource.

  17. Development of chain limbing and small-drum barking equipment; Ketjukarsinta- ja pienrumpukuorintaan perustuvan laitteiston kehittaeminen tuotantovalmiiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakkila, P.; Kalaja, H. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Three test series were carried out in 1996 at the chain limbing- drum barking station developed by Pertti Szepaniak Oy. The test equipment was developed during the test series. During the first experiment in February the wood used was frozen. In this test series the whipping efficiency was insignificant and consequently, the bark contents remained too large. In the second test in September the whipping efficiency was too high and was not easy to adjust, and as a consequence the wood loss was unreasonable. In the third test in November, when the wood was not yet frozen, the whipping efficiency was correct and promising results were obtained both with regard to the bark content and wood loss. Limbed pine pulpwood was used as raw material. The bark contents of the chips ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 % and the wood loss in barking from 2.8 to 3.6 %. The productivity also improved clearly during the tests. The experiments indicated that a separate station based on a combination of chain limbing- barking and drum-barking is able to produce high-grade pulp chips both from limbed and non-limbed first-thinning pine wood. (orig.)

  18. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  19. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  20. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  1. Geographic variation and genetic performance of Picea koraiensis in growth and wood characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGQiu-yu; JIAHong-bai; SHANGJie

    2005-01-01

    Eight provenances of 19-year-old Picea koraiensis Nakai from the provenance trials of Maoershan (45°20'N, 127°30'E), Liangeshui (47°10'N, 128°53'E) and Jiagedaqi (50°24'N, 124°07'E) in Northeast China were investigated to analyze the genetic variation in growth characteristics (tree height and diameter) and wood characteristics (tracheid length, tracheid diameter, tracheid wall thickness, annual ring width as well as wood density). Great variation in height growth and breast height diameter growth was observed among the provenances,and along with the increase of tree age, these provenances presented different geographic adaptability. The growth characteristics of Picea koraiensis stand at age of 10 in Maoershan and Liangshui provenance trials had a positive correlation with longitude, and with increase of tree age to 15 and 19, the tree growth of the provenances displayed a significant positive correlation with latitude as well as altitude. For wood characteristics, great variation was also found among the provenances. There exists a close relation between growth characteristics and wood properties of the provenance. The height and breast height diameter growth of the provenance had a positive correlation with tracheid diameter and annual ring width, and a negative correlation with tracheid wall thickness and wood density. Genetic performance of the provenance in all above characteristics was also investigated in order to provide more useful information for comprehensive selection of this species for pulpwood and plywood production.

  2. Towards robust subsidence-based soil carbon emission factors for peat soils in south-east Asia, with special reference to oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm and Acacia pulpwood plantations are being established at a rapid rate on drained peatland in south-east Asia. Accurate measurements of associated carbon losses are still scarce, however, due mainly to difficulties of excluding autotrophic carbon fluxes from chamber-based flux measurements and uncertainties about the extent of waterborne losses. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to determining total net carbon loss from subsidence records that is applicable to steady state conditions under continuous land use. We studied oil palm and Acacia plantations that had been drained for 5–19 years. Very similar subsidence rates and dry bulk density profiles were obtained, irrespective of crop type or age of the plantation, indicating that the peat profiles were in a steady state. These are conditions that allow for the deduction of net carbon loss by multiplying the rate of subsidence by the carbon density of the peat below the water table. With an average subsidence rate of 4.2 cm y-1 and a carbon density of 0.043 g cm-3, we arrive at a net carbon loss of ~18 t ha-1 y-1 (~66 t CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for typical oil palm and Acacia plantations more than five years after drainage, without large differences between the plantation types. The proposed method enables calculation of regional or project-specific carbon loss rates to feed into mitigation schemes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  3. Analysis and Comparison on Anatomic Features and Properties of 4 Acacia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junliang; PANG Yu

    2006-01-01

    The anatomic features and fiber morphology for 4 acacia species were investigated by the method of comparative analysis.Physical and mechanical properties such as air-dry density,dimension stability,MOR,MOE and toughness were also measured and compared.Results indicate that A.crassicarpa is of the greatest average fiber length and A.mangium is of the greatest average vessel length,which are 1 179.6 μmand 333.1 μm,respectively.Fiber morphology of all 4 acacia species accords with the requirement on pulping and paper-making,so the 4 acacia timbers can be used for pulpwood.A.cincinata is of the greatestair-dry density 721 kg/m3 and greatest basic density 617 kg/m3,however,A.mangium is of the best dimensional stability because of its smallest coefficient of shrinkage.With the highest value of every index,A.cincinata isof the best mechanical properties.

  4. Using Naarva EF28 for integrated and delimbed energy wood harvesting; Naarva EF28 integroidussa ja energiarankapuun hakkuussa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.

    2011-07-01

    Naarva EF28, manufactured by Pentin Paja Oy, is a harvesting device equipped with roller feed, multi-stemming and quillotine cutting. Naarva EF28 can be connected to a harvester, 14-20 tonne excavator or a harvester, 14-20 tonne excavator or a harwarder. TTS examined the productivity and practicality of the harvesting device in the first thinning of a 30-year-old pine forest. The base machine was a 13-ton ProSilva 910 harvester that was first taken into service in January 2010, and that was equipped with a Kesla 1611H crane with a range of 11 metres. The driver had 1,5 years of experience on the operation of a harvester. The device was tested using two methods: 1) The integrated method involved one 5-metre pulpwood log being cut from trees that were 10-15 cm at breast height (DBH), and two 5-metre pulpwood logs being cut from trees that were more than 15 cm at breast height (DBH); the minimum top diameter was 6 cm. The driver visually estimated the diameter of the trees at breast height. The tops of the trees were cut as energy and piled separately; delimbing of these was carried out with the delimbing knives slightly opened. 2) The delimbed energy wood method involved all trees being cut only as energy wood and piled together and delimbed with the delimbing knives slightly opened. The wood was cut to approximately 5 metres when necessary. The original stand density was 2,130 trees per hectare for the integrated method and 2,070 trees per hectare for the delimbed energy wood method. Stem sizes of the original trees were 81 dm3 for the integrated method and 75 dm3 for the delimbed energy wood method. Only the trees that were at least 4 cm at breast height were included in the stand density. The width of the cutting sector was 22,4 metres for the integrated harvesting and 20.1 metres for the delimbed energy wood harvesting. The width of the logging road was 4,1 metres for the integrated method and 4,2 metres for the delimbed energy wood method. Productivity per

  5. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Forest growth in peatlands is nutrient limited; principal source of nutrients is the decomposition of organic matter. Excess water decreases O2 diffusion and slows down the nutrient release. Drainage increases organic matter decomposition, CO2 efflux, and nutrient supply, and enhances the growth of forest. Profitability depends on costs, gained extra yield and its allocation into timber assortments, and the rate of interest. We built peatland simulator Susi to define and parameterize these interrelations. We applied Susi-simulator to compute water and nutrient processes, forest growth, and CO2 efflux of forested drained peatland. The simulator computes daily water fluxes and storages in two dimensions for a peatland forest strip located between drainage ditches. The CO2 efflux is made proportional to peat bulk density, soil temperature and O2 availability. Nutrient (N, P, K) release depends on decomposition and peat nutrient content. Growth limiting nutrient is detected by comparing the need and supply of nutrients. Increased supply of growth limiting nutrient is used to quantify the forest growth response to improved drainage. The extra yield is allocated into pulpwood and sawlogs based on volume of growing stock. The net present values of ditch cleaning operation and the gained extra yield are computed under different rates of interest to assess the profitability of the ditch cleaning. The hydrological sub-models of Susi-simulator were first parameterized using daily water flux data from Hyytiälä SMEAR II-site, after which the predictions were tested against independent hydrologic data from two drained peatland forests in Southern Finland. After verification of the hydrologic model, the CO2 efflux, nutrient release and forest growth proportionality hypothesis was tested and model performance validated against long-term forest growth and groundwater level data from 69 forested peatland sample plots in Central Finland. The results showed a clear relation between

  6. Shifts in composition of avian communities related to temperate-grassland afforestation in southeastern South America Alterações na composição de comunidades de aves relacionadas ao florestamento de campos temperados no sudeste da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of temperate grasslands with fast-growing trees for industrial pulpwood production is spreading in South America. Despite high afforestation rates resulting from governmental policies that stimulate pulpwood production in grasslands of southern Brazil and Uruguay, the impact of this activity on biodiversity remains to be properly assessed. We used an Impact-Reference study design to evaluate how grassland afforestation affects the composition of grassland bird assemblages. We sampled eucalyptus plantations and neighboring natural grasslands in southern Brazil from 2006-2009, and relied on nested sampling and analysis to separate the effects of afforestation from the natural variability of grasslands. We recorded a significant difference in composition between assemblages from grasslands and tree plantations. Species adapted to open, treeless areas tended to be negatively affected in relation to edge or forest birds in eucalyptus plantations. Afforestation is systematically replacing the bird assemblage of hilltop grasslands by a collection of common edge and forest species that occur in nearby riverine and hillside forests. Although most grassland birds negatively affected by tree plantations are common and widespread, observed and predicted afforestation rates in southeastern South America may result in regional population reductions in the near future.O florestamento de campos temperados com árvores de crescimento rápido para a produção industrial de celulose está aumentando na América do Sul. Apesar das elevadas taxas de florestamento resultantes de políticas governamentais que estimulam o plantio de árvores para celulose em campos do sul do Brasil e Uruguai, o impacto dessa atividade sobre a biodiversidade ainda carece de avaliação adequada. Utilizamos um delineamento experimental do tipo impacto-referência para avaliar como o florestamento dos campos afeta a composição da assembleia de aves campestres. Amostramos

  7. Harvesting undelimbed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from first thinnings for integrated production of kraft pulp and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jylhae, P.

    2011-12-15

    The present study evaluates the feasibility of undelimbed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for integrated production of pulp and energy in a kraft pulp mill from the technical, economic and environmental points of view, focusing on the potential of bundle harvesting. The feasibility of tree sections for pulp production was tested by conducting an industrial wood-handling experiment, laboratory cooking and bleaching trials, using conventional small-diameter Scots pine pulpwood as a reference. These trials showed that undelimbed Scots pine sections can be processed in favourable conditions as a blend with conventional small-diameter pulpwood without reducing the pulp quality. However, fibre losses at various phases of the process may increase when using undelimbed material. In the economic evaluation, both pulp production and wood procurement costs were considered, using the relative wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill as a determinant. The calculations were made for three Scots pine first-thinning stands with the breast-height diameter of the removal (6-12 cm) as the main distinctive factor. The supply chains included in the comparison were based on cut-to-length harvesting, whole-tree harvesting and bundle harvesting (whole-tree bundling). With the current ratio of pulp and energy prices, the wood paying capability declines with an increase in the proportion of the energy fraction of the raw material. The supply system based on the cut-to-length method was the most efficient option, resulting in the highest residual value at stump in most cases. A decline in the pulp price and an increase in the energy price improved the competitiveness of the whole-tree systems. With short truck transportation distances and low pulp prices, however, the harvesting of loose whole trees can result in higher residual value at stump in small-diameter stands. While savings in transportation costs did not compensate for the high cutting and compaction costs by the second

  8. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  9. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  10. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  11. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  12. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  13. U.S. Forest Greenhouse Gas Impacts of a continued Expansion of E.U. Wood Pellet Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, G.; Baker, J.; Ohrel, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States has ambitious goals of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. A portion of these reductions are based on expected contributions from land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF). The European Union has similar goals which have resulted in a doubling of wood pellets exported from US ports destined for EU power plants over the last few years. There are potential conflicts between the GHG consequences of this pellet supply and the LULUCF contribution to US GHG goals. This study seeks to inform the discussion by modeling US forest GHG accounts using data measured on a grid of over 150,000 USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forestland plots across the conterminous United States. Empirical yield functions are estimate from plot log volume, biomass and carbon and provide the basis for changes in forest characteristics over time. Demand data based on a spatial database of over 2,000 forest product manufacturing facilities representing 11 intermediate and 13 final solid and pulpwood products. Manufacturing and logging costs are specific to slope, log size, and volume removed along with transportation costs based on fuel prices, FIA plot, and milling locations. The resulting partial spatial equilibrium model of the US forest sector is solved annually for the period 2010 - 2030 with demand shifted by energy prices and macroeconomic indicators from the US EIA's Annual Energy Outlook for a series of potential wood pellet export targets. For each wood pellet export level simulated, figures showing historic and scenario-specific forest products production are generated. Maps of the spatial allocation of both forest harvesting and carbon fluxes are presented at the National level and detail is given in both the US North and Southeast.

  14. Measuring of limbs and tops from harvested forests - different methods and their precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, K.

    1983-01-01

    Weighing and volume measuring, as methods for measuring of logging residues (limbs and tops from harvested forests), have been compared with regard to precision. The pre-requisites are compiled from earlier studies of moisture content, basic density, solid volume portion, etc. The scope has been set on measuring of truck loads at industry. Excluding winter time when snow and ice amounts cannot at all be estimated, weighing appears as the most promising method. This applies also to a comparison of cost estimates, where methods that are more expensive than todays pulpwood measuring (e.g require some kind of sampling) must be excluded. Therefore, at a choice of further studies, focusing on the possibility of ocular estimation of moisture content and snow quantities seems to be the most promising. Taking the increasing interest in fuel quality (e.g. moisture content) into account, weighing likewise holds out the best prospects. It shall however be stressed that volume measuring in pile, with presumed values for the solid volume portion and the moisture content, is certainly the cheapest mehtod. For large suppliers, a high accuracy is also obtained in course of time. A more extensive experience of variations in solid volume portion would furthermore enable measuring of piled residues at roadside. Performance rating of off-road extraction in common volume measures would be yet an application. Costs for main haulage, on the other hand, is to a great extent dependent on weight. Weighing could therefore, besides measuring data, also provide a basis for hauling compensation to the transporter.

  15. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  16. Improving Log Loading Efficiency for Improved Sustainable Transport within the Irish Forest and Biomass Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, timber and biomass haulage faces the challenge of transporting enough material within strict legal dimensions and gross vehicle weights restrictions for trucks and trailers. The objective of this study was to develop a method to control payload weight by knowing the moisture content of the wood. Weights, volumes, and moisture content were gathered from 100 truckloads of Sitka spruce pulpwood. Truck volume and weight utilization patterns were analyzed based on stacked volume, truck volume, and weights recorded from the weighbridge. Solid/bulk volume conversion factors for the truckloads were estimated indicating the truck’s solid volume capacity to be filled. Trucks were grouped into five conditions based on their configuration—volume capacity and legal maximum payload. A loaded volume fraction was estimated to assess the optimal volume capacity and stanchion height at which the trucks should be loaded. Results showed that 100% of the trucks presented volume underutilization, with a maximum of 27.5 m3 (only 39.85% volume capacity. In contrast, 67% of trucks were overweight while the remaining 33% were under the legal maximum weight. The average solid/bulk volume conversion factor was 0.66 ± 0.013 at 95% confidence level. Depending on the conditions, trucks can be filled to 100% of their volume capacity with wood at an MC from 29% to 55%. The minimum truck volume capacity utilization was 45%. This methodology can be used by truck hauliers, enabling them to determine in-forest the optimum volume and weight of wood to be transported by knowing the moisture content (MC, the wood specie, and using the height of the stanchions of the trailer as reference when loading the truck.

  17. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  18. Optimum stand density of Leucaena leucocephala for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.V.N.S.; Korwar, G.R.; Rao, K.V.; Mandal, U.K.; Rao, G.R.; Srinivas, I.; Venkateswarlu, B. [Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad-500059 (India); Rao, S.N. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Secunderabad-500003 (India); Kulkarni, H.D. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Sarapaka, Khammam (Dt), Andhra Pradesh-507 201 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Leucaena leucocephala is widely used as raw material for the manufacture of paper and packaging material and in biomass based power plants in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Experiments were conducted to study the affect of tree density on the growth, biomass partitioning and wood productivity. Six treatments 1 x 1 m, 1.3 x 1.3 m, 3 x 0.75 m, 3 x 1 m, 5 x 0.8 m and 3 x 2 m corresponding to a tree density of 10,000, 6666, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 were evaluated with leucaena variety K636. At 51 months after planting, spacings significantly influenced tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and biomass partitioning. Wider tree rows resulted in greater tree height and diameter growth resulting in higher per plant productivity. At harvest, 70% of trees in 3 x 2 m attained a diameter of more than 7.5 cm, while 35% of the trees attained the same DBH in 1 x 1 m spacing. Increased spacing levels decreased the relative amount of growth allocated to the bole of the tree. Marketable biomass yield was highest with 1 x 1 m spacing. Spacing of 3 x 0.75 m produced marketable biomass comparable to that of 1 x 1 m and greater proportion of stems with more than 5 cm diameter. Leucaena can be grown at 3 x 0.75 m spacing either for pulpwood or fuelwood depending on the prevailing market prices and demand. (author)

  19. Efeito da área e da produtividade na produção de celulose no Brasil Effect of area and productivity in pulp production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Henrique Adame de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a evolução tecnológica da produção de madeira para celulose, para tanto, a produção de celulose de fibra curta derivada do eucalipto foi decomposta em efeito área e efeito produtividade. Para isso foi usado o modelo shift-share com o qual se verificou qual dessas duas variáveis mais contribuiu para a evolução na produção de celulose no país nos últimos anos. Foram avaliados os seguintes períodos: 1960 a 1970; 1970 a 1980; 1980 a 1990; 1990 a 2000; 2000 a 2007 e 1960 a 2007. No geral, foi observado que 1960 a 2007 o principal fator que explicou o crescimento da produção de celulose foi a produtividade, porém o valor baixo para o efeito área foi devido a sua expansão só ter começado na década de 90. Também foi observado que os reflorestamentos no Brasil são muito recentes quando comparado a outros países, mesmo assim o setor de celulose brasileiro conseguiu se tornar competitivo tanto no mercado nacional quanto no internacional.The objective of this work was to study the technological production of pulpwood.Therefore, production of hardwood pulp derived from eucalyptus effect was broken down into area and productivity effects. For this purpose, we used the shift-share model with which was found that these two variables contributed most to the trend in pulp production in the country in recent years. The following periods were evaluated: 1960 to 1970; 1970 to 1980; 1980 to 1990; 1990 to 2000; 2000 to 2007 and 1960 to 2007. Overall, it was observed that from 1960 to 2007, the main factor that explained the growth of pulp production was the productivity, but the low value for the area effect was due to expansion that started only in the 1990s. We also found that the planted forests in Brazil are very recent when compared to other countries, although the Brazilian pulp industry has managed to become competitive in both within the country and abroad.

  20. Climate policy coherence. Conflicts and synergies in policies influencing the production of forest bioenergy and food chains; Ilmastopolitiikan ja muun yhteiskuntapolitiikan koherenssi. Ristiriidat ja synergiat metsaebioenergiaan ja elintarvikeketjuihin vaikuttavissa politiikkatoimissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivimaa, P.; Huttunen, S.; Hilden, M.; Laturi, J.; Lehtonen, H.; Pohjola, J.; Uusivuori, J.; Virtanen, Y.

    2012-10-15

    To avoid policy conflicts and to enhance policy synergies, new knowledge on how policy instruments within and across different sectors affect climate change mitigation and adaptation is needed. An important question is how different policy sectors cohere with climate policy? In this study, climate policy coherence was examined with respect to policies related to forest bioenergy and food chains, from the perspectives of policy instruments and actors affected by the policies. The analysis was based on quantitative models, policy analysis, interviews and workshops. Clear shortcomings in both the recognition and acknowledgement of policy conflicts were identified. Regarding forest bioenergy this was manifested as overlapping targets for the utilization of forest resources without clear knowledge on how the climate policy aims are related to other aims for the use of forests. Local actors perceived coherence problems as rapidly changing instruments and as differences in the acknowledgement of different bioenergy chains. The quantitative models showed indirect and cross-sectoral effects. For example the increasing utilization of wood in energy production increases the prices and transportation costs of energy wood. This affects the relative price of wood against peat and, thus, the fuel choice of power plants. The market effects should be taken into account, for example, when introducing policy instruments tied to the prices of emission allowances. Increase in the price of pulpwood caused by energy use of wood is an example of a coherence problem between climate and industrial policies. Regarding food chains, nutrition recommendations are coherent with climate policy: Changing consumption to match the nutrition recommendations would reduce GHG emissions. On the other hand, actual consumption equivalent to the recommendations would not directly lead to significantly decreasing domestic agricultural production and emissions therein, but the effect would rather be global

  1. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  2. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    vimns, 7%), eastern towhee (14%), indigo bunting (14%), and northern cardinal (17%) did not differ from nest success in cottonwood plantations that were coppiced from root sprouts following pulpwood harvest. Within bottomland hardwood forests, uneven-aged group-selection timber harvest reduced the combined daily nest survival of all species from 0.958 to 0.938, which reduced nest success by about 14%. Specifically, timber harvest reduced nest success of species that nest in the forest midstory and canopy, such as Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)--from 32% before harvest to 14% after harvest. Conversely, those species that nest primarily in the shrubby understory--such as northern cardinal--were not affected by timber harvest and maintained an overall nest success of about 33%. Thus, birds nesting in the understory of bottomland hardwood forests are not adversely impacted by selective timber harvest, but there is a short-term reduction in nest success for birds that nest in the canopy and midstory.

  3. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  4. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    -diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result

  5. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    -diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result