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Sample records for pulmonary thromboembolism retrospective

  1. Thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, Amador

    2003-01-01

    The thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension, also well known as chronic lung thromboembolism not resolved; it is a form not very common of lung thromboembolism. Until very recently was considered a rare curiosity of autopsy, but as the methods of diagnoses have improved and our attitude has changed, the incidence of this nosological entity has experienced a notable increment, but the most excellent in this illness is maybe that it is a form of lung hypertension, potentially recoverable

  2. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  3. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Massicotte, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Outcomes of inferior vena cava filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism: A single center retrospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ook [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yang Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the mid- and long-term outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion in patients with underlying deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, based on a single center experience. A total of 166 IVC filter insertion procedures in 160 patients, between February 2004 and December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. Severity of deep vein thrombosis, indwelling time of the IVC filter, retrieval rate, and complication rate depending on the type of IVC filter were analyzed based on the patients' radiologic findings and medical records. IVC filter insertion procedures were successfully performed in all patients. Among the 99 attempts at filter retrieval, 91 trials succeeded (91.9%, 91/99) and 8 trials failed. Indwelling time of the IVC filter showed a positive correlation with failure of filter retrieval (p = 0.01). There was no procedure-related complication after all IVC filter insertion procedures. Eight delayed complications (5.0%, 8/160 patients with IVC filter insertion) were observed [caval thrombosis below the IVC filter (n = 7) and IVC penetration (n = 1)]. Günther Tulip filter was associated with a significant incidence of complication (p = 0.036). IVC filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism can be regarded as a safe treatment modality with an acceptable complication rate.

  5. Outcomes of inferior vena cava filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism: A single center retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kang, Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the mid- and long-term outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion in patients with underlying deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, based on a single center experience. A total of 166 IVC filter insertion procedures in 160 patients, between February 2004 and December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. Severity of deep vein thrombosis, indwelling time of the IVC filter, retrieval rate, and complication rate depending on the type of IVC filter were analyzed based on the patients' radiologic findings and medical records. IVC filter insertion procedures were successfully performed in all patients. Among the 99 attempts at filter retrieval, 91 trials succeeded (91.9%, 91/99) and 8 trials failed. Indwelling time of the IVC filter showed a positive correlation with failure of filter retrieval (p = 0.01). There was no procedure-related complication after all IVC filter insertion procedures. Eight delayed complications (5.0%, 8/160 patients with IVC filter insertion) were observed [caval thrombosis below the IVC filter (n = 7) and IVC penetration (n = 1)]. Günther Tulip filter was associated with a significant incidence of complication (p = 0.036). IVC filter insertion in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism can be regarded as a safe treatment modality with an acceptable complication rate

  6. Clinical worsening in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schölzel, B.E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as a raised mean pulmonary artery pressure (of at least 25 mmHg at rest) caused by persistent obstruction of pulmonary arteries after pulmonary embolism that has not resolved despite at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation.

  7. [Pulmonary thromboembolism in Occupational Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Capapé-Aguilar, Ana; Romero-Paredes, Carmen; Aguado-Benedí, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Occupational physicians should be familiar with the risk factors and clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). PTE belongs to the group ofis a cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause (40%) of death in Spanish workplaces; at present, they may be considered a work-related injury because of the doctrinal evolution in the legal interpretation of the presumption of iuris tantum. We present the case of a hypertensive and obese adult male who suffered a PTE at his workplace. The availability of a portable pulse oximeter (room air SpO2, 92%) was critical in guiding the decision to refer him urgently to the hospital, where the diagnosis was confirmed. We can conclude that, independently of whether this event is later deemed to be work-related (in this case it was not), occupational physicians must know how to correctly manage and refer affected workers. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  8. CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, M.J. [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van, E-mail: h.es@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Koobs, L. [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Morshuis, W.J. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Snijder, R.J. [Department of Pulmonary Disease, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heesewijk, J.P.M. van [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The educational objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the computed tomography (CT) findings in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the key imaging findings at CT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. After reading this article, the reader should have an improved awareness of the condition, its imaging features, and the CT imaging features associated with surgically accessible disease.

  9. CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, M.J.; Es, H.W. van; Koobs, L.; Morshuis, W.J.; Snijder, R.J.; Heesewijk, J.P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    The educational objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the computed tomography (CT) findings in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the key imaging findings at CT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. After reading this article, the reader should have an improved awareness of the condition, its imaging features, and the CT imaging features associated with surgically accessible disease.

  10. Update on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ivan M; Pugh, Meredith E; Hemnes, Anna R

    2017-01-01

    Chronic, unresolved thromboemboli are an important cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with specific treatment strategies differing from other types of PH. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is classified as group 4 PH by the World Health Organization. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed, complication of acute pulmonary embolism that does not resolve and results in occlusion of large pulmonary arteries with a fibro-thrombotic material. The etiology of CTEPH remains uncertain, and it is unknown why certain patients with acute pulmonary embolism develop this disorder. The evaluation for CTEPH is an important part of the evaluation for PH in general, and it is crucial not to overlook this diagnosis, as it is the only form of PH that is potentially curable. Patients diagnosed with CTEPH should be referred to an expert center for consideration of pulmonary endarterectomy, and surgical removal of the chronic thromboembolic material. Not all patients with CTEPH are surgical candidates, however, and there are emerging treatments-medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty-that have shown benefit in this patient population. Without treatment, CTEPH can lead to progressive pulmonary vascular obstruction, right heart failure, and death. Thus, it is important for clinicians to recognize this subtype of PH. In this review, we provide an overview of current understanding of the pathogenesis of CTEPH and highlight recommendations and recent advances in the evaluation and treatment of CTEPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary thromboembolism as a complication of lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anna Warncke; Mortensen, Jann; Berg, Ronan M G

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplantation mortality after lung transplantation (LTX) is higher than for other solid organ transplantations. Thoracic surgery is associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications, and as LTX recipients lack the collateral bronchial circulation, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE...

  12. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm -5 , and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions such as pneumonia, asthma or cardiac failure or ... symptoms of sudden chest pain, haemoptysis, dyspnoea ... 2. e chest radiograph is usually normal but ... diagnosing PE and has replaced most other detection .... Miniati M, Pistolesi M, Marini C, et al. Value of perfusion lung scan in the diagnosis of pulmonary.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charles Marinus; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained dyspnoea. CTEPH is under-recognized and carries a poor prognosis without treatment. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is the preferred treatment for the majority of patients...

  15. The pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Simonneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare, progressive pulmonary vascular disease that is usually a consequence of prior acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH usually begins with persistent obstruction of large and/or middle-sized pulmonary arteries by organised thrombi. Failure of thrombi to resolve may be related to abnormal fibrinolysis or underlying haematological or autoimmune disorders. It is now known that small-vessel abnormalities also contribute to haemodynamic compromise, functional impairment and disease progression in CTEPH. Small-vessel disease can occur in obstructed areas, possibly triggered by unresolved thrombotic material, and downstream from occlusions, possibly because of excessive collateral blood supply from high-pressure bronchial and systemic arteries. The molecular processes underlying small-vessel disease are not completely understood and further research is needed in this area. The degree of small-vessel disease has a substantial impact on the severity of CTEPH and postsurgical outcomes. Interventional and medical treatment of CTEPH should aim to restore normal flow distribution within the pulmonary vasculature, unload the right ventricle and prevent or treat small-vessel disease. It requires early, reliable identification of patients with CTEPH and use of optimal treatment modalities in expert centres.

  16. Perfusion lung scanning: differentiation of primary from thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Kreisman, H.; Novales-Diaz, J.; Derbekyan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Of eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, final diagnosis established by autopsy or angiography, four had primary hypertension and four hypertension from thromboembolism. The perfusion lung scan was distinctly different in the two groups. The lung scan in primary pulmonary hypertension was associated with nonsegmental, patchy defects of perfusion, while in thromboembolic hypertensives it was characterized by segmental and/or lobar defects of perfusion with or without subsegmental defects. The perfusion lung scan is a valuable, noninvasive study in the evaluation of the patient with pulmonary hypertension of undetermined cause and in the exclusion of occult large-vessel pulmonary thromboembolism

  17. Incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in oncological oral and maxillofacial operations: retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodders, J.N.; Parmar, S.; Stienen, N.L.M.; Martin, T.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed the incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) and associated risk factors in operations under general anaesthesia for cancer of the oral cavity. To identify symptoms related to deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), together with associated

  18. Pulmonary endarterectomy in the management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenkins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a type of pulmonary hypertension, resulting from fibrotic transformation of pulmonary artery clots causing chronic obstruction in macroscopic pulmonary arteries and associated vascular remodelling in the microvasculature. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers the best chance of symptomatic and prognostic improvement in eligible patients; in expert centres, it has excellent results. Current in-hospital mortality rates are 90% at 1 year and >70% at 10 years. However, PEA, is a complex procedure and relies on a multidisciplinary CTEPH team led by an experienced surgeon to decide on an individual's operability, which is determined primarily by lesion location and the haemodynamic parameters. Therefore, treatment of patients with CTEPH depends largely on subjective judgements of eligibility for surgery by the CTEPH team. Other controversies discussed in this article include eligibility for PEA versus balloon pulmonary angioplasty, the new treatment algorithm in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines and the definition of an “expert centre” for the management of this condition.

  19. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, J.; Graham, A.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Gibbs, J.S.R.; Jackson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study

  20. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, J. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Graham, A. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, J.M.B. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Gibbs, J.S.R. [Department of Cardiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Jackson, J.E. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jejackson@hhnt.org

    2006-03-15

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study.

  1. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Pearls and Pitfalls of Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Humna Abid; Lin, C Huie; Guha, Ashrith

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by chronic obstruction of major pulmonary arteries by organized thromboembolic material. Untreated CTEPH can result in pulmonary hypertension and eventually right heart failure, yet it is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that is potentially curable with surgical or catheter-based intervention. While early diagnosis is key to increasing the likelihood of successful treatment, CTEPH remains largely underdiagnosed. This article reviews the role of echocardiogram, ventilation/perfusion scan, and other available modalities in the diagnosis of CTEPH.

  2. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension - assessment by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Kunz, R.P.; Oberholzer, Katja; Neeb, Daniel; Gast, Klaus K.; Dueber, Christoph [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Ley, Sebastian [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus-Peter [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Chest Clinic at University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberle, Balthasar [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Anesthesiology, Mainz (Germany); Inselspital, Department of Anesthesiology, Bern (Switzerland); Mayer, Eckhard [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Heart, Thorax and Vascular Surgery, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe disease that has been ignored for a long time. However, with the development of improved therapeutic modalities, cardiologists and thoracic surgeons have shown increasing interest in the diagnostic work-up of this entity. The diagnosis and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension require a multidisciplinary approach involving the specialties of pulmonary medicine, cardiology, radiology, anesthesiology and thoracic surgery. With this approach, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) can be performed with an acceptable mortality rate. This review article describes the developments in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Techniques include contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA), MR perfusion imaging, phase-contrast imaging of the great vessels, cine imaging of the heart and combined perfusion-ventilation MR imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases. It is anticipated that MR imaging will play a central role in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CTEPH. (orig.)

  3. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension - assessment by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Kunz, R.P.; Oberholzer, Katja; Neeb, Daniel; Gast, Klaus K.; Dueber, Christoph; Ley, Sebastian; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Eberle, Balthasar; Mayer, Eckhard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe disease that has been ignored for a long time. However, with the development of improved therapeutic modalities, cardiologists and thoracic surgeons have shown increasing interest in the diagnostic work-up of this entity. The diagnosis and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension require a multidisciplinary approach involving the specialties of pulmonary medicine, cardiology, radiology, anesthesiology and thoracic surgery. With this approach, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) can be performed with an acceptable mortality rate. This review article describes the developments in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Techniques include contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA), MR perfusion imaging, phase-contrast imaging of the great vessels, cine imaging of the heart and combined perfusion-ventilation MR imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases. It is anticipated that MR imaging will play a central role in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CTEPH. (orig.)

  4. Pulmonary balloon angioplasty of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in surgically inaccessible cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.

    2003-01-01

    The clinical course of patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) depends on the distribution pattern of the thromboembolic material. In patients with thromboembolic findings in the central pulmonary segments pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PTE) has excellent results and acceptable operative risk. This paper presents two surgically inaccessable cases that were successfully treated with balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Balloon angioplasty improved parenchymal perfusion, increased cardiac index (ΔCI + 19.2% [Case 1], and + 15.4% [2]), reduced pulmonary vascular resistance during follow-up (ΔPVRI - 25.0% [1] and - 15.9% [2]), and is discussed as an alternative treatment option for cases not suited for surgery. (orig.) [de

  5. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty: a treatment option for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko eOgawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, stenoses or obstructions of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi can cause an elevation in pulmonary artery resistance, which in turn can result in pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension can be cured surgically by pulmonary endarterectomy; however, patients deemed unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy due to lesion, advanced age, or comorbidities have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, advances have been made in balloon pulmonary angioplasty for these patients, and this review highlights this recent progress.

  6. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): results from an international prospective registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Delcroix, Marion; Lang, Irene; Mayer, Eckhard; Jansa, Pavel; Ambroz, David; Treacy, Carmen; D'Armini, Andrea M.; Morsolini, Marco; Snijder, Repke; Bresser, Paul; Torbicki, Adam; Kristensen, Bent; Lewczuk, Jerzy; Simkova, Iveta; Barberà, Joan A.; de Perrot, Marc; Hoeper, Marius M.; Gaine, Sean; Speich, Rudolf; Gomez-Sanchez, Miguel A.; Kovacs, Gabor; Hamid, Abdul Monem; Jaïs, Xavier; Simonneau, Gérald

    2011-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is often a sequel of venous thromboembolism with fatal natural history; however, many cases can be cured by pulmonary endarterectomy. The clinical characteristics and current management of patients enrolled in an international CTEPH registry was

  7. Pulmonary artery pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, V; Hervé, P; Lecarpentier, Y; Duroux, P; Simonneau, G; Chemla, D

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this time-domain study was to compare pulmonary artery (PA) pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Pulmonary artery pressure waveform analysis provides a simple and accurate estimation of right ventricular afterload in the time-domain. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH are both responsible for severe pulmonary hypertension. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH predominantly involve proximal and distal arteries, respectively, and may lead to differences in PA pressure waveform. High-fidelity PA pressure was recorded in 14 patients (7 men/7 women, 46 +/- 14 years) with CPTE (n = 7) and PPH (n = 7). We measured thermodilution cardiac output, mean PA pressure (MPAP), PA pulse pressure (PAPP = systolic - diastolic PAP) and normalized PAPP (nPAPP = PPAP/MPAP). Wave reflection was quantified by measuring Ti, that is, the time between pressure upstroke and the systolic inflection point (Pi), deltaP, that is, the systolic PAP minus Pi difference, and the augmentation index (deltaP/PPAP). At baseline, CPTE and PPH had similar cardiac index (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2), mean PAP (59 +/- 9 vs. 59 +/- 10 mm Hg), PPAP (57 +/- 13 vs. 53 +/- 13 mm Hg) and nPPAP (0.97 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.13). Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism had shorter Ti (90 +/- 17 vs. 126 +/- 16 ms, p PPAP (0.26 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01). Our study indicated that: 1) CPTE and PPH with severe pulmonary hypertension had similar PA pulse pressure, and 2) wave reflection is elevated in both groups, and CPTE had increased and anticipated wave reflection as compared with PPH, thus suggesting differences in the pulsatile component of right ventricular afterload.

  8. Spontaneously Developed Pulmonary Arterial Intramural Hematoma That Mimicked Thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Kim, In; Chane, Jong Min; Kim, Gun Jik; Yang, Dong Heon; Lee, Jong Min

    2012-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman visited our hospital with a complaint of acute onset dyspnea and radiological manifestations of pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient underwent an exploratory surgery to find a whitish-blue colored mass occupying almost the whole lumen of the main pulmonary arteries. Based on the pathological and radiological findings, the patient was diagnosed to have a pulmonary arterial intramural hematoma. Intramural hematomas are usually observed in the walls of the aorta, and we believe that an isolated intramural hematoma in the pulmonary artery has not been described previously.

  9. Establishment of selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jihai; Gu Xiulian; Chao Shengwu; Zhang Peng; Fan Ruilin; Wang Li'na; Wang Lulu; Wang Ling; Li Bo; Chen Taotao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep suitable for animal experiment. Methods: By using Seldinger's technique the catheter sheath was placed in both the femoral vein and femoral artery in ten sheep. Under C-arm DSA guidance the catheter was inserted through the catheter sheath into the pulmonary artery. Via the catheter appropriate amount of sheep autologous blood clots was injected into the selected pulmonary arteries. The selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model was thus established. Pulmonary angiography was performed to check the results. The pulmonary arterial pressure, femoral artery pressure,heart rates and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO 2 ) were determined both before and after the treatment. The above parameters obtained after the procedure were compared with the recorded parameters measured before the procedure, and the sheep model quality was evaluated. Results: The baseline of pulmonary arterial pressure was (27.30 ± 9.58) mmHg,femoral artery pressure was (126.4 ± 13.72) mmHg, heart rate was (103 ± 15) bpm and PaO 2 was (87.7 ± 12.04) mmHg. Sixty minutes after the injection of (30 ± 5) ml thrombotic agglomerates, the pulmonary arterial pressures rose to (52 ± 49) mmHg, femoral artery pressures dropped to (100 ± 21) mmHg. The heart rates went up to (150 ± 26) bpm. The PaO 2 fell to (25.3 ± 11.2) mmHg. After the procedure the above parameters were significantly different from that measured before the procedure in all ten animals (P < 0.01). The pulmonary arteriography clearly demonstrated that the selected pulmonary arteries were successfully embolized. Conclusion: The anatomy of sheep's femoral veins,vena cava system, pulmonary artery and right heart system are suitable for the establishment of the catheter passage, for this reason, selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model can be easily created in experimental sheep. The technique is feasible and the model

  10. Prevention and treatment of the chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Prandoni, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon and late complication of pulmonary embolism resulting from misguided remodelling of residual pulmonary thromboembolic material and small-vessel arteriopathy. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Unfortunately, several patients have either an unacceptable risk-benefit ratio for undergoing the surgical intervention or develop persistent PH after PEA. Novel medical and endovascular therapies can be considered for them. The soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat is recommended for the treatment of patients with inoperable disease or with recurrent/persistent PH after PEA. Other drugs developed for the treatment of other forms of PH, as prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists have been used in the treatment of CTEPH, with limited benefit. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty is a novel and promising technique and is progressively emerging from the pioneering phase. Highly specialized training level and complex protocols of postoperative care are mandatory to consolidate the technical success of the surgical and endovascular intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RESULTS OF TENEKTEPLASE USE IN MASSIVE PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM. CLINICAL CASE

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    R. Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE — a life-threatening condition that can lead to death at any age. PTE — is not an independent disease, but it is a complication of venous thromboembolism. Conflicting opinions about the possibility of using tissue plasminogen activator (tenekteplase expressed in the literature. Clinical case of the tenekteplase use in 42 years old woman with acute massive PTE and its results are described. PTE in the case was observed simultaneously with diabetic ketoacidosis. Full resolution of this thrombus according to computer pulmonary angiography was observed in patient hospitalized within 24 hours after symptom onset. This is one of the first cases of effective application of the tenekteplase in patients with massive PTE and diabetic ketoacidosis.

  12. CT findings in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, M.; Grgic, A.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B.; Tscholl, D.; Schaefers, H.J.; Uder, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is thought to be a rare complication of pulmonary embolism. However, it was recently demonstrated that CTEPH is more common than previously thought after pulmonary embolism. Without treatment, CTEPH is associated with a very high mortality rate. Making the correct diagnosis early is essential, because there is a potential curative treatment in the form of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). Because of the unspecific clinical symptoms of CTEPH, the different imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis making. Since the introduction of the multi-detector CT technology, CT has become an important part in the diagnostic work up of pulmonary embolism and CTEPH and is often used as a first-line diagnostic tool. CT is not only a reliable tool for the diagnosis of CTEPH, but also is helpful in estimating the operability of these patients. PTE is still associated with a mortality rate of about 10%. Particularly an insufficient decrease of the pulmonary vascular resistance after PTE leads to a very high mortality rate. Therefore, it is crucial to correlate the degree of the surgical accessible obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature with the degree of pulmonary hypertension in deciding for or against PTE. The aim of this review is to describe the CT findings in patients with CTEPH and their use in differentiating CTEPH from other diseases like acute pulmonary embolism and primary pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, the correlation of different CT imaging features with surgical success after PTE will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. The dilatation of main pulmonary artery and right ventricle observed by enhanced chest computed tomography predict poor outcome in inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryogo; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Kawata, Naoko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kasai, Hajime; Nishimura, Rintaro; Jujo, Takayuki; Shigeta, Ayako; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-09-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle on chest computed tomography images is often observed in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The clinical significance of these image findings has not been defined in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We investigated whether the pulmonary arterial and right ventricle dilatation was associated with poor outcome in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort investigation in 60 subjects with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension diagnosed consecutively between 1997 and 2010 at Chiba University Hospital. Digital scout multi-detector chest computed tomography images were obtained. The main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio and the right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio were calculated. Main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio ranged from 0.85 to 1.84, and right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio ranged from 0.71 to 2.88. During the observation period of 1284.5days (range, 21-4550days), 13 patients required hospitalization due to worsening; 6 of them died. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant differences in hospitalization between the patients with main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio of ≥1.1 and pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Present diagnostic strategies for acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Results of a questionnaire in a retrospective trial conducted by the Respiratory Nuclear Medicine Working Group of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Masami; Inoue, Tomio; Honda, Norinari; Suga, Kazuyoshi; Imai, Teruhiko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to re-evaluate and clarify the diagnostic role of ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy in Japan, now that single-detector-row helical CT and multidetector-row CT are available in clinical practice. The Respiratory Nuclear Medicine Working Group of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine distributed a questionnaire to institutions in Japan equipped with scintillation cameras as of September 2001. Of 1,222 institutions, 239 returned effective answers (19.6%). The most frequent combination for initial diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism was chest radiography, perfusion lung scintigraphy, and contrast-enhanced CT (111 institutions, 46.4%). The questionnaire revealed that the validity and usage of perfusion lung scintigraphy and those of contrast-enhanced CT were equivalent in the present clinical situation. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ventilation lung scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary thromboembolism has not been established in Japan. Even though contrast-enhanced CT is widely used in Japan, perfusion lung scintigraphy is still required to determine disease severity and monitor its progress. (author)

  15. Imaging method in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medaglia Monge, Luis Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism has been a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The same has become the third cause of acute cardiovascular disease after acute myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accident which has produced thousands of deaths per year. Two large multicenter studies have found that although it was reported a mortality rate of up to 50-58% in patients with hemodynamic compromise, even at hemodynamically stable patients the mortality rate varied from 8-15%. Studies of autopsy have shown that up to 10% of the intrahospital deaths are secondary to pulmonary thromboembolism, despite its high incidence have been difficult to diagnose. Within the diagnostic arsenal that has accounted this entity are found: the clinical assessment, laboratory tests such as D dimer, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, venous Doppler U.S. of the lower limbs, pulmonary angiography and computed tomography angiography. Helical computed tomography angiography has offered, in daily clinical practice, the first line study in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, this happens at the end of the decade of the eighties. The computed tomography angiography has offered many advantages with respect to its competitors including availability, cost-benefit, volumetric image acquisition, and with the reconstruction resulting, identification of alternative diagnoses, the ability of valuation of pelvic veins and inferior limbs at the same time and good interobserver concordance. Computed tomography has revolutionized radiology and medicine, it has been noninvasive diagnostic technique of great power that is in continuous development. This technique by its high spatial and temporal resolution to study virtually any organ and has replaced other techniques previously established in the diagnostic algorithms. The benefits of the technique have been clear but is not without limitations. Computed tomography studies should be performed only when they are clinically justified and

  16. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Kemmerich, G.; Herber, S.; Schweden, F.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: 994 vessel segments of 14 consecutive patients with CTEPH were investigated with multislice-CT (slice thickness 3 mm, collimation 2.5 mm, reconstruction intervall 2 mm) and selective pulmonary DSA posterior-anterior, 45 oblique, and lateral projection. Analysis was performed by 2 investigators independently for CT and DSA. Diagnostic criteria were occlusions and non-occlusive changes like webs and bands, irregularities of the vessel wall, diameter reduction and thromboembolic depositions at different levels from central pulmonary arteries to subsegmental arteries. Reference diagnosis was made by synopsis of CT and DSA by consensus. Results: Concerning patency CT and DSA showed concordant findings overall in 88.9%, 92.9% for segmental arteries and 85.4% for subsegmental arteries. Concerning any thromboembolic changes, multislice-CT was significantly inferior to selective DSA (concordance 67.0% overall, 70.4% for segments and 63.6% for subsegments). Non-occlusive changes of the vessels were significantly underdiagnosed by CT (concordance of CT versus DSA: 23.1%). Conclusion: Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are equivalent for diagnosis of vessel occlusions at the level of segmental and subsegmental arteries. However, for visualisation of the non-occlusive thromboembolic changes of the vessel wall selective pulmonary DSA is still superior compared to multislice-CT. Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are complementary tools for diagnosis and treatment planning of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (orig.) [de

  18. A rare nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism after vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Bansal, Ojas; Townley, Theresa A

    2013-10-23

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures and bone loss due to malignancy. The cement used can serve as a potential nidus for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). An 87-year-old woman with recent L2 vertebroplasty presented with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Thoracoabdominal CT scan revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli associated with a 9 cm cement fragment in the inferior vena cava (IVC) extending proximally from the level of the right superior renal vein, likely secondary to cement leak from the vertebral plexus into the IVC. She refused catheter extraction was managed conservatively. There are 51 reported cases of cement pulmonary embolism. IVC foreign bodies serving as a nidus for PTE have been reported with IVC filters with an incidence of 6.2%. This is the second reported case of vertebroplasty cement serving as a nidus for PTE. Treatment depends on time interval between the procedure and the symptom onset.

  19. Management of thromboembolism-in-transit with pulmonary embolism

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    V S Ellensen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare complication of deep venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism that threatened the patient with systemic embolization. A 36-year-old female was referred to the hospital after five days of progressive shortness of breath and chest pain. Preceding onset of symptoms, she had undergone surgery leading to reduced physical activity and had just returned from vacation by a long flight. Investigations with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a thromboembolism-in-transit across a patent foramen ovale. Thoracic CT showed submassive bilateral pulmonary embolism. Hemodynamic parameters were stable. The patient was treated surgically with extraction of the thrombus, closure of the foramen ovale and removal of the bilateral pulmonary emboli. She was discharged after an uneventful hospital stay.

  20. Identification of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gefter, W.B.; Palevsky, H.I.; Dinsmore, B.J.; Reichek, N.; DeRoos, A.; Kressel, H.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (TE-PHT) may be treatable by thromboendarterectomy. To evaluate the role of MR imaging in TE-PHT, the authors imaged eight patients with primary pulmonary hypertension or ASDs and seven patients with TE-PHT. Patients underwent conventional spin-echo (SE) imaging; three of seven patients with TE-PHT and eight of eight without emboli underwent cine MR studies. TE-PHT findings included focal areas of vessel wall thickening or plaquelike lesions in the central pulmonary arteries in six of seven. (Thrombus was not distinguished from flow-related signal in the seventh patient). Studies performed on three patients after thromboendarterectomy showed significant resolution of vascular lesions. Patients without emboli showed dilated central vessels without focal wall or lumen abnormality. Cine studies differentiated flow-related signal from thrombus, but wall thickening was better appreciated on SE images. MR imaging appears useful in identifying patients with TE-PHT who may benefit from surgery

  1. Imaging diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent disease which requires an accurate diagnosis in order to establish an effective treatment considering that anticoagulant therapy may lead to complications. Lung ventilation / perfusion scintigraphy (LS V/Q) has been employed as the imaging meted of choice in patients with suspicion of PE. Pulmonary angiography is considered invasive, hence its utilization is usually reserved for otherwise unresolved cases. Other methods like venous Doppler ultrasound and echocardiography have a complementary role or are not widely indicated. The introduction of spiral CT (SCT), specially with multislice capabilities has made available a fast, relatively economic and efficient method for non-invasive diagnosis of PE. Availability of the technique is increasing and it has been included in some diagnostic algorithms for PE as the initial method of evaluation (and sometimes the only one). However, most research has been performed comparing this state-of-the-art technology with classical radionuclide protocols instead of using updated techniques such as SPECT and ultrafine radio aerosols. Moreover, SCT delivers much higher dose rates to the patient which must be taken into account specially in young individuals. In general, available evidence shows superior sensitivity of LS V/Q with higher specificity of SCT, within a context of similar overall accuracy provided optimized protocols are employed. Interpretation criteria for LS V/Q should be revised in an attempt to minimize indeterminate results, and together with the routine utilization of SPECT and novel ventilation systems should improve the performance of LS V/Q. The choice of the initial diagnostic modality should be guided by a correct determination of pre-test probability, clinical characteristics of the patient potentially influencing the efficacy and safety of the method, availability of the different techniques, relative costs and operator's experience. Such a selective and pragmatic

  2. Epidemiology and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: experience from two expert centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna Bazmpani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare, distinct pulmonary vascular disease, and therefore, there is a lack of data regarding its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management at a national basis. We aimed to describe the demographics and management of patients with CTEPH in Northern Greece. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study by a joint collaboration between two pulmonary hypertension expert centers in Greece, and the study included patients diagnosed with CTEPH. The patient population was divided into two groups depending on their operability. Results: Overall, 27 consecutive patients were included (59% female, mean age 59.3±15.1 years. Dyspnea and fatigue were the most common presenting symptoms. History of pulmonary embolism was present in 82%. Of patients, 18 (67% were assessed as operable, of whom 10 (55% finally underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA. There were no differences in symptoms, WHO functional class, 6-min walking test distance, and hemodynamics between the operable and nonoperable groups. At the end of follow-up, all non-operable and operable patients who did not receive surgical treatment were treated with at least one pulmonary hypertension-specific drug. Conclusion: This is the first report that presents data of patients diagnosed with CTEPH in Greece. The percentage of patients who underwent surgical treatment is lower but approaches the reported rates in large registries. Considering that PEA is a relatively safe and potentially curative surgical procedure, we emphasize the need for establishing a designated PEA center in Greece. Keywords: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary endarterectomy, registry, riociguat

  3. Characterization of proximal pulmonary arterial cells from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients

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    Quarck Rozenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC and endothelial cells (PAEC may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. Methods Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. Results PAEC express CD31 on their surface, von Willebrand factor in Weibel-Palade bodies and take up acetylated LDL. PASMC express various differentiation markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC. In vascular tissue from CTEPH and non-thromboembolic PH patients, expression of α-SMA and desmin is down-regulated compared to lung donors; desmin expression is also down-regulated in vascular tissue from CTEPH compared to non-thromboembolic PH patients. A low proportion of α-SMA positive cells express desmin and SMMHC in the neointima of proximal pulmonary arteries from CTEPH patients. Serum-induced mitogenic activity of PAEC and PASMC, as well as migratory capacity of PASMC, were increased in CTEPH only. Conclusions Modified proliferative and/or migratory responses of PASMC and PAEC in vitro, associated to a proliferative phenotype of PASMC suggest that PASMC and PAEC could contribute to proximal vascular remodeling in CTEPH.

  4. Review of the Association between Splenectomy and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Lucas M; Palevsky, Harold I

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that there may be a link between splenectomy and the later development of pulmonary hypertension, in particular World Health Organization group IV pulmonary hypertension (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an odds ratio as high as 18 for the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after splenectomy in comparison with matched control subjects who have not undergone splenectomy. The mechanisms governing the association between removal of the spleen and the subsequent development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood; however, recent advances in understanding of coagulation homeostasis have shed some light on this association. Splenectomy increases the risk of venous thromboembolic disease, a necessary precursor of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, by generating a prothrombotic state. This prothrombotic state likely results from a reduction in the removal of circulating procoagulant factors from the bloodstream after splenectomy. Although much is to be learned, circulating microparticles have emerged as the most likely mediator for the development of thrombosis after splenectomy. Apparently because of a reduction in reticuloendothelial cell clearance, microparticle levels are elevated in patients after splenectomy. Elevated circulating microparticle levels have been linked to thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension in a dose-dependent fashion. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the link between splenectomy and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We are optimistic that clarification of the exact mechanisms that govern this association will yield clinical guidelines and potential treatments.

  5. CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSIA AT THE YOUNG PATIENT. CLINICAL OBSERVATION

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    N. A. Kosheleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work purpose — to describe a clinical case of formation and a current of a chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertensia (CTEPH at the patient of young age. Materials and methods. The patient P., 26 years, arrived with complaints to the dyspnea arising at rest and amplifying at the minimum exercise stress, edemas of the lower extremities. In the anamnesis — a clottage of subclavial and humeral veins on the right, recurrent PTE. Results. During inspection at the patient an echocardiography signs of a pulmonary hypertensia. According to contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography in dynamics there was a dissolution of thrombs in a lumen of a pulmonary artery. At the patient data for a thrombophilia or a systemic vasculitis aren’t taped. Conclusion. In this clinical case features of a current and maintaining the patient of young age with CTEPH after the postponed PTE are displayed. The young age, idiopathic and recurrent character of a pulmonary embolism were the contributing risk factors of development of CTEPH. 

  6. Thrombo endarterectomy in Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.The first clinical case in Uruguay report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbelo, P.; Caneva, J.; Musetti, A; Torres, V.; Vazquez, H.; Favaloro, R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a delayed diagnosed disease with high morbidity and mortality, especially when untreated. Ventilation/perfusion lung scan confirms the thromboembolic etiology, but pulmonary angiography is still the gold standard diagnostic procedure for defining the extension and location of the disease and surgical indication. Right heart catheterization provides accurate prognostic and disease severity information. Pulmonary endarterectomy represents a potentially curative option in illegible patients

  7. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of pulmonary arteries: a rare mimic of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Belaval, Vinay V; Bhat, Venkatraman; Gorur, Imran M

    2015-04-01

    Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries is a very rare entity. Multimodality imaging reports on this entity are few. Myxoid chondrosarcoma is characterized by chondroid and neurogenic differentiation in extraskeletal locations. These tumours represent fewer than 2.5% of all soft-tissue sarcomas, and are most commonly found in the lower extremities, limb girdles, distal extremities and trunk. We report an unusual case of a 31-year old man with histopathologically proven extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries mimicking acute pulmonary thromboembolism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: New Horizons in the Interventional Management of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D; Zener, Rebecca; Jaberi, Arash; de Perrot, Marc; Granton, John; Moriarty, John M; Tan, Kong T

    2017-09-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an underdiagnosed potential complication of acute or recurrent pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Multiple studies suggest that up to 5% of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolic disease go on to develop CTEPH. The prognosis of untreated CTEPH is poor, but advances in medical and surgical treatments over the past few decades have improved patient outcomes. The gold standard and curative treatment for CTEPH is pulmonary endarterectomy; however, some patients are inoperable and others who have undergone pulmonary endarterectomy experience persistent or recurrent pulmonary hypertension despite medical therapy. In recent years, balloon pulmonary angioplasty has emerged as a primary and adjunctive treatment for these CTEPH patients at expert or specialized centers. This review outlines an approach to balloon pulmonary angioplasty for CTEPH, including clinical presentation and evaluation; patient selection and indications; treatment planning; equipment and technique; overcoming technical challenges; recognition and management of complications; postprocedural care and clinical follow-up; and expected outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: The Role of Medical Therapy and Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Timothy M; Poch, David S; Auger, William R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially curable disease when treated with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). However, even at experienced surgical centers, nearly one-third of patients with CTEPH will be deemed inoperable for reasons including distal disease, comorbidities, or out-of-proportion pulmonary hypertension. It is in these patients with inoperable CTEPH that pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty have potential therapeutic value. Previous unblinded cohort trials have assessed PH-targeted medical therapy in various subpopulations of CTEPH patients using epoprostenol, treprostinil, sildenafil, bosentan, and iloprost, each demonstrating measurable pulmonary hemodynamic effects. However, riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is the first FDA-approved therapy for inoperable CTEPH to demonstrate both an improvement in functional capabilities (6-minute walk time) as well as significant gains in secondary pulmonary hemodynamic end points in a large placebo-controlled trial. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty is an interventional procedure using telescoping catheters placed in the pulmonary arteries, through which wires and balloons are used to mechanically disrupt chronic clot material and relieve pulmonary vascular obstruction. Contemporary case series from multiple centers worldwide have demonstrated pulmonary hemodynamic improvement with this approach. As a result of these advances, patients with inoperable CTEPH who had few options as recently as 5 years ago now have alternatives with emerging evidence of therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in the assessment of severity of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Ma Zhanhong; Guo Xiaojuan; Zhang Hongxia; Yang Yuanhua; WangChen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006–October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received CTPA with a 64-row CT using the retrospective ECG-Gated mode before digital subtraction pulmonary angiography and right-heart catheterization. CTPA findings including Right Ventricular diameter (RVd) and left ventricular diameter (LVd) were measured at the end diastole. CT Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Indexes including Qanadli Index and Mastora Index were used in the assessment of severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary hypertension classification were evaluated by right-heart catheterization in all patients. Right ventricular function was measured with echocardiography in 49 patients. Results: Qanadli Index and Mastora Index respectively were (37.93 ± 14.74)% and (30.92 ± 16.91)%, which showed a significant difference (Z = −5.983, P = 0.000) and a good correlation (r = 0.881, P = 0.000). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with pulmonary hypertension classification (r = −0.009, P = 0.920) or New York Heart Association heart function classification (r = −0.031, P = 0.756). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with any echocardiographic right ventricular parameters (P > 0.05), while RVd/LVd by CTPA correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular functional parameters (P 2 . CTPA findings correlated with hemodynamic variables. Backward linear regression analysis revealed that the RVd/LVd, Right Ventricular Anterior Wall Thickness (RVAWT), Main Pulmonary Artery trunk diameter (MPAd) were shown to be independently associated with mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) levels (model: r 2 = 0.351, P = 0.025; RVd

  11. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism in orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective cohort study of 4127 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common postoperative complication, and orthopaedic procedures are particularly at risk. We designed a retrospective, single centre, observational, cohort study of 4127 patients (mean (SD) age 27 (11) years) who had elective orthognathic operations or distraction

  12. After the Dawn - Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty for Patients With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Aiko; Matsubara, Hiromi

    2018-04-25

    In the past 5 years, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who are deemed inoperable has undergone significant refinement. As a result, the procedure is now used worldwide and has become a promising therapeutic option for those patients. However, pulmonary endarterectomy remains the gold standard treatment for patients with CTEPH because the techniques and strategies for BPA are not yet unified. The best therapeutic option for each patient should be determined based on discussion among a multidisciplinary team of experts. For BPA to become an established treatment for CTEPH, further data are needed. This review summarizes the techniques and strategies of BPA at present and discusses the future development of the procedure.

  13. Calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease: value of multidetector CT in patients with acute chest syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staser, Jonathan A.; Alam, Tariq; Applegate, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)

  14. Fibrinogen plasma concentration is an independent marker of haemodynamic impairment in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigs, Jan K.; Baumann, Hans Jörg; Lüneburg, Nicole; Quast, Gesine; Harbaum, Lars; Heyckendorf, Jan; Sydow, Karsten; Schulte-Hubbert, Bernhard; Halank, Michael; Klose, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen has a crucial role in both inflammation and coagulation, two processes pivotal for the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fibrinogen plasma concentrations a) are elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and b) may serve as a novel biomarker for haemodynamic impairment. In a dual-centre, retrospective analysis including 112 patients with PAH (n = 52), CTEPH (n = 49) and a control cohort of patients with suspected PAH ruled out by right heart catheterisation (n = 11), we found fibrinogen plasma concentrations to be increased in patients with PAH (4.1 ± 1.4 g/l) and CTEPH (4.3 ± 1.2 g/l) compared to control patients (3.4 ± 0.5 g/l, p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0004, respectively). In CTEPH patients but not in PAH patients fibrinogen was associated with haemodynamics (p < 0.036) and functional parameters (p < 0.041). Furthermore, fibrinogen was linked to disease severity (WHO functional class, p = 0.017) and independently predicted haemodynamic impairment specifically in CTEPH (p < 0.016). Therefore, fibrinogen seems to represent an important factor in CTEPH pathophysiology and may have the potential to guide clinical diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24770447

  15. Brain natriuretic peptide as noninvasive marker of the severity of right ventricular dysfunction in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Tulevski, Igor I.; Marcus, J. Tim; Boomsma, Frans; Kloek, Jaap J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who undergo pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). We studied whether plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels can be used to

  16. A new CT-score as index of hemodynamic changes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maria Barbara; Giannotta, Marica; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Cefarelli, Mariano; Martìn Suàrez, Sofia; Gotti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between radiological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We introduced a new CT-score to evaluate hemodynamic changes, only employing CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA). 145 patients affected by CTEPH underwent hemodynamic and CTPA evaluation. Among these 145 patients, 69 underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and performed a CTPA evaluation even after surgery. Hemodynamic assessment considered the values of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), obtained through right heart catheterization (RHC). Radiological evaluation included CTPA signs of pulmonary hypertension. A highly significant statistical correlation was observed between the new CT-score and both mPAP and PVR (p < 0.000) in the whole sample and also in the subgroup who underwent PEA. In addition, mPAP and PVR showed an important association with the severity of mosaic perfusion (p < 0.000). mPAP also correlated with main pulmonary artery diameter (p < 0.01); a significant association was found in both between PVR and tricuspid regurgitation(p < 0.000) and with PVR and presence of unilateral or bilateral pulmonary thromboembolic occlusion (p < 0.05). Our results confirm the diagnostic role of CTPA in evaluating patients with CTEPH and in addition open a new horizon in assessing hemodynamic changes in patients with CTEPH, only employing a CTPA, especially when RHC is contraindicated or not possible.

  17. Distinguishing Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension From Other Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension Using CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Lang, Irene M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern imaging findings that separate chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A total of 143 patients with proven PH (group 1, pulmonary arterial hypertension; group 2, PH due to left heart disease; group 3, PH due to lung disease; group 4, CTEPH; and group 5, PH due to unclear or multifactorial mechanisms) underwent MDCT angiography. The CT images were assessed for the presence of chronic pulmonary embolism (PE), disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and collateral arteries. The frequencies of vascular signs of chronic PE, disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial collateral arteries, and bronchial dilatation were statistically significantly higher in patients with CTEPH than in patients with nonthromboembolic PH. Vascular signs of chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, and bronchial dilatation without bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with CTEPH than in patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 5. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of bronchial collateral arteries between patients with CTEPH and patients in groups 3 and 5. Most patients with CTEPH have direct vascular signs of chronic PE. Secondary signs include disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal densities, collateral bronchial arteries, and bronchial dilatation, which help distinguish CTEPH from other causes of PH.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography and unenhanced proton MR imaging compared with CT pulmonary angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Smitha [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Academic Unit of Radiology, C Floor, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Swift, Andrew J.; Wild, Jim M. [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Capener, David; Telfer, Adam [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Davies, Christine; Hill, Catherine [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles; Kiely, David G. [Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hurdman, Judith [Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and the added benefit of unenhanced proton MR angiography compared with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic disease (CTE). A 2 year retrospective study of 53 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent CTPA and MRI for suspected pulmonary hypertension and a control group of 36 patients with no CT evidence of pulmonary embolism. The MRI was evaluated for CTE and the combined diagnostic accuracy of ce-MRA and unenhanced proton MRA was determined. CE-MRA generated lung perfusion maps were also assessed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CE-MRA in diagnosing proximal and distal CTE were 98% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity improved from 50% to 88% for central vessel disease when CE-MRA images were analysed with unenhanced proton MRA. The CE-MRA identified more stenoses (29/18), post-stenosis dilatation (23/7) and occlusions (37/29) compared with CTPA. The CE-MRA perfusion images showed a sensitivity of 92% for diagnosing CTE. CE-MRA has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CTE. The sensitivity of CE-MRA for visualisation of adherent central and lobar thrombus significantly improves with the addition of unenhanced proton MRA which delineates the vessel wall. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography and unenhanced proton MR imaging compared with CT pulmonary angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, Smitha; Swift, Andrew J.; Wild, Jim M.; Capener, David; Telfer, Adam; Davies, Christine; Hill, Catherine; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles; Kiely, David G.; Hurdman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and the added benefit of unenhanced proton MR angiography compared with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic disease (CTE). A 2 year retrospective study of 53 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent CTPA and MRI for suspected pulmonary hypertension and a control group of 36 patients with no CT evidence of pulmonary embolism. The MRI was evaluated for CTE and the combined diagnostic accuracy of ce-MRA and unenhanced proton MRA was determined. CE-MRA generated lung perfusion maps were also assessed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CE-MRA in diagnosing proximal and distal CTE were 98% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity improved from 50% to 88% for central vessel disease when CE-MRA images were analysed with unenhanced proton MRA. The CE-MRA identified more stenoses (29/18), post-stenosis dilatation (23/7) and occlusions (37/29) compared with CTPA. The CE-MRA perfusion images showed a sensitivity of 92% for diagnosing CTE. CE-MRA has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CTE. The sensitivity of CE-MRA for visualisation of adherent central and lobar thrombus significantly improves with the addition of unenhanced proton MRA which delineates the vessel wall. (orig.)

  20. Angiostatic factors in the pulmonary endarterectomy material from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients cause endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Zabini

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare disease with persistent thrombotic occlusion or stenosis of the large pulmonary arteries resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Surgical removal of the neointimal layer of these vessels together with the non-resolved thrombus consisting of organized collagen-rich fibrotic areas with partly recanalized regions is the treatment of choice (pulmonary endarterectomy, PEA. The present study investigates endothelial cells isolated from such material as well as factors present in the surgical PEA material, which may contribute to impairment of recanalization and thrombus non-resolution. We observed muscularized vessels and non-muscularized vessels in the PEA material. The isolated endothelial cells from the PEA material showed significantly different calcium homeostasis as compared to pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs from normal controls. In the supernatant (ELISA as well as on the tissue level (histochemical staining of the PEA material, platelet factor 4 (PF4, collagen type I and interferon-gamma-inducible 10 kD protein (IP-10 were detected. CXCR3, the receptor for PF4 and IP-10, was particularly elevated in the distal parts of the PEA material as compared to human control lung (RT-PCR. PF4, collagen type I and IP-10 caused significant changes in calcium homeostasis and affected the cell proliferation, migration and vessel formation in hPAECs. The presence of angiostatic factors like PF4, collagen type I and IP-10, as recovered from the surgical PEA material from CTEPH patients, may lead to changes in calcium homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Time course of reversed cardiac remodeling after pulmonary endarterectomy in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iino, Misako; Dymarkowski, Steven; Chaothawee, Lertlak; Bogaert, Jan [UZ Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Delcroix, Marion [UZ Leuven, Department of Pneumology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the time course of reversed remodeling after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension(CTPEH), we studied 22 patients (age: 60 {+-} 13 years) with MRI immediately before, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after PEA. MRI included assessment of biventricular function, aortic and pulmonary artery(PA) flow, and right ventricular (RV) overload using the ratio of RV-to-biventricular diameter. Except in one patient, who died 2 months post-surgery, clinical improvement occurred early after PEA (NYHA class: 3.3 {+-} 0.6 to 1.5 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.0001) with a decrease of systolic pulmonary artery pressures (79 {+-} 14 to 44 {+-} 14 mmHg, p < 0.0001). At 1 month post PEA, RV end-diastolic volumes decreased (198 {+-} 72 to 137 {+-} 59 ml, p < 0.0001), and the RV ejection fraction (EF) improved (31 {+-} 9 to 47 {+-} 10%, p < 0.0001). No further significant improvement in pulmonary pressures or RV function occurred at 3 months or 6 months. Although no significant change was found in LV volumes or function, aortic flow increased early after surgery. PEA had only a beneficial effect on right PA flow. RV overload decreased early after PEA (ratio RV-to-biventricular diameter: before: 0.67 {+-} 0.04, after: 0.54 {+-} 0.06, p < 0.0001), showing a good correlation with the improvement in RVEF (r = 0.7, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, reversed cardiac remodeling occurs early after PEA, to slow down after 1 month. At 6 months, cardiac remodeling is incomplete as witnessed by low-normal RV function and residually elevated PA pressures. (orig.)

  2. Surgical thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Dossche, KM; Morshuis, WJ; Knaepen, PJ; Schepens, MAAM

    The use of circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion is described in a 59-year-old man who underwent thrombendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The postoperative course was uneventful. The described surgical technique may prevent the patient from

  3. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with overt hyperthyroidism A retrospective multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; van Zaane, Bregje; Fliers, Eric; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with several changes in the haemostatic system resulting in a hypercoagulable state. It is uncertain at this stage whether this leads to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VIE). The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the risk of VTE in all

  4. Experimental study of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhai Renyou; Zhang Dongpo; Huang Qiang; Yu Ping; Dai Dingke; Bao Na

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish a canine model of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia- reperfusion injury (PTE IRI) that may be used for imaging study. Methods: Ten male and 10 female healthy mongrel canines with (18.6±0.8) kg/body weight, were used. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein via a preset percutaneous sheath using the Seldinger technique, and then was with further insertion the pulmonary artery. Balloon occlusion of the right inferior lobe pulmonary artery for 4 hours was followed by removing the catheter and ending with 4 hours of reperfusion. CT was performed before ischemia, 4 h after ischemia and 4 h after reperfusion. At last, dogs were killed and the bilateral inferior lung tissues were prepared for the examination by light and electronic microscopy. Results: All canine models were successfully developed pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury. The examination of CT, light and electron microscopy consistently indicated the presence of permeability pulmonary edema after reperfusion. Conclusions: A closed-chest canine model in vivo of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury can be established with virtual pathophysiological process in human and be as well as for imaging experimental study. (authors)

  5. Clinical and haemodynamic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy: Is schistosomiasis hypertension an important confounding factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Terra-Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a disease affecting approximately 4,000 people per year in the United States. The incidence rate in Brazil, however, is unknown. The estimated survival for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without treatment is approximately three years. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for select patients is a potentially curative procedure when correctly applied. In Brazil, the clinical and hemodynamic profiles of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients have yet to be described. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in a referral center for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment in Brazil. METHODS: From December 2006 to November 2009, patients were evaluated and scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The subjects were classified according to gender, age and functional class and were tested for thrombofilia and brain natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: Thirty-five consecutive chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients were evaluated. Two patients tested positive for schistosomiasis, and 31 were enrolled in the study (19 female, 12 male. The majority of patients were categorized in functional classes III and IV. Hemodynamic data showed a mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR of 970.8 ± 494.36 dynas·s·cm-5 and a low cardiac output of 3.378 ± 1.13 L/min. Linear regression revealed a direct relation between cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance. Paradoxical septal movement was strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output (p=0.001. Brain natriuretic peptide serum levels were elevated in 19 of 27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a referral center for pulmonary hypertension in Brazil, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients evaluated for

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: chest radiograph and CT evaluation before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.C.; Kauczor, H.U.; Schild, H.H.; Renner, C.; Kirchhoff, E.; Lang, P.; Iversen, S.; Thelen, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of morphometric data on conventional radiography and CT predicting the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension and to assess the reversibility after surgery. On preoperative X-ray films and CT scans of 50 patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolism, we measured the cardiothoracic ratio, basal diameter, length of cardiac contact to sternum, pulmonary trunk, right and left descending pulmonary artery, and the septum angle. These data were correlated with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 14 X-ray patients and 18 CT patients, with follow-up after surgical thromboendarterectomy the reversibility of these changes was assessed. A dilated pulmonary trunk was the most common abnormality (96% each on X-ray and CT). Pulmonary arteries were dilated on X-ray in 40% (right) and 14% (left), and on CT in 92% (right) and 96% (left). The best correlation with mean arterial pressure was found measuring the pulmonary trunk on CT (r=0.43, p<0.01). After surgery, reversibility was most significant for the pulmonary trunk on CT (p<0.0001). In patients with chronic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension can best be predicted by assessing the diameter of the pulmonary trunk both on X-ray and CT. No close correlation is present between the extent of any parameter and the level of the pulmonary pressure. (orig.)

  7. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Evaluation with 64-detector row CT versus digital substraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, Angela [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: Reichelt.Angela@mh-hannover.de; Hoeper, Marius M. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Galanski, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Keberle, Marc [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruederkrankenhaus St. Josef Paderborn (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of 64-row CT in the diagnostic workup of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) using digital substraction angiography (DSA) as the method of diagnostic reference. CT and DSA studies of 27 patients (54 main, 162 lobar and 540 segmental arteries) with a clinical suspicion of CTEPH were included in this retrospective and blinded analysis. Axial images and multiplanar thin maximum intensity projections (MIPs) (3 mm) were consequently used for exact image interpretation whereas additional reconstructed thick MIPs gave an overview of the entire vascular tree comparable to DSA. Sensitivity and specificity of CT regarding CTEPH-related pathological changes in general were 98.3% and 94.8% at main/lobar level and 94.1% and 92.9% at segmental level, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT regarding the different pathological criteria of CTEPH (complete obstruction, intimal irregularities, bands and webs, indirect signs) were 88.9-100% and 96.1-100% at main/lobar level and 84.3-90.5% and 92-98.7% at segmental level, respectively. Our results show that CT is an accurate and reliable non-invasive alternative to conventional DSA in the diagnostic workup in patients with CTEPH.

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Evaluation with 64-detector row CT versus digital substraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Angela; Hoeper, Marius M.; Galanski, Michael; Keberle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of 64-row CT in the diagnostic workup of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) using digital substraction angiography (DSA) as the method of diagnostic reference. CT and DSA studies of 27 patients (54 main, 162 lobar and 540 segmental arteries) with a clinical suspicion of CTEPH were included in this retrospective and blinded analysis. Axial images and multiplanar thin maximum intensity projections (MIPs) (3 mm) were consequently used for exact image interpretation whereas additional reconstructed thick MIPs gave an overview of the entire vascular tree comparable to DSA. Sensitivity and specificity of CT regarding CTEPH-related pathological changes in general were 98.3% and 94.8% at main/lobar level and 94.1% and 92.9% at segmental level, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT regarding the different pathological criteria of CTEPH (complete obstruction, intimal irregularities, bands and webs, indirect signs) were 88.9-100% and 96.1-100% at main/lobar level and 84.3-90.5% and 92-98.7% at segmental level, respectively. Our results show that CT is an accurate and reliable non-invasive alternative to conventional DSA in the diagnostic workup in patients with CTEPH.

  9. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in young woman with history of caesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitia A. Asbarinsyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is one of subgroups of pulmonary hypertension. This is a serious medical condition that severely under diagnosed. CTEPH is commonly underdiagnosed due to non specific symptoms and lack of diagnostic tools. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis and management of CTEPH. A 36-year-old woman presented with easily fatigue and dyspneu on effort since two years ago. The symptom occured about three months after she gave birth with caesarian section due to preeclampsia. Further history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography were highly suggestive of pulmonary hypertension. No deep vein thrombosis (DVT was found on vascular femoral sonography. It was found after the lung perfusion scintigraphy performed that she actually had CTEPH. This patient was categorized as inoperable because CT pulmonary angiography showed no thrombus. The patient got pulmonary vasodilator and oral anticoagulant for lifelong.

  10. The technique advantages of 16-detector multic-slice spiral CT in evaluating combined pulmonary and deep vein thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shuang; Qi Ji; Lei Xinwei; Wen Lianqing; Li Yiming; Liu Jisheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the scanning technique of 16-detector multic-slice spiral CT(MSCT) for combined pulmonary artery and deep vein of lower limb in pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) patients. Methods: Forty suspected pulmonary thromboembolism patients were performed both pulmonary artery angiography (CTA) and indirect deep vein venography (CTV) on 16-detector MSCT. The parameters of the latter as following: total contrast volume 120-150 ml, injection rate 4.0-4.5 ml/s (from antecubital vein), delay time 4.0 for CTA 20-23 s, CTV 120-180 s, collimation for CTA 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm, CTV 2.5 mm, scan range of CTV: from popliteal vein to the level of bilateral renal vein into the inferior vena cava. Postprocessing include MPR, MIP, and VR. The test was used to analyzed the images. Results: Twenty five patients had both pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep vein thromboembolism (DVT), 8 patients had only DVT, 2 had only PE, and 5 had neither. There was no difference between different collimation in depicting thrombus. The CT value number of enhanced pulmonary artery and lower deep vein was obviously higher than the thrombus. The value of MPR, MIP, VR for PE was 100%, 100%, and 65%, The value of MPR, MIP, VR for DVT is 100%, 60%, and 50%. Conclusion: The technique of combined pulmonary CTA and deep vein CTV of 16-detector MSCT will provide a new modality for pulmonary thromboembolism patients. (author)

  11. Prevention and treatment of the post-thrombotic syndrome and of the chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are late complications of venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recently published studies that have improved our knowledge of PTS and CTEPH. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of PTS and CTEPH is discussed as well as the importance of chronic residual venous thrombosis, some polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and the current concept of misguided thrombus resolution. The surprising finding that elastic compression stockings may not be effective in preventing PTS and the novel medical treatment in CTEPH are discussed in detail. Novel direct oral anticoagulants show potential for prevention of PTS. No firm conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of elastic stockings. Novel treatments of CTEPH for inoperable patients and those with persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery have become available and further research on wider indication for their use is urgently needed.

  12. CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION AND PROBLEMS OF RARE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare life-threatening disease with a prevalence of 2 cases per 100000 population. CTEPH is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by high disability and mortality rates in young and middle-aged people, often with underlying genetic and autoimmune thrombophilic disorders. The need for pathogenetic therapy with orphan drugs that can slow the progression of the disease is supported.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF THROMBOLYTIC TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WTH MASSIVE PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

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    Turan Aktas

    2013-09-01

    In total, whose age change between 27 and 90, who got mPTE diagnosis and received thrombolytic treatment were included in the study. Male vs. female rate was 2/3. Mortality developed in 2 patients, who were included in the study. Intracranial hemorrhage which is one of the major complications occurred in only one patient . Recurrence thromboembolism was not followed in none of the patients after the thrombolytic treatment. In mPTE, early diagnosis and rapid treatment are life saving. With the help of the diagnostic methods developing and becoming widespread lately, diagnosis of the mPTE can be made more rapidly and the treatment can be started without losing time. Moreover, it can be said that thrombolytic treatment is definitely a life saving treatment way in mPTE when it is made with close follow-up. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 166-172

  14. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Takeshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1year after BPA. Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessed by the CAMPHOR Questionnaire Predict Clinical Deterioration in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Colm; Bennett, Maxine; Doughty, Natalie; MacKenzie Ross, Robert; Sharples, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a disease-specific assessment tool used for the evaluation and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We describe a novel use for this questionnaire in its potential to predict clinical deterioration (CD) in two patient cohorts with subtypes of PH, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) during an 8-year period. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CAMPHOR scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up visits in patients under the care of our unit over an 8-year period to assess CD and survival, as well as 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Results: Using Cox regression, we demonstrated a significant predictive effect of CD from total CAMPHOR scores at study enrollment in IPAH and CTEPH (hazard ratios, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01-1.05] and 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06] per unit score increase, respectively), as well as from CAMPHOR subscales as independent predictors. This predictive effect is diluted after adjusting for the prognostic effect of 6MWD and NYHA class. Repeated CAMPHOR assessment over time appears not to add predictive value of CD to that obtained at diagnosis, although it still informs physicians of important changes in self-reported symptoms. Conclusions: When emphasis is placed on the evaluation of patient perceptions, CAMPHOR may represent an alternative method of estimating the likelihood of CD. PMID:23430021

  16. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria, E-mail: mknorst@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guerra, Vinicius Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Pneumologicas; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results: On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. (author)

  17. Outcome after surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: dealing with different patient subsets. A single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierlich, Patrick; Hold, Alina; Ristl, Robin

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the only curative treatment for patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In patients with a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) higher than 1000 dynes s cm -5 , this procedure is linked with an increased perioperative risk. We compare the outcomes of patients with moderate to severe versus extremely elevated PVR. Between 1992 and 2013, 214 patients underwent PEA for CTEPH at our institution. All patient data were entered in a prospective database. We performed a retrospective analysis of our total patient collective and of subgroups defined by: PVR ≤ 800, PVR > 800 heart failure (n = 7) and multiorgan failure (n = 3). Bleeding, stroke, sepsis and pneumonia led to death in 1 patient each. Mortality was significantly higher in the two groups with PVR > 800, but absolute pressure reduction was also higher in these groups. The 1-year survival rate was 91.2%. Despite the increased perioperative risk and mortality, PEA should not be denied to patients with extremely elevated PVR but clear indication for surgery. Keeping increased perioperative risk and mortality in mind, significant pressure reduction and improved functional outcome can be achieved in the majority of these patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise facilitates early recognition of cardiac and vascular remodeling in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Uitterdijk, André; Cai, Zongye; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2018-03-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in 4% of patients after pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by an impaired exercise tolerance, which is ascribed to the increased right ventricular (RV) afterload in combination with a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs. The present study aimed to investigate changes in arterial Po 2 and hemodynamics in response to graded treadmill exercise during development and progression of CTEPH in a novel swine model. Swine were chronically instrumented and received multiple pulmonary embolisms by 1) microsphere infusion (Spheres) over 5 wk, 2) endothelial dysfunction by administration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 7 wk, 3) combined pulmonary embolisms and endothelial dysfunction (L-NAME + Spheres), or 4) served as sham-operated controls (sham). After a 9 wk followup, embolization combined with endothelial dysfunction resulted in CTEPH, as evidenced by mean pulmonary artery pressures of 39.5 ± 5.1 vs. 19.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (Spheres, P swine to result in an exercise-induced increase in cardiac index. In conclusion, embolization in combination with endothelial dysfunction results in CTEPH in swine. Exercise increased RV afterload, exacerbated the V/Q mismatch, and unmasked RV dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we present the first double-hit chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension swine model. We show that embolization as well as endothelial dysfunction is required to induce sustained pulmonary hypertension, which is accompanied by altered exercise hemodynamics and an exacerbated ventilation/perfusion mismatch during exercise.

  19. Clinical Study of Acute Vasoreactivity Testing in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Xia Xu; Yuan-Hua Yang; Jie Geng; Zhen-Guo Zhai; Juan-Ni Gong; Ji-Feng Li; Xiao Tang

    2017-01-01

    Background:The clinical significance of acute vasoreactivity testing (AVT) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains unclear.We analyzed changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation dynamics indices after AVT in patients with CTEPH using patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as controls.Methods:We analyzed retrospectively the results of AVT in 80 patients with PAH and 175 patients with CTEPH registered in the research database ofBeijing Chao-Yang Hospital between October 2005 and August 2014.Demographic variables,cardiopulmonary indicators,and laboratory findings were compared in these two subgroups.A long-term follow-up was conducted in patients with CTEPH.Between-group comparisons were performed using the independent-sample t-test or the rank sum test,within-group comparisons were conducted using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test,and count data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test.Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.Results:The rates of positive response to AVT were similar in the CTEPH (25/175,14.3%) and PAH (9/80,11.3%) groups (P > 0.05).Factors significantly associated a positive response to AVT in the CTEPH group were level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (≤1131.000 ng/L),mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP,≤44.500 mmHg),pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR,≤846.500 dyn·s1·m-5),cardiac output (CO,≥3.475 L/min),and mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PvO2,≥35.150 mmHg).Inhalation of iloprost resulted in similar changes in mean blood pressure,mPAP,PVR,systemic vascular resistance,CO,arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2),mixed venous oxygen saturation,partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2),PvO2,and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) in the PAH and CTEPH groups (all P > 0.05).The survival time in patients with CTEPH with a negative response to AVT was somewhat shorter than that in AVT-responders although the difference was

  20. Pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death in psychiatric patients: Two cases reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolism occurs usually by running a thrombus from the deep veins of the legs rarely periprostatic or periuteric veins. Virchow's triad of necessary conditions for the occurrence of thrombosis involves disruption of blood flow, disruption of blood chemistry and damage to the vessel wall. Venous thrombosis is often associated with the implementation of antipsychotic therapy. Case report. We reported two cases of sudden death of psychiatric patients who were in both cases fixed during hospitalization. The first case was a 26-year-old woman treated a year with the diagnose of postpartum reactive psychosis. She was hospitalized because of mental state worsening with a dominant depressed mood, visual and auditory hallucinations. Her therapy was determined by diazepam, clozapine, haloperidol and lamotrigine. Suddenly, the patient died on the fifth day of hospitalization. The autopsy showed massive thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery branches. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of therapeutic doses of antipsychotics. The second case was a-45-yearold men, a long-time alcoholic. On admission, the diagnosis of delirium tremens was established, and diazepam and haloperidol were administered. On the fifth day of hospitalization, he suddenly died. The autopsy showed thromboembolism of the branch of the pulmonary artery. Toxicological analysis established the presence of nordiazepam in urine (0.06 mg/L. Both patients were fixed during hospitalization. Conclusion. Both presented psychiatric patients were younger than 50 years, were not overweight, did not have changes of the venous blood vessels. Nowadays, when the issue of medical responsibility often arises in these and similar cases of sudden death in patients treated in psychiatric clinics, the questions on medical malpractice could be expected.

  1. The Challenge in Diagnosis and Current Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggoro Budi Hartopo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is currently underdiagnosis and consequently undertreatment in the clinical practice. A deficient in diagnostic modality and treatment availability especially in developing countries makes the CTEPH diagnosis unlikely to confirm. However, high index of clinical suspicion of CTEPH will lead to proper diagnosis and correct treatment  with significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Left untreated, the mean survival time is 6.8 years and the three year mortality rate may be as high as 90 %. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CTEPH are necessary to be shared among internists and primary care physicians, in order to improve the overall outcome of the patients.

  2. A fatal case of post-operative pulmonary thromboembolism with cosmetic liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Koichi; Kikuchi, Yousuke; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Nakajima, Makoto; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has been regarded as rare in Japan. However, PTE has been increasingly recognised because either of increased incidence, diagnostic progress, or social recognition. Recently, 10 Japanese Medical Associations have submitted preventive guidelines for PTE in post-operative patients and the government decided to fund this, as results of the increase in cases and concern regarding medical negligence. A fatal case of PTE after liposuction is reported. A female patient was in the home toilet after two days of immobilization following day-surgery liposuction. Clinicians must be aware of appropriate methods for the prevention of post operative PTE with cosmetic surgery.

  3. Assessment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension by three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography - comparison with selective intraarterial DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Kalden, P.; Pitton, M.B.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.; Laub, G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography (MRA) of the pulmonary arteries with selective intraarterial DSA in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Materials and methods: 20 patients preoperatively underwent a contrast-enhanced 3D-MRA of the pulmonary arteries at 1.5 T using the phased-array body coil. For MRA, we used a 3D-Flash-sequence after bolus timing. 2 radiologists analyzed the acquired image material in consensus with respect to the detection of central thromboembolic material and the visualization of the pulmonary arterial tree. Finally, the MR angiograms were compared with selective DSA images using surgical findings as the definitive standard. Results: MRA demonstrated central thromboembolic material, vessel cut-offs and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering in all patients. Compared to DSA, MRA depicted the pulmonary vessels up to the segmental level in all cases, it was inferior to DSA in delineation of the subsegmental arteries (sensitivity 87%, specificity 100%). The central beginning of the thromboembolic occlusions seen at MRA corresponded to the beginning of the deobliteration procedure during pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in every case. (orig.) [de

  4. Diagnóstico por imagem do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Imaging of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Isabela S. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo é baseado na probabilidade clínica, uso do dímero D (quando disponível e na avaliação por imagem. Os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico são representados por cintilografia ventilação-perfusão, angiografia pulmonar e tomografia computadorizada (TC. Na última década vários estudos têm demonstrado que a TC espiral apresenta elevada sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Uma melhor avaliação das artérias pulmonares tornou-se possível com a recente introdução dos equipamentos de TC espirais com multidetectores. Vários pesquisadores têm sugerido que a angiografia pulmonar por TC espiral deve substituir a cintilografia na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita clinica de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Os autores discutem os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo enfatizando o papel da TC espiral.The diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism is based on the clinical probability, use of D-dimer (when available and imaging. The main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis are ventilation-perfusion (V/Q, scintigraphy, angiography, and computed tomography (CT. In the last decade several studies have demonstrated that spiral CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. The evaluation of the pulmonary arteries has further improved with the recent introduction of multidetector spiral CT scanners. Various investigators have suggested that spiral CT pulmonary angiography should replace scintigraphy in the assessment of patients whose symptoms are suggestive of acute PE. This article discusses the role of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism with emphasis on the role of spiral CT.

  5. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

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    Amitesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases.

  6. Diagnostic evaluation and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: A clinical practice guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay; Helmersen, Doug; Provencher, Steeve; Hirani, Naushad; Rubens, Fraser D; De Perrot, Marc; Blostein, Mark; Boutet, Kim; Chandy, George; Dennie, Carole; Granton, John; Hernandez, Paul; Hirsch, Andrew M; Laframboise, Karen; Levy, Robert D; Lien, Dale; Martel, Simon; Shoemaker, Gerard; Swiston, John; Weinkauf, Justin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism is a common condition. Some patients subsequently develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Many care gaps exist in the diagnosis and management of CTEPH patients including lack of awareness, incomplete diagnostic assessment, and inconsistent use of surgical and medical therapies. METHODS A representative interdisciplinary panel of medical experts undertook a formal clinical practice guideline development process. A total of 20 key clinical issues were defined according to the patient population, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) approach. The panel performed an evidence-based, systematic, literature review, assessed and graded the relevant evidence, and made 26 recommendations. RESULTS Asymptomatic patients postpulmonary embolism should not be screened for CTEPH. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, the possibility of CTEPH should be routinely evaluated with initial ventilation/ perfusion lung scanning, not computed tomography angiography. Pulmonary endarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with surgically accessible CTEPH, and may also be effective in CTEPH patients with disease in more ‘distal’ pulmonary arteries. The anatomical extent of CTEPH for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is best assessed by contrast pulmonary angiography, although positive computed tomography angiography may be acceptable. Novel medications indicated for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension may be effective for selected CTEPH patients. CONCLUSIONS The present guideline requires formal dissemination to relevant target user groups, the development of tools for implementation into routine clinical practice and formal evaluation of the impact of the guideline on the quality of care of CTEPH patients. Moreover, the guideline will be updated periodically to reflect new evidence or clinical approaches. PMID:21165353

  7. 3D-CT angiography with ultrafast CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Imakita, Satoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Takase, Kei; Iino, Misako; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    1995-01-01

    The usefulness of 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) with ultrafast CT (UFCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was evaluated. UFCT was carried out in 10 patients with PTE (acute: 5 cases, chronic: 5 cases) and one case with pulmonary artery thrombosis secondary to pulmonary hypertension with atrial septal defect. CT scanning was performed with Imatron C-100XL and C-150L. For the imaging, single-slice step volume scan mode was used with scan time of 100 msec and slice thickness of 6 mm. Contiguous axial images were obtained after contrast enhancement with slice interval of 6 mm. 3D-CTA was reconstructed from 2D-CT images with workstation, and was compared with pulmonary angiograms (PAG) or operative findings. The images of 3D-CTA had good quality and they were more useful than 2D-CT images in better understanding of the configuration and the extent of the thrombi. In comparison with PAG, 3D-CTA gave equivalent information in terms of central pulmonary emboli. Moreover, 3D-CTA had advantages over PAG in demonstrating both the blood lumen and the thrombus on the same image with capability of multi-directional displays. 3D-CTA with UFCT is the useful non-invasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of PTE. (author)

  8. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. Results We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. Conclusion This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26748498

  9. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S; Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R

    2016-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting.

  10. ANMCO Position Paper: long-term follow-up of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Carlo; Zonzin, Pietro; Enea, Iolanda; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Ageno, Walter; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Azzarito, Michele; Becattini, Cecilia; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Bux, Francesca; Casazza, Franco; Corrieri, Nicoletta; D'Alto, Michele; D'Amato, Nicola; D'Armini, Andrea Maria; De Natale, Maria Grazia; Di Minno, Giovanni; Favretto, Giuseppe; Filippi, Lucia; Grazioli, Valentina; Palareti, Gualtiero; Pesavento, Raffaele; Roncon, Loris; Scelsi, Laura; Tufano, Antonella

    2017-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. The management of the acute phase of VTE has already been described in several guidelines. However, the management of the follow-up (FU) of these patients has been poorly defined. This consensus document, created by the Italian cardiologists, wants to clarify this issue using the currently available evidence in VTE. Clinical and instrumental data acquired during the acute phase of the disease are the cornerstone for planning the FU. Acquired or congenital thrombophilic disorders could be identified in apparently unprovoked VTE during the FU. In other cases, an occult cancer could be discovered after a VTE. The main targets of the post-acute management are to prevent recurrence of VTE and to identify the patients who can develop a chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Knowledge of pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches is fundamental to decide the most appropriate long-term treatment. Moreover, prognostic stratification during the FU should be constantly updated on the basis of the new evidence acquired. Currently, the cornerstone of VTE treatment is represented by both the oral and the parenteral anticoagulation. Novel oral anticoagulants should be an interesting alternative in the long-term treatment.

  11. [ANMCO Position paper: Recommendations for the follow-up of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Carlo; Zonzin, Pietro; Enea, Iolanda; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Ageno, Walter; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Azzarito, Michele; Becattini, Cecilia; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Bux, Francesca; Casazza, Franco; Corrieri, Nicoletta; D'Alto, Michele; D'Amato, Nicola; D'Armini, Andrea Maria; De Natale, Maria Grazia; Di Minno, Giovanni; Favretto, Giuseppe; Filippi, Lucia; Grazioli, Valentina; Palareti, Gualtiero; Pesavento, Raffaele; Roncon, Loris; Scelsi, Laura; Tufano, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. The management of the acute phase of VTE is well described in several papers and guidelines, whereas the management of the follow-up of the patients affected from VTE is less defined. This position paper of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) tries to fill the gap using currently available evidence and the opinion of the experts to suggest the most useful way to manage patients in the chronic phase.The clinical and laboratory tests acquired during the acute phase of the disease drives the decision of the following period. Acquired or congenital thrombophilic factors may be identified to explain an apparently not provoked VTE. In some patients, a not yet clinically evident cancer could be the trigger of VTE and this could lead to a different strategy. The main target of the post-acute management is to prevent relapse of the disease and to identify those patients who could worsen or develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The knowledge of the etiopathogenetic ground is important to address the therapeutic approach, choosing the best antithrombotic strategy and deciding how long therapy should last. During the follow-up period, prognostic stratification should be updated on the basis of new evidences eventually acquired.Treatment of VTE is mainly based on oral or parenteral anticoagulation. Oral direct inhibitors of coagulation represent an interesting new therapy for the acute and extended period of treatment.

  12. Pressure-wire-guided percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty: a breakthrough in catheter-interventional therapy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to prove the safety and effectiveness of pressure-wire-guided percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA). PTPA has been demonstrated to be effective for treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, a major and occasionally fatal complication after PTPA is reperfusion pulmonary edema. To avoid this, we developed the PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index). The pressure wire has been used to detect insufficiency of flow in a vessel. We included 350 consecutive PTPA sessions in 103 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. During these 5 years, 140 PTPA sessions were performed without guidance, 65 with guidance of PEPSI alone, and 145 with both PEPSI and pressure-wire guidance. Each PTPA session was finished after achieving PEPSI scores of PEPSI guidance and each target lesion achieving distal mean pulmonary arterial pressure PEPSI (0% and 6.9%, respectively). Furthermore, the group guided by pressure wire and PEPSI accomplished the same hemodynamic improvements with fewer numbers of target lesions treated and sessions performed. The combined approach using pressure wire and PEPSI produced more efficient clinical results and greatly reduced reperfusion pulmonary edema and vessel complications. This is further evidence that PTPA is an alternative strategy for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Takeshi, E-mail: ogo.takeshi.hp@mail.ncvc.go.jp [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Department of Advanced Mediccal Research for Pulmonary Hypertension, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Tetsuya [Department of Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Sanda, Yoshihiro [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Morita, Yoshiaki [Department of Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Satoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Recent advancement in CT enables distal CTEpH lesions to be visualized. • We investigated the efficacy and safety of BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT. • BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT is effective and safe in patients with CTEpH . • These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. - Abstract: Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. Methods: We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1 year after BPA. Results: Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1 year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. Conclusions: BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment.

  14. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogo, Takeshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advancement in CT enables distal CTEpH lesions to be visualized. • We investigated the efficacy and safety of BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT. • BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT is effective and safe in patients with CTEpH . • These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. - Abstract: Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. Methods: We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1 year after BPA. Results: Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1 year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. Conclusions: BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment.

  15. [Proportion and prevention of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-rong; Zhang, Zhu; Wang, Hong; Xu, Zhen-yang; Qian, Xiao-sen; Zhang, Zuo-qing; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Yang, Yuan-hua

    2013-08-13

    To explore the proportion and prevention status of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in Beijing. Based on a multi-center retrospective study, a total of 636 hospitalized AECOPD patients from 17 class 2/3 hospitals in Beijing were examined from September 1, 2011 to March 31, 2012. They fulfilled one of the following criteria: respiratory failure type II, on invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, hospitalization for pulmonary infection, bedridden duration ≥ 3 days and congestive heart failure. All investigators received standardized training and used a standardized questionnaire to collect data on VTE risk factors, the diagnosis of VTE and the utilization of VTE prophylaxis. According to Caprini score, they were categorized into 3 groups of lower risk (Caprini score ≤ 3), moderate risk (Caprini score 4-6) and high risk ( ≥ 7) to compare the intergroup differences in the VTE proportion and the utilization of VTE prophylaxis. A total of 636 patients were assessed. There were 416 males and 220 females with a mean (SD) age of 74.9 ± 9.3 years. Among them, 133 patients received lower extremity venous ultrasonic examination and 92 were diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) including 2 patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Thus the overall incidence of VTE was 14.5% (92/636) and increased with age (Ptrend = 0.044). The proportion of VTE in asymptomatic patients was higher in those symptomatic ones (21.1% vs 8.0%, P = 0.000). And it was the highest in high risk group, followed by lower risk and moderate risk groups at 17.9% (14/78), 16.0% (26/163) and 13.2% (52/395) respectively, There was no statistical significance (P = 0.450 for group difference, Ptrend = 0.946). Among 544 patients without VTE, only 19.1% (104/544) employed the pharmacologic and/or mechanical methods for preventing VTE. The prevention proportion gradually increased with rising

  16. Defective angiogenesis delays thrombus resolution: a potential pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzenboeck, Adelheid; Winter, Max P; Schubert, Uwe; Voswinckel, Robert; Frey, Maria K; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Alimohammadi, Arman; Hobohm, Lukas; Mangold, Andreas; Bergmeister, Helga; Sibilia, Maria; Wagner, Erwin F; Mayer, Eckhard; Klepetko, Walter; Hoelzenbein, Thomas J; Preissner, Klaus T; Lang, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Restoration of patency is a natural target of vascular remodeling following venous thrombosis that involves vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes. Acute pulmonary emboli usually resolve within six months. However, in some instances, thrombi transform into fibrous vascular obstructions, resulting in occlusion of the deep veins, or in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We proposed that dysregulated thrombus angiogenesis may contribute to thrombus persistence. Approach and Results Mice with an endothelial-cell-specific conditional deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/kinase insert domain protein receptor (VEGF-R2/Kdr) were utilized in a model of stagnant flow venous thrombosis closely resembling human deep vein thrombosis. Biochemical and functional analyses were performed on pulmonary endarterectomy specimens from patients with CTEPH, a human model of non-resolving venous thromboembolism. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr and subsequent ablation of thrombus vascularization delayed thrombus resolution. In accordance with these findings, organized human CTEPH thrombi were largely devoid of vascular structures. Several vessel-specific genes such as KDR, vascular endothelial cadherin and podoplanin were expressed at lower levels in white CTEPH thrombi than in organizing deep vein thrombi and organizing thrombi from aortic aneurysms. In addition, red CTEPH thrombi attenuated the angiogenic response induced by VEGF. Conclusions In the present work, we propose a mechanism of thrombus non-resolution demonstrating that endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr abates thrombus vessel formation, misguiding thrombus resolution. Medical conditions associated with the development of CTEPH may be compromising early thrombus angiogenesis. PMID:24526692

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary artery flow in acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzhong; Li Kuncheng; Zhao Xigang; Zhao Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the value of MR imaging in evaluating the pulmonary artery hemodynamics and pulmonary artery pressure in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: MR studies were performed in 21 patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism (diagnosed by contrast enhanced MR pulmonary angiography) and 20 healthy volunteers. The pulmonary artery hemodynamic parameters, such as the diameters of main and right pulmonary artery, peak velocity, average velocity, flow volume, flow patterns, and ejection acceleration time in main pulmonary artery were measured. The findings in patients and volunteers were compared. The hemodynamic parameters in patients were correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure acquired with right heart catheterization. Results: The diameters of main pulmonary artery (2.93 vs 2.52 cm) and right pulmonary artery (2.49 vs 1.92 cm) in patients and volunteers showed significant differences (t=3.55, P<0.01 and t=4.19, P<0.01, respectively); Peak velocity (85.29 vs 100.63 cm/s), average velocity (11.00 vs 17.12 cm/s), flow volume (89.15 vs 98.96 ml/s), and ejection acceleration time (105.09 vs 163.85 ms) in main pulmonary artery were significantly different between patients and volunteers (t values were 2.89, 6.37, 2.21, and 9.46, respectively; P values were 0.01, <0.01, 0.03, and <0.01, respectively). The peak velocity-time curve of main pulmonary artery acquired with velocity encoded cine of MR in patients demonstrated earlier and lower peak velocity as well as abnormal retrograde flow. In addition, linear correlations were seen between the mean pulmonary pressure and the diameter of main pulmonary artery (r=0.62, P=0.001), diameter of right pulmonary artery (r=0.63, P=0.001), and ejection acceleration time (r=-0.55, P=0.005). Conclusion: MR imaging is a promising technique not only for the detection of pulmonary thromboemboli but also for the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters in pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  18. Venous thromboembolism: Additional diagnostic value and radiation dose of pelvic CT venography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, Miriam; Henzler, Thomas; Krissak, Radko; Apfaltrer, Paul; Huck, Kurt; Buesing, Karen; Sueselbeck, Tim; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Fink, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the additional diagnostic value of indirect CT venography (CTV) of the pelvis and upper thighs performed after pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Materials and methods: In a retrospective analysis, the radiology information system entries between January 2003 and December 2007 were searched for patients who received pulmonary CTA and additional CTV of the pelvis and upper thighs. Of those patients, the radiology reports were reviewed for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the pelvic veins and veins of the upper thighs. In cases with an isolated pelvic thrombosis at CTV (i.e. which only had a thrombosis in the pelvic veins but not in the veins of the upper thigh) ultrasound reports were reviewed for the presence of DVT of the legs. The estimated radiation dose was calculated for pulmonary CTA and for CTV of the pelvis. Results: In the defined period 3670 patients were referred to our institution for exclusion of PE. Of those, 642 patients (353 men, 289 women; mean age, 65 ± 15 years, age range 18-98 years) underwent combined pulmonary CTA and CTV. Among them, PE was found in 227 patients (35.4%). In patients without PE CTV was negative in all cases. In patients with PE, CTV demonstrated pelvic thrombosis in 24 patients (3.7%) and thrombosis of the upper thighs in 43 patients (6.6%). Of those patients 14 (2.1%) had DVT in the pelvis and upper thighs. In 10 patients (1.5%) CTV showed an isolated pelvic thrombosis. Of those patients ultrasound reports were available in 7 patients, which revealed DVT of the leg veins in 5 cases (1%). Thus, the estimated prevalence of isolated pelvic thrombosis detected only by pelvic CTV ranges between 1-5/642 patients (0.1-0.7%). Radiation dose ranges between 4.8 and 9.7 mSv for additional CTV of the pelvis. Conclusion: CTV of the pelvis performed after pulmonary CTA is of neglectable additional diagnostic value for the

  19. Characterization of Hemodynamics in Patients with Idiopathic and Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelle V. Remillard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic and hemodynamic data from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH have not been systematically characterized to identify differences related to gender, age, race, disease severity, and drug response. Our goal was to define the distribution and relation of IPAH and CTEPH based on these criteria. Hemodynamic and demographic data from 242 IPAH patients and 90 CTEPH patients were collected and compared. IPAH incidence was greater in women, but men had a higher basal mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP. mPAP was comparable among all IPAH ethnic groups. IPAH patients with no history of fenfluramine-phentermine use had a higher mPAP than users. Exercise-induced IPAH was apparent in 14.5% of IPAH patients. Only 9% of IPAH patients responded to inhaled nitric oxide with a ≥20% decrease in mPAP. Compared to CTEPH patients, mPAP was greater but average age of diagnosis was lower in IPAH patients. mPAP negatively correlated with age of diagnosis in IPAH patients only. These results indicate that elevated CO is not the main determinant of mPAP in both IPAH and CTEPH patients. However, the two patient groups differ in terms of their demographic and hemodynamic distributions, and according to the correlation between mPAP and other clinical hemodynamics and demographics.

  20. Bilateral Pulmonary Thromboembolism: An Unusual Presentation of Infection with Influenza A (H1N1 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSwine flue is a highly contagious acute respiratory diseasecaused by a subtype of influenza A virus. Herein we presentthree patients with H1N1 infection complicated with pulmonarythromboembolism. The patients had chest pain and unexplaineddyspnea. Imaging studies showed bilateral hilar predominance.Computed tomographic angiography confirmed bilateral thromboembolism(an unusual presentation of H1N1 infection. We didnot find any predisposing factor including endothelial damage,stasis, or hypercoagulable state in these patients. They did notreceive any medication. After anticoagulation and treatment withoseltamivir, all the patients were discharged in good condition.To the best of our knowledge bilateral pulmonary thromboembolismhas not been reported in English language literature inpatients with swine flu infection. Appropriate diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving in this condition.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 149-153.

  1. Exercise physiological responses to drug treatments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Athanasios; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Davies, Rachel J.; Gin-Sing, Wendy; Murphy, Kevin; Sheares, Karen K.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Jenkins, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) that was deemed to be inoperable were more likely to respond to drugs for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by using cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing than those with CTEPH that was deemed to be operable. We analyzed CPX testing data of all patients with CTEPH who were treated with PAH drugs and had undergone CPX testing before and after treatment at a single pulmonary hypertension center between February 2009 and March 2013. Suitability for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) was decided by experts in PEA who were associated with a treatment center. The group with inoperable CTEPH included 16 patients, the operable group included 26 patients. There were no differences in demographics and baseline hemodynamic data between the groups. Unlike patients in the operable group, after drug treatment patients with inoperable CTEPH had a significantly higher peak V̇o2 (P < 0.001), work load (P = 0.002), and oxygen pulse (P < 0.001). In terms of gas exchange, there was an overall net trend toward improved V̇e/V̇co2 in the group with inoperable CTEPH, with an increased PaCO2 (P = 0.01), suggesting reduced hyperventilation. No changes were observed in patients with operable CTEPH. In conclusion, treatment with PAH drug therapy reveals important pathophysiological differences between inoperable and operable CTEPH, with significant pulmonary vascular and cardiac responses in inoperable disease. Drug effects on exercise function observed in inoperable CTEPH cannot be translated to all forms of CTEPH. PMID:27418685

  2. Three cases of pulmonary thromboembolism and extensive prayer (invocation) activity as a new possible risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Minseob; Lim, Sung-Chul; Shin Kim, Youn

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is caused when thrombi are detached from the deep vein of the lower leg. In the field of forensic medicine, it is a well-known cause of sudden death. It has been reported that risk factors for PTE include surgery, trauma, extensive bed rest, and malignant neoplasm, among others; in addition, long-haul air travel is associated with a slightly increased risk for PTE, though such cases are rare. Recently, PTE had been reported in association with different conditions, such as ethrombosis, seated immobility thromboembolism, driving for long periods, and after traveling. The authors performed autopsies on 3 patients who died suddenly after 3 to 4 days of prayer in a prayer center or hermitage. It was confirmed that all deaths were caused by thrombi that had developed in the deep vein, obstructing the pulmonary artery. It was concluded that during repeated praying activities over an extensive time period, the kneeling position might have caused PTE. It is also possible that dehydration due to fasting may affect the formation of thrombi. According to the literature, PTE cases developed in association with prayer activity and position have not been reported to date, and so PTE caused by prayer activity is thought to be a new type of PTE developed in association with a certain life style. Therefore, people should be advised that a position involving a long period of immobilization, including long periods of prayer, could raise the risk of PTE. In addition, social policies to prevent the development of this kind of PTE are needed.

  3. Outcomes after inferior vena cava filter placement in cancer patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism: risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine; Kuk, Deborah; Devlin, Sean; Siegelbaum, Robert H; Durack, Jeremy C; Parameswaran, Rekha; Mantha, Simon; Deng, Kathy; Soff, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in cancer patients and anticoagulation (AC) remains the standard of care for treatment. Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters may also used to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism, either alone or in addition to AC. Although widely used, data are limited on the safety and efficacy of IVC filters in cancer patients. We performed a retrospective review of outcomes after IVC filter insertion in a database of 1270 consecutive patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism (PE) at our institution between 2008 and 2009. Outcomes measured included rate of all recurrent VTE, recurrent PE, and overall survival within 12 months. 317 (25%) of the 1270 patients with PE had IVC filters placed within 30 days of the index PE event or prior to the index PE in the setting of prior DVT. Patients with IVC filters had markedly lower overall survival (7.3 months) than the non-IVC filter patients (13.2 months). Filter patients also had a lower rate of AC use at time of initial PE. There was a trend towards higher recurrent VTE in patients with IVC filters (11.9%) compared to non-filter patients (7.7%), but this was not significant (p = 0.086). The risk of recurrent PE was similar between the IVC filter cohort (3.5%) and non-filter group (3.5%, p = 0.99). Cancer patients receiving IVC filters had a similar risk of recurrent PE, but a trend towards more overall recurrent VTE. The filter patients had poorer overall survival, which may reflect a poorer cancer prognosis, and had greater contraindication to AC; therefore these patients likely had a higher inherent risk for recurrent VTE. A prospective study would be helpful for further clarification on the partial reduction in the recurrent PE risk by IVC filter placement in cancer patients.

  4. A comparison between ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy and multislice spiral CT in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang; Lu Jinguo; Lv Bing; He Jianguo; Liu Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is one of the important causes of pulmonary hypertension with poor prognosis. Several imaging techniques had been used to identify CTEPH. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy and multislice spiral CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and the concordance rate (or 'agreement' as in the original article) between the two techniques. Methods: Forty-nine in-patients with pulmonary hypertension without history of con- genital heart disease, valvular heart disease and acute pulmonary embolism were included in this study. All these patients underwent V/Q scintigraphy as well as CTPA for detecting CTEPH. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pulmonary angiograpy. The results of V/Q scintigraphy and CTPA were compared with the χ 2 test. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of V/Q scintigraphy in diagnosis of CTEPH was 100.0% (17/17), 71.9% (23/32) and 81.6% (40/49), respectively, and those of CTPA was 94.1% (16/17), 81.2% (26/32) and 85.7% (42/49), respectively. The concordance rate was 75.5% (37/49, Kappa=0.513), no statistically significant difference (χ 2 =0.75, P > 0.05 ) was found between V/Q scintigraphy and CTPA. Conclusion: Both V/Q scintigraphy and CTPA are reliable to diagnose CTEPH. (authors)

  5. Perceptions of Received Information, Social Support, and Coping in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension or Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ivarsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a life-limiting diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH need disease-specific information, ability to cope, and functioning social networks. This cohort study investigated the experiences of PAH and CTEPH patients who received information about their diagnosis, treatment, and management, in addition to coping and social support. Sixty-eight adult patients (mean ∓ SD, age 67 ∓ 14; 66% women were included. A total of 54% of the patients wanted more information. Patients received information mostly in areas concerning medical test procedures, the diagnosis, disease severity, possible disease causes, and how to manage their disease. Coping ability was significantly better in patients who were satisfied with the received information (P= 0.0045. The information given to PAH or CTEPH patients and their communication with healthcare professionals can be greatly improved. Gaps in information and misunderstandings can be avoided by working in cooperation with the patients, their relatives, and within the PAH team.

  6. Effect of delay in hospital presentation on clinical and imaging findings in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Yaser; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Fehri, Seyedeh Arezoo; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Jalali, Arash

    2014-04-01

    There is limited information on the extent and clinical importance of the delay in hospital presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The aim of this study was to investigate the delay in hospital presentation of PTE and its association with clinical and imaging findings in PTE. This prospective study was conducted on patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute PTE between September 2007 and September 2011. Relationships between delay in hospital presentation and clinical findings, risk factors, imaging findings, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Of the 195 patients enrolled, 84 (43.1%) patients presented 3 days after the onset of symptoms. Patients with chest pain, history of immobility for more than 3 days, recent surgery, and estrogen use had significantly less delayed presentation. Right ventricular dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with delayed presentation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.44; p = 0.006); however, no relationship was found between delay in presentation and pulmonary computed tomographic angiography or color Doppler sonography findings. Patients with delayed presentation were at higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.12-16.49; p = 0.021). Our study showed that a significant portion of patients with acute PTE had delayed presentation. Also, patients with delayed presentation had worse echocardiographic findings and higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral chylothorax in a patient with chronic central vein thrombosis and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Avdhesh Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chylothorax is not a common presentation, and bilateral chylothorax in patients with chronically high central venous pressure secondary to venous thrombosis is a rare in incidence. We reported a case of bilateral chylothorax in a patient of chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT in central veins with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who presented with 2 weeks history of increased breathlessness, bilateral chest discomfort and weakness. Work-up with chest X-ray and ultrasonography-chest showed gross left sided and mild right sided pleural effusion, thoracocentesis was consistent with chylothorax. Contrast enhanced computed tomography-chest showed multiple collateral formation of left side subclavian vein, venous Doppler showed old DVT in right and left subclavian veins and two-dimensional echocardiogram showed finding of severe pulmonary hypertension. After 24 h of fasting and conservative management, pleural drain became clear and decreased in the amount. Patient′s video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done, and thoracic duct was ligated and cut down at diaphragmatic level and bilateral talc pleurodesis done. Patient improved clinically and radiologically.

  8. Approaches of Physicians for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Questionnaire Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Anar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the approaches of physicians with a questionnaire toward the patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE in our country. Methods: An invitation letter including a questionnaire with 28 questions to assess the approaches they prefer in the patients with PTE and the capabilities of the departments they work at and a link for the questionnaire was directed to the mail groups of chest diseases specialists. Responses of the physicians who participated in the questionnaire were reviewed. Results: The examinations used to diagnose PTE such as D-dimer, troponin, echocardiographic Doppler ultrasonography and multidetector computed tomography (CT have been performed in 94% of the institutions, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, MRI and pulmonary angiography examinations were performed in 50% of the instututions. While D-dimer test was performed in 73.2% of the institutions by quantitative ELISA; in 15.7% of them it was semiquantitative and in 11.6% of the instutitions it was performed by latex agglutination. 81% of physicians were seen to be using clinical probability scoring systems and most commonly used scoring method was seen to be Wells scoring with a rate of 90%. According to the simplified PESI score, 61.5% of the physicians reported to prefer outpatient treatment. In non-massive and submassive pulmonary thromboemboli patients, 86.2% of the physicians reported to prefer thr low molecular weight heparin (LMWH treatment; vitamin K antagonist in maintenance treatment was also the most commonly resorted drug with a percentage of 84.9. Conclusion: The absence of the examinations used in the diagnosis and treatment of PTE in most institutions and difficulty to reach the available examinations at all hours of the day were significant facts. Especially; lack of access to high-sensitivity D-dimer test, bedside echocardiography used to assess right ventricular dysfunction, troponin and NT-proBNP makes us think about low

  9. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome characterised by high pulmonary pressures, low systemic pressures and severe hypoxaemia due to circulation transition failure after birth. Objective. To determine the incidence of and describe the risk factors, infant ...

  10. Reoperação de tromboendarterectomia pulmonar em recidiva de tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo Repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy after recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia de tromboendarterectomia tem se estabelecido como método padrão de tratamento do tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo, com excelentes resultados. Entretanto, a reoperação na recidiva do embolismo pulmonar não tem relato na literatura nacional, permanecendo obscuras a sua segurança e efetividade. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com recorrência de tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo ocorrido cinco anos após a primeira cirurgia de tromboendarterectomia pulmonar, e que necessitou de reoperação para resolução dos sintomas.Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy has been established as the standard method for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, with excellent results. However, repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy due to recurrence of pulmonary embolism has never been reported in the Brazilian literature. Its safety and effectiveness remain obscure. We report the case of a patient presenting recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension five years after the first pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and requiring a second operation for resolution of the symptoms.

  11. Texture analysis of pulmonary parenchymateous changes related to pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs - a novel approach using quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, C B; Kokla, M; Amigo, J M; Rozanski, E A; Wiinberg, B; McEvoy, F J

    2017-07-11

    Diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in dogs relies on computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), but detailed interpretation of CTPA images is demanding for the radiologist and only large vessels may be evaluated. New approaches for better detection of smaller thrombi include dual energy computed tomography (DECT) as well as computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of quantitative texture analysis for detecting dogs with PTE using grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and multivariate statistical classification analyses. CT images from healthy (n = 6) and diseased (n = 29) dogs with and without PTE confirmed on CTPA were segmented so that only tissue with CT numbers between -1024 and -250 Houndsfield Units (HU) was preserved. GLCM analysis and subsequent multivariate classification analyses were performed on texture parameters extracted from these images. Leave-one-dog-out cross validation and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) showed that the models generated from the texture analysis were able to predict healthy dogs with optimal levels of performance. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 96%, while Support Vector Machines (SVM) yielded a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%. The models, however, performed worse in classifying the type of disease in the diseased dog group: In diseased dogs with PTE sensitivities were 30% (PLS-DA) and 38% (SVM), and specificities were 80% (PLS-DA) and 89% (SVM). In diseased dogs without PTE the sensitivities of the models were 59% (PLS-DA) and 79% (SVM) and specificities were 79% (PLS-DA) and 82% (SVM). The results indicate that texture analysis of CTPA images using GLCM is an effective tool for distinguishing healthy from abnormal lung. Furthermore the texture of pulmonary parenchyma in dogs with PTE is altered, when compared to the texture of pulmonary parenchyma

  12. Clinical and echocardiographic findings of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between clinical and echocardiographic findings and risk factors of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 310 hospitalized patients aged >18 years with high clinical suspicion of PTE referred to imaging center of our hospital from different wards for CTPA were enrolled. The frequency of different clinical presentations, risk factors, items of Wells' criteria, and echocardiographic findings was compared in patients with and without PTE, which have been diagnosed according to the CTPA results. Results: PTE was diagnosed in 53 (17.1% of patients with suspected PTE. From clinical manifestations, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and edema of lower extremities were significantly more frequent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Major surgery was the risk factor which was significantly more prevalent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Frequency of all criteria of Wells' criteria, except hemoptysis, was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. The frequency of all studied echocardiographic variables was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that we could use the results of this study for utilizing the diagnostic process of PTE in patients with highly clinical suspicion of PTE and providing more validated decision. Using the results of this study, we could identify high-risk patients and made appropriate risk assessment for better management of patients with suspected PTE as well as reduce the rate of unnecessary CTPA and its related adverse consequences.

  13. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome and pulmonary thromboembolism: an overlooked concomitance

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    Vilma Takayasu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (formerly Churg- Strauss Syndrome (EGPA is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of rhinitis, asthma, peripheral eosinophilia, and vasculitis—the latter being characteristic of the late stage of the disease. After several years from the onset of the disease, small- and medium-sized vessel vasculitis ensues, undertaking various organs and systems. Upper and lower airways, skin, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys are the most commonly involved organs. It is believed that tissue injury is the result of processes mediated by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA, or toxic mediators released by eosinophils. Although it is classified as ANCA-associated vasculitis, these autoantibodies are present in only 40% of cases. The authors report the case of a patient with EGPA, who had a history of asthma, peripheral and central neuropathy, palpable purpura, gastrointestinal micro perforation, peripheral eosinophilia, and the presence of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. Inflammatory parameters improved after the initiation of treatment, but 1 month after hospital discharge the patient developed symptoms compatible with pulmonary embolism and died. Thrombophilia that occurs in EGPA is due to the interaction between the inflammatory response and eosinophilia with the clotting system resulting in a pro-thrombotic state. Although not yet well-determined, the authors call attention to the possibility of the impact of thromboembolic events on the prognosis of patients with EGPA. In addition to the adequate immunosuppressive treatment, prophylaxis and treatment for thrombosis should never be overlooked.

  14. The Unpredictable Effect of Changing Cardiac Output on Hypoxemia after Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    John Y. C. Tsang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the degree of hypoxemia following acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE was highly variable and that its mechanism was mainly due to the creation of many high and low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q units, as a result of the heterogeneous regional blood flow (Q caused by embolic obstruction. We studied the effect of changing cardiac output (Q t on gas exchange after APTE in 5 embolized piglets (23 ± 3 Kg, using Dobutamine intermittently at approximately 20 μg/kg/min for 120 minutes. The distribution of ventilation (V and perfusion (Q at various times was mapped using fluorescent microspheres in 941 ± 60 lung regions. After APTE, increase in Q t by Dobutamine improved venous oxygen tension (PvO 2 but arterial PaO 2 did not change consistently. On the other hand, cluster analysis showed that the V/Q ratio of most lung regions was lowered due to increases in Q at the same time. We concluded that the effect of changing cardiac output on gas exchange following APTE was affected by the simultaneous and varying balance between the changing V/Q mismatch and the concomitantly changing PvO 2 , which might explain the unpredictability of PaO 2 in the clinical setting.

  15. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's Hospital[7] and 48% at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic. Hospital. ... pulmonary pathology, although primary or idiopathic PPHN also occurs. ..... Baquero H, Soliz A, Neira F, Venegas ME, Sola A. Oral sildenafil in Neonates with.

  16. Treatment Effect of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Quantified by Automatic Comparative Imaging in Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiwei; Ota, Hideki; Staring, Marius; Stolk, Jan; Sugimura, Koichiro; Takase, Kei; Stoel, Berend C

    2018-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can have variable outcomes. To gain more insight into this variation, we designed a method for visualizing and quantifying changes in pulmonary perfusion by automatically comparing computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography before and after BPA treatment. We validated these quantifications of perfusion changes against hemodynamic changes measured with right-sided heart catheterization. We studied 14 consecutive CTEPH patients (12 women; age, 70.5 ± 24), who underwent CT pulmonary angiography and right-sided heart catheterization, before and after BPA. Posttreatment images were registered to pretreatment CT scans (using the Elastix toolbox) to obtain corresponding locations. Pulmonary vascular trees and their centerlines were detected using a graph cuts method and a distance transform method, respectively. Areas distal from vessels were defined as pulmonary parenchyma. Subsequently, the density changes within the vascular centerlines and parenchymal areas were calculated and corrected for inspiration level differences. For visualization, the densitometric changes were displayed in color-coded overlays. For quantification, the median and interquartile range of the density changes in the vascular and parenchymal areas (ΔVD and ΔPD) were calculated. The recorded changes in hemodynamic parameters, including changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (ΔsPAP, ΔdPAP, and ΔmPAP, respectively) and vascular resistance (ΔPVR), were used as reference assessments of the treatment effect. Spearman correlation coefficients were employed to investigate the correlations between changes in perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Comparative imaging maps showed distinct patterns in perfusion changes among patients. Within pulmonary vessels, the interquartile range of ΔVD correlated significantly with ΔsPAP (R = -0.58, P = 0.03),

  17. A Behcet’s Disease Patient with Right Ventricular Thrombus, Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms, and Deep Vein Thrombosis Complicating Recurrent Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Selvi Aşker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery aneurysms, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism are rarely seen symptoms of Behcet’s disease. A 20-year-old female patient was admitted for complaints of cough, fever, palpitations, and chest pain. On the dynamic thorax computed tomograms (CT obtained because of significantly enlarged hilar structures seen on chest radiograms, aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary artery segments bilaterally, chronic thrombus with collapse, and consolidation substances compatible with pulmonary embolism involving both lower lobes have been observed. It is learned that, four years ago, the patient had been diagnosed with Behcet’s disease and received colchicine treatment but not regularly. The patient was hospitalized. On the transthoracic echocardiogram, a thrombosis with a dimension of 4.2 × 1.6 cm was recognized in the right ventricle. On abdomen CT, aneurysmal iliac veins and deep vein thrombus on Doppler ultrasonograms were diagnosed. At the controls after three months of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies, some clinical and radiological improvements were recognized. The patient suspended the treatment for a month and the thrombus recurred. We present our case in order to show the effectiveness of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies and rarely seen pulmonary thromboembolism in recurrent Behcet’s disease.

  18. Feasibility of blood conservation strategies in pulmonary endarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Karen; Shargall, Yaron; Ma, Martin; Thenganatt, John; Slinger, Peter; Granton, John T; de Perrot, Marc

    2011-07-01

    Blood transfusion requirements were reviewed for a consecutive series of 25 patients undergoing elective pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) between August 2005 and March 2009 in our institution. Patients were divided into two groups based on the implementation of a conservative blood transfusion algorithm that combined antifibrinolytic therapy, intraoperative blood sequestration, blood salvage and lack of correction of coagulation parameters in the absence of ongoing bleeding. Despite similar perioperative coagulation profiles in the two groups, the introduction of a conservative blood transfusion algorithm was associated with a significant increase in the number of patients receiving no homologous blood products. Of 16 patients who underwent surgery after the introduction of the algorithm, nine (56%) required no homologous blood products and five (31%) required one or two units of homologous red blood cells only. The international normalized ratio normalized within six to 12 hours after discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma or platelets in 13 of the 16 patients. In conclusion, a conservative blood transfusion strategy allows PEA to be safely performed with no or minimal blood product transfusions in a majority of patients despite deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  19. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical condition characterised by severe respiratory failure and hypoxaemia.[1] Its incidence is estimated at around 2 per 1 000 live births worldwide and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality.[2,3] Despite the progress in treating PPHN, it remains a.

  20. Energy efficiency and pulmonary artery flow after balloon pulmonary angioplasty for inoperable, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Analysis by phase-contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: nagao.michinobu@twmu.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamasaki, Yuzo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Abe, Kohtaro; Hosokawa, Kazuya [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi [Department of Molecular Imaging & Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kamitani, Takeshi; Yamanouchi, Torahiko [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Department of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushima, Kenji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to propose a new quantitative method for pulmonary artery (PA) flow energetics using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI), and to investigate how balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) impacts energetics in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: PC-MRI at 3-Teslar and with a flow sensitive gradient echo was used to examine energetics prior to and following BPA for 24 CTEPH patients. Stroke volume (m; ml) and mean velocity (V; mm/s) for the main pulmonary artery (PA), right PA, and left PA were calculated from a time-flow curve derived from PC-MRI. Based on the Bernoulli principle, PA energy was identified as 1/2 mV{sup 2} (μj/kg), and energy loss was defined as the following equation “energy loss = main PA energy − (rt. PA energy + lt. PA energy)”. Results: Right PA energy was significantly greater post-BPA than pre-BPA (61 ± 55 vs. 32 ± 40 μj/kg). There was no difference in main PA and left PA energies. Energy loss was significantly decreased post-BPA (18 ± 97 μj/kg) than pre-BPA (79 ± 125 μj/kg). An optimal cutoff of left PA energy of 45 μj/kg pre-BPA can be used to predict patients with mPAP ≥ 30 mmHg after BPA, with an area under the curve of 0.91, 78% sensitivity, and 92% specificity. Conclusion: Analysis of PA energetics using phase-contrast MRI demonstrates that BPA improves energy loss in CTEPH. In addition, BPA responses can be predicted by PA energy status pre-treatment.

  1. Syncope paradox in the outcome of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism: short-term and midterm outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Seyyed-reza; Jenab, Yaser; Tokaldany, Masoumeh Lotfi; Shirani, Shapoor; Sadeghian, Saeed; Jalali, Arash

    2016-01-01

    We compare the early and midterm outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with and without syncope in our single-center registry. Between December 2006 and May 2013, 351 consecutive patients (mean age = 60.21 ± 16.91 years, 55.3% male) with confirmed acute symptomatic PTE were divided in with and without syncope groups. Groups were compared in terms of the effect of syncope on 30-day mortality and adverse events, and mortality in a median follow-up time of 16.9 months. From 351 patients, 39 (11.1%) had syncope and 312 (88.9%) did not. Syncope group had less frequently chest pain (30.8% vs 51.4%; P value = 0.015). Also, the rates of 30-day adverse events and mortality were 12.8% and 5.1% for the group with syncope, and 14.4% and 10.3% for the group without syncope, respectively, with no significant difference. At follow up, 65 patients died and mortality was 18.5% for 351 patients (5.1% in the group with syncope and 20.2% for the other group). After adjustment for confounding factors, the effect of syncope on 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant and on the midterm mortality was significant, showing that the presence of syncope was associated with lower midterm mortality (P value = 0.038). Among PTE patients in our registry, 11.1% presented with syncope. Relationship between syncope and 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant after adjustments for other factors. However, in midterm follow up, patients with syncope were significantly at decreased risk of mortality compared to those without syncope. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Microarray Analysis and Detection of MicroRNAs Associated with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Ran Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand the importance of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension- (CTEPH- associated microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs differentially expressed in CTEPH samples compared with control samples were identified, and the target genes were predicted. The target genes of the key differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed, and functional enrichment analyses were carried out. Finally, the miRNAs were detected using RT-PCR. Among the downregulated miRNAs, MiR-3148 regulated the most target genes and was significantly enriched in pathways in cancer, glioma, and ErbB signaling pathway. Furthermore, the number of target genes coregulated by miR-3148 and other miRNAs was the most. AR (androgen receptor, a target gene of hsa-miR-3148, was enriched in pathways in cancer. PRKCA (Protein Kinase C Alpha, also a target gene of hsa-miR-3148, was enriched in 15 of 16 KEGG pathways, such as pathways in cancer, glioma, and ErbB signaling pathway. In addition, the RT-PCR results showed that the expression of hsa-miR-3148 in CTEPH samples was significantly lower than that in control samples (P<0.01. MiR-3148 may play an important role in the development of CTEPH. The key mechanisms for this miRNA may be hsa-miR-3148-AR-pathways in cancer or hsa-miR-3148-PRKCA-pathways in cancer/glioma/ErbB signaling pathway.

  3. Plasma vasopressin levels in patients with right-sided heart dysfunction and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem; Banks, Dalia; Manecke, Gerard; Shurter, Jesse; Schilling, Jan M; Patel, Hemal H; Madani, Michael M; Roth, David M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with left-sided heart dysfunction and volume overload often have associated elevations in vasopressin from neuroendocrine activation. The authors investigated perioperative levels of vasopressin in patients with isolated right-sided heart dysfunction from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Prospective, observational study. Single center, tertiary hospital. Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Vasopressin levels were measured in 22 patients during the perioperative period. Vasopressin was undetectable in 8/22 patients at baseline. As a group, vasopressin levels at baseline and after induction of anesthesia were 0.8 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.5, interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and 0.7 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.4, interquartile range of 25% and 75%), respectively. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), vasopressin increased to 13.9 pg/mL (median; 6.7-19.9, interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin remained elevated after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at 10.5 pg/mL (median; 6.5-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and after CPB at 19.9 pg/mL (median; 11.1-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin levels in PTE patients are in the low-to-normal range at baseline and may be a clinically relevant issue in the hemodynamic management of PTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microarray expression profile of circular RNAs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wan, Jun; Leng, Dong; Gong, Juanni; Li, Jifeng; Liang, Yan; Zhai, Zhenguo; Yang, Yuanhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but debilitating and life-threatening complication of acute pulmonary embolism. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), presenting as covalently closed continuous loops, are RNA molecules with covalently joined 3′- and 5′-ends formed by back-splicing events. circRNAs may be significant biological molecules to understand disease mechanisms and to identify biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of circRNAs in CTEPH. Methods: Ten human blood samples (5 each from CTEPH and control groups) were included in the Agilent circRNA chip. The differentially expressed circRNAs were evaluated using t test, with significance set at a P value of < .05. A functional enrichment analysis for differentially expressed circRNAs was performed using DAVID online tools, and a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis for target genes of miRNAs was performed using the R package clusterProfiler. Furthermore, miRNAs that interacted with differentially expressed circRNAs were predicted using the miRanda package. mRNAs that had clear biological functions and were regulated by miRNAs were predicted using miRWalk2.0 and then combined into a circRNA–miRNA–mRNA network. Results: In total, 351 differentially expressed circRNAs (122 upregulated and 229 downregulated) between CTEPH and control groups were obtained; among these circRNAs, hsa_circ_0002062 and hsa_circ_0022342 might be important because they can regulate 761 (e.g., hsa-miR-942–5p) and 453 (e.g., hsa-miR-940) miRNAs, respectively. Target genes (e.g., cyclin-dependent kinase 6) of hsa-miR-942–5p were mainly enriched in cancer-related pathways, whereas target genes (e.g., CRK-Like Proto-Oncogene, Adaptor Protein) of hsa-miR-940 were enriched in the ErbB signaling pathway. Therefore, these pathways are potentially important in CTEPH. Conclusions: Our findings

  5. Analysis of perfusion defects by causes other than acute pulmonary thromboembolism on contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT in consecutive 537 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lim, Chaehun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess causes, incidence and patterns of perfusion defects (PDs) on dual-energy perfusion CT angiography (DECTA) in clinically suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolisms (PTE). Materials and methods: Consecutive 537 patients who underwent DECTA for suspicion of PTE were retrospectively reviewed. After excluding patients with possible PTE or unsatisfactory perfusion map quality, 299 patients with 1697 lobes were included. The DECTA (Somatom Definition, Siemens) was performed at 140 kV and 80 kV. Color-coded perfusion images were obtained with a lung PBV application of the workstation software (Syngo Dual Energy). The presence, incidence, three patterns of PDs (wedge-shaped, heterogeneous, and regionally homogeneous), pulmonary diseases, and the matchedness between the PD and the disease extent were studied. Results: 315 of 1697 lobes (18.6%) in 156 of 299 patients (81.3%) showed PDs. Among them, 51 (3%), 257 (15.1%), and 7 (0.4%) lobes had PDs due to vascular, nonvascular, and unidentifiable causes, respectively. Vascular causes include: pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (0.7%), extrinsic occlusion of PA by fibrosis (0.6%), PA hypoplasia (0.6%), vasculitis (0.5%), cancer mass compressing PA, venous occlusion, AVM, and pulmonary angiosarcoma. Most of PDs were wedge-shaped and well-matched. Nonvascular causes include: mosaic attenuation (4.1%), emphysema (3.2%), interstitial fibrosis (1.6%), bronchitis (1.4%), GGO (1.2%), cellular bronchiolitis (1%), bronchiectasis, airway obstruction, compensaroty lung hyperinflation, air trapping, cor-pulmonale, bronchopneumonia, physiologic decreased ventilation, and segmental bronchial atresia. Most of PDs showed heterogeneous pattern and were not matched. Conclusions: Various vascular and nonvascular diseases cause PDs on DECTA. Each disease shows different pattern of PD depending on pathophysiology and physiologic compensation.

  6. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  7. A retrospective study of 100 cases of feline distal aortic thromboembolism: 1977-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laste, N.J.; Harpster, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The medical records of 100 cats with distal aortic thromboembolism were reviewed. The average age was 7.7 years, with the neutered male being the most common signalment (63%). Evidence of preexisting cardiac disease was noted in 11% of the cases. A murmur or arrhythmia was noted in 57% of the cases on presentation. Frequent laboratory abnormalities included elevations in blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Radiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common (89% and 85%, respectively). The most frequent, underlying disease was hypertrophic feline cardiomyopathy (58%), with the left atrial size (as measured by M-mode) significantly increased in the majority of cases (mean left atrial-to-aortic ratio, 2.08). The average, long-term survival in the 37% of cases which survived the initial thromboembolic episode was 11.5 months. The remaining cases either died (28%) or were euthanized (35%)

  8. Impact of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty on Hemodynamics and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: the Initial Korean Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woochan; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Park, Taek Kyu; Chang, Sung A; Jung, Dong Seop; Cho, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Mok; Kim, Tae Jung; Park, Hye Yoon; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Duk Kyung

    2018-01-22

    The treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, not all patients are eligible for PEA, and some patients experience recurrence of pulmonary hypertension even after PEA. Patients who underwent balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) between December 2015 and April 2017 were enrolled from the Samsung Medical Center CTEPH registry. Enrolled patients underwent right heart catheterization, echocardiography, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at baseline, 4 and 24 weeks after their first BPA session. We compared clinical and hemodynamic parameters at the baseline and last BPA session. Fifty-two BPA sessions were performed in 15 patients, six of whom had a history of PEA. BPA resulted in improvements in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class (2.9 ± 0.8 to 1.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.002), 6MWD (387.0 ± 86.4 to 453.4 ± 64.8 m, P = 0.01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (14.1 ± 3.6 to 15.6 ± 4.3 mm, P = 0.03) and hemodynamics, including a decline in mean pulmonary artery pressure (41.1 ± 13.1 to 32.1 ± 9.5 mmHg, P < 0.001) and in pulmonary vascular resistance (607.4 ± 452.3 to 406.7 ± 265.4 dyne.sec.cm⁻⁵, P = 0.01) but not in cardiac index (2.94 ± 0.79 to 2.96 ± 0.93 L/min/m², P = 0.92). Six cases of complications were recorded, including two cases of reperfusion injury. BPA might be a safe and effective treatment strategy for both inoperable CTEPH patients and patients with residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Sudden Death by Pulmonary Thromboembolism due to a Large Uterine Leiomyoma with a Parasitic Vein to the Mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Podduturi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of venous thrombosis is classically attributed to alterations in one or more components of Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and damage to the vascular endothelium. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT may lead to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE, and the latter is culpable for many deaths annually in the United States; however, DVT as a complication of uterine leiomyoma has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman whose death was due to a large pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma externally compressing the pelvic veins resulting in stasis and venous thrombosis leading to fatal PE. The association of large pelvic masses with venous thrombosis has clinical implications, since prophylactic surgery could be life-saving.

  10. Sex-specific cardiopulmonary exercise testing indices to estimate the severity of inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TX

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tian-Xiang Chen,1 Bigyan Pudasaini,1 Jian Guo,2 Su-Gang Gong,1 Rong Jiang,1 Lan Wang,1 Qin-Hua Zhao,1 Wen-Hui Wu,1 Ping Yuan,1 Jin-Ming Liu1 1Department of Cardio-Pulmonary Circulation, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Function Test, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Sex differences in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH have been revealed in few studies. Although right heart catheterization (RHC is the gold standard for clinical diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in pulmonary hypertension (PH, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET has been a more widely used assessment of functional capacity, disease severity, prognosis, and treatment response in PH. We hypothesized that the “sex-specific” CPET indices could estimate the severity of inoperable CTEPH.Methods: Data were retrieved for 33 male (age, mean ± standard deviation [SD] =62.5±13.4 years and 40 female (age, mean ± SD =56.3±11.8 years patients with stable CTEPH who underwent both RHC and CPET at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from February 2010 to February 2016. Univariate and forward/backward multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to assess the predictive value of CPET indices to hemodynamic parameters. Event-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to determine the independent event-free survival predictors.Results: Numerous CPET parameters were different between male and female patients with CTEPH and the control group. There were no significant differences in both clinical variables and RHC parameters between male and female patients with CTEPH. O2 pulse, workload, minute ventilation (VE, and end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PETO2 at anaerobic threshold, as well as peak O2 pulse, workload, VE, and nadir

  11. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  12. Left ventricular strain and strain rate by 2D speckle tracking in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltman Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV strain and strain rate (SR by 2D speckle tracking may be useful tools to assess chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH severity as well as response to successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE. Methods We evaluated 30 patients with CTEPH before and after PTE using 2D speckle tracking measurements of LV radial and circumferential strain and SR in the short axis, and correlated the data with right heart catheterization (RHC. Results PTE resulted in a decrease in mean PA pressure (44 ± 15 to 29 ± 9 mmHg, decrease in PVR (950 ± 550 to 31 ± 160 [dyne-sec]/cm5, and an increase in cardiac output (3.9 ± 1.0 to 5.0 ± 1.0 L/min, p change in circumferential strain and change in posterior wall radial strain correlated moderately well with changes in PVR, mean PA pressure and cardiac output (r = 0.69, 0.76, and 0.51 for circumferential strain [p Conclusions LV circumferential and posterior wall radial strain change after relief of pulmonary arterial obstruction in patients with CTEPH, and these improvements occur rapidly. These changes in LV strain may reflect effects from improved LV diastolic filling, and may be useful non-invasive markers of successful PTE.

  13. Dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic accuracy and concordance with radionuclide scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournes, Gael; Verdier, Damien; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, Francois; Lederlin, Mathieu [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France); University Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Bullier, Eric; Riviere, Annalisa [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pessac (France); Dromer, Claire [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Pessac (France); Picard, Francois [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiology, Pessac (France); Billes, Marc-Alain [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Pessac (France); Corneloup, Olivier [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) perfusion and angiography versus ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and to assess the per-segment concordance rate of DECT and scintigraphy. Forty consecutive patients with proven pulmonary hypertension underwent V/Q scintigraphy and DECT perfusion and angiography. Each imaging technique was assessed for the location of segmental defects. Diagnosis of CTEPH was established when at least one segmental perfusion defect was detected by scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion and angiography was assessed and compared with scintigraphy. In CTEPH patients, the per-segment concordance between scintigraphy and DECT perfusion/angiography was calculated. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with CTEPH and 26 with other aetiologies. DECT perfusion and angiography correctly identified all CTEPH patients with sensitivity/specificity values of 1/0.92 and 1/0.93, respectively. At a segmental level, DECT perfusion showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) with scintigraphy. Agreement between CT angiography and scintigraphy ranged from fair (κ = 0.31) to slight (κ = 0.09) depending on whether completely or partially occlusive patterns were considered, respectively. Both DECT perfusion and angiography show satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CTEPH. DECT perfusion is more accurate than angiography at identifying the segmental location of abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. Transition of Intravenous Treprostinil to Oral Therapy in a Patient with Functional Class IV Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kristina M; Williams, Breann M; Bates, Ruth E; Frantz, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when pulmonary emboli fail to resolve with anticoagulation. For patients with inoperable or residual CTEPH, riociguat is currently the only therapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. However, some patients with CTEPH may require therapy beyond riociguat, such as intravenous prostacyclins, which can present significant administration challenges in patients with complex comorbid conditions. We describe a 42-year-old man with T12 paraplegia complicated by CTEPH (functional class IV with substantial right ventricular dysfunction) and severe pressure ulcers. In order to facilitate goals of care (hospital discharge to a skilled nursing facility where parenteral prostanoids could not be administered), he underwent rapid transition from intravenous treprostinil to oral selexipag in the form of a cross-taper over 6 days. The patient required readmission due to worsening symptoms and was transitioned back to intravenous treprostinil; he tolerated conversion to oral treprostinil for approximately 4 months, but it was subsequently discontinued due to nausea and modified goals of care. The patient underwent transition to hospice care 3 months later and eventually died from clinical deterioration. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe transition from intravenous treprostinil to selexipag as well as conversion from parenteral treprostinil to oral treprostinil in a patient with CTEPH and illustrates the approaches to and potential issues with prostanoid transitions. Additional observations are necessary to better understand the relative roles of selexipag and oral treprostinil regarding comparative efficacy and tolerability. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. An epidemiological analysis of the burden of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in the USA, Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Gall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH are limited and there are conflicting reports regarding its pathogenesis. A literature review was conducted to identify CTEPH epidemiological data up to June 2014. Data were analysed to provide estimates of the incidence of CTEPH in the USA, Europe and Japan. An epidemiological projection model derived country-specific estimates of future incidence and diagnosis rates of CTEPH. Overall, 25 publications and 14 databases provided quantitative epidemiological data. In the USA and Europe, the crude annual incidence of diagnosed pulmonary embolism and crude annual full (i.e. diagnosed and undiagnosed incidence of CTEPH were 66–104 and 3–5 cases per 100 000 population, respectively, while in Japan these rates were lower at 6.7 and 1.9 per 100 000 population, respectively. In 2013, 7–29% of CTEPH cases in Europe and the USA were diagnosed, and the majority of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III/IV at diagnosis. The projection model indicated that incidence of CTEPH will continue to increase over the next decade. These data suggest that CTEPH is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and there is an urgent need to increase awareness of CTEPH. High-quality epidemiological studies are required to increase understanding of CTEPH.

  16. Dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic accuracy and concordance with radionuclide scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dournes, Gael; Verdier, Damien; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, Francois; Lederlin, Mathieu; Bullier, Eric; Riviere, Annalisa; Dromer, Claire; Picard, Francois; Billes, Marc-Alain; Corneloup, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) perfusion and angiography versus ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and to assess the per-segment concordance rate of DECT and scintigraphy. Forty consecutive patients with proven pulmonary hypertension underwent V/Q scintigraphy and DECT perfusion and angiography. Each imaging technique was assessed for the location of segmental defects. Diagnosis of CTEPH was established when at least one segmental perfusion defect was detected by scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion and angiography was assessed and compared with scintigraphy. In CTEPH patients, the per-segment concordance between scintigraphy and DECT perfusion/angiography was calculated. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with CTEPH and 26 with other aetiologies. DECT perfusion and angiography correctly identified all CTEPH patients with sensitivity/specificity values of 1/0.92 and 1/0.93, respectively. At a segmental level, DECT perfusion showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) with scintigraphy. Agreement between CT angiography and scintigraphy ranged from fair (κ = 0.31) to slight (κ = 0.09) depending on whether completely or partially occlusive patterns were considered, respectively. Both DECT perfusion and angiography show satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CTEPH. DECT perfusion is more accurate than angiography at identifying the segmental location of abnormalities. (orig.)

  17. [A case report of right-sided cardiac and pulmonary thromboembolism treated by emergent operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, M; Sasaki, M; Masumoto, H; Kajiyama, M; Seki, A

    1996-05-01

    A forty-four-year-old man with a clinical diagnosis of diabetes melitus and severe obesity (height 170 cm, weight 108 kg) was admitted to the hospital on 12th January 1995 because of acute myocardial infarction, and on 21st January, he was referred to our hospital with sudden onset of shock, bradycardia, loss of consciousness in spite of having recovered well from myocardial infarction. The echocardiography and pulmonary arteriography revealed a pulmonary embolism and a tumor in the right atrium. Administration of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) was not sufficiently effective. An emergency operation (pulmonary arteriotomy, right atriotomy, milking of bilateral lungs) with cardiopulmonary bypass revealed a massive consecutive thrombus, which occupied the right atrium, right ventricle and bilateral pulmonary artery. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  18. Prevalence of venous thrombo-embolism in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kamel

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: VTE appeared to be a common problem in COPD patients with exacerbations. The role of CTPA is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. DVT of lower limbs was not essential in all cases of proven pulmonary embolism. Serum D-dimer, Wells criteria and Geneva score are useful bedside criteria that may help to assess the occurrence of VTE in such patients.

  19. Comparison of C-arm Computed Tomography and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B., E-mail: hinrichs.jan@mh-hannover.de; Marquardt, Steffen, E-mail: marquardt.steffen@mh-hannover.de; Falck, Christian von, E-mail: falck.christian.von@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Hoeper, Marius M., E-mail: hoeper.marius@mh-hannover.de; Olsson, Karen M., E-mail: olsson.karen@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pneumology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Wacker, Frank K., E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de; Meyer, Bernhard C., E-mail: meyer.bernhard@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility and diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced, C-arm computed tomography (CACT) of the pulmonary arteries compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).MaterialsFifty-two patients with CTEPH underwent ECG-gated DSA and contrast-enhanced CACT. Two readers (R1, R2) independently evaluated pulmonary artery segments and their sub-segmental branching using DSA and CACT for optimal image quality. Afterwards, the diagnostic findings, i.e., intraluminal filling defects, stenosis, and occlusion, were compared. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement was calculated, and subsequently consensus reading was done and correlated to a reference standard representing the overall consensus of both modalities. Fisher’s exact test and Cohen’s Kappa were applied.ResultsA total of 1352 pulmonary segments were evaluated, of which 1255 (92.8 %) on DSA and 1256 (92.9 %) on CACT were rated to be fully diagnostic. The main causes of the non-diagnostic image quality were motion artifacts on CACT (R1:37, R2:78) and insufficient contrast enhancement on DSA (R1:59, R2:38). Inter-observer agreement was good for DSA (κ = 0.74) and CACT (κ = 0.75), while inter-modality agreement was moderate (R1: κ = 0.46, R2: κ = 0.47). Compared to the reference standard, the inter-modality agreement for CACT was excellent (κ = 0.96), whereas it was inferior for DSA (κ = 0.61) due to the higher number of abnormal consensus findings read as normal on DSA.ConclusionCACT of the pulmonary arteries is feasible and provides additional information to DSA. CACT has the potential to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with CTEPH and may be particularly useful prior to surgical or interventional treatment.

  20. Relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: assessment with breath-hold SPECT-CT pulmonary angiography fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-09-01

    The relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was comprehensively assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion SPECT-computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) fusion images. Subjects were 34 acute PTE patients, who had successfully performed DIBrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT and a respiratory tracking system. Automated DIBrH SPECT-CTPA fusion images were used to assess the relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots detected by CTPA. DIBrH SPECT visualized 175 lobar/segmental or subsegmental defects in 34 patients, and CTPA visualized 61 intravascular clots at variable locations in 30 (88%) patients, but no clots in four (12%) patients. In 30 patients with clots, the fusion images confirmed that 69 (41%) perfusion defects (20 segmental, 45 subsegmental and 4 lobar defects) of total 166 defects were located in lung territories without clots, although the remaining 97 (58%) defects were located in lung territories with clots. Perfusion defect was absent in lung territories with clots (one lobar branch and three segmental branches) in four (12%) of these patients. In four patients without clots, nine perfusion defects including four segmental ones were present. Because of unexpected dissociation between intravascular clots and lung perfusion defects, the present fusion images will be a useful adjunct to CTPA in the diagnosis of acute PTE.

  1. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1 thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2 Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3 ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of

  2. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  3. Identification of high-risk patients and outcome in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surie, S.

    2016-01-01

    CTEPH is life threatening, but by means of PEA potentially a curable form of pulmonary hypertension. We studied whether the current detection strategies are sufficient to recognize CTEPH patients, or should a more extensive systematic search be adopted. We concluded that current detection strategies

  4. Usefulness of scoring right ventricular function for assessment of prognostic factors in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Naoki; Adachi, Shiro; Shimokata, Shigetake; Tajima, Fumitaka; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kondo, Takahisa

    2018-04-27

    Right ventricular (RV) function is associated with prognosis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study aimed to establish an RV dysfunction score using RV echocardiographic parameters to clarify the clinical characteristics in patients with CTEPH and to compare RV dysfunction score with parameters such as World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and plasma BNP level. We enrolled 35 inpatients with CTEPH (mean age, 62 ± 15 years, 15 males). We constructed 'an RV dysfunction score' calculated as the summation of each point awarded for the presence of four parameters: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)  0.4, 1 point. TAPSE, S', RVFAC, and RV-MPI was 18.7 ± 4.8 mm, 11.9 ± 3.1 cm/s, 33.5 ± 13.9%, and 0.39 ± 0.2, respectively. The RV dysfunction score was associated with symptom [WHO functional class (p = 0.026)], hemodynamics [mean PAP (p = 0.01), cardiac index (p = 0.009), pulmonary vascular resistance (p = 0.001), and SvO 2 (p = 0.039)], exercise capacity [6-min walk distance (p = 0.046), peakVO 2 (p = 0.016), and VE/VCO 2 slope (p = 0.031)], and plasma BNP level (p = 0.005). This RV dysfunction score using the four RV echocardiographic parameters could be a simple and useful scoring system to evaluate prognostic factors in patients with CTEPH.

  5. Are inferior vena cava filters effective for prophylaxis of critical pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer and coexisting venous thromboembolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Juno; Nagayoshi, Mikiko; Onozuka, Atsuko

    2008-01-01

    Cancer sometimes causes venous thromboembolisms (VTE) including pulmonary embolisms (PE), which impedes aggressive treatment such as chemotherapy. From January 2003 to March 2007, there were 120 hospitalized patients with existing VTE in The University of Tokyo Hospital. Among them we reviewed 39 patients with cancer who required aggressive chemoradiotherapy and examined whether inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration was necessary in addition to ordinary anticoagulant therapy. The clinical stage of cancer was stage I in 7, stage II in 4, stage III in 11, and stage IV in 17. Most were advanced cancer. Of the 39, 9 underwent an IVC filter placement (filter group) and 30 did not (no-filter group). All of them received regular anticoagulant therapy. In the long-term follow up averaging 16.9 months, one patient of the filter group required discontinuation of chemotherapy due to symptomatic PE, but there was no such a case in the no-filter group. Filter-related complications such as IVC occlusion or migration did not occur. Computed tomography showed VTE in the long-term course in 27 out of 39 patients, and suggested increased thrombi in cases of recurrent cancer and those with poor outcome. Seventeen died of cancer but no one died of PE during the study. This study showed that IVC filters offered no beneficial effect for the patients with existing VTE who receive aggressive chemotherapy. (author)

  6. Texture analysis of pulmonary parenchymateous changes related to pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs - a novel approach using quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschner, Clara Büchner; Kokla, Marietta; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2017-01-01

    include dual energy computed tomography (DECT) as well as computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of quantitative texture analysis for detecting dogs with PTE using grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and multivariate statistical...... classification analyses. CT images from healthy (n = 6) and diseased (n = 29) dogs with and without PTE confirmed on CTPA were segmented so that only tissue with CT numbers between −1024 and −250 Houndsfield Units (HU) was preserved. GLCM analysis and subsequent multivariate classification analyses were...... using GLCM is an effective tool for distinguishing healthy from abnormal lung. Furthermore the texture of pulmonary parenchyma in dogs with PTE is altered, when compared to the texture of pulmonary parenchyma of healthy dogs. The models’ poorer performance in classifying dogs within the diseased group...

  7. Automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters using model-based blood vessel segmentation for predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in low-dose CT lung screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by residual organized thrombi. A morphological abnormality inside mediastinum of CTEPH patient is enlargement of pulmonary artery. This paper presents an automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT lung screening. The distinctive feature of our method is to segment aorta and main pulmonary artery using both of prior probability and vascular direction which were estimated from mediastinal vascular region using principal curvatures of four-dimensional hyper surface. The method was applied to two datasets, 64 lowdose CT scans of lung cancer screening and 19 normal-dose CT scans of CTEPH patients through the training phase with 121 low-dose CT scans. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT screening.

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Potential role of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) and MR imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, G.; Brueggemann, K.; Bostel, T.; Dueber, C.; Kreitner, K.F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Mayer, E. [Kerckhoff Hospital, Bad Nauheim (Germany). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

    2014-08-15

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension (resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or more determined at right heart catheterization) with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed disease with estimated incidences ranging from 0.5% to 3.8% of patients after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and in up to 10% of those with a history of recurrent PE. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that can be surgically treated leading to normalization of pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in the vast majority of patients. The challenges for imaging in patients with suspected CTEPH are fourfold: the imaging modality should have a high diagnostic accuracy with regard to the presence of CTEPH and allow for differential diagnosis. It should enable detection of patients suitable for PEA with great certainty, and allow for quantification of PH by measuring pulmonary hemodynamics (mPAP and PVR), and finally, it can be used for therapy monitoring. This overview tries to elucidate the potential role of ECG-gated multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (MD-CTPA) and MR imaging, and summarizes the most important results that have been achieved so far. Generally speaking, ECG-gated MD-CTPA is superior to MR in the assessment of parenchymal and vascular pathologies of the lung, and allows for the assessment of cardiac structures. The implementation of iodine maps as a surrogate for lung perfusion enables functional assessment of lung perfusion by CT. MR imaging is the reference standard for the assessment of right heart function and lung perfusion, the latter delineating typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects in patients with CTEPH. New developments show that with MR techniques, an estimation of hemodynamic parameters like mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance will be possible. CT and MR imaging should be considered as complementary

  9. Medical image of the week: pulmonary thromboembolism complicated by free floating atrial thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanHook CJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. An 82-year-old female presented to the emergency department four days after suffering a fall at home. She complained of left hip pain, weakness and shortness of breath. Physical exam demonstrated a blood pressure of 82/60 mm Hg, pulse of 120 bpm, and room air oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry of 81%. Exam was otherwise remarkable for pain on movement of the left hip. Laboratory exam was remarkable for troponin of 2.5 ng/ml and pro-beta natriuretic peptide of 31,350 pg/ml. Chest radiograph demonstrated elevation of the right hemidiaphragm. EKG demonstrated sinus tachycardia with a rightward axis and an interventricular conduction defect. Left hip film disclosed a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. CAT-angiography of the chest revealed pulmonary emboli involving all five lobes with significant bilateral proximal pulmonary arterial filling defects (Figures 1,2. Venous Doppler examination demonstrated left lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Trans-thoracic echocardiogram demonstrated right ventricular enlargement and a large

  10. Predicting pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Courtney; Doroshenko, Alexander; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Barrie, James; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Long, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) can be predicted from features of a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations in immigrants. A retrospective cohort of 391 foreign-born adults referred to the Edmonton Tuberculosis Clinic (Edmonton, AB, Canada) was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis to predict PTB. Seven characteristics of disease were used as explanatory variables. Cross-validation assessed performance. Each predictor was tested on two outcomes: "culture-positive" and "smear-positive". Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was quantified. Symptoms, subacute duration of symptoms, risk factors for reactivation of latent TB infection and anaemia were all associated with a positive culture (adjusted OR 1.79, 2.24, 1.72 and 2.28, respectively; p<0.05). Symptoms, inappropriate prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and a "typical" chest radiograph were associated with smear-positive PTB (adjusted OR 2.91, 1.55 and 12.34, respectively; p<0.05). ROC curve analysis was used to test e ach model, yielding AUC=0.91 for the outcome "culture-positive" disease and AUC=0.94 for the outcome "smear-positive" disease. PTB among the foreign-born can be predicted from a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations, raising the threshold of suspicion in settings where the disease is relatively rare.

  11. Profile of the elderly patient with the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism admitted to the Hospital Nacional de Geriatria y Gerontologia during the period of 2008-2012: relationship with functional status, comorbidities and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Jimenez, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The profile of the elderly with the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism admitted to the Hospital Nacional de Geriatria y Gerontologia during 2008-2012, was described through a retrospective and descriptive study. 44 cases were analyzed, in which a greater frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) was documented in females and a higher incidence as age increased. The most frequent concomitant chronic pathologies in patients hospitalized with PE were cardiovascular conditions. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in elderly patients with PE and the findings in cabinet studies were nonspecific, due to the multiple underlying medical conditions. Low molecular weight heparins were preferred for the management of PE and it could be concluded that the probability of dying differs significantly according to the treatment, being lower in the group that received the heparins. A worse functional state was related to a higher frequency of PE cases and mortality for these, although the relationship was not significant. The associated lethality was PE, since a large percentage of the patients with the diagnosis presented hemodynamic collapse during the course of the picture. (author) [es

  12. [Risk factors of venous thromboembolism recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in medical inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C L; Zhou, H X; Tang, Y J; Wang, L; Yi, Q; Liang, Z A

    2016-04-12

    To explore the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) in medical inpatients. A total of 149 consecutive patients with first diagnosed VTE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2011 and December 2012 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. The VTE recurrence rate was calculated and univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with VTE recurrence. All the patients were evaluated by sPESI, and survival analysis was used to explore its value in predicting VTE recurrence in these medical patients. Out of the included 149 patients, 23(15.4%) patients had VTE recurrence during the 2 years' follow-up and median recurrence time was 167 days. The univariate analysis showed bed rest, severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, smoking, diabetes, and malignant neoplasm might be associated with VTE recurrence (P=0.043, 0.006, 0.009, 0.032, 0.098, 0.048, 0.021). Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and malignant neoplasm were the independent risk factors (HR=3.45, 5.67, 3.60; P=0.020, 0.020, 0.047); while for inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, the P value was marginal (HR=3.94, 95% CI: 0.99-15.63, P=0.051). The median sPESI scores of the patients with VTE recurrence was higher than that of the patients without VTE recurrence[1(1, 2) vs 0(0, 1), P=0.001], and patients with sPESI≥1 were associated with 5.57-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared with patients with sPESI=0 (95%CI: 1.79-17.30, P=0.001). Survival analysis also showed that the 2-year cumulative VTE recurrence rate of patients with sPESI≥1 was significant higher than that of patients with sPESI=0 (38.4% vs 5.7%, P=0.001). The medical VTE patients have high VTE recurrence risk

  13. Combined CT Angiography and CT Venography in Thromboembolic disease: clinical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzas, R.; Migueles, Y.; Gomez, S.; Mallo, R.; Garcia-Tejedor, J. L.; Diaz Vega, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Combined CT Venography and Pulmonary Angiography was described in 1998 as a tool for diagnostic Thromboembolic Disease. The purpose is to relate our own experience with this technique in a population with suspected pulmonary embolism. 46 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent combined CT Venography after Pulmonary CT Angiography to depict Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). CT Venography where obtained with a 3 minutes delay from injection, without additional intravenous contrast, from upper abdomen to fibular head. A prospective study from emergency reports where used. The reports where aimed by nine different radiologist at diary emergency room (images where not retrospective review). We report if a pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombus or another alternative diagnostic where done. An endo luminal thrombus in any pulmonary arteries was assessed as a positive study for PE. A Thrombus in the leg veins or in an abdominal vein without diminished size of vein was assessed as an acute DVT. In those patients with a CT negative to Thromboembolic Disease was the clinician who decide if more proves where needed. Those patients without evidence in CT of Thromboembolic Disease where asked for symptoms related to the episode in a 3 months period after initial CT. Patients free of symptoms for 3 months without anticoagulation therapy where considered true negative for CT. CT shows Thromboembolic Disease in 23 of 46 patients. 21PE, 14 DVT 2 of 14 patients with DVT don't show PE, CT excluded thromboembolic disease in 23 patients and in 15 of those patients an alternative diagnostic was shown. In 22 of those 23 patients CT excluded correctly Thromboembolic Disease. One patient result in a false negative CT, Pulmonary Angiography of that patient shows us a subsegmentary embolus. (Author) 9 refs

  14. A Review of Clinical Trial Endpoints of Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and How They Relate to Patient Outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Christine; Platt, David; Wang, Edward; Lin, Jay; Lingohr-Smith, Melissa; Mathai, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are subgroups of pulmonary hypertension and are considered rare diseases. Understanding how endpoints of clinical trials (and patient registry studies) of patients with PAH and CTEPH are associated with patient outcomes is important in order to address the concerns of patients, health care providers, decision makers, and payers. The purpose of this review was to examine how endpoints used in clinical trials and patient registry studies are associated with outcomes of patients with PAH and CTEPH. A PubMed literature search was conducted to retrieve published studies, including randomized phase III clinical trials and observational studies, from years 2000 to May 2015 that evaluated the associations between change in 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), 6MWD thresholds, change in World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), and time to clinical worsening with outcomes of patients with PAH and CTEPH. Based on this review of published literature, a reduction in 6MWD as a criterion for PAH worsening, a deterioration in WHO-FC, and delay in the time to clinical worsening are clinically meaningful trial endpoints and are associated with outcomes of patients with PAH and CTEPH. Utilization and standardization of these endpoints will be useful for comparing interventions of clinical trials and therapies. Hospitalizations are frequent among patients with PAH and CTEPH, and total health care costs are high. From a U.S. payer perspective, clinical worsening is an important composite endpoint in that it includes hospitalization, which can be transformed into a preventative cost value associated with efficacious treatment of patients with PAH and CTEPH. In view of the greater number of medications available to treat PAH, the introduction of the first approved therapy to treat CTEPH, and the increasing use of combination pharmacotherapy, reliable prognostic markers of treatment

  15. Diagnostic performance of state-of-the-art imaging techniques for morphological assessment of vascular abnormalities in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Pitton, Michael B.; Schneider, Jens; Wirth, Gesine M.; Dueber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Mayer, Eckhard [Kerckhoff-Hospital Bad Nauheim, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To determine the most comprehensive imaging technique for the assessment of pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). 24 patients with CTEPH were examined by ECG-gated multi-detector CT angiography (MD-CTA), contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA) and selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within 3 days. Two readers in consensus separately evaluated each imaging technique (48 main, 144 lobar and 449 segmental arteries) for typical changes like complete obstructions, vessel cut-offs, intimal irregularities, incorporated thrombus formations, and bands and webs. A joint interpretation of all three techniques served as a reference standard. Based on image quality, there was no non-diagnostic examination by either imaging technique. DSA did not sufficiently display 1 main, 3 lobar and 4 segmental arteries. The pulmonary trunk was not assessable by DSA. One patient showed thrombotic material at this level only by MD-CTA and MRA. Sensitivity and specificity of MD-CTA regarding CTEPH-related changes at the main/lobar and at the segmental levels were 100%/100% and 100%/99%, of ce-MRA 83.1%/98.6% and 87.7%/98.1%, and of DSA 65.7%/100% and 75.8%/100%, respectively. ECG-gated MD-CTA proved the most adequate technique for assessment of the pulmonary arteries in the diagnostic work-up of CTEPH patients. (orig.)

  16. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  17. C-Arm computed tomography adds diagnostic information in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and a positive V/Q SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Werncke, Thomas; Kaireit, Till [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; and others

    2017-01-15

    To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62±18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT). Inter-modality agreement was calculated (Cohen's Kappa). Findings were scored on a 3-point-scale. The sum of the score (pulmonary artery CTEPH severity score (PACSS)) was calculated for each patient and imaging modality, correlated to RHC (spearman's correlation) and compared to the final therapeutic decision of the CTEPH board (including the consensus of SPECT, selective pulmonary DSA and CACT). Overall, 504 pulmonary artery segments were assessed in SPECT and CACT. SPECT had identified 266/504 (53%) arterial segments without and 238/504 (47%) segments with a V/Q mismatch indicating CTEPH. CACT detected 131/504 (26%) segments without abnormal findings and 373/504 (74%) segments with findings indicating CTEPH. Inter-modality agreement was fair (k=0.38). PACSS of CACT correlated mildly significantly with the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPmean; rho=0.48, p=0.01), while SPECT missed significance (rho=0.32, p=0.1). Discrepant findings were mostly attributed to a higher frequency of sub-segmental pulmonary arterial pathologies on CACT (145 sub-segmental findings indicating CTEPH) rated as normal on SPECT. In patients with CTEPH, contrast-enhanced CACT detects additional findings with a better correlation to the severity of PAPmean than V/Q SPECT. CACT indicates abnormalities even in segments without V/Q abnormalities.

  18. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Edström, Birgitte; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare......Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare...

  19. Reverse right ventricular remodeling after pulmonary endarterectomy in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: utility of magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate restoration of the right ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Marcus, J. Tim; Tulevski, Igor I.; Jamieson, Stuart; Kloek, Jaap J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary arterial hypertension causes right ventricular remodeling; that is, right ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, and leftward ventricular septal bowing. We studied the effect of pulmonary endarterectomy on the restoration of right ventricular remodeling in patients with chronic

  20. Effect of the Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria on Subsequent Thromboembolic Events Among Low-Risk Emergency Department Patients: The PROPER Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Yonathan; Cachanado, Marine; Aubry, Adeline; Orsini, Charlotte; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Féral-Pierssens, Anne-Laure; Charpentier, Sandrine; Dumas, Florence; Baarir, Nacera; Truchot, Jennifer; Desmettre, Thibaut; Tazarourte, Karim; Beaune, Sebastien; Leleu, Agathe; Khellaf, Mehdi; Wargon, Mathias; Bloom, Ben; Rousseau, Alexandra; Simon, Tabassome; Riou, Bruno

    2018-02-13

    The safety of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC), an 8-item block of clinical criteria aimed at ruling out pulmonary embolism (PE), has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. To prospectively validate the safety of a PERC-based strategy to rule out PE. A crossover cluster-randomized clinical noninferiority trial in 14 emergency departments in France. Patients with a low gestalt clinical probability of PE were included from August 2015 to September 2016, and followed up until December 2016. Each center was randomized for the sequence of intervention periods. In the PERC period, the diagnosis of PE was excluded with no further testing if all 8 items of the PERC rule were negative. The primary end point was the occurrence of a thromboembolic event during the 3-month follow-up period that was not initially diagnosed. The noninferiority margin was set at 1.5%. Secondary end points included the rate of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA), median length of stay in the emergency department, and rate of hospital admission. Among 1916 patients who were cluster-randomized (mean age 44 years, 980 [51%] women), 962 were assigned to the PERC group and 954 were assigned to the control group. A total of 1749 patients completed the trial. A PE was diagnosed at initial presentation in 26 patients in the control group (2.7%) vs 14 (1.5%) in the PERC group (difference, 1.3% [95% CI, -0.1% to 2.7%]; P = .052). One PE (0.1%) was diagnosed during follow-up in the PERC group vs none in the control group (difference, 0.1% [95% CI, -∞ to 0.8%]). The proportion of patients undergoing CTPA in the PERC group vs control group was 13% vs 23% (difference, -10% [95% CI, -13% to -6%]; P < .001). In the PERC group, rates were significantly reduced for the median length of emergency department stay (mean reduction, 36 minutes [95% CI, 4 to 68]) and hospital admission (difference, 3.3% [95% CI, 0.1% to 6.6%]). Among very low-risk patients with suspected

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  2. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of thromboembolic disease: combined ventilation perfusion lung scan and compression ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadparvar, S.; Woods, K.; Magno, R.M.; Sabatino, J. C.; Patil, S.; Dou, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The clinical management of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis of the legs are similar and require prolonged anticoagulation therapy. The standard diagnostic approach in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism is ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scan and compression ultrasonography to detect deep venous thrombosis. This retrospective study analyzed the role of V Q lung scan and compression ultrasonography in detection of thromboembolic disease. One hundred-twenty consecutive patients (65 female, 55 male) age range 18-95 (mean age 60.7) suspected for pulmonary embolism underwent concomitant V/Q lung scan and compression ultrasonography of the lower extremities. The clinical and radiographic correlation was performed. Of patients with non-diagnostic (low or intermediate probability ) lung scans, 15.4 % (14/91) received anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary embolism. This patients had either high pre-clinical suspicion for PE or underwent pulmonary arterio gram. However, there was an additional 7 % (7/91) increase in the number of patients who received anticoagulation therapy based on the results of ultrasound with confidence interval (3 %-16 %). We conclude that V/Q lung scan is a more sensitive examination for thromboembolic disease, and has a high negative predictive value. Ultrasonography of lower extremities demonstrated higher specificity and positive value. Among patients with non-diagnostic lung scan, the detection rate of thromboembolic disease is improved with addition of ultrasound

  4. Combined CT Angiography and CT Venography in Thromboembolic disease: clinical impact; Angio TC y flebo TC combinados en el diagnostico de la enfermedad tramboembolica: impacto clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, R.; Migueles, Y.; Gomez, S.; Mallo, R.; Garcia-Tejedor, J. L.; Diaz Vega, M. J. [Complejo Hospitalario Xerar-Cies. Vigo. Pontevedra (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Combined CT Venography and Pulmonary Angiography was described in 1998 as a tool for diagnostic Thromboembolic Disease. The purpose is to relate our own experience with this technique in a population with suspected pulmonary embolism. 46 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent combined CT Venography after Pulmonary CT Angiography to depict Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). CT Venography where obtained with a 3 minutes delay from injection, without additional intravenous contrast, from upper abdomen to fibular head. A prospective study from emergency reports where used. The reports where aimed by nine different radiologist at diary emergency room (images where not retrospective review). We report if a pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombus or another alternative diagnostic where done. An endo luminal thrombus in any pulmonary arteries was assessed as a positive study for PE. A Thrombus in the leg veins or in an abdominal vein without diminished size of vein was assessed as an acute DVT. In those patients with a CT negative to Thromboembolic Disease was the clinician who decide if more proves where needed. Those patients without evidence in CT of Thromboembolic Disease where asked for symptoms related to the episode in a 3 months period after initial CT. Patients free of symptoms for 3 months without anticoagulation therapy where considered true negative for CT. CT shows Thromboembolic Disease in 23 of 46 patients. 21PE, 14 DVT 2 of 14 patients with DVT don't show PE, CT excluded thromboembolic disease in 23 patients and in 15 of those patients an alternative diagnostic was shown. In 22 of those 23 patients CT excluded correctly Thromboembolic Disease. One patient result in a false negative CT, Pulmonary Angiography of that patient shows us a subsegmentary embolus. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Venous Thromboembolism: A Comparison of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and General Surgery Patients in a Metropolitan Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ryan M; Rimler, Jonathan; Smith, Brian R; Wirth, Garrett A; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z

    2016-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events result in significant morbidity, mortality, and costly therapeutic interventions. As medical resource allocation strategies are becoming more pervasive, appropriate risk stratification and prophylactic regimens are essential. Previous studies have shown a decreased incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolism in the chronic spinal cord injury population. The question remains of whether chronic spinal cord injury is protective against venous thromboembolism. A retrospective review of all cases involving chronic spinal cord injury patients who underwent plastic and reconstructive surgery operations (n = 424) and general surgery patients (n = 777) with a primary outcome of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism within 90 days of surgery was performed. The incidence of postoperative deep venous thrombosis in the control and spinal cord injury groups was 1.7 percent and 0.2 percent, respectively (p = 0.027). However, such significance was not observed with regard to postoperative pulmonary embolism incidence (p = 0.070). Collectively, the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism-specifically, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism-was significantly greater in the general surgery population (p = 0.014). A nearly 10-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism was seen among the control group (1.9 percent versus 0.2 percent) despite administration of optimal prophylaxis. This study demonstrates a profoundly low incidence of venous thromboembolism among chronic spinal cord injury patients compared with general surgery patients. Future efforts to elucidate how chronic spinal cord injury confers a protective mechanism may potentially influence the evolution of venous thromboembolism prevention guidelines, and spark the development of alternative prophylactic agents or customized application of prevention efforts.

  6. Retrospective analysis of co-occurrence of congenital aortic stenosis and pulmonary artery stenosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, M; Pasławska, U; Staszczyk, M; Cepiel, A; Pasławski, R; Mazur, G; Noszczyk-Nowak, A

    2015-01-01

    The study has focused on the retrospective analysis of cases of coexisting congenital aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) in dogs. The research included 5463 dogs which were referred for cardiological examination (including clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography) between 2004 and 2014. Aortic stenosis and PS stenosis were detected in 31 dogs. This complex defect was the most commonly diagnosed in Boxers - 7 dogs, other breeds were represented by: 4 cross-breed dogs, 2 Bichon Maltais, 3 Miniature Pinschers, 2 Bernese Mountain Dogs, 2 French Bulldogs, and individuals of following breeds: Bichon Frise, Bull Terrier, Czech Wolfdog, German Shepherd, Hairless Chinese Crested Dog, Miniature Schnauzer, Pug, Rottweiler, Samoyed, West Highland White Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier. In all the dogs, the murmurs could be heard, graded from 2 to 5 (on a scale of 1-6). Besides, in 9 cases other congenital defects were diagnosed: patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve dysplasia, pulmonary or aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve dysplasia, ventricular or atrial septal defect. The majority of the dogs suffered from pulmonary valvular stenosis (1 dog had supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis) and subvalvular aortic stenosis (2 dogs had valvular aortic stenosis). Conclusions and clinical relevance - co-occurrence of AS and PS is the most common complex congenital heart defect. Boxer breed was predisposed to this complex defect. It was found that coexisting AS and PS is more common in male dogs and the degree of PS and AS was mostly similar.

  7. The effect of defibrotide on thromboembolism in the pulmonary vasculature of mice and rabbits and in the cerebral vasculature of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W.; Gresele, P.; Momi, S.; Bianchi, G.; Page, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Administration of bovine thrombin (100 u kg-1) into the carotid artery of rabbits induces a sustained accumulation of 111 Indium-labelled platelets within the cranial vasculature over the subsequent 3 h. 2. Intracarotid (i.c.) administration of defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h) prior to i.c. thrombin (100 u kg-1) significantly reduces the ability of thrombin to induce cranial thromboembolism in rabbits. 3. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of thrombin (20 u kg-1) in rabbits induces a reversible accumulation of radiolabelled platelets into the thoracic circulation which is significantly reduced by i.v. administration of defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h) prior to i.v. thrombin. In contrast, platelet accumulation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 20 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) or platelet activating factor (PAF; 50 ng kg-1, i.v.) is not significantly affected by this treatment. 4. Intravenous administration of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg-1) potentiates platelet accumulation induced by low dose thrombin (10 u kg-1, i.v.) within the pulmonary vasculature of rabbits. The potentiated response is significantly abrogated following pretreatment with defibrotide (64 mg kg-1 bolus plus 64 mg kg-1 h-1 for 1 h, i.v.). 5. Intravenous injection of human thrombin (1250 u kg-1) to mice induces death within the majority of animals which is significantly reduced by pretreatment with defibrotide (150-175 mg kg-1, i.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306102

  8. Thromboembolic Risk of Endovascular Intervention for Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Philip; Echeverria, Angela; Poi, Mun J; Matos, Jesus; Bechara, Carlos F; Cheung, Mathew; Lin, Peter H

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the risk of thromboembolism during endovascular interventions in patients with symptomatic lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) METHODS: Clinical records of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for symptomatic lower extremity DVT from 2001 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed using a prospectively maintained database. Only patients who received an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter were included in the analysis. Trapped intrafilter thrombus was assessed for procedure-related thromboembolism. Clinical outcomes of thrombus management and thromboembolism risk were analyzed. A total 172 patients (mean age 57.4 years, 98 females) who underwent 174 endovascular DVT interventions were included in the analysis. Treatment strategies included thrombolytic therapy (64%), mechanical thrombectomy (n = 86%), pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (51%), balloon angioplasty (98%), and stent placement (28%). Thrombectomy device used included AngioJet (56%), Trellis (19%), and Aspire (11%). Trapped IVC filter thrombus was identified in 58 patients (38%) based on the IVC venogram. No patient developed clinically evident pulmonary embolism (PE). IVC filter retrieval was performed in 98 patients (56%, mean 11.8 months after implantation). Multivariate analysis showed that iliac vein occlusion (P = 0.04) was predictive for procedure-related thromboembolism. Iliac vein thrombotic occlusion is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk in DVT intervention. Retrievable IVC filter should be considered when performing percutaneous thrombectomy in patients with iliac venous occlusion to prevent PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavsar Tapan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. Case presentation A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction

  10. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tapan; Wurzel, John; Duker, Nahum

    2012-11-23

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in

  11. The multi-slice CT perfusion imaging in evaluating the prevention and treatment by edaravone on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury after pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianjun, Li; Renyou, Zhai; Dongpo, Zhang; Qiang, Huang; Dingke, Dai; Ping, Yu; Na, Bao [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate the multi-slice CT perfusion imaging in investigating whether edaravone can prevent and treat pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury (PTE-IRI). Methods: Twenty mongrel canines were included. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein using the Seldinger technique, and then was inserted into the pulmonary artery. Balloon occlusion of the right inferior lobe pulmonary artery for 4 h was followed by removing catheter and 4 h o reperfusion. Animals were divided into four groups of A (no edaravone during ischenmia and reperfusion), B (edaravone used only during ischemia), C (edaravone used during both ischemia and reperfusion) and D group (edaravone used only during reperfusion) (n=5 per group). Every group was divided into three time points including before ischemia, 4 h after ischemia and 4 h after reperfusion. CT scan and CT perfusion were performed at the three time points. The blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) of the bilateral inferior regional lung parenchyma were measured with the software of perfusion 3. Results: CT examination showed pulmonary edema in the right inferior lung lobe at 4 h after reperfusion. (1) The BF and MTT of A, B, C and D group were[(259.4{+-}15.7)ml{center_dot}min{sup -1{center_dot}}100 g{sup -1}, (293.7{+-} 7.9) ml{center_dot}min{sup -1{center_dot}}100 g {sup -1}, (379.4{+-}14.5)ml{center_dot}min{sup -1{center_dot}}100 g{sup -1}, (382.5{+-}16.6)ml{center_dot}min{sup -1{center_dot}}. 100 g{sup -1}] and [(3.1{+-}0.2)s, (2.6{+-}0.2)s, (2.2{+-}0.1)s, (1.9{+-}0.2)s] respectively at 4 h after reperfusion. The BF and MTT were statistically different (P<0.01) between groups (A and B, A and C, A and D, B and C, B and D) except between group C and D (the P value >0.05) at 4 h after reperfusion, but the BV was not statistically different between groups (P>0.05). (2) The BF [(397.2{+-} 19.2)ml{center_dot}min{sup -1{center_dot}}100 g{sup -1} and (259

  12. The multi-slice CT perfusion imaging in evaluating the prevention and treatment by edaravone on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury after pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhai Renyou; Zhang Dongpo; Huang Qiang; Dai Dingke; Yu Ping; Bao Na

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the multi-slice CT perfusion imaging in investigating whether edaravone can prevent and treat pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury (PTE-IRI). Methods: Twenty mongrel canines were included. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein using the Seldinger technique, and then was inserted into the pulmonary artery. Balloon occlusion of the right inferior lobe pulmonary artery for 4 h was followed by removing catheter and 4 h o reperfusion. Animals were divided into four groups of A (no edaravone during ischenmia and reperfusion), B (edaravone used only during ischemia), C (edaravone used during both ischemia and reperfusion) and D group (edaravone used only during reperfusion) (n=5 per group). Every group was divided into three time points including before ischemia, 4 h after ischemia and 4 h after reperfusion. CT scan and CT perfusion were performed at the three time points. The blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) of the bilateral inferior regional lung parenchyma were measured with the software of perfusion 3. Results: CT examination showed pulmonary edema in the right inferior lung lobe at 4 h after reperfusion. (1) The BF and MTT of A, B, C and D group were[(259.4±15.7)ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , (293.7± 7.9) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , (379.4±14.5)ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , (382.5±16.6)ml·min -1 ·. 100 g -1 ] and [(3.1±0.2)s, (2.6±0.2)s, (2.2±0.1)s, (1.9±0.2)s] respectively at 4 h after reperfusion. The BF and MTT were statistically different (P 0.05) at 4 h after reperfusion, but the BV was not statistically different between groups (P>0.05). (2) The BF [(397.2± 19.2)ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 and (259.4±15.7) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 in group A, (393.2±16.1) ml· min -1 ·100 g -1 and (293.7±7.9) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 in group B] and MTF [(1.8±0.1)s and (3.1±0.2) s in group A, (1.8±0.2) s and (2.6±0.2) s in group B] were statistically different (P 0.05) between groups

  13. Impact of CT perfusion imaging on the assessment of peripheral chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: clinical experience in 62 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Faivre, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Khung, Suonita; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Lamblin, Nicolas; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of CT perfusion imaging on the detection of peripheral chronic pulmonary embolisms (CPE). 62 patients underwent a dual-energy chest CT angiographic examination with (a) reconstruction of diagnostic and perfusion images; (b) enabling depiction of vascular features of peripheral CPE on diagnostic images and perfusion defects (20 segments/patient; total: 1240 segments examined). The interpretation of diagnostic images was of two types: (a) standard (i.e., based on cross-sectional images alone) or (b) detailed (i.e., based on cross-sectional images and MIPs). The segment-based analysis showed (a) 1179 segments analyzable on both imaging modalities and 61 segments rated as nonanalyzable on perfusion images; (b) the percentage of diseased segments was increased by 7.2 % when perfusion imaging was compared to the detailed reading of diagnostic images, and by 26.6 % when compared to the standard reading of images. At a patient level, the extent of peripheral CPE was higher on perfusion imaging, with a greater impact when compared to the standard reading of diagnostic images (number of patients with a greater number of diseased segments: n = 45; 72.6 % of the study population). Perfusion imaging allows recognition of a greater extent of peripheral CPE compared to diagnostic imaging. • Dual-energy computed tomography generates standard diagnostic imaging and lung perfusion analysis. • Depiction of CPE on central arteries relies on standard diagnostic imaging. • Detection of peripheral CPE is improved by perfusion imaging.

  14. Impact of CT perfusion imaging on the assessment of peripheral chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: clinical experience in 62 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Faivre, Julien; Khung, Suonita; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille, Department of Biostatistics, Lille (France); Lamblin, Nicolas [University of Lille, Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, Lille (France)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of CT perfusion imaging on the detection of peripheral chronic pulmonary embolisms (CPE). 62 patients underwent a dual-energy chest CT angiographic examination with (a) reconstruction of diagnostic and perfusion images; (b) enabling depiction of vascular features of peripheral CPE on diagnostic images and perfusion defects (20 segments/patient; total: 1240 segments examined). The interpretation of diagnostic images was of two types: (a) standard (i.e., based on cross-sectional images alone) or (b) detailed (i.e., based on cross-sectional images and MIPs). The segment-based analysis showed (a) 1179 segments analyzable on both imaging modalities and 61 segments rated as nonanalyzable on perfusion images; (b) the percentage of diseased segments was increased by 7.2 % when perfusion imaging was compared to the detailed reading of diagnostic images, and by 26.6 % when compared to the standard reading of images. At a patient level, the extent of peripheral CPE was higher on perfusion imaging, with a greater impact when compared to the standard reading of diagnostic images (number of patients with a greater number of diseased segments: n = 45; 72.6 % of the study population). Perfusion imaging allows recognition of a greater extent of peripheral CPE compared to diagnostic imaging. (orig.)

  15. Preoperative Hospitalization Is Independently Associated With Increased Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery: A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Spencer W; Holubar, Stefan D

    2015-08-01

    An important factor in the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism is blood stasis, thus, preoperative hospitalization length of stay may be contributory to risk. We assessed preoperative hospital length of stay as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent colorectal operations using univariate and multivariable propensity score analyses. This study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Data on patients was obtained from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2011 Participant Use Data Files. Short-term (30-day) postoperative venous thromboembolism was measured. Our analysis included 242,670 patients undergoing colorectal surgery (mean age, 60 years; 52.9% women); of these, 72,219 (29.9%) were hospitalized preoperatively. The overall rate of venous thromboembolism was 2.07% (1.4% deep vein thrombosis, 0.5% pulmonary embolism, and 0.2% both). On multivariable analysis, the most predictive independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism were return to the operating room (OR, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.44-1.81); p relationship between preoperative lengths of stay and risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (p risk factor for venous thromboembolism and its associated increase in mortality after colorectal surgery, whereas laparoscopy is a strong protective variable. Further research into preoperative screening for highest-risk patients is indicated.

  16. Oral contraceptives and the absolute risk of venous thromboembolism in women with single or multiple thrombophilic defects - Results from a retrospective family cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, Elizabeth F. W.; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Eskes, Tom K. A. B.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; van der Meer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is attributed to changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Their impact may be greater in women with preexistent thrombophilic defects. Methods: We assessed the effects of COCs on absolute VTE

  17. Hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica con y sin síndrome antifosfolípido Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with and without antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Colorio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTC está dada por la obstrucción de arterias pulmonares y sus ramas por trombos organizados. El objetivo fue evaluar las características y evolución de la HPTC en pacientes con y sin síndrome antifosfolípido (SAF. Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con HPTC en nuestra institución entre junio de 1993 y junio del 2005. De los 38 pacientes evaluados, 16 tenían SAF (grupo A y 22 pacientes (grupo B presentaban estudio de trombofilia normal (n = 10 u otras anormalidades trombofílicas (n = 12. Ambos grupos fueron similares en cuanto a la media de edad (41 vs. 50 años, la clase funcional que presentaban al diagnóstico (81 vs. 100% en clase III-IV, y la presencia de trombosis en otros territorios (31 vs. 27%. El 62.5% de pacientes del grupo A y el 54.5% del grupo B fueron sometidos a tromboendarterectomía pulmonar. La media de seguimiento fue de 45 meses (rango de 0.5 a 144. Al final del mismo todos los pacientes con SAF y todos los pacientes operados estaban en clase funcional I-II. La mediana de sobrevida desde el momento del diagnóstico alcanzó los 59 meses para el grupo A vs. 27 meses en el grupo B (p = 0.199. La media de sobrevida del total de los pacientes operados fue de 56 meses para el grupo A vs. 33 meses para el grupo B (p = 0.08. En conclusión: Los pacientes con HPTC y SAF tendieron a lograr una mejor sobrevida que los pacientes con HPTC sin SAF. Aquellos con HPTC y SAF que fueron operados lograron mejoría de su clase funcional y tendieron a una mayor sobrevida respecto de los no operados.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTE-PH is defined as the chronic obstruction by organized thrombi in pulmonary artery and their branches causing pulmonary hypertension. The objective is to evaluate features and outcome of CTE-PH in patients with and without coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. All patients studied at our Institution with CTE-PH between

  18. Interstitial inflammatory lesions of the pulmonary allograft: a retrospective analysis of 2697 transbronchial biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, C.M.; Iversen, M.; Carlsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    . The strongest histological correlations were between ACR and lymphocytic bronchiolitis (OR 5.1, Pfibrosis (OR 3.2, Ppulmonary hemosiderosis were also more likely to demonstrate the finding of interstitial fibrosis (OR 3.0 and 3.7, P..., incidence and possible associations between commonly identified inflammatory and fibrotic lesions in the pulmonary allograft. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all transbronchial biopsies performed within the first 2 years of 299 lung-transplanted patients in the period 1996 to 2006. RESULTS: A total...... (BOOP) and interstitial pneumonitis occurred at 4 to 6 weeks, and 6 to 12 weeks, respectively. There was a steady increase in the cumulative proportion of patients with fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans, at each successive scheduled surveillance time point beyond 3 months posttransplantation...

  19. Venous thromboembolism: epidemiology and magnitude of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2012-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the third most common cardiovascular disease after myocardial infarction and stroke. The death rate from pulmonary embolism exceeds the death rate from myocardial infarction, because myocardial infarction is much easier to detect and to treat. Among survivors of pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension occurs in 2-4 of every 100 patients. Post-thrombotic syndrome of the legs, characterized by chronic venous insufficiency, occurs in up to half of patients who suffer deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We have effective pharmacological regimens using fixed low dose unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin to prevent venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients. There remains the problem of low rates of utilization of pharmacological prophylaxis. The biggest change in our understanding of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism is that we now believe that deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism share similar risk factors and pathophysiology with atherothrombosis and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine consumption and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modulation of adenosine receptors has been proposed as new therapeutic target for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but studies in humans were negative. Caffeine is widely consumed and acts by non-selective modulation of these receptors, allowing for a non-interventional evaluation of the purinergic effects on COPD. We evaluated the effects of chronic caffeine consumption on the risk for COPD exacerbations. Methods: Retrospective study including patients with COPD. The total number of exacerbations during a three-year period and the mean daily caffeine consumption in the last twenty years were evaluated. A univariate and multiple regression analysis were performed for evaluation of the significant predictors of exacerbations. Results: A total of 90 patients were included. Most were males (82.2% and had a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 of 57.0 ± 17.1% predicted. The mean daily caffeine consumption was 149.7 ± 140.9 mg. There was no correlation between the mean caffeine consumption and exacerbations (p > 0.05. Discussion: Our results suggest that caffeine has no significant effect on the frequency of COPD exacerbations. These conclusions are limited by the sample size and the retrospective nature of the study. Keywords: COPD, Caffeine, Disease exacerbation, Purines, Pharmacology, Coffee, Respiratory Tract Diseases

  1. Primary intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery 1 case report and retrospective analysis of 20 cases published in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingchuan; Chen Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical and histopathological features of primary, intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. Methods: One case of primary intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery diagnosed in our hospital and 20 cases published openly in China were analysed retrospectively. Results: The clinical presentation of primary intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery was progressive dyspnea, cough, chest pain, syncope, bloody phlegm, fever and fatigue. From the radiological finding, its signs were of pulmonary, artery dilation, reduced pulmonary vasculature and cardiomegaly, soft tissue mass near the right ventricle outflow tract. Histological examination of intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery revealed a poorly differentiated mesenchymal tumor of fibroblastic or myofibroblastic differentiation, consisting of mildly atypical spindle cells with atypia, mitosis, and nuclear polymorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining with antibodies against vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, while negative for desmin. Conclusion: Primary, intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery has atypical clinical and radiological manifestation with poor prognosis, its definite diagnosis depends on histopathology. (authors)

  2. Invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with connective tissue disease: a retrospective study from northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Ge

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI is a potentially fatal complication in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD. The current study aimed to uncover the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with IPFI-CTD. The files of 2186 CTD patients admitted to a single center in northern China between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 47 CTD patients with IPFI were enrolled into this study and assigned to the CTD-IPFI group, while 47 uninfected CTD patients were assigned to the control group. Clinical manifestations were recorded, and risk factors of IPFI were calculated by stepwise logistical regression analysis. Forty-seven (2.15% CTD patients developed IPFI. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients were responsible for the highest proportion (36.17% of cases with IPFI. Candida albicans (72.3% accounted for the most common fungal species. CTD-IPFI patients had significantly elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fasting glucose values compared to controls (P<0.05. Cough, sputum and blood in phlegm were the most common symptoms. Risk factors of IPFI in CTD included maximum prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day within 3 months prior to infection, anti-microbial drug therapy, and interstitial pneumonia. CTD patients who have underlying interstitial pneumonia, prior prednisone or multiple antibiotics, were more likely to develop IPFI.

  3. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of pulmonary blastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Zhao,1,* Lin Liu,1,2,* Ting Zhou,1,* Ning-Ning Zhou,1 Yun-Peng Yang,1 Xue Hou,1 Yong Li,3 Hong-Yun Zhao,1 Yan Huang,1 Li Zhang1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 3Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma (PB to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in patients who were diagnosed with PB at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center from March 1995 to March 2015. Genomic DNA was profiled using a capture-based targeted sequencing panel. Results: Sixteen patients with an average age of 40 years were included in this study. Accurate preoperative diagnosis was very challenging as surgically resected tissues with immunohistochemical staining were required for the diagnosis. Surgery was the optimal treatment for localized disease and there was no standard management for metastatic disease. Mutations were detected among 9 out of the 56 genes profiled, including BRCA2, ERBB4, ALK, MET, BRAF, RAF1, PTEN, EGFR, and PIK3CA. Conclusion: Due to the low incidence rate and the reclassification of PB, no standard treatment is available. Although the numbers of cases are few with varying individual experiences, it is important to improve our understanding regarding this rare lung cancer. Targeted DNA sequencing may be of clinical use for molecular testing and the effects of targeted

  4. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism in gastrectomy intraoperative procedures by gastric adenocarcinoma: case report Tromboembolismo pulmonar fatal no intra-operatório de gastrectomia por adenocarcinoma gástrico: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bresciani

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The case of a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma with indication for gastrectomy is reported. The surgery took place without complications. A palliative, subtotal gastrectomy was performed after para-aortic lymph nodes compromised by neoplasm were found, which was confirmed by pathological exam of frozen sections carried out during the intervention. At the end of the gastroenteroanastomosis procedure, the patient began to show intense bradycardia: 38 beats per minute (bpm, arterial hypotension, changes in the electrocardiogram's waveform (upper unlevelling of segment ST, and cardiac arrest. Resuscitation maneuvers were performed with temporary success. Subsequently, the patient had another circulatory breakdown and again was recovered. Finally, the third cardiac arrest proved to be irreversible, and the intra-operative death occurred. Necropsy showed massive pulmonary embolism. The medical literature has recommended heparinization of patients, in an attempt to avoid pulmonary thromboembolism following major surgical interventions. However, in the present case, heparinization would have been insufficient to prevent death. This case indicates that it is necessary to develop preoperative propedeutics for diagnosing the presence of venous thrombi with potential to migrate, causing pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE. If such thrombi could be detected, preventative measures, such as filter installation in the Cava vein could be undertaken.Relata-se um caso de paciente com adenocarcinoma gástrico com indicação de gastrectomia. O ato operatório transcorreu sem anormalidades. Foi realizada gastrectomia subtotal paliativa, pois encontrou-se linfonodos para-aórticos comprometidos pela neoplasia, confirmado por exame anátomo-patológico de congelação realizado no decorrer da intervenção. Ao fim da confecção da gastroêntero-anastomose o paciente passou a apresentar bradicardia intensa: 38 batimentos por minuto (bpm, hipotensão arterial, altera

  5. Diagnostic Indication for Venous Echo-Doppler of the Lower Limbs in the Diagnosis of Thromboembolic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolado, A. G.; Barcena, M. V.; Cura, J. L. del; Gorrno, O.; Grande, D.

    2003-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of Doppler echography in the deep venous system of the lower limbs for deep venous thrombosis detection in patients suspected of having pulmonary thromboembolism. There were received 341 consecutive suspected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, all of whom were emergency room attended. All were submitted to CT pulmonary angiography in order to evaluate thrombus presence in the pulmonary tree. Without knowing the results of the previous exploration, we studied 301 of the patients using Doppler echography in deep venous system of the lower limbs in order to evaluate thrombus presence. In the group of CT-detected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, the percentage of Doppler echography-detected deep venous thrombosis was 46.3%, while in the group of non-detected patients this percentage decreased to 4.7%. Additional deep venous system exploration in clinically suspected pulmonary thiolcarbamate patients is useful, since it can increase the detection rate of venous thromboembolic disease, thereby leading to early treatment and prevention of the disease's manifestation in the lungs. Realization of Doppler echography is especially beneficial in those patients who exhibit no factors which predispose them to thromboembolic disease, as well as in patients who have previously had venous thrombosis. This exploration account for 4.7% of non-detected pulmonary embolism patients being added to the ranks of those with thromboembolic disease, an important percentage when taking into consideration the high pulmonary thromboembolism morbimortality rate. (Author) 30 refs

  6. Pulmonary thromboembolism in AIDS patient with chronic venous insufficiency, pulmonary tuberculosis and breast cancer: a case report and pathophysiology review Tromboembolismo pulmonar em uma paciente com AIDS com insuficiência venosa profunda, tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de mama: relato de um caso e revisão da fisiopatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cortez-Escalante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature reports thrombotic episodes occurring in patients with HIV infection associated with other abnormalities including neoplasms and infections predisposing to a hypercoagulable state. We report a 47-year-old woman who developed pulmonary thromboembolism in association with HIV infection, pulmonary tuberculosis and breast cancer. She was treated with rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide; heparin, phenprocoumon, zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz. Acid fast bacilli were visualized in a sputum smear and three months after, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from lymph node biopsy during a episode of immune reconstitution. The isolated mycobacteria showed sensitivity to all first-line drugs. HIV infection, breast cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis have several mechanisms that induce hypercoagulable state and can lead to thromboembolic complications. Pulmonary thromboembolism in this patient was a diagnostic challenge because of all the other severe diseases that she experienced at the same time.Publicações recentes relatam episódios trombóticos em pacientes infectados pelo HIV associados a outras condições que incluem neoplasias e infecções que predispõem para um estado de hipercoagulabilidade. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 47 anos portadora do HIV que desenvolveu tromboembolismo pulmonar, tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de mama. Foi tratada com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida, heparina, femprocumona, zidovudina, lamivudina e efavirenz. Bacilos ácido-álcool-resistentes foram observados no exame de escarro e três meses depois foi isolado o Mycobacterium tuberculosis da biópsia de linfonodo durante um episódio de reconstituição imune. A micobactéria isolada demonstrou sensibilidade a todas as drogas anti-tuberculosas de primeira linha. A infecção pelo HIV, o câncer de mama e a tuberculose pulmonar possuem vários mecanismos que induzem um estado de hipercoagulabilidade e que podem produzir complica

  7. Elevated Venous Thromboembolism Risk Following Colectomy for IBD Is Equal to Those for Colorectal Cancer for Ninety Days After Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fadwa; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Blank, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Carrie Y; Ludwig, Kirk A; Ridolfi, Timothy J

    2018-03-01

    The risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism is high in patients with colon cancer and IBD. Although The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons suggests posthospital prophylaxis after surgery in patients with colon cancer, there are no such recommendations for patients with IBD. This study aims to analyze the incidence and risk factors for postoperative venous thromboembolism. This was a retrospective review using the Explorys platform. Aggregated electronic medical records from 26 major health care systems across the United States from 1999 to 2017 were used for this study. Patients who underwent colon surgery were included. Patients were followed up to 90 days postoperatively for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. A total of 75,620 patients underwent colon resections, including 32,020 patients with colon cancer, 9850 patients with IBD, and 33,750 patients with diverticulitis. The 30-day incidence of venous thromboembolism was higher in patients with cancer and IBD than in patients with diverticulitis (2.9%, 3.1%, and 2.4%, p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The 30-day incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with ulcerative colitis is greater than in patients with Crohn's disease (4.1% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001). The cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism increased from 1.2% at 7 days after surgery to 4.3% at 90 days after surgery in patients with cancer, and from 1.3% to 4.3% in patients with IBD. In multivariable analysis, increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism was associated with cancer diagnosis, IBD diagnosis, age ≥60, smoking, and obesity. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and by the use of the aggregated electronic database, which is based on charted codes and contains only limited collateral clinical data. Because of the elevated and sustained risk of postoperative thromboembolism, patients with IBD, especially ulcerative colitis, might benefit from extended thromboembolism prophylaxis similar to that

  8. Feasibility and safety of rehabilitation after venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noack F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Frank Noack,1,2 Bernd Schmidt,1 Mroawan Amoury,2 Dietrich Stoevesandt,3 Stephan Gielen,4 Birgit Pflaumbaum,5 Christiane Girschick,5 Heinz Völler,6 Axel Schlitt5,7 1Department of Medicine I, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 4Department of Medicine III, University Clinic Halle (Saale, Halle, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Pulmology, Paracelsus-Harz-Clinic Bad Suderode, Quedlinburg, Germany; 6Klinik am See, Rüdersdorf, Germany; 7Medical Faculty, Martin Luther University Halle, Wittenberg, Germany Background: Venous thromboembolism is a life-threatening disease. In survivors, different degrees of functional complaints need to be restored or prevented (eg, post-thrombotic syndrome, pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, rehabilitation after venous thromboembolism is recommended in Germany. However, a structured rehabilitation program has not been defined for this indication. Here, we present the experience of a single rehabilitation center. Methods: Data from consecutive pulmonary embolism (PE patients who were referred for a 3-week inpatient rehabilitation program from 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: In all, 422 patients were identified. The mean age was 63.9±13.5 years, the mean body mass index (BMI was 30.6±6.2 kg/m2, and 51.9% were female. Deep vein thrombosis according to PE was known for 55.5% of all patients. We applied a wide range of therapeutic interventions such as bicycle training with monitored heart rate in 86.7%, respiratory training in 82.5%, aquatic therapy/swimming in 40.1%, and medical training therapy in 14.9% of all patients. Adverse events (AEs occurred in 57 patients during the 3-week rehabilitation period. The most common AEs were cold (n=6, diarrhea (n=5, and infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract that was treated with antibiotics (n=5. However, three patients under anticoagulation therapy suffered from bleeding, which was clinically relevant in

  9. MRI in venous thromboembolic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostman, H.D.; Debatin, J.F.; Spritzer, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Grist, T.M.; MacFall, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). MR venography was performed on 217 patients suspected of having DVT. Cine-MR imaging of the pulmonary arteries was performed in 14 other patients who were thought to have PE based on other imaging studies. In a third group of 5 patients, MR pulmonary angiograms were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with a multislice fast gradient recalled echo technique. All but one of the 217 MR venograms were technically adequate. In 72 patients with correlative imaging studies (venography and ultrasound) MR venography was 99% sensitive and 95% specific. On the basis of follow-up (mean 8.3 months), no false-negative MR venograms were detected in an additional 64 patients. In 11 other patients MR revealed a diagnosis other than DVT. Cine-MR showed PE in all 14 patients evaluated. MR pulmonary arteriography demonstrated filling defects consistent with acute PE in 2 of 3 patients with acute PE; in the third patient only a questionable filling defect was seen. Coarctations or webs were found in the pulmonary arteries of both patients with chronic PE. These preliminary data suggest that MR imaging may be able to evaluate both the peripheral venous and the pulmonary arterial component of venous thromboembolic disease. Further technical refinement and more extensive clinical experience will be required to establish the role of this method in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, but MR venography is now used routinely in our hospital for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  10. Associations between thoracic radiographic changes and severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosed in 60 dogs via Doppler echocardiography: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dustin S; Marolf, Angela J; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Randall, Elissa K; Bachand, Annette M

    2017-07-01

    Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive method for estimating and grading pulmonary arterial hypertension. No current literature associates significance of radiographic findings with severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that the number and conspicuity of radiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension would be greater based on the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal control dogs were included in this retrospective, case control study. Three radiologists blinded to echocardiographic results scored thoracic radiographs for right ventricular and main pulmonary artery enlargement and pulmonary lobar artery enlargement, tortuosity, and blunting by multiple methods. Presence or absence of each finding was scored in an additive fashion and averaged for each grade of pulmonary arterial hypertension severity. Seventy-one dogs (60 dogs with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 11 control dogs) of which some had multiple studies were included: 20 mild, 21 moderate, 25 severe, and 11 absent pulmonary arterial hypertension. The following radiographic findings were significantly associated with increasing pulmonary arterial hypertension severity: right ventricular enlargement by "reverse D" and "3/5-2/5 cardiac ratio" methods, main pulmonary artery enlargement, and caudal lobar artery enlargement by the "3rd rib" method. Mean scores for severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and normal dogs were significantly different (P-value < 0.0001). Mean scores between different pulmonary arterial hypertension grades increased with severity but were not statistically significant. Individually and in combination, radiographic findings performed poorly in differentiating severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Findings indicated that thoracic radiographs should be utilized in conjunction with Doppler echocardiography in a complete diagnostic work-up for dogs with suspected

  11. [Thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of thromboembolism of the right cardiac cavity during pulmonary embolism: our experience with rt-PA and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, C; Franzoni, P; Volpini, M; Scalvini, S; Volterrani, M; Musmeci, G; Metra, M

    1990-09-01

    In 4 consecutive patients admitted for multiple pulmonary embolism 2-dimensional echocardiography showed large right atrial migrant thromboemboli in transit, floating and prolapsing into the right ventricle in diastole. This pattern was always associated with the echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension. All the patients were treated with intravenous infusion of 100 mg of rt-PA in 3 hours. rt-PA determined the dissolution and disappearance of the right atrial thromboemboli (it took 4 hours in 2 patients and 5 hours in the remaining 2), and the concomitant disappearance of the echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension. During and after the rt-PA therapy there was no evidence of further pulmonary embolism. The fibrinolytic treatment for right atrial thromboemboli during multiple pulmonary embolism is a promising alternative to right atrial thrombectomy: our results indicate that rt-PA acts rapidly and is effective and safe; if these results will be confirmed in a larger group of patients, rt-PA could become the first-choice therapy of right atrial thromboembolus.

  12. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  13. Biomolecular markers of cancer-associated thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Diana L.; White, Richard H.; Wun, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is associated with a poor prognosis in most malignancies and is a major cause of death among cancer patients. Universal anticoagulation for primary thromboprophylaxis in the outpatient setting is precluded by potential bleeding complications, especially without sufficient evidence that all patients would benefit from such prophylaxis. Therefore, appropriately targeting cancer patients for thromboprophylaxis is key to ...

  14. Recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular dysfunction: a post-hoc analysis of the Hokusai-VTE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, Marjolein P. A.; Ageno, Walter; Beenen, Ludo F.; Brenner, Benjamin; Buller, Harry R.; Chen, Cathy Z.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Grosso, Michael A.; Meyer, Guy; Raskob, Gary; Segers, Annelise; Vanassche, Thomas; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S.; Zhang, George; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary embolism, right ventricular dysfunction is associated with early mortality. The Hokusai-VTE study used N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right to left ventricular diameter ratio on CT as indicators of right ventricular dysfunction and reported that

  15. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  16. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  18. A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Early Thromboembolic Event Analysis of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Fresh Frozen Plasma for Warfarin Reversal Prior to Emergency Neurosurgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Prateek; Abdullah, Kalil G; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Nayak, Nikhil R; Lucas, Timothy H

    2017-06-29

    Reversal of therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures is required in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Multifactor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) promises rapid efficacy but may increase the probability of thrombotic complications compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP). To compare the rate of thrombotic complications in patients treated with PCC or FFP to reverse therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage at a level I trauma center. Sixty-three consecutive patients on warfarin therapy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage who received anticoagulation reversal prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures were retrospectively identified between 2007 and 2016. They were divided into 2 cohorts based on reversal agent, either PCC (n = 28) or FFP (n = 35). The thrombotic complications rates within 72 h of reversal were compared using the χ 2 test. A multivariate propensity score matching analysis was used to limit the threat to interval validity from selection bias arising from differences in demographics, laboratory values, history, and clinical status. Thrombotic complications were uncommon in this neurosurgical population, occurring in 1.59% (1/63) of treated patients. There was no significant difference in the thrombotic complication rate between groups, 3.57% (1/28; PCC group) vs 0% (0/35; FFP group). Propensity score matching analysis validated this finding after controlling for any selection bias. In this limited sample, thrombotic complication rates were similar between use of PCC and FFP for anticoagulation reversal in the management of intracranial hemorrhage prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. Idiopathic versus secondary venous thromboembolism. Findings of the RIETE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrajas, J M; Garmendia, C; Portillo, J; Gabriel, F; Mainez, C; Yera, C; Monreal, M

    2014-10-01

    The Computerized Registry of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism (RIETE) is a prospective registry that consecutively includes patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism. We compared the clinical presentation and response to anticoagulant treatment in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism (IVT) versus secondary venous thromboembolism (SVT, associated with a risk factor). We analyzed the differences in clinical characteristics, comorbidity, treatment and events during the first 3months after the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in patients with IVT or SVT and according to their initial clinical presentation. A total of 39,921 patients with IVT (n=18,029; 45.1%) or SVT (n=21,892; 54.9%) were enrolled. The patients with IVT had a greater history of venous thromboembolism than those diagnosed with SVT (p<.001). The initial treatment was similar for the 2 groups, but more inferior vena cava filters were placed in the SVT group (p<.001). In the long term, low-molecular-weight heparin was used more often in the SVT group than in the IVT group. At 90days, bleeding, death and the recurrence of venous thromboembolism were significantly more frequent in the SVT group. The multivariate analysis confirmed that IVT was associated with fewer major (OR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.50-0.61; p<.001) and fatal (OR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.29-0.62; p<.001) bleedings, fewer relapses (OR, 0.58; 95%CI, 0.39-0.78; p<.001) and fewer fatal pulmonary embolisms (OR, 0.29; 95%CI, 0.12-0.52; p<.001). These differences were maintained in patients whose venous thromboembolism started with a pulmonary embolism or with deep vein thrombosis. IVT has a better prognosis than SVT at 90days of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the long-term outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Filippi, Lucia; Palla, Antonio; Visonà, Adriana; Bova, Carlo; Marzolo, Marco; Porro, Fernando; Villalta, Sabina; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Nante, Giovanni; Battistelli, Sandra; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Beltramello, Giampietro; Prisco, Domenico; Casazza, Franco; Ageno, Walter; Palareti, Gualtiero; Quintavalla, Roberto; Monti, Simonetta; Mumoli, Nicola; Zanatta, Nello; Cappelli, Roberto; Cattaneo, Marco; Moretti, Valentino; Corà, Francesco; Bazzan, Mario; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Miniati, Massimo; Prandoni, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism is uncertain.We recruited 647 consecutive symptomatic patients with a first episode of pulmonary embolism, with or without concomitant deep venous thrombosis. They received conventional anticoagulation, were assessed for residual pulmonary obstruction through perfusion lung scanning after 6 months and then were followed up for up to 3 years. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were assessed according to widely accepted criteria.Residual pulmonary obstruction was detected in 324 patients (50.1%, 95% CI 46.2-54.0%). Patients with residual pulmonary obstruction were more likely to be older and to have an unprovoked episode. After a 3-year follow-up, recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed in 34 out of the 324 patients (10.5%) with residual pulmonary obstruction and in 15 out of the 323 patients (4.6%) without residual pulmonary obstruction, leading to an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% CI 1.23-4.16).Residual pulmonary obstruction, as detected with perfusion lung scanning at 6 months after a first episode of pulmonary embolism, is an independent predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. Diagnostic Value of the dimero D, arterial plethysmography of inferior members and ultrasonography, in the thromboembolic illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis, Diego Miguel

    1999-01-01

    The thromboembolic venous illness, understands the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and the pulmonary embolism (PE). They are 2 entities that it has high frequency. The diagnostic focus of the pulmonary embolism involves to a compatible clinical scheme, a gammagraphy of lung ventilation and possibly a lung angiography when the diagnosis is difficult to focus. The paper includes a diagnostic of the deep venous thrombosis and the pulmonary thromboembolism

  2. Biomolecular markers of cancer-associated thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Diana L.; White, Richard H.; Wun, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is associated with a poor prognosis in most malignancies and is a major cause of death among cancer patients. Universal anticoagulation for primary thromboprophylaxis in the outpatient setting is precluded by potential bleeding complications, especially without sufficient evidence that all patients would benefit from such prophylaxis. Therefore, appropriately targeting cancer patients for thromboprophylaxis is key to reducing morbidity and perhaps mortality. Predictive biomarkers could aid in identifying patients at high risk for VTE. Possible biomarkers for VTE include C-reactive protein, platelet and leukocyte counts, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2, procoagulant factor VIII, tissue factor, and soluble P-selectin. Evidence is emerging to support the use of risk assessment models in selecting appropriate candidates for primary thromboprophylaxis in the cancer setting. Further studies are needed to optimize these models and determine utility in reducing morbidity and mortality from cancer-associated thromboembolism. PMID:23522921

  3. Venous Thromboembolism Within Professional American Sport Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Meghan; Astolfi, Matthew; Padegimas, Eric; DeLuca, Peter; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports have described players in professional American sports leagues who have been sidelined with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism (PE), but little is known about the clinical implications of these events in professional athletes. To conduct a retrospective review of injury reports from the National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Football League (NFL) to take a closer look at the incidence of DVT/PE, current treatment approaches, and estimated time to return to play in professional athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online search of all team injury and media reports of DVT/PE in NHL, MLB, NBA, and NFL players available for public record was conducted by use of Google, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus. Searches were conducted using the professional team name combined with blood clot , pulmonary embolism , and deep vein thrombosis . A total of 55 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events were identified from 1999 through 2016 (NHL, n = 22; MLB, n = 16; NFL, n = 12; NBA, n = 5). Nineteen athletes were reported to have an upper extremity DVT, 15 had a lower extremity DVT, 15 had a PE, and 6 had DVT with PE. Six athletes sustained more than 1 VTE. The mean age at time of VTE was 29.3 years (range, 19-42 years). Mean (±SD) time lost from play was 6.7 ± 4.9 months (range, 3 days to career end). Seven athletes did not return to play. Players with upper extremity DVT had a faster return to play (mean ± SD, 4.3 ± 2.7 months) than those with lower extremity DVT (5.9 ± 3.8 months), PE (10.8 ± 6.8 months), or DVT with PE (8.2 ± 2.6 months) ( F = 5.69, P = .002). No significant difference was found regarding time of return to play between sports. VTE in professional athletes led to an average of 6.7 months lost from play. The majority of athletes were able to return to play after a period of anticoagulation or surgery. Those with an upper extremity DVT returned to play

  4. Age Adjusted D-Dimer for exclusion of Pulmonary Embolism: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monks, D

    2017-08-01

    D-Dimer (DD) will increase with age and recent studies have shown the upper limit of normal can be raised in those who are low risk and over 50. We studied age adjusted D-dimer (AADD) levels to assess whether pulmonary embolism (PE) could be safely excluded. This study analysed the Emergency Department (ED) Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) requests. There were 756 requests. The parameters studied were; age, DD value, calculated AADD, CT result and Simplified Geneva Score (SGS). The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of AADD. One hundred and eighty-five patients were included in the final cohort. Twenty-one patients had a negative DD after age adjustment. Of these one had a PE, corresponding to a failure rate of 4.76% (1 in 22). The sensitivity of AADD was 0.96 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and its specificity was 0.12 (95% CI 0.08- 0.19). AADD demonstrated a reduction in false positives with one false negative, giving rise to a failure rate higher than that of other larger studies. Further study is indicated to accurately define the diagnostic characteristics for the Irish context.

  5. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Nuofu; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17-5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51-3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) were independent risk factors. PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases.

  6. Statin treatment and risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Cu Dinh; Andersson, Charlotte; Jensen, Thomas Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Statins may decrease the risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) but the effect of statins in preventing recurrent VTE is less clear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association between statin ...

  7. Retrospective Evaluation of Children with Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation: A Single Center Experience of 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortac, Ragip; Diniz, Gulden; Yildirim, Hulya Tosun; Aktas, Safiye; Karaca, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is an uncommon congenital abnormality of the lungs that generally presents during prenatal period or early childhood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinical and pathologic findings of the children with CPAMs who were referred to our center between 1992 and 2011. We reviewed 19 children with CPAM, who were diagnosed and treated at the Izmir Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital between 1992 and 2011. All of them are alive and have been still followed up by our center. The study population consisted of 9 boys (47.4%) and 10 girls (52.6%) with a mean age of 3.26 (1 month - 13 years). Most newborns had respiratory distress, while recurrent pulmonary infections were detected in older children. Surgical treatment was performed on patients with subtypes I (n = 4; 21.1%), II (n = 8; 42.1%), III (n = 5; 26.3%), and IV (n = 2; 10.5%). In 13 cases (63.4%), lesions were located in the right lung and in almost all cases lesions were confined to one lobe. A one-month- old child with type I CPAM had multiple lesions involving two lobes and in only a newborn with type II CPAM, lesions were located bilaterally. There was no type 0 cases in this series. All cases were treated with lobectomy without any complication. In the present study, a realistic comprehensive picture of CPAM in a central children's hospital has been provided. In addition, we want to emphasize that complications and unnecessary medical treatment could be reduced with early surgery.

  8. The relation between international normalized ratio and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Durmuş, Gündüz; Çanga, Yiğit; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazlı, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical disease characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of international normalized ratio (INR) in acute PE patients not on anticoagulant therapy. The study included 244 hospitalized acute PE patients who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. Based on their 30-day mortality, patients were categorized as survivors or non-survivors. INR was measured during the patients' admission, on the same day as the diagnosis of PE but before anticoagulation started. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 39 patients (16%). INR was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (1.3±0.4 vs 1.1±0.3, P=.003). In multivariate analysis, INR (HR: 3.303, 95% CI: 1.210-9.016, P=.020) was independently associated with 30-day mortality from PE. Inclusion of INR in a model with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score improved the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve from 0.736 (95% CI: 0.659-0.814) to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.701-0.849) (P=.028). Also, the addition of INR to sPESI score enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI=8.8%, P<.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.043, P=.027). Elevated INR may have prognostic value for 30-day mortality in acute PE patients not on anticoagulation. Combining INR with sPESI score improved the predictive value for all-cause mortality. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm it's prognostic role. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte Margareta; Dahl, Morten; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis and high mortality. Objectives: We examined the association between ever-diagnosed venous thromboembolism and risk of incident idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Venous thromboembolism was taken as a proxy...... Danish registries. Measurements and Main Results: Age-standardized incidence rates per 10,000 person-years for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were higher among those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (1.8; n = 158,676), pulmonary embolism (2.8; n = 70,586), and deep venous thrombosis only (1.......2; n = 88,090), than among control subjects (0.8; n = 7,260,278). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.7-1.9) in those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism, 2.4 (95% CI, 2.3-2.6) in those ever diagnosed with pulmonary...

  10. [Retrospective study of 25 cases of pulmonary mucormycosis in acute leukaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillot, D; Legouge, C; Lafon, I; Ferrant, E; Pagès, P B; Plocque, A; Estivalet, L; Valot, S; Dalle, F; Abou Hanna, H; Chretien, M-L

    2018-04-01

    In acute leukaemia (AL), the occurrence of pulmonary mucormycosis (PM), the incidence of which is increasing, as a result of chemotherapy induced marrow aplasia, remains a life threatening complication. Analysis of clinical, biological and thoracic CT characteristics of patients with PM developing during the treatment of AL between 2000 and 2015. Day 0 (D0) was defined as the day with first CT evidence of PM. Among 1193 patients, 25 cases of PM were recorded during 2099 episodes of bone marrow aplasia. At time of diagnosis of PM, 24/25 patients had been neutropenic for a median of 12 days. None of the patients had diabetes mellitus. On initial CT (D0), the lesion was solitary in 20/25 cases and a reversed halo sign (RHS) was observed in 23/25 cases. From D1 to D7, D8 to D15 and after D15, RHS was seen in 100 %, 75 % and 27 % of cases, respectively. A tissue biopsy was positive in 17/18 cases. The detection of circulating Mucorales DNA in serum was positive in 23/24 patients and in 97/188 serum specimens between D-9 and D9. Bronchoalveolar lavage contributed to diagnosis in only 3/21 cases. The antifungal treatment was mainly based on liposomal amphotericin B combined with, or followed by, posaconazole. A pulmonary surgical resection was performed in 9/25 cases. At 3 months, 76 % of patients were alive and median overall survival was 14 months. In AL, early use of CT could improve the prognosis of PM. The presence of a RHS on CT suggests PM and is an indication for prompt antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2018 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : A relationship between poor periodontal health and respiratory disease has been suggested by a number of recent studies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate potential association between respiratory diseases and periodontal health status and to co-relate the severity of periodontal disease with that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Materials and Methods : 150 patients of COPD (test group and 50 Patients without COPD (control group were recruited for the study. Information regarding patient′s demographic and socioeconomic status and lifestyle (history of smoking were considered in the study. Patients with COPD were grouped into mild, moderate and severe category on the basis of Spirometry. Periodontal health was assessed by measuring probing pocket depth, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL and Oral Hygiene Index (OHI. Results : The results showed that the subjects with COPD had significantly more mean CAL and a higher mean OHI than those without COPD. The risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. A trend was noted in that lung function appeared to diminish as the amount of attachment loss increased. Conclusion : On the basis of the observed results of the study it can be concluded that the risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. It is conceivable that oral interventions that improve oral health status may prove to lower the severity of lung infection in susceptible populations.

  12. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franchini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate. This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

  13. Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Eylem Akpinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The incidences of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT were evaluated, as were the factors influencing their development, such as type of operation, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 1,306 patients. The proportions of knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty, and femur fracture repair were 63.4%, 29.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery was 1.99% and 2.22%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with PE and DVT (61.5% and 72.4%, respectively within the first 72 h after surgery. Patients undergoing femur fracture repair, those aged ≥ 65 years, and bedridden patients were at a higher risk for developing VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that VTE was a significant complication of major orthopedic surgery, despite the use of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of VTE, especially during the perioperative period and in bedridden, elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age.

  14. Radiologic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of venous thromboembolism. Despite numerous modern diagnostic methods, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains problematic, especially in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. In this educational review, current diagnostic methods and their role in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary embolism will be discussed. In addition, practical guidelines are given for the diagnostic cascade contingent on the clinical probability for pulmonary embolism. (orig.) [de

  15. Etanercept and venous thromboembolism: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guggenheim Carla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The treatment with antitumor necrosis factor agents has often been associated with the induction of autoantibodies (antinuclear antibodies, anti-double stranded DNA antibodies and antiphospholipid antibodies. The clinical significance of these antibodies remains unclear, but they may predispose to antiphospholipid syndrome with thromboembolic complications. The association of etanercept with thromboembolic events has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We describe the cases of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and seronegative inflammatory arthritis who were treated with etanercept. They developed deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism one to three years after the initiation of etanercept therapy. All three patients had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time with a positive lupus anticoagulant that persisted even after 12 weeks. Conclusion Although the clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibodies during treatment with antitumor necrosis factor agents remains unclear, they may predispose patients to develop antiphospholipid syndrome when associated with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, lupus anticoagulant positivity, or the presence of anti-β2 glycoprotein I. Clinicians must keep this in mind during therapy with antitumor necrosis factor agents in order to prevent, detect and treat potential consequences such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

  16. Retrospective audit of antimicrobial prescribing practices for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in a large regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownridge, D J; Zaidi, S T R

    2017-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and frequent exacerbations are associated with an increased risk of death, deterioration in lung function and reduced quality of life. Current Australian guidelines developed by the Lung Foundation of Australia (the COPD-X Plan) recommends the use of a short course of corticosteroids and oral antibiotics (amoxycillin or doxycycline) as part of the treatment of an AECOPD; however, it was noted that clinical practice at the study hospital had deviated from these guidelines. To evaluate the antibiotic prescribing practices in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients, and to compare the differences in clinical outcomes (primarily mean length of stay and the rate of unplanned readmissions) between patients who received broad- vs. narrow-spectrum antibiotics in a large regional hospital. Retrospective audit of medical records for patients admitted with uncomplicated AECOPD during January-September, 2014 in a 224 acute bed regional hospital in Victoria, Australia. Fifty-nine per cent of patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics (ceftriaxone), whereas only 10% of prescriptions were concordant with current Australian guideline recommendations. Patients receiving a broad-spectrum regimen were more likely to be older (74·9 vs. 69·9 years; P = 0·009), have a higher COPD severity score (i.e. BAP-65 score, 1·55 vs. 1·06; P = 0·002) and a higher CRP (59·2 vs. 25·5 mg/L; P = 0·003) on admission. The mean LOS was not significantly different between those who received ceftriaxone and those who did not (5·09 vs. 4·55 days; P = 0·47). There was no significant difference between the groups in rates of readmissions. The antibiotic prescribing patterns for AECOPD in rural and regional Australian hospitals have not previously been examined in the current literature. In the study hospital, the majority of patients received broad

  17. Pulmonary circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, G.; Boos, M.; Scheffler, K.; Steinbrich, W.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature is mainly indicated in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. The routine procedure so far is ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy alone or in combination with diagnostic assessment of the legs to rule out deep venous thrombosis. The results are still not reliable for the majority of patients. In the case of equivocal diagnosis, invasive conventional angiography is considered the gold standard. With steady improvements in tomographic imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), non-invasive alternatives to the routine diagnostic work-up are given. Helical CT and CTA techniques are already in clinical use and estimated to sufficiently serve the demands for detection/exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The disadvantages mainly concern peripheral disease and reconstruction artifacts. MRI and MR angiography have been implemented in the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease since the introduction of contrast-enhanced MRA. In breath-hold techniques, the entire lung vascularization can be delineated and thromboemboli can be detected. The clinical experience in this field is limited, but MRI has the potential to demonstrate its superiority over CT due to its improved delineation of the vascular periphery and the more comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction. (orig.)

  18. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  19. Predictive factors for a one-year improvement in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: An 11-year retrospective and multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadelis, Gilbert; Ducrot, Rodolphe; Bourdin, Arnaud; Rastogi, Nalin

    2017-08-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) has become an emerging infectious disease and is responsible for more deaths than tuberculosis in industrialized countries. NTM-PD mortality remains high in some series reportedly ranging from 25% to 40% at five years and often due to unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD despite established treatment. The purpose of our study was to search for early factors that could predict the favorable or unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD at the first year of treatment. In this retrospective and multicenter study, we selected 119 patients based on clinical, radiological and microbiological data from 2002 to 2012 from three French university hospitals (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montpellier) with definite (meeting the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America in 2007; ATS/IDSA) or probable (one positive sputum culture) NTM-PD. We compared two patient groups: those who improved at one year (clinical symptoms, radiological lesions and microbiology data) and those who did not improve at one year. The data were analyzed for all patients as well as for subgroups by gender, HIV-positive patients, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The average patient age was 50 years ± 19.4; 58% had respiratory comorbidities, 24% were HIV positive and 19% had cystic fibrosis. Coughing concerned 66% of patients and bronchiectasis concerned 45%. The most frequently isolated NTM were MAC (46%). 57% (n = 68) of patients met the ATS criteria and improved status concerned 38.6% (n = 46). The improvement factors at one year of NTM-PD were associated with the duration of ethambutol treatment: (Odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 2.24, 95% Confidence interval [CI]; 2.11-3.41), HIV-positive status: (ORa: 3.23, 95% CI; 1.27-8.45), and male gender: (ORa: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.26-8.16). For the group with NTM-PD due to MAC, improvement was associated with the duration of macrolide treatment (ORa: 3.27, 95% CI; 1

  20. Predictive factors for a one-year improvement in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: An 11-year retrospective and multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Cadelis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD has become an emerging infectious disease and is responsible for more deaths than tuberculosis in industrialized countries. NTM-PD mortality remains high in some series reportedly ranging from 25% to 40% at five years and often due to unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD despite established treatment. The purpose of our study was to search for early factors that could predict the favorable or unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD at the first year of treatment.In this retrospective and multicenter study, we selected 119 patients based on clinical, radiological and microbiological data from 2002 to 2012 from three French university hospitals (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montpellier with definite (meeting the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America in 2007; ATS/IDSA or probable (one positive sputum culture NTM-PD. We compared two patient groups: those who improved at one year (clinical symptoms, radiological lesions and microbiology data and those who did not improve at one year. The data were analyzed for all patients as well as for subgroups by gender, HIV-positive patients, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection.The average patient age was 50 years ± 19.4; 58% had respiratory comorbidities, 24% were HIV positive and 19% had cystic fibrosis. Coughing concerned 66% of patients and bronchiectasis concerned 45%. The most frequently isolated NTM were MAC (46%. 57% (n = 68 of patients met the ATS criteria and improved status concerned 38.6% (n = 46. The improvement factors at one year of NTM-PD were associated with the duration of ethambutol treatment: (Odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 2.24, 95% Confidence interval [CI]; 2.11-3.41, HIV-positive status: (ORa: 3.23, 95% CI; 1.27-8.45, and male gender: (ORa: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.26-8.16. For the group with NTM-PD due to MAC, improvement was associated with the duration of macrolide treatment (ORa: 3.27, 95% CI; 1

  1. Effect of Milrinone Infusion on Pulmonary Vasculature and Stroke Work Indices: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 69 Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Dmitry; Haglund, Nicholas A; Di Salvo, Thomas G

    2017-08-01

    Although milrinone infusion is reported to benefit left ventricular function in chronic left heart failure, few insights exist regarding its effects on pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function. We retrospectively reviewed right heart catheterization data at baseline and during continuous infusion of milrinone in 69 patients with advanced heart failure and analyzed the effects on ventricular stroke work indices, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial compliance. Compared to baseline, milrinone infusion after a mean 58 ± 61 days improved mean left ventricular stroke work index (1540 ± 656 vs. 2079 ± 919 mmHg·mL/m 2 , p = 0.0007) to a much greater extent than right ventricular stroke work index (616 ± 346 vs. 654 ± 332, p = 0.053); however, patients with below median stroke work indices experienced a significant improvement in both left and right ventricular stroke work performance. Overall, milrinone reduced left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance by approximately 20%. Despite an increase in pulmonary artery capacitance (2.3 ± 1.6 to 3.0 ± 2.0, p = 0.013) and a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 ± 2.3 to 3.0 ± 1.7 Wood units), milrinone did not reduce the transpulmonary gradient (13 ± 7 vs. 12 ± 6 mmHg, p = 0.252), the pulmonary artery pulse pressure (25 ± 10 vs. 24 ± 10, p = 0.64) or the pulmonary artery diastolic to pulmonary capillary wedge gradient (2.0 ± 6.5 vs. 2.4 ± 6.0, p = 0.353). Milrinone improved left ventricular stroke work indices to a greater extent than right ventricular stroke work indices and had beneficial effects on right ventricular net input impedance, predominantly via augmentation of left ventricular stroke volume and passive unloading of the pulmonary circuit. Patients who had the worst biventricular performance benefited the most from chronic milrinone infusion.

  2. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  3. Incidence and Timing of Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Ovarian Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Patricia S; Bazzi, Ali A; McLean, Karen; Reynolds, R Kevin; Spencer, Ryan J; Johnston, Carolyn M; Liu, J Rebecca; Uppal, Shitanshu

    2017-06-01

    To identify the incidence and timing of venous thromboembolism as well as any associated risk factors in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer and receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy from January 2009 to May 2014 at a single academic institution. The timing and number of venous thromboembolic events for the entire cohort were categorized as follows: presenting symptom, during neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment, after debulking surgery, and during adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 125 total patients with ovarian cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 13 of 125 patients (10.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-17.2%) had a venous thromboembolism as a presenting symptom and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 112 total patients at risk, 30 (26.8%, 95% CI 19.3-35.9%) experienced a venous thromboembolism. Based on the phase of care, 13 (11.6%, 95% CI 6.8-19.1%) experienced a venous thromboembolism during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, six (5.4%, 95% CI 2.4-11.5%) developed a postoperative venous thromboembolism, and 11 (9.9%, 95% CI 5.5-17%) developed a venous thromboembolism during adjuvant chemotherapy. Two of the four patients with clear cell histology developed a venous thromboembolism in this cohort. Overall new diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was associated with one fourth of the patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer with nearly half of these diagnosed during chemotherapy cycles before interval debulking surgery. Efforts to reduce venous thromboembolism so far have largely focused on the postoperative period. Additional attention to venous thromboembolic prophylaxis during chemotherapy (neoadjuvant and adjuvant) in this patient population is warranted in an effort to decrease the rates of venous thromboembolism.

  4. Thromboembolism in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Cecilie Utke; Toft, Nina; Tuckuviene, Ruta

    2018-01-01

    Thromboembolism frequently occurs during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. We prospectively registered thromboembolic events during treatment of 1772 consecutive Nordic/Baltic ALL patients 1-45years treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL...

  5. Management of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, R; Kakkar, V V; Kakkar, A K

    2007-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is an important healthcare problem the world over, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and resource expenditure. The rationale for use of thromboprophylaxis is based on solid principles and scientific evidence. Indian perspective on this topic is lacking due to the non-availability of published Indian data. This document reviews the available International and Indian data and discusses the relevance of recommendations for prevention and management of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in the Indian context. Meetings of various specialists from different Indian hospitals in the field of Gastrointestinal Surgery, General and Vascular Surgery, Hematology, Intensive Care, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oncology and Orthopedics were held in the months of August 2005 to January 2006. The guidelines published by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the International Union of Angiology (IUA), and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG), were discussed during these meetings. The relevance of these guidelines and the practical implications of following these in a developing country like India were also discussed. Any published data from India was collected from data base searches and the results, along with personal experiences of the participating specialists were discussed. The experiences and impressions of the experts during these meetings have been included in this document. Data from recent sources (International Union of Angiology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Practice guidelines in Oncology on Venous thromboembolic disease) was subsequently also included in this document. The suggestions formulated in this document are practical, and would intend to serve as a useful practical reference. A number of unanswered questions remain in the field of thromboprophylaxis, and carefully designed research protocols may help answer some of these. Implementation of the suggestions outlined in the document

  6. Role of bronchoscopy in evaluation of cases with sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis, interstitial lung disease and lung malignancy: A retrospective study of 712 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Gupta, Nitesh

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of flexible bronchoscope has revolutionized the field of pulmonary medicine and is a standard instrument used for diagnostic purpose. A retrospective analysis of the clinico-radiological profile, indication, biopsy procedure and complications, for patients undergoing bronchoscopy at one of the respiratory unit at a tertiary care center in India. Retrospective analysis of 712 bronchoscopies was done in regard to demographic profile, clinical and radiological presentation and diagnostic indication. The results were analyzed on basis of bronchoscopy inspection and histopathological specimen obtained from transbronchial (TBLB), endobronchial biopsy (EBLB) and cytology specimen by transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Furthermore, diagnostic yield of each biopsy procedure and their combination was evaluated. Of 712 patients undergoing bronchoscopy, the pathological diagnosis was achieved in 384 (53.93%). Of 384 diagnosed cases, the clinic-radio-pathological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in 88 (22.19%), interstitial lung disease (ILDs) in 226 (58.85%), and lung cancer in 70 (18.22%) cases. Of 116 sputum smear negative tuberculosis patients, 88 (75.86%) were diagnosed to be pulmonary tuberculosis; the contribution of BAL being 71.59%. Of 226 ILDs, sarcoidosis was most common 148/226 (65.48%). Among 70 lung cancer diagnosed cases, squamous cell carcinoma was most common (54.28%). The results from current study reemphasizes on the diagnostic utility as well as safety of the bronchoscopy procedure. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  8. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  9. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  11. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p hemorrhage after 72 h, overall mortality, mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage, surfactant use, intubation time, hospitalization duration, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, patent ductus arteriosus rates, or short-term complication rates. rFVIIa administration was observed to be effective in stopping pulmonary hemorrhage, reducing blood product requirement, and improving coagulation test parameters. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and long-term results of rFVIIa in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants.

  12. Nanodiamonds activate blood platelets and induce thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sharda; Singh, Manoj K; Singh, Sunil K; Grácio, José J A; Dash, Debabrata

    2014-03-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been evaluated for a wide range of biomedical applications. Thus, thorough investigation of the biocompatibility of NDs has become a research priority. Platelets are highly sensitive and are one of the most abundant cell types found in blood. They have a central role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the direct and acute effects of carboxylated NDs on platelet function. In this study, pro-coagulant parameters such as platelet aggregability, intracellular Ca(2+) flux, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species, surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, electron microscopy, cell viability assay and in vivo thromboembolism were analyzed in great detail. Carboxylated NDs evoked significant activation of human platelets. When administered intravenously in mice, NDs were found to induce widespread pulmonary thromboembolism, indicating the remarkable thrombogenic potential of this nanomaterial. Our findings raise concerns regarding the putative biomedical applications of NDs pertaining to diagnostics and therapeutics, and their toxicity and prothrombotic properties should be critically evaluated.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  14. [Thromboembolism prophylaxis in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Gabriele; Kolb, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    Anticoagulation in geriatric patients is challenging regarding the risk of bleeding complications and thromboembolic problems. Age, comorbidities, such as renal insufficiency and polymedication have a vital impact on bleeding and thromboembolic risks; however, age is not an exclusion criterion for withholding anticoagulation. Age is the main risk factor for deep vein thrombosis and atrial fibrillation becomes more relevant with aging. Older patients with atrial fibrillation have a particularly high risk of having a stroke. Therefore, very old patients benefit particularly from oral anticoagulation because the risk of bleeding is outweighed by the clinical benefit of stroke prevention. Risk of bleeding and thromboembolic problems can be easily assessed by established diagnostic tools. This article reviews the epidemiology of thromboembolic problems in the aged as well as current diagnostic and therapeutic steps for primary and secondary prevention.

  15. Incidence of clinically suspected venous thromboembolism in British Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, B M; Patel, M S; Rudge, S; Best, A; Mangwani, J

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major public health issue around the world. Ethnicity is known to alter the incidence of VTE. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature investigating the incidence of VTE in British Indians. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of symptomatic VTE in British Indian patients in the UK. Methods Patients referred to our institution between January 2011 and August 2013 with clinically suspected VTE were eligible for inclusion in the study. Those not of British Indian or Caucasian ethnicity were excluded. A retrospective review of these two cohorts was conducted. Results Overall, 15,529 cases were referred to our institution for suspected VTE. This included 1,498 individuals of British Indian ethnicity. Of these, 182 (12%) had confirmed VTE episodes. A further 13,159 of the patients with suspected VTE were coded as Caucasian, including 2,412 (16%) who had confirmed VTE events. VTE rates were a third lower in British Indians with clinically suspected VTE than in the equivalent Caucasian group. The British Indian cohort presented with VTE at a much earlier age than Caucasians (mean 57.0 vs 68.0 years). Conclusions This study suggests that British Indian patients have a lower incidence of VTE and are more likely to present at an earlier age than Caucasians. There was no significant difference in VTE type (deep vein thrombosis vs pulmonary embolism) among the ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware of variations within ethnicities but should continue to adhere to existing VTE prevention guidance.

  16. Diagnostic Indication for Venous Echo-Doppler of the Lower Limbs in the Diagnosis of Thromboembolic; Indicacion de eco-Doppler venosa de extremidades inferiores en el diagnostico de la enfermedad tromboembolica ante una sospecha de tromboembolismo pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado, A. G.; Barcena, M. V.; Cura, J. L. del; Gorrno, O.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To study the effectiveness of Doppler echography in the deep venous system of the lower limbs for deep venous thrombosis detection in patients suspected of having pulmonary thromboembolism. There were received 341 consecutive suspected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, all of whom were emergency room attended. All were submitted to CT pulmonary angiography in order to evaluate thrombus presence in the pulmonary tree. Without knowing the results of the previous exploration, we studied 301 of the patients using Doppler echography in deep venous system of the lower limbs in order to evaluate thrombus presence. In the group of CT-detected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, the percentage of Doppler echography-detected deep venous thrombosis was 46.3%, while in the group of non-detected patients this percentage decreased to 4.7%. Additional deep venous system exploration in clinically suspected pulmonary thiolcarbamate patients is useful, since it can increase the detection rate of venous thromboembolic disease, thereby leading to early treatment and prevention of the disease's manifestation in the lungs. Realization of Doppler echography is especially beneficial in those patients who exhibit no factors which predispose them to thromboembolic disease, as well as in patients who have previously had venous thrombosis. This exploration account for 4.7% of non-detected pulmonary embolism patients being added to the ranks of those with thromboembolic disease, an important percentage when taking into consideration the high pulmonary thromboembolism morbimortality rate. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin and Risk of Post-Thrombotic Syndrome among Patients with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mette; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Skjøth, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of rivaroxaban to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with venous thromboembolism is largely unknown. We compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients given rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a cohort of routine clinical care patients with incident venous...... thromboembolism. METHODS: We linked Danish nationwide registries to identify all patients with incident venous thromboembolism who were new users of rivaroxaban or warfarin and compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome using an inverse probability of treatment weighting approach to account for baseline...... confounding. RESULTS: We identified 19,939 oral anticoagulation naive patients with incident venous thromboembolism treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban (mean age 64 years, 48% females, 45.5% with pulmonary embolism). The propensity-weighted rate of post-thrombotic syndrome at 3 years follow-up was 0...

  18. Thromboembolism with Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors for Rheumatoid Arthritis: How Real is the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian C; Hider, Samantha L; Scott, David L

    2018-03-02

    Two different Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors-baricitinib and tofacitinib-are effective and licensed in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There have been recent concerns about potential thromboembolic risks with these drugs. Concerns about baricitinib focus on clinical trial findings. Using all publically available data, we estimate thromboembolic risks are approximately five events per 1000 patient years with 4 mg baricitinib daily. Concerns about tofacitinib have been raised by analyses of the Federal Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERs). These show some evidence of increased risks of pulmonary thrombosis, though not pulmonary embolism or venous thrombosis. Observational studies suggest in the general population and non-RA controls there are one to four thromboembolic events per 1000 patient years. In RA, thromboembolic risks increase to three to seven per 1000 patient years. The impact of biologics and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on disease risk appears minimal, and the number of thromboembolic events is between four and eight per 1000 patient years. In the short term, full details of thromboembolic events in trials of JAK inhibitors need to be published. As the numbers of thromboembolic events will be small and patients enrolled in trials are not representative of all RA patients who may receive JAK inhibitors, this information is unlikely to provide definitive answers. Consequently, in the longer term, large observational studies are needed to accurately quantify thromboembolic risks attributable to JAK inhibitors and other drugs used to treat RA, and differentiate these from risks attributable to RA itself and its comorbidities.

  19. Thromboembolic disease in vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasson, Gunnar; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To give an overview of recent clinical findings of thromboembolic disease in vasculitis and provide insight into possible explanations of the association between thrombosis and inflammation. Recent findings A high incidence of venous thrombotic events has recently been described in four distinct cohorts of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV), especially during periods of active disease. No factors other than the vasculitis itself have been identified that explain this high occurrence of thrombosis. Several studies have shown an increased rate of thrombosis in Behçet’s disease, with a different clinical presentation than that observed in AAV. Recent laboratory findings provide exciting insights into a bidirectional feedback loop between coagulation and inflammation that may be applicable to vasculitis. Summary Thrombosis is an important clinical manifestation of some types of vasculitis. Better understanding of the association of thrombosis with inflammation in vasculitis might lead to development of clinically useful biomarkers and new approaches to therapy. Additionally, study of the specific factors involved in thrombosis in systemic vasculitis could help explain the role of inflammation in more common settings of venous thrombotic events. PMID:19077717

  20. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenCate, JW; Buller, HR; Gent, M; Hirsh, J; Prins, MH; Baildon, R; Lensing, AWA; Anderson, DR; vanBeek, EJR; Fiesinger, JN; Tijssen, JGP; vanBarneveld, A; Eimers, LT; Graafsma, YP; Hettiarachchi, R; Hutten, B; Redekop, K; Haley, S; LIberale, L; Finch, T; Whittaker, S; Wilkinson, L; Prandoni, P; Villalta, S; Girolami, B; Bagatella, P; Rossi, L; Girolami, A; Piovella, F; Barone, M; Beltrametti, C; Serafini, S; Siragusa, S; Ascari, E; Kovacs, MJ; Morrow, B; Kovacs, J; Kuijer, PMM; Koopman, MMW; Jagt, H; Weitz, J; Kearon, C; Biagioni, L; Haas, S; Lossner, F; Spengel, FA; Berger, M; Demers, C; Poulin, J; vanderMeer, J; Que, GTH; Smid, WM; Robinson, KS; Boyle, E; Leclerc, [No Value; StJacques, B; Finkenbine, S; Gallus, AS; Cohlan, D; Rich, C; Brandjes, DPM; Hoefnagel, CA; deRijk, M; Turkstra, F; Desjardins, L; CoteDesjardins, J; Couture, L; Ruel, M; Villenueve, J; Geerts, WH; Jay, RM; Code, EKI; Turpie, AGG; Johnson, J; Nguyen, P; Cusson, [No Value; Roy, S; Wells, PS; Bormanis, J; Goudie, D; Cruickshank, M; vonLewinski, M; Monreal, M; Sahuquillo, JC; Lafoz, E; Simonneau, G; Parent, F; Jagot, J; Douketis, JD; Kinnon, K; Ginsberg, JS; BrillEdwards, P; Donovan, D; Ockelford, PA; Kassis, J; Bornais, S; Planchon, B; ElKouri, D; Pistorius, MA; Escribano, M; Garrido, G; Chesterman, CN; Chong, BH; Pritchard, S; Cade, JF; Bynon, T; Stanford, J; Brien, WM; Palmer, B; Faivre, R; Petiteau, B; Manucci, PM; Moia, M; Bucciarelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight heparin is known to be safe and effective for the initial Treatment of patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. However, its application to patients with pulmonary embolism or previous episodes of thromboembolism has not been studied. Methods We randomly assigned

  1. Statin treatment and risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Cu Dinh; Andersson, Charlotte; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gjesing, Anne; Schjerning Olsen, Anne-Marie; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Büller, Harry; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2013-01-01

    Statins may decrease the risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) but the effect of statins in preventing recurrent VTE is less clear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association between statin therapy and

  2. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for the management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: prospective study with a retrospective control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Leon PHJ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema can have important benefits in acute cardiac care. However, coronary care units are usually not equipped and their personnel not adequately trained for applying CPAP with mechanical ventilators. Therefore we investigated in the coronary care unit setting the feasibility and outcome of the simple Boussignac mask-CPAP (BCPAP system that does not need a mechanical ventilator. Methods BCPAP was introduced in a coronary care unit where staff had no CPAP experience. All consecutive patients transported to our hospital with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, a respiratory rate > 25 breaths/min and a peripheral arterial oxygen saturation of Results During the 2-year prospective BCPAP study period 108 patients were admitted with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Eighty-four of these patients (78% were treated at the coronary care unit of which 66 (61% were treated with BCPAP. During the control period 66 patients were admitted over a 1-year period of whom 31 (47% needed respiratory support in the intensive care unit. BCPAP treatment was associated with a reduced hospital length of stay and fewer transfers to the intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Overall estimated savings of approximately € 3,800 per patient were achieved with the BCPAP strategy compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion At the coronary care unit, BCPAP was feasible, medically effective, and cost-effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Endpoints included mortality, coronary care unit and hospital length of stay, need of ventilatory support, and cost (savings.

  3. Impact of Anticoagulation in Elderly Patients With Pulmonary Embolism That Undergo IVC Filter Placement: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatko, John M; Dalal, Bhavinkumar; Qu, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulation is the primary treatment for pulmonary embolism (PE). Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are an adjunctive intervention to prevent recurrent pulmonary embolism. Long-term outcomes in elderly patients with contraindications to anticoagulation after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism have yet to be assessed. Patients ≥60years of age, that had an IVC filter placed between 1 January, 2008 and 2 February, 2013, with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, were included. Patients that died during index hospitalisation, were discharged to hospice, or had active malignancy were excluded. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients were divided depending on whether they were treated with an approved anticoagulant for VTE or had no anticoagulant. Of the 152 patients identified, 55 were not anti-coagulated after IVC filter placement. The incidence of death was 0.4 per 1000 filter days and 0.7 per 1000 filter days in the anti-coagulated and untreated groups respectively (p-value=0.06). After statistical correction for co-morbid conditions, the effect of anticoagulation was not significant (HR 0.82 CI 0.49-1.37, p-value 0.46). Age was a significant confounder that was associated with death. Increased BMI was protective. Indications for IVC filter placement were numerous, but similar between the two groups. Treatment with an approved anticoagulant is recommended after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, however its effect may be attenuated by advanced age. In elderly patients that have undergone IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, survival may be more dependent on age and co-morbid conditions than exposure to anticoagulation. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New data for venous thromboembolism in patients with small cell lung cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakakos, Evangelos; Livanios, Konstantinos; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Charpidou, Adriani; Ntalakou, Eleutheria; Kainis, Llias; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Malignancy is an important predisposing factor for thromboembolic disease. Patients with malignancy display 4 to 10 times greater risk than the general population. As for lung cancer, that risk seems to further increase and become up to 20 times higher. The aim of this article is to review the International literature in order to highlight for the first time, the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1990 up to 2016, for retrospective and prospective studies that investigate the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. The incidence rate of thromboembolic disease found in these studies ranged between 6.8% and 11.5%. Thromboembolic disease is associated with a reduced survival in patients with small cell lung cancer and six factors seemed to increase the risk of thromboembolism: chemotherapy, cisplatin treatment, smoking, extensive disease, the infiltration of the superior vena cava and multiple concomitant diseases. Thromboembolic disease shows an increased incidence in patients with small cell lung cancer and more research with well-designed studies is required in order to study in detail the anticoagulation treatment and the survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

  5. Prevention of thromboembolism during radiosynoviorthesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Ritter, B.

    2006-01-01

    The question of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease during radiosynoviorthesis with concomitant immobilization of the treated joint is discussed by means of a recent case report. The possible advantages must be balanced against the potential risks of hemorrhage and heparine-induced thrombocytopenia in every patient. The intraarticular radionuclide therapy might be ranked as ''low risk'', comparable to small or medium interventions with minor trauma according to surgical and perioperative classifications, provided that there are no individual risk factors. With respect to the possible side effects, a general thromboembolic prophylaxis is not recommended in these patients. After radiosynoviorthesis of the knee and an additional joint of the same limb which requires an immobilization spanning both joints, a ''medium risk'' of thromboembolic disease must be assumed. In these cases, as well as with two or more predisposing risk factors, a pharmacological prevention of thromboembolism is mandatory. Ready-to-use syringes containing low-molecular-weight heparine are available for this purpose. Although serious side effects from LMW heparine are rare, monitoring of the thrombocyte counts prior to and 1-2 times during heparine application are advisable. Pharmacological prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease is strictly contraindicated in patients with acute bleeding, cerebral aneurysms and known aortic dissections. In case of concomitant treatment with NSAIDs, antagonists of platelet aggregation or valproic acid, the indication for heparine treatment should be discussed very seriously. Both the verbal and written information of each patient must be complete and precise with respect to possible advantages and potential risks of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  7. Pulmonary arterial stent implantation in an adult with Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; van Delden, Otto M.; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent

  8. Hypercoagulable states in patients with multiple myeloma can affect the thalidomide-associated venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo P; Ibrahim, Sulfi; Claxton, David; Tricot, Guido J; Fink, Louis M; Zangari, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    The therapeutic use of thalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma is often complicated by the development of venous thromboembolism. The objective of the present study was to identify hypercoagulable states associated with development of venous thromboembolism in thalidomide-treated multiple myeloma patients. We screened 49 consecutive multiple myeloma patients treated with thalidomide at baseline for hypercoagulability. With a median follow-up of 11 months, 10 of 49 multiple myeloma patients developed a thrombotic episode. Laboratory assays revealed an underlying abnormality in nine of the 10 patients; hypercoagulable screenings were normal in 36 of the 39 patients who did not develop venous thromboembolism (P < 0.0001). Our retrospective study results suggest that the multiple myeloma patients with thromboembolic complications during treatment with thalidomide have a frequent concomitant underlying thrombophilic state.

  9. Bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism and Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease on oral contraceptives Tromboembolismo de pulmón bilateral y síndrome de Budd-Chiari en paciente con enfermedad de Crohn y toma de anticonceptivos orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valdés Mas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Budd-Chiari syndrome can be defined as an interruption or diminution of the normal blood flow out of the liver. Patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome present with varying degrees of symptomatology that can be divided into the following categories: fulminant, acute, subacute and chronic. The subacute form is the most common presentation. A majority of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome have an underlying hypercoagulability state. We present the case of a young woman with Crohn's disease on oral contraceptives who developed bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism and Budd-Chiari syndrome.El síndrome de Budd-Chiari consiste en la interrupción o disminución de flujo de las venas suprahepáticas. Tiene una gran variabilidad clínica en cuanto a su forma de presentación siendo la más frecuente la forma subaguda. La gran mayoría de los pacientes responden a estados de hipercoagulabilidad. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con enfermedad de Crohn que estaba en tratamiento con anticonceptivos orales y desarrolló un cuadro clínico de tromboembolismo de pulmón bilateral y síndrome de Budd-Chiari.

  10. Familial Clustering of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Oestergaard, Louise Bruun; Gundlund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is of utmost importance to improve current prophylactic regimes and treatment guidelines. The extent to which a family history contributes to the risk of VTE needs further exploration. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative ...

  11. Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim TH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0% of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1% of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628. However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59, emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82, increased amount of red blood cell (RBC transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion, and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93 were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.Keywords: postoperative pulmonary complications, spirometry, risk factor, abdominal surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative care

  12. Pregnancy predispose to higher incidence of venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anita Sylvest; Bergholt, Thomas; Salvig, Jannie Dalby

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality despite the possibility to prevent and treat the disorder. The hypercoagulability of normal pregnancy predispose to an approximately six-fold higher incidence of VTE in pregnancy. Identification of risk pregnancies...... and start of prophylaxis is essential, as is early diagnosis of VTE to prevent progression and pulmonary embolism. For anticoagulant treatment and prophylaxis in pregnancy, low molecular weight heparin is the drug of choice and prophylaxis, if indicated, should initiate as soon as pregnancy is confirmed....

  13. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... were probable cases (1.7%) whereas for 449 (41.6%) the diagnosis could be excluded. The incidence rate was 1 per 1000 personyears. Out of the 632 cases 60% were DVT and 40% PE. 315 VT were considered idiopathic (49.8%), 311 were secondary (49.2%) and 15 were unclassifiable. 122 patients had cancer, 87...

  14. Semuloparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, M R; Fisher, W; Mouret, P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Semuloparin is a novel ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin under development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in patients at increased risk, such as surgical and cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: Three Phase III studies compared semuloparin and enoxaparin after major orthopedic...... was to be performed between days 7 and 11. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of any deep vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism or all-cause death. Safety outcomes included major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, and any clinically relevant bleeding (major bleeding plus CRNM...

  15. Tranexamic acid use and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States: retrospective analysis of effectiveness and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeran, Jashvant; Rasul, Rehana; Suzuki, Suzuko; Danninger, Thomas; Mazumdar, Madhu; Opperer, Mathias; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness and safety of perioperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States. Design Retrospective cohort study; multilevel multivariable logistic regression models measured the association between tranexamic acid use in the perioperative period and outcomes. Setting 510 US hospitals from the claims based Premier Perspective database for 2006-12. Participants 872 416 patients who had total hip or knee arthroplasty. Intervention Perioperative intravenous tranexamic acid use by dose categories (none, ≤1000 mg, 2000 mg, and ≥3000 mg). Main outcome measures Allogeneic or autologous transfusion, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis), acute renal failure, and combined complications (thromboembolic complications, acute renal failure, cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality). Results While comparable regarding average age and comorbidity index, patients receiving tranexamic acid (versus those who did not) showed lower rates of allogeneic or autologous transfusion (7.7% v 20.1%), thromboembolic complications (0.6% v 0.8%), acute renal failure (1.2% v 1.6%), and combined complications (1.9% v 2.6%); all Ptranexamic acid dose categories (versus no tranexamic acid use) were associated with significantly (PTranexamic acid was effective in reducing the need for blood transfusions while not increasing the risk of complications, including thromboembolic events and renal failure. Thus our data provide incremental evidence of the potential effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in patients requiring orthopedic surgery. PMID:25116268

  16. Value of venous color flow duplex scan as initial screening test for geriatric inpatients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Elias Stephan2, Pascale Salameh3, Mirna Waked4 1Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Geriatrics, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon Aim: The contribution of lower extremity venous duplex scan to the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism has been demonstrated by many authors. However, the positive diagnostic value of this noninvasive test in clinically suspected pulmonary embolism is not very high (10%–18%. Since thromboembolic risks increase considerably in hospitalized patients with advanced age, this study aims to determine the importance of lower extremity venous color flow duplex scan in this particular subgroup of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. The effects of clinical presentation and risk factors on the results of duplex scan have been also studied. Methods: Between July 2007 and January 2010, 95 consecutive Lebanese geriatric ($60 years of age inpatients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism assessed in an academic tertiary-care center for complete lower extremity venous color flow duplex scan were retrospectively reviewed. Age varied between 60 and 96 years (mean, 79.9 years. Forty patients were males and 55 females. Absence of compressibility was the most important criteria for detecting acute venous thrombosis. Results: Out of 95 patients, 33 patients (34.7% were diagnosed with recent deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities (14 proximal and 19 distal using complete venous ultrasound. Nine of these 33 patients (27.2% had a history of venous thromboembolism and eleven (33.3% presented with edema of lower

  17. [Clinical scores for the venous thromboembolic disease: an aid for the diagnosis and the treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-03-04

    The venous thromboembolic disease includes a wide range of conditions from well defined medical entities (pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis), their diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the risk of developping a venous thromboembolic disease in association with hospitalisation for acute medical illness and with cancer. The assessment of the risk of treatment with anticoagulants is also itaken into account. For all these medical situations, numerous (approximately 50) clinical scores have been reported. They will be presented and critically analysed in the next series of 6 articles.

  18. Fish Intake and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Diet plays an important role in modulating the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Several lines of evidence attest that consumption of fish and its compounds, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be effective to decrease the cardiovascular risk. Since the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis share some common aspects, we performed a systematic review of published clinical studies that investigated the association between fish intake and venous thrombosis. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science using the key words "fish" OR "seafood" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism", with no language or date restriction. Overall, 6 studies (5 prospective and 1 case-control) were finally identified. In only 1 small case-control study, a larger intake of total fish was found to be negatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism. No association was found in 4 large prospective studies, whereas a positive association was observed in the remaining. No substantial difference was also noticed between intake of fatty or lean fish. Taken together, the current epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of a significant effect of total fish consumption on the risk of venous thromboembolism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Impact of obesity on the risk of venous thromboembolism in an inpatient pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Sean; Breheny, Patrick; Radulescu, Aurelia; Radulescu, Vlad Calin

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism in children has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Over the same period of time, there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population. Obesity is a known risk factor for VTE in adults, but little information is available in children. This study evaluates the relation between obesity and VTE using a retrospective, case-control design, comparing the body mass index (BMI) of patients admitted with a diagnosis of VTE versus patients admitted with other diagnoses, at a single institution, between 2007 and 2011. We studied 48 inpatients diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism and a control group of 274 age and gender matched patients admitted with other diagnoses. We found obese patients (BMI > 95th percentile) to have significantly higher risk of VTE (odds ratio 2.1, with 95% CI 1.1-4.2) than patients of normal weight (BMI obesity and VTE in a group of hospitalized children, showing a risk for VTE in obese children similar to the one described in much larger adult cohorts.

  20. Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography for Evaluation of Patients With Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Use or Overuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molaee, Shima; Ghanaati, Hossein; Safavi, Enayat; Foroumandi, Morteza; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been increased during the last decade. We studied the adherence to current diagnostic recommendations for evaluation of pulmonary embolism in a teaching hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The registered medical records (Wells scores and serum D-dimer level) of all patients whose CTPA was performed with suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) were studied retrospectively. Modified Wells score of each patient was determined without being aware of the CTPA results. The patients were categorized to those with a high (likely) clinical probability (score > 4) and low (unlikely) clinical probability (score≤ 4) of PTE. During a 6-month period, 82 patients who underwent CTPA were included. The prevalence of PTE was 62.2% in the group of subjects with a likely clinical risk. In 45 (54.8%) of those patients whose CTPA was requested, the PTE was unlikely based on modified Wells criteria. In the clinically unlikely group, serum D-dimer assay was done in 15 out of 45 (33.3%), while it was inappropriately checked in 10 out of 37 (27.0%) with a clinically likely risk. General adherence rate to diagnostic algorithm of PTE was 43.9%. There is still excessive unjustified concern of PTE in less trained physicians leading to excessive diagnostic work-up. Loyalty to the existing guideline for management of suspected PTE in educational hospitals and supervision of attending physicians could prevent overuse of CTPA

  1. THORACIC COMPLICATIONS OF OESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA- A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF CT APPEARANCES

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    Piyush Joshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oesophageal cancer is a common gastrointestinal tract malignancy and Computed Tomography (CT is generally used for its initial evaluation and staging. Due to the anatomical relationships of the oesophagus, malignancies afflicting it can also give rise to various pulmonary and thoracic complications. The staging CT can also be used to detect and evaluate these complications. Detection of concurrent thoracic complications in addition to the primary malignancy is imperative to institute appropriate management. The aim of the study is to analyse and discuss the various thoracic complications in cases of oesophageal carcinoma detected on Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS MDCT images of 27 cases of histopathologically-proven carcinoma oesophagus who had thoracic complications in addition to features of malignancy and metastases were retrospectively analysed. The various pulmonary and thoracic complications in addition to the primary lesions were assessed and evaluated. RESULTS There were 27 cases of oesophageal carcinoma with complications, of which there were 20 patients who had pulmonary consolidation/pneumonitis, 5 had oesophago-respiratory fistulae, 1 had a lung abscess, 2 had pericardial effusions, 3 had pleural effusions, 2 cases of airway compromise with atelectasis and 2 cases with Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE. CONCLUSION The routine chest CT for evaluation and staging of the primary tumour in cases of oesophageal carcinoma can also reveal thoracic complications directly or indirectly related the cancer some of which may alter management. The most common of these are pneumonia and oesophago-respiratory fistulas. Others like pulmonary thromboembolism may require immediate intervention. An awareness of the spectrum of imaging appearances of these complications and due vigilance while interpreting chest CT studies will aid decision making and institution of appropriate management.

  2. Changes in healthcare utilization and costs associated with sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension: a retrospective cohort study

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    Berger Ariel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known concerning the degree to which initiation of sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH impacts patterns of healthcare utilization and costs. Methods Using a large US health insurance claims database, we identified all patients with evidence of PAH (ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes 416.0, 416.8 who received sildenafil between 1/1/2005 and 9/30/2008. Date of the first-noted prescription for sildenafil was designated the “index date,” and claims data were compiled for all study subjects for 6 months prior to their index date (“pretreatment” and 6 months thereafter (“follow-up”; patients with incomplete data during either of these periods were excluded. Healthcare utilization and costs were then compared between pretreatment and follow-up for all study subjects. Results A total of 567 PAH patients were identified who began therapy with sildenafil and met all other study entry criteria. Mean (SD age was 52 (10 years; 73% were women. Healthcare utilization was largely unchanged between pretreatment and follow-up, the only exceptions being decreases in the mean number of emergency department visits (from 0.7 to 0.5 per patient; p  Conclusions The cost of sildenafil therapy may be partially offset by reductions in other healthcare costs.

  3. The use of a water seal to manage air leaks after a pulmonary lobectomy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Junichi; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Fukuyama, Yasuro; Ushijima, Chie; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2006-08-01

    The methods for managing chest drainage tubes during the postoperative period differ among thoracic surgeons and, as a result, the optimal method remains controversial. We reviewed 170 consecutive patients undergoing a pulmonary lobectomy for either primary lung cancer or metastatic lung cancer from January 1998 to December 2002. After the operation, the chest drainage tube was placed on a suction pump with a negative pressure of -10 cmH(2)O in 120 patients before 2001, while such drainage tubes were kept on water seal in 47 cases mainly since 2001. Regarding the preoperative and postoperative variables, postoperative air leak as well as the video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure were more frequently observed in the water seal group than in the suction group (p=0.01580, pleak seemed to be similar between the two methods. These observations suggest that applying chest tubes on water seal seems to be an effective method for preventing postoperative air leak in clinical practice. However, a prospective randomized trial using a larger series of patients is warranted for this subject.

  4. Extent and cost of inappropriate use of tumour markers in patients with pulmonary disease: a multicentre retrospective study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichen; Song, Yunxiao; Zhang, Xiong; Hu, Jun; Yuan, Suwei; Ma, Jin

    2018-02-28

    The currently implemented healthcare reform in China requires substantial capital investment. Although overtreatment results in serious waste, inappropriate laboratory use is widespread, and overuse of tumour markers (TMs) has attracted increasing attention. Retrospective study. The respiratory, thoracic surgery and oncology departments of three hospitals in Shanghai from 2014 to 2015. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and primary bronchogenic lung cancer (PLC). Based on clinical guidelines and physician experience, the criteria of suitability of TM examinations were determined, and the number, cost and proportion of inappropriate TM requests were analysed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for carcinoembryonic antigen+cytokeratin fragment 21-1+squamous cell carcinoma antigen+neuron-specific enolase in patients with COPD and PLC was 0.813, in accordance with the cost-effectiveness principle, indicating good clinical and health economics values. In the 2706 patients, 12 496-16 956 (58.27%-79.06%) of TM requests were inappropriate. Furthermore, the involved expense was 650 200-1 014 156 yuan, accounting for 7.69%-12.00% of examination expenses and 1.35%-2.11% of hospitalisation costs. We found that the inappropriate use of TMs was widespread for patients with pulmonary disease. Clinicians should use TMs strictly according to the guidelines to effectively manage laboratory resources and control costs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Initial experience with a synthetic sealant PleuraSeal™ after pulmonary resections: a prospective study with retrospective case matched controls

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    Hennings Ellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative outcome and efficacy of a hydrogel tissue sealant for prevention of alveolar leakage after open lung resections. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in the PleuraSeal™ sealant group (PSG and case matched with 20 retrospective controls (CG with standard treatment. Assessment of postoperative air leakage was performed until chest tube removal. Patients were followed until 30 days after discharge. At end of surgery, 100% in the PSG and 0% in the CG were air leak free (p The study demonstrated a superior efficacy of PleuraSeal™ sealant compared with standard surgical treatment for sustained sealing of postoperative air leakage and causes shorter air leak chest tube duration.

  6. Mechanical Ventilation Outcomes in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension in the United States: A National Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Barret; Biagioni, Bradly J; Berger, Landon; McDermid, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) who undergo mechanical ventilation is not well known. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2006 to 2012 was used to isolate patients with a diagnosis of PAH who also underwent invasive (MV) and noninvasive (NIMV) mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The hospital records of 55 208 382 patients were studied, and there were 21 070 patients with PAH, of whom 1646 (7.8%) received MV and 834 (4.0%) received NIMV. Those receiving MV had higher mortality (39.1% vs 12.6%, P < .001) and longer hospital stays (11.9 days, interquartile range [IQR] 6.1-22.2 vs 6.7 days, IQR 3.4-11.9, P < .001) than those undergoing NIMV. Of the patients treated with MV, 4.4% also used home oxygen therapy and had similar overall mortality to those who did not use home oxygen (35.3% vs 39.1%, P = .46). Similarly, there was no relationship between home oxygen use and mortality in patients treated with NIMV (10.6% vs 12.6%, P = .48). Notably, more patients treated with NIMV used home oxygen than those treated with MV (14.4% vs 4.4%, P < .001). Patients with PAH who undergo invasive mechanical ventilation have an in-hospital mortality of 39.1%. Future work may help identify the types of patients who benefit most from advanced respiratory support in a critical care setting.

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) During the Two Last Years of Life – A Retrospective Study of Decedents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Nyström, Lennarth; Arvidsson, Peter; Lundbäck, Bo; Larsson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the management of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during the last years of life. The aim of the study was to describe how management of COPD is performed in Sweden during the last two years of life. Methods From the nationwide Cause of Death register all individuals with COPD as the underlying cause of death during two years were identified in one sparsely and one densely populated area of Sweden. Data were collected from medical records using a pre-defined protocol, especially developed for this purpose. Results Of 822 individuals with COPD as underlying cause of death, medical records from 729 were available. The COPD diagnosis was based on lung function measurements in approximately half of the patients and median age at COPD diagnosis was 74 years (range 34-95). Women died at younger age, median 78 years (range 52-96) than did men (80 years (51-99)). The median survival time from diagnosis to death was 6 years in men and women in both areas. Among women and men 8.3% and 4.3% were never smokers, respectively. The structure of COPD management differed between the two areas, with utilization of physiotherapists, dieticians and working therapists being more used in the northern area, likely because of differences in accessibility to care institutions. Conclusions In Sweden COPD is mostly diagnosed late in life and often not verified by lung function measurements. Opposite to the general population, women with COPD die at a lower age than men. PMID:24367631

  8. Aspirin for Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism After Orthopaedic Oncologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory M; Patel, Yash M; Ricketti, Daniel A; Gaughan, John P; Lackman, Richard D; Kim, Tae Won B

    2017-12-06

    Patients who undergo orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures are at increased risk of developing a venous thromboembolism (VTE). Guidelines from surgical societies are shifting to include aspirin as a postoperative VTE prophylactic agent. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using aspirin as postoperative VTE prophylaxis for orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures. This study was a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with a primary malignant soft-tissue or bone tumor or metastatic carcinoma. Demographic information, histopathologic diagnosis, VTE history, surgical procedure, and VTE prophylaxis were analyzed. VTE rates in the overall and prophylactic-specific cohorts were recorded and compared. A total of 142 distinct surgical procedures in 130 patients were included. VTE prophylaxis with aspirin was used after 103 procedures, and non-aspirin prophylaxis was used after 39. In 33 cases, imaging was used to investigate for VTE because of clinical signs and symptoms. VTE developed after 7 (4.9%) of the 142 procedures. There were 6 deep venous thromboses (DVTs) and 1 pulmonary embolism, and 2 of the VTEs presented in patients with a VTE history. VTE developed in 2.9% (3) of the 103 aspirin cases and 10.3% (4) of the 39 non-aspirin cases. No patient in the aspirin group who had been diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma, malignant soft-tissue sarcoma, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma developed a VTE. Risk factors for VTE development included diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 10.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61 to 67.30), a history of VTE (OR = 7.26, 95% CI = 1.19 to 44.25), postoperative transfusion (OR = 34.50, 95% CI = 3.94 to 302.01), and estimated blood losses of 250 mL (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.03), 500 mL (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.13), and 1,000 mL (OR = 5.10, 95% CI = 1.52 to 17.04). Aspirin may be a suitable and effective option for VTE chemoprophylaxis in patients treated with orthopaedic oncologic surgery, especially

  9. The risk of recurrent thromboembolic disorders in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism: new scenarios and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Barbar, Sofia; Milan, Marta; Vedovetto, Valentina; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The risk of recurrent thromboembolic disorders in the 10-year period following an episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) ranges between 30 and 50%, the rate being higher in patients with primary deep venous thrombosis (DVT) than in those with primary pulmonary embolism (PE). The clinical presentation with primary PE increases by more than three times the risk of a new PE episode over that with isolated DVT. Baseline parameters that increase this risk are the proximal location of DVT, obesity, old age and male sex, whereas the role of thrombophilia is controversial. An increasing role is played by post-baseline parameters such as the ultrasound assessment of residual vein thrombosis and the determination of D-dimer. While the latest international guidelines suggest indefinite anticoagulation for most patients with the first episode of unprovoked VTE, new scenarios are being offered by the identification of risk stratification models and by strategies that have the potential to help identify patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued, such as those that incorporate the assessment of D-dimer and residual vein thrombosis. New opportunities are being offered by low-dose aspirin, which has recently been reported to decrease by more than 30% the risk of recurrent events without increasing the bleeding risk; and especially by a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa oral compounds, which are likely to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than vitamin K antagonists while preserving at least the same effectiveness, do not require laboratory monitoring, and can be used immediately after the thrombotic episode. © 2013.

  10. Thromboembolic events in Fabry disease and the impact of factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Karabul, Nesrin; Duning, Thomas; Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Michael; Mesters, Rolf; Hense, Hans-Werner; Beck, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2015-03-10

    Although several reports suggest an increased thromboembolic event rate, especially regarding strokes and TIAs at early age in patients with Fabry disease (FD), the risk for patients with FD to experience these events, the clinical relevance of additional risk factors including the concurrence of factor V Leiden (FVL), and the benefit of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) regarding these events remain unclear. Three hundred four consecutively recruited patients with FD were evaluated for their lifetime occurrence of thromboembolic events such as stroke, TIA, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The thromboembolic risk was determined in patients with FD and concurrent FVL, and the impact of ERT was assessed. The 304 patients with FD had a median age of 41 years and 53 (17.4%) had experienced at least one thromboembolic event during their lifetime. Among 226 patients with FD screened for FVL, 16 gene carriers were identified (7.1%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with FD and concurrent FVL was significantly increased compared to those without FVL (hazard ratio = 5.45, 95% confidence interval 2.29-12.99; p risk of thromboembolic events compared to those without ERT (hazard ratio = 0.362, 95% confidence interval 0.132-0.992; p = 0.0422). This observational study confirms that patients with FD have a high risk of clinically relevant thromboembolic events, which could be aggravated by a concurrence of FVL. ERT might be of benefit in preventing vascular events in patients with FD. The latter observation needs confirmation, however, by randomized and controlled clinical trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders

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    Yochai Adir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a major complication of several haematological disorders. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs associated with pulmonary hypertension have been included in group five of the clinical classification for pulmonary hypertension, corresponding to pulmonary hypertension for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and treatment approaches of the more common forms of pulmonary hypertension in the context of CMPD's: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, precapillary pulmonary hypertension and drug-induced PH.

  12. Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society 2014 Consensus Statement: Pharmacotherapies in Cardiac Critical Care Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2016-03-01

    To review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies. Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension have been applied for the benefit of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no pulmonary arterial hypertension medications approved for children in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension as infusions (IV and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first-line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and is commonly used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in the ICU. Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with pulmonary arterial

  13. A single center retrospective cohort study comparing low-molecular-weight heparins to direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer - A real world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Megan K; Wiczer, Tracy E; Erdeljac, H Paige; Van Deusen, Kelsey R; Porter, Kyle; Philips, Gary; Wang, Tzu-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Low-molecular-weight heparins are the standard treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants are a new option for thrombosis treatment; however, data supporting the use of direct oral anticoagulants for cancer-associated thrombosis are limited. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the rate of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis and major bleeding within 6 months of starting either low-molecular-weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulant for treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Secondary objectives were to determine the rates of clinically relevant-non-major bleeding and all-cause mortality. Patients/methods This is a retrospective cohort study including adults with cancer-associated thrombosis treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulant between 2010 and 2016 at the Ohio State University. Medical records were reviewed for 6 months after initiation of anticoagulation or until the occurrence of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis, major bleeding, cessation of anticoagulation of interest, or death, whichever occurred first. Results Four hundred and eighty patients were included (290 low-molecular-weight heparin and 190 direct oral anticoagulant). Patients treated with direct oral anticoagulant were found to carry "lower risk" features including cancer with lower VTE risk and lower rate of metastatic disease. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was no significant difference in the rate of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis (7.2% low-molecular-weight heparin vs 6.3% direct oral anticoagulant, p = 0.71) or major bleeding (7.6% low-molecular-weight heparin vs 2.6% direct oral anticoagulant, p = 0.08). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that in a select population of cancer patients with VTE, direct oral anticoagulant use can be as effective and safe compared to the standard therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin.

  14. What Is the Safety and Efficacy of Chemical Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Geoffrey C; Bowers, Christian A; MacDonald, Joel D; Couldwell, William T; Shelton, Clough; Gurgel, Richard K

    2018-02-01

    The benefit of routine chemical prophylaxis use for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in skull base surgery is controversial. Chemical prophylaxis can prevent undue morbidity and mortality, however there are risks for hemorrhagic complications. Retrospective case-control. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgery for vestibular schwannoma from 2011 to 2016 was performed. Patients were divided by receipt of chemical VTE prophylaxis. Number of VTEs and hemorrhagic complications (intracranial hemorrhage, abdominal hematoma, and postauricular hematoma) were recorded. One hundred twenty-six patients were identified, 55 received chemical prophylaxis, and 71 did not. All the patients received mechanical prophylaxis. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and one patient developed a pulmonary embolism (PE). All patients who developed a DVT or PE received chemical prophylaxis. There was no difference in DVT (p = 0.1886) or PE (p = 0.4365) between those who received chemical prophylaxis and those who did not. Five patients developed a hemorrhagic complication, two intracranial hemorrhage, three abdominal hematoma, and zero postauricular hematoma. All five patients with a complication received chemical prophylaxis (p = 0.00142). The relative risk of a hemorrhagic complication was 14.14 (95% CI = 0.7987-250.4307; p = 0.0778). There was a significant difference between the number of hemorrhagic complications but not between numbers of DVT or PE. Mechanical and chemical prophylaxis may lower the risk of VTE but in our series, hemorrhagic complications were observed. These measures should be used selectively in conjunction with early ambulation.

  15. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  16. Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Country: A Four Year Retrospective Study in an Australian Tertiary Infectious Diseases Unit.

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    Simon Pollett

    Full Text Available Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is relatively neglected and increasing in incidence, in comparison to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in low-burden settings. It poses particular diagnostic and management challenges. We aimed to determine the characteristics of EPTB in Western Sydney, Australia, and to conduct a quality assurance investigation of adherence to guidelines among Infectious Diseases (ID practitioners managing EPTB cases.All adult EPTB cases managed by a large ID service during 01/01/2008-31/12/2011 were eligible for inclusion in the retrospective review. Data were extracted from patient medical records on demographic, diagnostic, clinical and management details, and on clinician adherence to local and international TB guidelines.129 cases managed by the ID service were identified, with files available for 117. 98 cases were managed by the Respiratory service and were excluded. 98.2%(112/114 had been born in a country other than Australia. HIV status was tested or previously known in 97 people, and positive in 4 (4%. Microbiological confirmation was obtained in 68/117 (58.1%, an additional 24 had histopathological findings considered confirmatory (92/117, 78.6%, with the remainder diagnosed on clinical and/or radiological grounds. Median time to diagnosis post-migration from a high TB-burden country was 5 years (range 0-41. 95 cases were successfully treated, 11 cases defaulted, refused therapy or transferred, 2 cases relapsed and outcomes unknown or pending in 9 cases. No deaths occurred in the sample analysed. Clinician adherence to guidelines was high, but with scope for improvement in offering testing for co-infections, performing eye checks, monitoring blood glucose in patients receiving adjunctive corticosteroids, and considering drug interactions.Despite excellent TB outcomes in this setting, the low proportion of cases with susceptibility data is worrying in this era of increasing drug resistance, and illustrates the diagnostic

  17. Sudden death in a case of catatonia due to pulmonary embolism

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    Archana Javadekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonic syndrome carries relatively high mortality. One of the causes of death is pulmonary embolism. Prolonged immobility, dehydration, use of low-potency antipsychotic drugs, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Evaluating the risk of catatonic patients is of paramount importance. Prevention of venous thromboembolism by reducing the risk factors and relieving catatonic symptoms early is essential.

  18. Mosaic Pattern of Lung Attenuation on Chest CT in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Kamonpun Ussavarungsi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic pattern of lung attenuation on chest computed tomography (CT may be due to various etiologies. There is limited published data on CT results when used to evaluate pulmonary hypertension (PH. We retrospectively studied the frequency of mosaic pattern in patients with PH and the cause of the PH by diagnostic group, as well as the correlation between the mosaic pattern and the following: demographics, severity of the PH, main pulmonary artery (PA size, PA/aorta (PA/Ao ratio, pulmonary function tests (PFT, and ventilation perfusion scan results. Overall, 18% of the cohort had CT mosaic pattern (34/189. Mosaic pattern was present in 17/113 (15% in Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension, 5/13 (28% in Group 2 pulmonary venous hypertension and 8/50 (16% in Group 3 PH. Conversely, Group 4 chronic thromboembolic PH was more prevalent in 4/8 (50%. Main PA size, PA/Ao ratio, and segmental perfusion defect were positively associated with mosaic pattern. In contrast, factors such as age, gender, body mass index, functional class, hemodynamic data, and PFT values were not associated with mosaic pattern. Mosaic pattern is not specific as an isolated finding for distinguishing the subtype of PH.

  19. HTA of genetic testing for susceptibility to venous thromboembolism in Italiy

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    Betti Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a condition in which a thrombus (a solid mass of blood constituents forms in a vein. VTE represents an extremely common medical problem manifested as either deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE affecting apparently healthy as well as hospitalized patients. Often PE is the physiopathological consequence of the DVT of low extremities vessels, in particular of the calve......

  20. Combined hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism within the first year following pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Friis; Bergholt, T; Nielsen, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with combined hormonal contraceptives following early terminated pregnancies or birth, a Danish nationwide retrospective cohort observing a one-year follow-up was defined using three unique registries. All Danish women with confirmed...... pregnancies aged 15-49 during the period of 1995-2009 were included. The main outcomes were relative and absolute risks of first time venous thromboembolism in users as well as non-users of combined hormonal contraceptives. In 985,569 person-years, 598 venous thromboembolisms were recorded. After early...... terminated pregnancies and births, respectively, 113 and 485 events occurred in 212,552 and 773,017 person-years. After early terminated pregnancies, the crude VTE incidence ratios were similar, and the numbers needed to harm were equal between groups that did or did not use combined hormonal contraceptives...

  1. Preliminary studies of pulmonary perfusion scanning in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Wang Yanqun

    1986-01-01

    A comparative analysis of pulmonary perfusion scanning through cardiac catheterization of 57 patients including 32 patients with congenital heart disease, 8 patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and 7 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is reported. The lung scintigram obtained with In-113m or Tc-99m-MAA represents the distribution of pulmonary blood. It has been found that the lung scintigram was abnormal in patients of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension (i. e. pulmonary artery pressure between 41-80 mmHg) and the extent of radoiactive regional defects is proportional to the level of pulmonary hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that pulmonary perfusion scanning being a noninvasive technique would be a useful method in evaluating the level of pulmonary hypertension in patients with left to right shunt before and after surgical operation

  2. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new

  3. The Role of Inflammation in Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Branchford

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT, and pulmonary embolism (PE, is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics, particularly among hospitalized children. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that suggests the inflammatory response may be a cause, as well as consequence, of VTE, but current anticoagulation treatment regimens are not designed to inhibit inflammation. In fact, many established clinical VTE risk factors such as surgery, obesity, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, systemic infection, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and lupus likely modulate thrombosis through inflammatory mediators. Unlike other traumatic mechanisms of thrombosis involving vascular transection and subsequent exposure of subendothelial collagen and other procoagulant extracellular matrix materials, inflammation of the vessel wall may initiate thrombosis on an intact vein. Activation of endothelial cells, platelets, and leukocytes with subsequent formation of microparticles can trigger the coagulation system through the induction of tissue factor (TF. Identification of biomarkers to evaluate VTE risk could be of great use to the clinician caring for a patient with inflammatory disease to guide decisions regarding the risk:benefit ratio of various types of potential thromboprophylaxis strategies, or suggest a role for anti-inflammatory therapy. Unfortunately, no such validated inflammatory scoring system yet exists, though research in this area is ongoing. Elevation of C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha during a response to systemic inflammation have been associated with increased VTE risk. Consequent platelet activation enhances the prothrombotic state, leading to VTE development, particularly in patients with other risk factors, most notably central venous catheters.

  4. Stratifying the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Hu, Hsou Mei; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Bradford, Carol R.; Bahl, Vinita

    2015-01-01

    Objective The consequences of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) are devastating; identifying patients at risk is an essential step in reducing morbidity and mortality. The utility of perioperative VTE risk assessment in otolaryngology is unknown. This study was designed to risk-stratify a diverse population of otolaryngology patients for VTE events. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Single-institution academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Adult patients presenting for otolaryngologic surgery requiring hospital admission from 2003 to 2010 who did not receive VTE chemoprophylaxis were included. The Caprini risk assessment was retrospectively scored via a validated method of electronic chart abstraction. Primary study variables were Caprini risk scores and the incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolic outcomes. Results A total of 2016 patients were identified. The overall 30-day rate of VTE was 1.3%. The incidence of VTE in patients with a Caprini risk score of 6 or less was 0.5%. For patients with scores of 7 or 8, the incidence was 2.4%. Patients with a Caprini risk score greater than 8 had an 18.3% incidence of VTE and were significantly more likely to develop a VTE when compared to patients with a Caprini risk score less than 8 (P otolaryngology patients for 30-day VTE events and allows otolaryngologists to identify patient subgroups who have a higher risk of VTE in the absence of chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22261490

  5. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria M Fernandez,1 Susan Hogue,1 Ronald Preblick,2 Winghan Jacqueline Kwong2 1RTI-Health Solutions, Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Parsippany, NJ, USA Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods: Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results: Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion: Costs for VTE treatment are

  6. Transesophageal Echocardiographically-Confirmed Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis in Association with Posterior Circulation Infarction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary venous thromboembolism has only been identified as a cause of stroke with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations\\/fistulae, pulmonary neoplasia, transplantation or lobectomy, and following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary vein ostia in patients with atrial fibrillation. A 59-year-old man presented with a posterior circulation ischemic stroke. \\'Unheralded\\' pulmonary vein thrombosis was identified on transesophageal echocardiography as the likely etiology. He had no further cerebrovascular events after intensifying antithrombotic therapy. Twenty-eight months after initial presentation, he was diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and died 3 months later. This report illustrates the importance of doing transesophageal echocardiography in presumed \\'cardioembolic\\' stroke, and that potential \\'pulmonary venous thromboembolic\\' stroke may occur in patients without traditional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Consideration should be given to screening such patients for occult malignancy.

  7. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords "coffee" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism" in "Title/Abstract/Keywords", with no language and date restriction. According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  8. Venous thromboembolism and arterial complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals. We, therefore, speculate the two vascular complications are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent, and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  10. Risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in critically ill children following cardiothoracic surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Christie M; Amankwah, Ernest; Wilhelm, Jean; Arlikar, Shilpa; Branchford, Brian R; Stock, Arabela; Streiff, Michael; Takemoto, Clifford; Ayala, Irmel; Everett, Allen; Stapleton, Gary; Jacobs, Marshall L; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Goldenberg, Neil A

    2018-02-01

    Paediatric hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a leading quality and safety concern at children's hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in critically ill children following cardiothoracic surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation. We conducted a retrospective, case-control study of children admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital (St. Petersburg, Florida, United States of America) from 2006 to 2013. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism cases were identified based on ICD-9 discharge codes and validated using radiological record review. We randomly selected two contemporaneous cardiovascular intensive care unit controls without hospital-associated venous thromboembolism for each hospital-associated venous thromboembolism case, and limited the study population to patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between putative risk factors and hospital-associated venous thromboembolism were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 2718 admissions to the cardiovascular intensive care unit during the study period, 65 met the criteria for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (occurrence rate, 2%). Restriction to cases and controls having undergone the procedures of interest yielded a final study population of 57 hospital-associated venous thromboembolism cases and 76 controls. In a multiple logistic regression model, major infection (odds ratio=5.77, 95% confidence interval=1.06-31.4), age ⩽1 year (odds ratio=6.75, 95% confidence interval=1.13-160), and central venous catheterisation (odds ratio=7.36, 95% confidence interval=1.13-47.8) were found to be statistically significant independent risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in these children. Patients with all three

  11. The Efficacy of Dextran-40 as a Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Strategy in Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jason M; Sleightholm, Richard; Watley, Duncan; Wahlmeier, Steven; Patel, Asish

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in peritoneal malignancies can approach 30 to 50 per cent without prophylaxis. Prophylaxis in cytoreductive surgeries (CRS) presents a challenge to preoperative heparin-based therapy because of an increased risk of coagulopathy and potential for bleeding. Herein, we report the large series of CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy receiving dextran-40 prophylaxis. Retrospective chart review of peritoneal malignancies patients undergoing CRS at University of Nebraska Medical Center identified 69 individuals who received dextran-40 between 2010 and 2013. The incidences of VTEs, perioperative bleeding, complications, morbidity, and mortality were determined in-hospital and at 90 days. Of the 69 patients treated, the 30-day VTE rate was 8.7 per cent, and no pulmonary embolisms, bleeding, anaphylactoid reaction, or mortality were observed with dextran usage. The specific VTE events included three upper extremity and three lower extremity VTEs. No additional VTE events were identified between 30 and 90 days. In conclusion, dextran-40 prophylaxis was not associated with any perioperative bleeding events, and the observed incidence of VTE was comparable to reported heparin-based prophylaxis in CRS/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy patients. This data supports further exploration of dextran-40 as a VTE prophylactic agent in complex surgical oncology cases.

  12. Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with secondary polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Omar; Gui, Jiang; Ornstein, Deborah L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate an association between secondary polycythemia and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, we performed a case-control study to compare the prevalence of VTE in participants with secondary polycythemia due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; N = 86) to that in age- and sex-matched controls with COPD without secondary polycythemia (N = 86). Although there was a significant difference in mean hematocrit between cases and controls (53.5% vs 43.6%, respectively; P polycythemia alone may not be a significant risk factor for VTE but that VTE risk in this population may be related to known risk factors such as obesity. The role of phlebotomy for VTE risk reduction secondary polycythemia is therefore questionable.

  13. VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM PROPHYLAXIS – THE OTHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: There are no local guidelines for prophylaxis against Venous Thrombo-Embolism (VTE). .... of leg ulceration in the age matched general population. (9.6% to ... number of deaths and its cause amongst these patients.

  14. The role of apixaban for venous and arterial thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prom, Rathasen; Spinler, Sarah A

    2011-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical trial data, adverse effects, and drug interactions of apixaban. An English-language literature search was performed with MEDLINE/PubMed from January 2007 to August 2011 using the search terms apixaban, factor Xa inhibitors, FXa inhibitors, BMS-562247-01, venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, ACS, atrial fibrillation, atrial arrhythmias, total hip replacement or arthroplasty, total knee replacement or arthroplasty, and orthopedic surgery to identify relevant articles. The references of the retrieved articles, professional society meeting abstracts, and the Web site www.clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to identify other pertinent articles. Pertinent original studies involving apixaban's pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and clinical efficacy and safety data were included. Results of 2 large Phase 3 trials suggest that apixaban is superior for stroke and systemic embolism prevention compared to both aspirin and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); rates of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage were similar to those of aspirin but significantly reduced compared to warfarin. Completed trials in orthopedic surgery found apixaban to be superior to enoxaparin in total hip replacement (THR) surgery but inferior in total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, with similar rates of major bleeding. A Phase 3 trial of apixaban in acute coronary syndrome was stopped early because of excess bleeding. Future Phase 3 trials will help to determine apixaban's role for treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Currently, apixaban is approved only in Europe for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in adults who have undergone elective THR or TKR. A Phase 3 trial in patients with AF revealed apixaban to be superior to warfarin for stroke and systemic embolism

  15. Thromboembolism and anticoagulation after Fontan surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to answer the common questions faced by a clinician regarding thromboembolism and thromboprophylaxis in patients following Fontan surgery. The review is in an easy to understand question and answer format and discusses the currently available literature on the subject in an attempt to arrive at practical clinically relevant solutions. Patients who have undergone the Fontan operation are at a high risk for thromboembolism. Based on available evidence, there is a strong rat...

  16. Managing comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Blair G; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature regarding the management of common pulmonary and extra-pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, sleep-disordered breathing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, coronary artery disease, depression and anxiety, and deconditioning. Recent studies have provided some guidance on the management of these diseases in IPF; however, most treatment recommendations are extrapolated from studies of non-IPF patients. Additional studies are required to more accurately determine the clinical features of these comorbidities in patients with IPF and to evaluate conventional treatments and management strategies that are beneficial in non-IPF populations. PMID:26451121

  17. Venous thromboembolism management in Northeast Melbourne: how does it compare to international guidelines and data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Y; Chua, Chong C; Tacey, Mark; Sleeman, Matthew; Donnan, Geoffrey; Nandurkar, Harshal; Ho, Prahlad

    2017-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with significant heterogeneity in its management, both within our local practice and in international guidelines. To provide a holistic evaluation of 'real-world' Australian experience in the warfarin era, including how we compare to international guidelines. Retrospective evaluation of VTE from July 2011 to December 2012 at two major hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. These results were compared to recommendations in the international guidelines. A total of 752 episodes involving 742 patients was identified. Contrary to international guidelines, an unwarranted heritable thrombophilia screen was performed in 22.0% of patients, amounting to a cost of AU$29 000. The duration of anticoagulation was longer compared to international recommendations, although the overall recurrence (3.2/100 person-years) and clinically significant bleeding rates (2.4/100 person-years) were comparable to 'real-world' data. Unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio 2.06; P = 0.01) was a risk factor for recurrence, and there was no difference in recurrence between major VTE (proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism) and isolated distal DVT (3.02 vs 3.94/100 person-years; P = 0.25). Fourteen patients were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy, and patients with recurrent VTE had increased risk of prospective cancer diagnosis (relative risk 6.68; P management strategies, including excessive thrombophilia screening and longer duration of anticoagulation. This audit highlights the need for national VTE guidelines, as well as prospective auditing of VTE management, in the direct oral anticoagulant era for future comparison. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. A nationwide, retrospective analysis of symptoms, comorbidities, medical care and autopsy findings in cases of fatal pulmonary embolism in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, J; Winkel, B G; Holst, A G

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings.......Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in younger persons. Specifically, we recorded information on symptoms, comorbidity, medical contact, if this had been required, and subsequent autopsy findings....

  19. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis

  20. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  1. Increasing Incidence and Recurrence Rate of Venous Thromboembolism in Paediatric Oncology Patients in One Single Centre Over 25 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Irene L. M.; van Els, Anne L.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; van Ommen, C. Heleen

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication in paediatric oncology patients. To identify the incidence, risk factors and recurrence rate of VTE in paediatric oncology patients, an observational, retrospective cohort study of all consecutive children (≤18 years) with malignancies, treated

  2. Anticoagulation period in idiopathic venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farraj, Rami S.

    2004-01-01

    The period of anticoagulation of a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism has been 6 months. It is unclear if such patients would benefit from longer treatment, as there appears to be an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulation is stopped. In a randomized prospective study of 64 patients admitted to King Hussein Medical city, Amman, Jordan, who developed a first episode of venous thromboembolism, 32 patients were given warfarin for 24-months, while 32 patients stopped anticoagulation after completion of 6-months of therapy. Our goal was to determine the effects of extended anticoagulation on rates of recurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism and bleeding. The patients were followed for 12-months after stopping anticoagulation. After 24-months, 7 of the 32 patients (21%) who had standard anticoagulation for 6-months had a recurrent episode of thromboembolism compared to one of the 32 patients who received anticoagulation for 24 months (3%). Extended warfarin therapy for 24-months has resulted in an absolute risk reduction of 0.1% (p<0.05). This translates into 8 patients having to be treated for 24-months to avoid one recurrence without increasing the risk of major bleeding. Two patients in each group (6%) had major nonfatal bleeding, all 4 bleeding episodes occurring within the first 3-months of anticoagulation. After 36-months of follow up, the recurrence rate of extended warfarin therapy was only 3 patients (9%), which is a 43% relative reduction in recurrence of thromboembolism compared to standard therapy for 6-months. Patients with first episodes of idiopathic venous thromboembolism have an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and should be treated with oral anticoagulants for longer than 6-months, probably 24-months. (author)

  3. Prognosis of venous thromboembolism in orthopaedic surgery or trauma patients and use of thromboprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Guisado, J; Trujillo-Santos, J; Arcelus, J I; Bertoletti, L; Fernandez-Capitán, C; Valle, R; Hernandez-Hermoso, J A; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, A; Nieto, J A; Monreal, M

    2018-06-18

    There is scarce evidence about the prognosis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and in patients suffering non-surgical trauma. We used the RIETE database (Registro Informatizado de pacientes con Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) to compare the prognosis of venous thromboembolism and the use of thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing different orthopedic procedures and in trauma patients not requiring surgery. From March 2001 to March 2015, a total of 61,789 patients were enrolled in RIETE database. Of these, 943 (1.52%) developed venous thromboembolism after elective arthroplasty, 445 (0.72%) after hip fracture, 1,045 (1.69%) after non-major orthopedic surgery and 2,136 (3.46%) after non-surgical trauma. Overall, 2,283 patients (50%) initially presented with pulmonary embolism. Within the first 90 days of therapy, 30 patients (0.66%; 95% CI 0.45-0.93) died from pulmonary embolism. The rate of fatal pulmonary embolism was significantly higher after hip fracture surgery (n = 9 [2.02%]) than after elective arthroplasty (n = 5 [0.53%]), non-major orthopedic surgery (n = 5 [0.48%]) or non surgical trauma (n = 11 [0.48%]). Thromboprophylaxis was more commonly used for hip fracture (93%) or elective arthroplasty (94%) than for non-major orthopedic surgery (71%) or non-surgical trauma (32%). Major bleeding was significantly higher after hip fracture surgery (4%) than that observed after elective arthroplasty (1.6%), non-major orthopedic surgery (1.5%) or non-surgical trauma (1.4%). Thromboprophylaxis was less frequently used in lower risk procedures despite the absolute number of fatal pulmonary embolism after non-major orthopedic surgery or non-surgical trauma, exceeded that observed after high risk procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Oswaldo L.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ∼10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments

  5. SIT (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome: a 21st century lifestyle hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Richard; Heuser, Patricia; Raymond, Nigel

    2005-04-01

    The association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well recognised in relation to travel. In this case series, we report the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following prolonged sitting in relation to work and/or recreation. The cases were characterised by the considerable length of time the individuals sat, the extensive nature of the VTE events in young individuals without other recognised risk factors, and the lack of recognition by the attending doctors of seated immobility as the likely major risk factor. While recognising that the association may be coincidental rather than causal, we propose the acronym 'SIT' (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome to encompass all forms of seated immobility associated with VTE.

  6. Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism and risk of occult cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Veres, Katalin; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2017-01-01

    The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk.......The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk....

  7. Thromboembolism prophylaxis practices in orthopaedic arthroplasty patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, D

    2010-10-01

    Thromboembolic events are a post-operative complication of arthroplasty surgery for up to 3 months. The incidence however, is not fully known. Some form of prophylaxis should be provided to all arthroplasty patients. Clinicians are wary of side effects, compliance profile and the associated cost. The objective of this study is to investigate practice patterns and their relevance to 3 risk groups. Ninety questionnaires were sent to orthopaedic surgeons with 3 hypothetical clinical scenarios and 10 prophylaxis regimes for thromboembolism across different risk groups. The response rate was 81\\/90 (90%). The most popular options in all 3 cases were early mobilisation, thrombo-embolism deterrant (TED) stockings and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (51\\/81, 62% of all cases). An inconsistent relationship exists between preferred practice and relevant guidelines. Preferred practice does not correlate with each level of risk.

  8. Androgen Deprivation and Thromboembolic Events in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehdaie, Behfar; Atoria, Coral L.; Gupta, Amit; Feifer, Andrew; Lowrance, William T.; Morris, Michael J.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Elkin, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves prostate cancer outcomes in specific clinical settings, but is associated with adverse effects, including cardiac complications and possibly thromboembolic complications. Our objective was to estimate the impact of ADT on thromboembolic events (TEs) in a population-based cohort. Methods In the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified men aged over 65 diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1999 and 2005. Medical or surgical ADT was identified by Medicare claims for gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or bilateral orchiectomy at any time following diagnosis. TEs included deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and arterial embolism. We estimated ADT’s impact on the risk of any TE and on total number of events, controlling for patient and tumor characteristics. Results Of 154,611 prostate cancer patients, 58,466 (38%) received ADT. During a median follow-up of 52 months, 15,950 men had at least one TE, including 8,829 (55%) who had ADT and 7,121 (45%) with no ADT. ADT was associated with increased risk of a TE (adjusted hazard ratio 1.56, 95% CI: 1.50 to 1.61, P < 0.0001), and duration of ADT was associated with the total number of events (P < 0.0001). Conclusion In this population-based cohort, ADT was associated with increased risk of a TE, and longer durations of ADT were associated with more TEs. Men with intermediate- and low-risk prostate cancer should be assessed for TE risk factors before starting ADT and counseled regarding the risks and benefits of this therapy. PMID:22072494

  9. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  10. Thromboembolic risk in 16 274 atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current cardioversion with and without oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Lock; Jepsen, Rikke Malene H G; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2015-01-01

    -time DC cardioversion for atrial fibrillation between 2000 and 2008. Use of oral anticoagulant therapy within 90 days prior and 360 days after DC cardioversion was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The risk of thromboembolism was estimated by calculating incidence rates......AIMS: To study the risk of thromboembolism in a nationwide cohort of atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current (DC) cardioversion with or without oral anticoagulant coverage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective study of 16 274 patients in Denmark discharged from hospital after a first...... and by multivariable adjusted Cox proportional-hazard models. During the initial 30 days following discharge, the thromboembolic incidence rate was 10.33 per 100 patient-years for the no prior oral anticoagulant therapy group [n = 5084 (31.2%)], as compared with 4.00 per 100 patient-years for the prior oral...

  11. Comparing and contrasting current guidelines for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachiewicz, Paul F

    2011-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons may be impacted by three different clinical venous thromboembolism guidelines: the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, the Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines, and, most recently, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) guideline. The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines use deep venous thrombosis detected by venography or ultrasonography as their primary outcome measure. High-grade recommendations are based on prospective randomized studies only, usually comparing one pharmacologic agent to another. The Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines are essentially based on the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians guidelines and seek to determine if surgeons prescribe venous thromboembolism prophylaxis within 24 hours of admission. Compliance with these guidelines may affect the quality rating of a particular hospital. The AAOS guideline was designed with the clinical outcome measures of symptomatic pulmonary embolism, fatal pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. This guideline recommends that surgeons preoperatively evaluate the patient's risks (standard or elevated) for pulmonary embolism and serious bleeding and individualize pharmacologic prophylaxis based on a risk-benefit ratio. The three guidelines all have advantages and disadvantages.

  12. D-Dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in urine and plasma in patients with clinically suspected venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexels, Fredrik; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Pripp, Are H; Dahl, Ola E

    2016-06-01

    Increased levels of urine prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 was recently reported to be associated with imaging-verified venous thromboembolism. In this study we evaluated the relationship between plasma D-dimer and plasma and urine prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in patients with suspected venous thromboembolism. Urine and blood samples were collected from patients with suspected pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis. The samples were analysed with commercially available ELISA kits. The diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was verified with contrast-enhanced computer tomography of the pulmonary arteries or lower extremity deep vein compression ultrasound and venography as appropriate. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 150 of 720 patients. Significantly higher levels of plasma D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in plasma and urine were found in those with imaging-confirmed venous thromboembolism versus those without (P fragment 1 + 2 in plasma. Further development of ELISA analyses for urine testing of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 may improve its diagnostic accuracy.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in acute spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Shyam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The western literature on deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE following spinal cord injury (SCI report an alarmingly high incidence, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. The literature on incidence from the Asian subcontinent is scanty and from India is almost nonexistent. Materials and Methods : Seventy hospitalized acute SCI patients presenting within five days of the injury were included in the present analysis. Forty-two cases were subjected to color Doppler studies and 28 cases had to be subjected to venography due to lack of facility at some point of time. The clinical course of the patients was closely observed during the period of hospitalization. All except 14 were managed nonoperatively. Thromboprophylaxis was not given to any patient at any stage; however, treatment was instituted in those showing the features of DVT on investigations. Results : Twelve patients died during the period of hospitalization. Deep vein thrombosis could be detected in seven patients only, three in the proximal and four in the distal segment of the lower limb and of these three died. Based on the clinical course and positive investigation report in favor of DVT, we presumed that the cause of death in these three patients was pulmonary embolism. In the other nine, in the absence of an autopsy report, the cause of deaths was considered as pulmonary infection, asphyxia, diaphragmatic paralysis, hematemesis, cervicomedullary paralysis etc. Clinical features to diagnose DVT were of little help. Conclusions : There is a much lower incidence (10% of DVT and PE following spinal cord injury (SCI in India than what is reported from the western countries. Higher age group and quadriplegia were the only factors which could be correlated. Deep vein thrombosis extending proximal to the knee was significant. In the absence of autopsy and other screening tests like D-dimer test or 125I fibrogen uptake study, the true incidence of venous

  14. New oral antithrombotics: focus on dabigatran, an oral, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl OE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ola E Dahl1,21Department of Orthopaedics, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Elverum Central Hospital, Elverum, Norway; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: Venous thromboembolism, presenting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is a major challenge for health care systems. It is the third most common vascular disease after coronary heart disease and stroke, and many hospitalized patients have at least one risk factor. In particular, patients undergoing hip or knee replacement are at risk, with an incidence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis of 40%–60% without thromboprophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, with patients being at risk of recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Arterial thromboembolism is even more frequent, and atrial fibrillation, the most common embolic source (cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of stroke. Strokes due to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe and disabling and are more often fatal than strokes due to other causes. Currently, recommended management of both venous and arterial thromboembolism involves the use of anticoagulants such as coumarin and heparin derivatives. These agents are effective, although have characteristics that prevent them from providing optimal anticoagulation and convenience. Hence, new improved oral anticoagulants are being investigated. Dabigatran is a reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor, which is administered as dabigatran etexilate, the oral prodrug. Because it is the first new oral anticoagulant that has been licensed in many countries worldwide for thromboprophylaxis following orthopedic surgery and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, this compound will be the main focus of this review. Dabigatran has been investigated for the treatment of established venous thromboembolism and prevention of

  15. Analysis of risk factors for pulmonary complications in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. A single-centre retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Kamzol, Wojciech; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The most effective therapy in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) seems to be chemotherapy (using platinum-based regimens) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT), which is followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The analysed group comprised 217 patients who received combined treatment for LS SCLC, i.e. chemotherapy (according to cisplatin and etoposide schedule) and TRT (concurrent in 101 and sequential in 116 patients). The influence of chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) schedule on treatment results (frequency of complete response, survival rates, and incidence of treatment failure and complications) was evaluated, and the frequency and severity of pulmonary complications were analysed to identify risk factors. The 5-year survival rates in concurrent vs. sequential ChT-RT schedules were 27.3 vs. 11.7% (overall) and 28 vs. 14.3% (disease-free). The frequencies of adverse events in relation to concurrent vs. sequential therapy were 85.1 vs. 9.5% (haematological complications) and 58.4 vs. 38.8% (pulmonary fibrosis), respectively. It was found that concurrent ChT-RT (hazard ratio, HR 2.75), a total dose equal to or more than 54 Gy (HR 2.55), the presence of haematological complications (HR 1.89) and a lung volume receiving a dose equal to or greater than 20 Gy exceeding 31% (HR 1.06) were the risk factors for pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications after ChT-RT developed in 82% of patients treated for LS SCLC. In comparison to the sequential approach, concurrent ChT-RT had a positive effect on treatment outcome. However, this is a factor that can impair treatment tolerance, which manifests in the appearance of side effects. (orig.) [de

  16. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  17. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%, 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%, 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%, and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%. Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91, 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09 and 4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76. Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE Venous thromboembolism associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Venous thromboembolism associated with protein S deficiency due to ... 2 Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland ... It has been long recognized that reduced PS activity is a risk factor for venous ... 1988). Sequencing of PROS1 gene intensified studies of genotype-.

  19. Global public awareness of venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendelboe, A. M.; McCumber, M.; Hylek, E. M.; Buller, H.; Weitz, J. I.; Raskob, G.; Angchaisuksiri, P.; Blanco, A. N.; Hunt, B. J.; Kakkar, A.; Konstantinides, S. V.; McLintock, C.; Ozaki, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Data on public awareness about thrombosis in general and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in particular are limited. We aimed to measure the global awareness of thrombosis to address this gap. With Ipsos-Reid, from 22 July to 5 August 2014, we surveyed 800 respondents in their native language from each

  20. Venous thromboembolism: Risk profile and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aims to describe the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk profile of women undergoing elective gynaecological surgery in a tertiary hospital and to audit the VTE prophylaxis prescribed. Methods. One hundred and nine women who underwent elective gynaecological surgery at Kalafong Provincial ...

  1. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jens Kristian; Ellingsen Moe, Espen; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent and potentially lethal condition. Venous thrombi are mainly constituted of fibrin and red blood cells, but platelets also play an important role in VTE formation. Information about VTE in patients with thrombocytopenia is, however, missing. O...... having thrombocytopenia with VTE seem to be safely treated with anticoagulants without increased occurrence of bleeding....

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of venous thromboembolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism among medical doctors in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,. Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: The knowledge, attitude and practice of VTE prophylaxis among medical doctors was assessed using ...

  3. Venous Thromboembolism Due to Oral Contraceptive Intake and Spending Nights in a Vehicle -A Case from the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Akahoshi, Rika; Okamura, Yoshinori; Kojima, Sunao; Ikemoto, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kaikita, Koichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman experiencing sudden dyspnea went to her personal doctor for advice. She was previously diagnosed with endometriosis and prescribed oral contraceptives for treatment. During earthquakes, she spent 7 nights sleeping in a vehicle. The patient had swelling and pain in her left leg and high D-dimer concentration levels. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a contrast deficit in the bilateral pulmonary artery and in the left lower extremity. She was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and anticoagulation therapy was initiated. This present case is the first report of PTE attributed to the use of oral contraceptives after earthquakes.

  4. Visualization of pulmonary vein stenosis after radio frequency ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation using multidetector computed tomography with retrospective gating; Darstellung von Pulmonalvenenstenosen nach Radiofrequenzablation zur Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern unter Verwendung der Multidetektor Computertomographie mit retrospektivem Gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabold, T.; Kuettner, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Kopp, A.F.; Claussen, C.D. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Burgstahler, C.; Mewis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Kuehlkamp, V. [Medizinische Klinik III, Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: With the number of radio frequency ablations (RFA) for treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation increasing, the diagnostic evaluation for RFA associated pulmonary vein stenosis is getting more important. This study investigates the feasibility of the visualization of pulmonary vein stenosis using non-invasive multidetector computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients were examined following RFA-treatment. A 4-slice (20 patients) and a 16-slice (8 patients) multidetector CT scanner (SOMATOM Volume Zoom and Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) with retrospective gating was used to assess the pulmonary veins. Lesion severity was determined on a semi-quantitative scale (< 30%, 30 - 50%, > 50%). Results: CT was performed without any complications in all patients. Diagnostic image quality could be obtained in all examinations. The pulmonary veins showed lesions < 30% in four patients, lesions of 30 - 50% in five patients and a stenosis > 50% in one patient. Eighteen patients showed no lesions. Conclusion: Multidetector CT of the pulmonary veins seems to be able to visualize high-grade and low-grade lesions, but larger catheter-controlled studies are needed for further assessment of the diagnostic accuracy and clinical reliability of this noninvasive method. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Mit steigender Anzahl von Radiofrequenzablationen (RFA) zur Behandlung des chronischen Vorhofflimmerns wird die Diagnostik von RFA assoziierten Pulmonalvenenstenosen zunehmend wichtiger. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Moeglichkeit der Darstellung von Pulmonalvenenstenosen mittels der nichtinvasiven Multidetektor-Computertomographie zu untersuchen. Material und Methoden: 28 Patienten wurden im Anschluss an eine RFA-Behandlung untersucht. Die Untersuchung wurde an einem 4-Zeilen- (20 Patienten) bzw. 16-Zeilen- (8 Patienten) Multidetektor-CT (SOMATOM Volume Zoom bzw. Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) mit retrospektivem Gating durchgefuehrt. Der

  5. Effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Seon Ok; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2018-05-17

    Malignancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Inferior vena cava filters are a viable alternative when anticoagulation is infeasible because of the risk of bleeding. Although the current guidelines recommend that all patients with a vena cava filter be treated with anticoagulation treatment when the risk of bleeding is reduced, studies concerning the role of concomitant anticoagulation after vena cava filter insertion in high-risk patients are scarce. Since many cancer patients suffer from a high risk of hemorrhagic complications, we aimed to determine the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with a malignant solid tumor. A retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary embolism was performed between January 2010 and May 2016. Patients with a solid tumor and vena cava filter inserted because of pulmonary embolism were included. Using Cox proportional hazards model, the prognostic effect of clinical variables was analyzed. A total of 180 patients were analyzed, with 143 patients receiving and 37 patients not receiving post-filter anticoagulation treatment. Mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. The presence of metastatic cancer and that of pancreatobiliary cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. However, post-filter anticoagulation did not show significant effect on mortality regardless of the stage of cancer. In patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism, the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality may not be critical, especially in patients with a short life expectancy.

  6. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  7. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Jenny, C.; Schwaighofer, B.; Seidl, G.; Burghuber, O.C.

    1987-01-01

    In 43 patients with obstructive and restrictive lung disease a catheterisation of the right heart with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure was performed. In a retrospective study several radiological parameters of pulmonary hypertension were evaluated on the chest radiographs of these patients. Considering those parameters on the p.a. and lateral chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with elevated pulmonary artery pressure at rest can be made with great accuracy. When pulmonary artery pressure is elevated only during exercise, the accuracy of radiological diagnosis is much lower. (orig.) [de

  8. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Usefulness of lung scanning in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powe, J.; McCarthy, K.; Palevsky, H.; Fishman, A.P.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ventilation-perfusion scans of 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and established final diagnoses were blindly classified as to the probability of showing pulmonary embolism. Eleven of 12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension had normal or low-probability scans; one had an intermediate-probability scan. All six patients with thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had high-probability scans. However, three of 12 patients with nonembolic secondary pulmonary hypetension also had high-probability scans. Although a normal or low-probability scan excludes the possibility of emboli as a cause, a high-probability scan may often be associated with nonembolic causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension

  10. Choriocarcinoma as cause of pulmonary embolism: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Rodriguez Reyna, Juan Carlos; Nip Fabero, Olga J

    2009-01-01

    This is the case of a 21 years old, black, female patient admitted at the Teaching Territorial Hospital of Cardenas 'Dr Julio M Aristegui Villamil' presenting breathlessness, dry cough, without expectoration, no fever and affection of the general status. She died a week after the admission in a picture of arrhythmia . The conclusion of the necropsy was pulmonary thromboembolism of tumor origin (choriocarcinoma) in both pulmonary arteries

  11. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  12. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-Y Chou Sherry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH, FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and vitamin K alone. Methods We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Results Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%, deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE (22% vs 18%, coronary artery disease (CAD (38% vs 32%, and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG (78% vs 85%. Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%. Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI, defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52. Past history of CAD (p=0.0061 and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02 were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18 and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38 were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001 and 6 hours (p Conclusions Pre

  13. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in plastic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lea Juul; Matzen, Steen H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a well-documented complication of surgery, including plastic surgery. However, few consensus guidelines on thromboembolism prophylaxis exist in plastic surgery and, thus, the different approaches in the public as well as the private clinics in Denmark were...... investigated using a web-based survey. METHODS: Forty-two clinics were contacted and 45% responded. RESULTS: The collected data reveals a lack of consensus in plastic surgery in Denmark, not only regarding the use of mechanical and chemical prophylaxis, but also which type of prophylaxis to apply, the duration...... of prophylaxis, and how to risk stratify the patients. CONCLUSION: The development of a guideline, based on plastic surgical data, using a validated risk assessment model, which combines the surgical risk with the patient related risk and recommends guidelines for mechanical as well as chemoprophylaxis...

  14. Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Gastric Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a clinically critical disease, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of which can lead to increased rate of mortality. For prevention of recurrence of PTE, recognition of its risk factors or underlying diseases is of great importance. PTE is common in patients with cancer and has high morbidity and mortality rates. Although cancer is a lethal condition, PTE accelerates death in these patients. In the current study, we reported the case of a 50-year-old male presenting with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and non-massive hemoptysis indicating pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, but after 12 days of treatment, new deep vein thromboses in the left upper and right lower limbs were diagnosed. However, no specific risk factors or laboratory abnormalities were detected. History of weight loss during the recent months encouraged further investigation for ruling out malignancy, which led a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. He did not have any complaints of gastrointestinal disorders.

  15. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771

  16. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, postpartum or during contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Molina, A; Rota, L L; Di Micco, P; Brenner, B; Trujillo-Santos, J; Ruiz-Gamietea, A; Monreal, M

    2010-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of maternal death during pregnancy or postpartum, and in women using hormonal contraceptives. However, important issues concerning its natural history and therapy remain unsolved, and most of the protocols for treatment of VTE in this patient population are based on data extrapolated from other populations. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic, acute VTE. We examined the clinical characteristics and three-month outcome of all enrolled women with pregnancy, postpartum or using hormonal contraceptives. As of December 2008, 173 pregnant women, 135 postpartum, and 798 contraceptive users were enrolled. Of these, 438 (40%) presented with pulmonary embolism (PE) and 668 with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Most women with acute PE had dyspnea (72%) or chest pain (75%), but only 2.0% had hypoxaemia. During the three-month study period, five women (0.45%; 95% CI: 0.17-1.00) died (3 had fatal PE), 13 (1.18%; 95% CI: 0.66-1.95) had VTE recurrences, and seven (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.28-1.25) major bleeding. Two of the three women with fatal PE died during the first few hours after arriving at the emergency ward, with no time to start any therapy. The outcome of pregnant or postpartum women with VTE is similar to that in contraceptive users, even though the treatment is different. The non-specific nature of PE signs may have caused some delay in PE diagnosis.

  17. Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy and Risk of Thromboembolic Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Cecilia, E-mail: Cecilia.t.bosco@kcl.ac.uk [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Garmo, Hans [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Regional Cancer Centre, Uppsala, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden); Adolfsson, Jan [CLINTEC Department, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Stattin, Pär [Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Holmberg, Lars [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Regional Cancer Centre, Uppsala, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Widmark, Anders [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Van Hemelrijck, Mieke [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the risk of thromboembolic disease (TED) after radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent for prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods: We identified all men who received RT as curative treatment (n=9410) and grouped according to external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). By comparing with an age- and county-matched comparison cohort of PCa-free men (n=46,826), we investigated risk of TED after RT using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The model was adjusted for tumor characteristics, demographics, comorbidities, PCa treatments, and known risk factors of TED, such as recent surgery and disease progression. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, 6232 men with PCa received EBRT, and 3178 underwent BT. A statistically significant association was found between EBRT and BT and risk of pulmonary embolism in the crude analysis. However, upon adjusting for known TED risk factors these associations disappeared. No significant associations were found between BT or EBRT and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion: Curative RT for prostate cancer using contemporary methodologies was not associated with an increased risk of TED.

  18. Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy and Risk of Thromboembolic Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco, Cecilia; Garmo, Hans; Adolfsson, Jan; Stattin, Pär; Holmberg, Lars; Nilsson, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Widmark, Anders; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the risk of thromboembolic disease (TED) after radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent for prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods: We identified all men who received RT as curative treatment (n=9410) and grouped according to external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). By comparing with an age- and county-matched comparison cohort of PCa-free men (n=46,826), we investigated risk of TED after RT using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The model was adjusted for tumor characteristics, demographics, comorbidities, PCa treatments, and known risk factors of TED, such as recent surgery and disease progression. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, 6232 men with PCa received EBRT, and 3178 underwent BT. A statistically significant association was found between EBRT and BT and risk of pulmonary embolism in the crude analysis. However, upon adjusting for known TED risk factors these associations disappeared. No significant associations were found between BT or EBRT and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion: Curative RT for prostate cancer using contemporary methodologies was not associated with an increased risk of TED.

  19. New strategies for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, new opportunities have emerged that have the potential to change rapidly the therapeutic scenario of patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). Selected patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be treated effectively and safely at home with fixed doses of low molecular weight heparins. The prompt administration of compression elastic stockings in addition to anticoagulant drugs in patients with acute DVT has the potential to halve the rate of late postthrombotic sequelae. The long-term use of low molecular weight heparins is likely to be more effective than oral anticoagulants for the secondary prevention of VTE in patients with advanced malignancy. Patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular dysfunction might benefit from the early administration of thrombolytic drugs in combination with heparin to a greater extent than from heparin alone. Despite an impressive amount of clinical information on the proper duration of oral anticoagulants in patients with unprovoked VTE, the optimal long-term treatment of these patients remains undefined. Finally, new categories of drugs are emerging that have the potential to replace conventional anticoagulants in the near future. They include compounds that inhibit factor Xa or thrombin.

  20. Analysis of risk factors for pulmonary complications in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. A single-centre retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Kamzol, Wojciech [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Clinic of Oncology and Department of Radiotherapy, Cracow (Poland); Luczynska, Elzbieta [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Sokolowski, Andrzej [Cracow University of Economics, Department of Statistics, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    The most effective therapy in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) seems to be chemotherapy (using platinum-based regimens) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT), which is followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The analysed group comprised 217 patients who received combined treatment for LS SCLC, i.e. chemotherapy (according to cisplatin and etoposide schedule) and TRT (concurrent in 101 and sequential in 116 patients). The influence of chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) schedule on treatment results (frequency of complete response, survival rates, and incidence of treatment failure and complications) was evaluated, and the frequency and severity of pulmonary complications were analysed to identify risk factors. The 5-year survival rates in concurrent vs. sequential ChT-RT schedules were 27.3 vs. 11.7% (overall) and 28 vs. 14.3% (disease-free). The frequencies of adverse events in relation to concurrent vs. sequential therapy were 85.1 vs. 9.5% (haematological complications) and 58.4 vs. 38.8% (pulmonary fibrosis), respectively. It was found that concurrent ChT-RT (hazard ratio, HR 2.75), a total dose equal to or more than 54 Gy (HR 2.55), the presence of haematological complications (HR 1.89) and a lung volume receiving a dose equal to or greater than 20 Gy exceeding 31% (HR 1.06) were the risk factors for pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications after ChT-RT developed in 82% of patients treated for LS SCLC. In comparison to the sequential approach, concurrent ChT-RT had a positive effect on treatment outcome. However, this is a factor that can impair treatment tolerance, which manifests in the appearance of side effects. (orig.) [German] Die wirksamste Therapie bei einem kleinzelligen Lungenkrebs im limitierten Stadium (LS SCLC) scheinen Chemotherapie (platinbasierte Regime) und thorakale Strahlentherapie (TRT) zu sein, begleitet von der prophylaktischen Schaedelbestrahlung. Analysiert wurden 217 Patienten, die eine kombinierte Behandlung

  1. Epidemiology of cancer-related venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wun, Ted; White, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have better defined the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. The incidence is highest in patients who have metastatic disease at the time of presentation and who have fast growing, biologically aggressive cancers associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence is also high in patients with haematological cancers. Other specific risk factors that affect the incidence of VTE include undergoing invasive neurosurgery, the number of underlying chronic co-...

  2. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: aspirin versus warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R; Fleischman, A N; Tan, T; Sterbis, E; Huang, R; Higuera, C; Parvizi, J; Rothman, R H

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA). A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk. The adjusted incidence of PE following SBTKA was 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.2) with aspirin and 2.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) with warfarin. Similarly, the adjusted incidence of VTE following SBTKA was 1.6% (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) with aspirin and 2.5% (95% CI 1.9 to 3.3) with warfarin. The risk of PE and VTE were reduced by 66% (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) and 38% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.0), respectively, using aspirin. In addition, the risk of PE was 204% higher for patients undergoing SBTKA relative to those undergoing UTKA. For each ten-point increase in baseline VTE risk, the risk of PE increased by 25.5% for patients undergoing SBTKA compared with 10.5% for those undergoing UTKA. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease had the greatest increase in risk from undergoing SBTKA instead of UTKA. Aspirin is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of VTE following SBTKA, and serves as the more appropriate agent for VTE prophylaxis for patients in all risk categories. Furthermore, patients undergoing SBTKA are at a substantially increased risk of VTE, even more so for

  3. Flowtron foot-pumps for prevention of venous thromboembolism in total hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto, Rocco P; Koh, Chuan K

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical prophylaxis with foot-pumps provides an interesting alternative to chemical agents in the prevention of venous thomboembolism following major orthopaedic surgery procedures. The aim of this prospective study was to assess efficacy and safety of the Flowtron(®) foot-pumps system following total hip and knee replacement. The foot pumps were used as main tool for prevention of thromboembolic events, in most cases in association with a variety of chemicals. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after total hip and knee replacement. The secondary endpoints included postoperative bleeding, swelling, bruising and wound ooze. 424 consecutive patients were included in the study. Symptomatic deep vein thrombosis was detected in 7 patients (1.6%). All symptomatic deep vein thromboses were detected after discharge before the six week follow-up clinic. Five non-fatal pulmonary embolisms occurred (1.2%). Only one patient presented a major wound bleeding (0.2%). The mean difference of swelling of thigh pre-versus postoperatively was only 22.8 mm. In conclusion, thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip and knee replacement using Flowtron(®) foot-pumps as main prevention tool of an individualised protocol appears effective and safe. This is the first clinical report related to this popular brand of foot pumps.

  4. Awareness of venous thromboembolism in mental health services for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, M; Wieczorek, G; Reilly, J

    2014-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important safety issue in the inpatient mental health care of older people. In a survey of specialist mental health staff, knowledge of deep vein thrombosis was good. More variable awareness of the presentation and risk factors for pulmonary embolism indicates the need for training integrated into regular physical health care updates. Currently, failure to adequately screen and prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is estimated to cause between 25,000 and 32,000 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the United Kingdom. The authors aimed to assess the awareness of VTE in clinical staff working in Mental Health Services for Older People, Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys National Health Service Foundation Trust. A questionnaire was devised to assess knowledge of VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and treatment in clinical staff working in Mental Health Service for Older Peoples' inpatient units. Forty-nine nurses, 12 consultant psychiatrists, and 11 clinical pharmacists responded. A significant proportion of staff had previous involvement in VTE treatment. Staff had significantly more limited knowledge of pulmonary embolism compared to deep vein thrombosis with areas for improvement in presentation, risk factors, and prevention. The study confirms a need for improved awareness among all clinical staff including nurses, pharmacists, and doctors, which can be met by including VTE awareness in First Response training, and encouraging use of the Department of Health VTE e-learning tool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rare Presentation of Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Artery Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hako

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary arterial dissection with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension as its major cause is a very rare but life-threatening condition. In most cases the main pulmonary trunk is the affected site usually without involvement of its branches. Segmental or lobar pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare. Case Presentation. We report a unique case of left lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection in a 70-year-old male, with confirmed chronic pulmonary hypertension. To confirm dissection MDCT pulmonary angiography was used. Multiplanar reformation (MPR images in sagittal, coronal, oblique sagittal, and curved projections were generated. This case report presents morphologic CT features of rare chronic left lobar pulmonary artery dissection associated with chronic pulmonary hypertension at a place of localised pulmonary artery calcification. CT pulmonary angiography excluded signs of thromboembolism and potential motion or flow artefacts. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, no case of lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection with flap calcification has been reported yet. CT imaging of the chest is a key diagnostic tool that is able to detect an intimal flap and a false lumen within the pulmonary arterial tree and is preferred in differential diagnosis of rare complications of sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  6. Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism and risk of occult cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp Hansen, Anette; Veres, Katalin; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2017-01-01

    The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected.An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk.......The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected.An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk....

  7. Thromboembolic and Major Bleeding Events With Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin Use in a Real-World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Alvarez, Giavanna; Martinez, Kathryn A; Valente, Megan; Bena, James; Hu, Bo; Luxenburg, Jennifer; Chaitoff, Alexander; Ituarte, Catherine; Brateanu, Andrei; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Although randomized trials demonstrate the noninferiority of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the context of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about how these drugs compare in practice. To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a large health system and to evaluate this association by time in therapeutic range (TTR). We conducted a retrospective cohort study with propensity matching in the Cleveland Clinic Health System. The study included patients initiated on warfarin or rivaroxaban for thromboembolic prevention in nonvalvular AF between January 2012 and July 2016. The main outcomes were thromboembolic events and major bleeds. Analyses were stratified by warfarin patients' TTR. The cohort consisted of 472 propensity-matched pairs. The mean age was 73.6 years (SD = 11.7), and the mean CHADS 2 score was 1.8. The median TTR for warfarin patients was 64%. In the propensity-matched analysis, there was no significant difference in thromboembolic or major bleeding events between groups. Among warfarin patients with a TTR warfarin and rivaroxaban were associated with similar safety and effectiveness, even among those with suboptimal therapeutic control. Individualized decision making, taking into account the nontherapeutic tradeoffs associated with these medications (eg, monitoring, half-life, cost) is warranted.

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  9. A retrospective study of the impact of a telephone alert service (Healthy Outlook) on hospital admissions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarran, Christophe; Halpin, David; Levy, Mark L; Prigmore, Samantha; Sachon, Patrick

    2014-10-23

    Healthy Outlook is a service delivered by the UK Met Office directly to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has been in place since 2006. Its objective is to reduce the severity and length of COPD exacerbations, hence improving the quality of life and life expectancy. To assess the effect of the Healthy Outlook service on hospital admission rates of all general practitioners that have used the service. Control practices were selected for each of the 661 participating practices. The number of hospital admissions for each practice was extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. The differences in admission rates per practice between the first year of use of the Healthy Outlook service and the previous year were compared by paired t-test analyses. For admissions with a primary diagnosis of COPD, the difference between participating and control practices was -0.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.8 to 0.2%; P=0.13). For admissions with a primary or co-morbid diagnosis of COPD, the difference was -2.3% (95% CI=-4.2 to -0.4%; P=0.02). Participation in the Healthy Outlook service reduces hospital admission rates for patients coded on discharge with COPD (including co-morbid).

  10. VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY AND THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE IN BARIATRIC SURGERY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonno van BELLEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Morbid obesity is associated with various co-morbidities, including chronic venous insufficiency. Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, but with potential risks and possible complications, including venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic signs of chronic venous insufficiency in morbid obese patients in preparation for bariatric surgery and the incidence of post-operative venous thromboembolic disease. Methods Patients on work-up for bariatric surgery of Centro Terapêutico Especializado em Fígado (CETEFI and Pro-Gastro surgical teams of the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo were included. The analysed data were pre-operative findings for venous insufficiency (CEAP - clinical, etiological, anatomical, physiopathologic - classification and venous ultrassonographic findings, type of surgery (open or laparoscopic, abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI and post-operative ultrassonography search for venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Results Between March 2007 and December 2009, 95 patients candidates for bariatric surgery had clinical and duplex scan evaluation of the lower limbs venous system. Of the 95 patients, 53 were submitted to the surgical procedure. There was a predominance of women (77.9%, the average age was 38.5 years, average preoperative weight 124.6 kg and average BMI of 45.5 kg/m2. Regarding obesity, 16.8% were obese, and 83.1% were morbidly obese. In relation to the venous findings, 86.3% of the patients did fit CEAP classification less than 3 and 13.7% greater than or equal to 3. Among the post-operative complications, there were four cases of wound infection. Three patients developed post-operative distal venous thrombosis (7.5%, but no one had clinically manifested pulmonary embolism. Conclusion No relation between BMI, CEAP classification and venous ultrassonographic findings were found. Although

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  12. The Risk of Venous Thromboembolism with Different Generation of Oral Contraceptives; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral contraceptives (OCs are considered as one of the most common risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE in child bearing age. Some of the recent researches indicate that the odds of VTE may be even higher with newer generations of OCs. The present meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the effect of different generation of OCs on the occurrence of VTE. Methods: Two researchers independently ran a thorough search in Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus databases regarding study keywords including thromboembolic event, thromboembolism, embolism, thromboembolic, thrombotic and thrombosis, combined with oral contraceptive. The outcomes were the incidence of diagnosed thromboembolism, such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and cerebral venous thrombosis. Based on the heterogeneity of the studies, random effect model was used and pooled odds ratio was reported. Results: Three cohort and 17 case-control studies with 13,265,228 subjects were entered into meta-analysis. Analysis showed that the odds of VTE in women taking OCs are more than three-fold (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 2.61-3.65. The risk of VTE in women taking first-, second- and third-generation OCs are 3.5 fold (OR=3.48; 95% CI: 2.01-4.94, 3 fold (OR=3.08; 95% CI: 2.43-3.74 and 4.3 fold (OR=4.35; CI: 3.69‒5.01, respectively. Conclusion: It seems that the risk of VTE is not same between different generations of OCs, so that third-generation has highest risk. Taking second and third-generation OCs increases the risk of VTE up to 3 and 4.3 fold, respectively. The researchers of the present study suggest that more clinical trials be designed in relation to the effect of newer generations of OCs in different communities. 

  13. Evaluation of peripheral pulmonary perfusion decrease of 99m-Tc MAA scintigraphy using SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Kamisaki, Yuichi; Kameda, Keisuke; Seto, Hikaru

    2012-01-01

    We often experienced non-segmented peripheral patchy decrease (NSPPD) in 99m Tc-macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) pulmonary perfusion scan using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. Seventy cases were evaluated by 99m Tc-MAA SPECT/CT. NSPPD was seen in 22 cases (31.4%), of which 17 were assessed for pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 11 cases, which consisted of 3 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, 2 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, 2 systemic lupus eryhthematosus and 4 left ventricular heart disease. We suggest that NSPPD may indicate the early stage of pulmonary hypertension (PH). (author)

  14. Retrospective Evaluation of Safety, Efficacy and Risk Factors for Pneumothorax in Simultaneous Localizations of Multiple Pulmonary Nodules Using Hook Wire System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Quan; Pan, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Hai; Yuan, Mei; Kong, Ling-Yan; Pu, Xue-Hui; Chen, Liang; Yu, Tong-Fu

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the hook wire system in the simultaneous localizations for multiple pulmonary nodules (PNs) before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and to clarify the risk factors for pneumothorax associated with the localization procedure. Between January 2010 and February 2016, 67 patients (147 nodules, Group A) underwent simultaneous localizations for multiple PNs using a hook wire system. The demographic, localization procedure-related information and the occurrence rate of pneumothorax were assessed and compared with a control group (349 patients, 349 nodules, Group B). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for pneumothorax during the localization procedure. All the 147 nodules were successfully localized. Four (2.7%) hook wires dislodged before VATS procedure, but all these four lesions were successfully resected according to the insertion route of hook wire. Pathological diagnoses were acquired for all 147 nodules. Compared with Group B, Group A demonstrated significantly longer procedure time (p pneumothorax (p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that position change during localization procedure (OR 2.675, p = 0.021) and the nodules located in the ipsilateral lung (OR 9.404, p pneumothorax. Simultaneous localizations for multiple PNs using a hook wire system before VATS procedure were safe and effective. Compared with localization for single PN, simultaneous localizations for multiple PNs were prone to the occurrence of pneumothorax. Position change during localization procedure and the nodules located in the ipsilateral lung were independent risk factors for pneumothorax.

  15. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Harry R; Décousus, Hervé; Grosso, Michael A; Mercuri, Michele; Middeldorp, Saskia; Prins, Martin H; Raskob, Gary E; Schellong, Sebastian M; Schwocho, Lee; Segers, Annelise; Shi, Minggao; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Phil; Kamphuisen, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can be an alternative to warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism is unclear. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority study, we randomly assigned patients with acute venous thromboembolism, who had initially received

  16. Edoxaban versus Warfarin for the Treatment of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büller, Harry R; Décousus, Hervé; Grosso, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Whether the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can be an alternative to warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism is unclear.......Whether the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can be an alternative to warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism is unclear....

  17. Venous and arterial thromboembolism : prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasha, Sharif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a journey in the vascular medicine. Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 is a meta-analysis on the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism on the emergency ward. Chapter 3 is a meta-analysis on the occurence of contrast induced nephropathy in patients suspected for pulmonary

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Outpatient Lower Limb Fractures and Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajwani, Sanil H; Shaw, Alex; Naiz, Osamah; Bhaskar, Deepu; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2016-05-05

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a preventable complication of trauma in ambulatory patients requiring temporary lower limb immobilisation. We introduced a VTE risk assessment and management tool in fracture clinics, to help improve appropriate VTE management of trauma patients that do not require hospitalisation. This was based on guidelines published by the College of Emergency Medicine (UK). Clinicians were asked to follow the screening tool and manage patients as per the pathway. We aimed to determine the rate of VTE risk assessment and management of outpatient fracture patients following the introduction of the new assessment tool. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of lower limb fracture patients presenting to a fracture clinic following the introduction of the new VTE risk assessment group and compared it to a retrospective cohort treated prior to the new tool. Prior to introduction of the new assessment tool only 5 of 30 (16.7%) patients were assessed for VTE risk. After introduction of the VTE screening tool, 27 of 28 patients (96.4%) were assessed for VTE risk (Pfracture clinic to patients with lower limb trauma requiring temporary limb immobilisation can improve VTE risk assessment in accordance with current guidelines.

  19. Pulmonary Arterial Stent Implantation in an Adult with Williams Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; Delden, Otto M. van; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Short-term follow-up showed a good clinical result with excellent patency of the stents but early restenosis of the segments in which only balloon angioplasty was performed. These stenoses were subsequently also treated successfully by stent implantation. Stent patency was observed 3 years after the first procedure

  20. Pulmonary histiocytosis X - imaging aspects of pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Maeda, Lucimara; Ferreira, Daniel Miranda; Montandon, Cristiano; Marins, Jose Luiz C.

    1999-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is an idiopathic disease which is and uncommon but important cause of pulmonary fibrosis in young adults. Chest radiographs and high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lungs of 7 patients diagnosed as pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined retrospectively. The authors reviewed the pathologic, clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary histiocytosis X, focusing on differential diagnosis and disease progression. Pulmonary histiocytosis X can be suspected on the basis of chest radiographic findings; predominantly upper lobe nodules and cysts present an increased sensitivity and are virtually pathognomonic of this disorder. Chest HRCT allows good assessment of the evolution of pulmonary histiocytosis X and is also valuable in distinguishing histiocytosis from other disorders that produces nodules or cysts. (author)

  1. A Cohort Study to Analyze the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Mortality in Patients Admitted to the General Medicine Department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sule, Ashish Anil; Chin, Tay Jam; Sinnathamby, Letchumi; Lee, Hwei Khien; Earnest, Arul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients admitted to the Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore during October and November 2009. The primary outcome assessed was mortality due to VTE, or development of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) within 3 months from the day of admission. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for all-cause mortality and deaths associated with PE. Seven hundred twenty-one patients adm...

  2. Pulmonary thromboembolism in a patient with active ulcerative colitis and lung abscess secondary to pulmonary infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Selvi; Gunbatar, Hulya; Ekin, Selami; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases and they primarily involve intestines. Herein we report the case of a young man who, during a clinical recurrence of ulcerative colitis, presented with symptoms suggestive of a lung abscess. When the patient was re-evaluated because of unexplained shortness of breath, an area of infarction was detected that had led to the development of cavitation secondary to submassive embolism and foci of infection contained within. The patient was managed with subcutaneous heparin and he was asymptomatic during 2 months of follow-up. He completed six months of anti-coagulation therapy and any recurrence was not detected during 3 months of post-treatment follow-up.

  3. [Pulmonary hypertension: definition, classification and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a cardio-pulmonary disorder that may involve multiple clinical conditions and can complicate the majority of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Its definition is an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) \\hbox{$\\geqslant $} ⩾ 25 mmHg at rest, leading to right heart failure and ultimately death. The clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) categorizes PH into groups which share similar pathophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics and treatments. Five groups of disorders that cause PH are identified: pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1) which is a pre-capillary PH, defined by a normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) \\hbox{$\\leqslant $} ⩽ 15 mmH, due to remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries (15 mmHg; pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia (Group 3); chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (Group 4); and pulmonary hypertension due to unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms (Group 5). PAH (PH group 1) can be treated with agents targeting three dysfunctional endothelial pathways of PAH: nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endothelin-1 pathway and prostacyclin pathway. Patients at low or intermediate risk can be treated with either initial monotherapy or initial oral combination therapy. In patients at high risk initial combination therapy including intravenous prostacyclin analogues should be considered. Patients with inadequate clinical response to maximum treatment (triple therapy with an intravenous prostacyclin) should be assessed for lung transplantation. Despite progresses, PAH remains a fatal disease with a 3-year survival rate of 58%. Treatment of group 2, group 3 and group 5 PH is the treatment of the causal disease and PAH therapeutics are not recommended. Treatment of group 4 PH is pulmonary endarteriectomy if patients are eligible, otherwise balloon pulmonary angioplasty and/or medical therapy can be considered. © Société de Biologie

  4. Venous Thromboembolism After Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of new or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after retrieval of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and risk factors associated with such recurrence. Between March 2001 and September 2008, at our institution, implanted retrievable vena cava filters were retrieved in 76 patients. The incidence of new or recurrent VTE after retrieval was reviewed and numerous variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for redevelopment of VTE after filter retrieval. In 5 (6.6%) of the 76 patients, redevelopment or worsening of VTE was seen after retrieval of the filter. Three patients (4.0%) had recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and 2 (2.6%) had development of pulmonary embolism, resulting in death. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of new or recurrent VTE related to any risk factor investigated, a tendency for development of VTE after filter retrieval was higher in patients in whom DVT in the lower extremities had been so severe during filter implantation that interventional radiological therapies in addition to traditional anticoagulation therapies were required (40% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 23% in those without VTE; p = 0.5866 according to Fisher's exact probability test) and in patients in whom DVT remained at the time of filter retrieval (60% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 37% in those without VTE; p = 0.3637). In conclusion, new or recurrent VTE was rare after retrieval of IVC filters but was most likely to occur in patients who had severe DVT during filter implantation and/or in patients with a DVT that remained at the time of filter retrieval. We must point out that the fatality rate from PE after filter removal was high (2.6%).

  5. Individualized Risk Model for Venous Thromboembolism After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Huang, Ronald; Rezapoor, Maryam; Bagheri, Behrad; Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a potentially fatal complication. Currently, a standard protocol for postoperative VTE prophylaxis is used that makes little distinction between patients at varying risks of VTE. We sought to develop a simple scoring system identifying patients at higher risk for VTE in whom more potent anticoagulation may need to be administered. Utilizing the National Inpatient Sample data, 1,721,806 patients undergoing TJA were identified, among whom 15,775 (0.9%) developed VTE after index arthroplasty. Among the cohort, all known potential risk factors for VTE were assessed. An initial logistic regression model using potential predictors for VTE was performed. Predictors with little contribution or poor predictive power were pruned from the data, and the model was refit. After pruning of variables that had little to no contribution to VTE risk, using the logistic regression, all independent predictors of VTE after TJA were identified in the data. Relative weights for each factor were determined. Hypercoagulability, metastatic cancer, stroke, sepsis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had some of the highest points. Patients with any of these conditions had risk for postoperative VTE that exceeded the 3% rate. Based on the model, an iOS (iPhone operating system) application was developed (VTEstimator) that could be used to assign patients into low or high risk for VTE after TJA. We believe individualization of VTE prophylaxis after TJA can improve the efficacy of preventing VTE while minimizing untoward risks associated with the administration of anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of thromboembolic events after use of gelatin-thrombin-based hemostatic matrix during intracranial tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Conti, Carlo; De Bonis, Costanzo

    2018-01-01

    Association between the use of hemostatic agents made from collagen/gelatin mixed with thrombin and thromboembolic events in patients undergoing tumor resection has been suggested. This study evaluates the relationship between flowable hemostatic matrix and deep vein thrombosis in a large cohort of patients treated for brain tumor removal. The authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter, clinical review of all craniotomies for tumor removal performed between 2013 and 2014. Patients were classified in three groups: group I (flowable gelatin hemostatic matrix with thrombin), group II (gelatin hemostatic without thrombin), and group III (classical hemostatic). A total of 932 patients were selected: tumor pathology included 441 gliomas, 296 meningiomas, and 195 metastases. Thromboembolic events were identified in 4.7% of patients in which gelatin matrix with thrombin was applied, in 8.4% of patients with gelatin matrix without thrombin, and in 3.6% of cases with classical methods of hemostasis. Patients with venous thromboembolism had an increased proportion of high-grade gliomas (7.2%). Patients receiving a greater dose than 10 ml gelatin hemostatic had a higher rate of thromboembolic events. Intracranial hematoma requiring reintervention occurred in 19 cases: 4.5% of cases of group III, while reoperation was performed in 1.3 and 1.6% of patients in which gelatin matrix with or without thrombin was applied. Gelatin matrix hemostat is an efficacious tool for neurosurgeons in cases of difficult intraoperative bleeding during cranial tumor surgery. This study may help to identify those patients at high risk for developing thromboembolism and to treat them accordingly.

  7. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  8. Prothrombin and risk of venous thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Juul, Klaus; Zacho, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity associate with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the general population and re-tested risk of IHD and ICVD in two case......-control studies. METHODS: 9231 individuals from the Danish general population were followed for VTE (VTE=DVT+PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), ICVD, and ischemic stroke (IS) for a median of 24 years. Case-control studies included 2461 IHD cases and 867...

  9. Diet as prophylaxis and treatment for venous thromboembolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cundiff David K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE: deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary emboli (PE with anticoagulants are associated with significant risks of major and fatal hemorrhage. Anticoagulation treatment of VTE has been the standard of care in the USA since before 1962 when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs showing efficacy, so efficacy trials were never required for FDA approval. In clinical trials of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients before the 1980s, anticoagulant prophylaxis was clearly beneficial (fatal pulmonary emboli (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.99%, FPE with anticoagulants = 0.31%. However, observational studies and RCTs of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients from the 1980s until 2010 show that FPE deaths without anticoagulants are about one-fourth the rate that occurs during prophylaxis with anticoagulants (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.023%, FPE while receiving anticoagulant prophylaxis = 0.10%. Additionally, an FPE rate of about 0.012% (35/28,400 in patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulants can be attributed to 'rebound hypercoagulation' in the two months after stopping anticoagulants. Alternatives to anticoagulant prophylaxis should be explored. Methods and Findings The literature concerning dietary influences on VTE incidence was reviewed. Hypotheses concerning the etiology of VTE were critiqued in relationship to the rationale for dietary versus anticoagulant approaches to prophylaxis and treatment. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet with ample fruits and vegetables and little meat may substantially reduce the risk of VTE; vegetarian, vegan, or Mediterranean diets favorably affect serum markers of hemostasis and inflammation. The valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis of DVT/VTE etiology is consistent with the development of VTE being affected directly or indirectly by diet. However, it is less consistent with

  10. Comparison of the effect of dabigatran and dalteparin on thrombus stability in a murine model of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, S A; Saldanha, L J; Vaezzadeh, N; Zhou, J; Ni, R; Gross, P L

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Does thrombus stability alter the presentation of venous thromboembolism and do anticoagulants alter this? In a murine model, we imaged a femoral vein thrombus and quantified emboli in the pulmonary arteries. Dabigatran decreases thrombus stability via factor XIII increasing embolization and pulmonary emboli. This cautions against the unapproved use of dabigatran for acute initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a collective term for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombus instability possibly contributes to progression of DVT to PE, and direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) may alter this. To develop a model to assess thrombus stability and its link to PE burden, and identify whether DTIs, in contrast to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), alter this correlation. Twelve minutes after ferric chloride-induced thrombus formation in the femoral vein of female mice, saline, dalteparin (LMWH) or dabigatran (DTI) was administered. Thrombus size and embolic events breaking off from the thrombus were quantified before treatment and at 10-min intervals after treatment for 2 h using intravital videomicroscopy. Lungs were stained for the presence of PE. Thrombus size was similar over time and between treatment groups. Total and large embolic events and pulmonary emboli were highest after treatment with dabigatran. Variations in amounts of pulmonary embolic events were not attributed to variations in thrombus size. Large embolic events correlated with the number of emboli per lung slice independent of treatment. Embolization in factor XIII deficient (FXIII(-/-) ) saline-treated mice was greater than that in wild-type (WT) saline-treated mice, but was similar to WT dabigatran-treated mice. We have developed a mouse model of VTE that can quantify emboli and correlate this with PE burden. Consistent with clinical data, dabigatran, a DTI, acutely decreases thrombus stability and increases PE burden compared with

  11. D-dimer in the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease after spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Motohiko; Saita, Kazuo; Iijima, Yuki; Ueda, Yusuke; Endo, Teruaki

    2010-01-01

    The plasma D-dimer levels of 136 patients (80 men and 56 women, mean age 63.9 years) who underwent spinal surgery in our hospital were measured on pod 3 and pod 7, as a method of screening for thromboembolic disease. A D-dimer cut off value of 10 μg/dl was used and only the patients with higher values were examined by CT. No patients had symptomatic thromboembolic disease. On pod 7 the D-dimer levels of 14 patients was above 10 μg/dl, but only 2 of them were detected in asymptomatic pulmonary embolism. Both of them had undergone anterior fusion surgery, and no deep venous thrombosis was detected in the lower extremities. Anticoagulation therapy with heparin and warfarin was started immediately, and the patients were discharged symptom-free. Another methods of thromboprophylaxis in addition to traditional mechanical thromboprophylaxis, such as by wearing compression stockings and foot pumps, may be necessary after anterior spinal surgery. (author)

  12. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werth S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Werth, Kai Halbritter, Jan Beyer-WestendorfCenter for Vascular Medicine and Department of Medicine III, Division of Angiology, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus” Dresden, Dresden, GermanyAbstract: Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy.Keywords: major orthopedic surgery, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, deep vein thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, VTE prophylaxis

  13. Splenectomy and the incidence of venous thromboembolism and sepsis in patients with immune thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Soames; White, Richard H.; Brunson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who relapse after an initial trial of corticosteroid treatment present a therapeutic challenge. Current guidelines recommend consideration of splenectomy, despite the known risks associated with surgery and the postsplenectomy state. To better define these risks, we identified a cohort of 9976 patients with ITP, 1762 of whom underwent splenectomy. The cumulative incidence of abdominal venous thromboembolism (AbVTE) was 1.6% compared with 1% in patients who did not undergo splenectomy; venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus) after splenectomy was 4.3% compared with 1.7% in patients who did not undergo splenectomy. There was increased risk of AbVTE early (splenectomy. There was increased risk of VTE both early (HR 5.2 [CI, 3.2-8.5]) and late (HR 2.7 [CI, 1.9-3.8]) after splenectomy. The cumulative incidence of sepsis was 11.1% among the ITP patients who underwent splenectomy and 10.1% among the patients who did not. Splenectomy was associated with a higher adjusted risk of sepsis, both early (HR 3.3 [CI, 2.4-4.6]) and late (HR 1.6 or 3.1, depending on comorbidities). We conclude that ITP patients post splenectomy are at increased risk for AbVTE, VTE, and sepsis. PMID:23637127

  14. Pulmonary functional MR imaging for COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by airflow limitation, cough, sputum production, and, at later stages, dyspnea. COPD is currently the fourth-leading cause of mortality and the twelfth-leading cause of disability, and by the year 2020 it is expected to be the third-leading cause of death and the fifth-leading cause of disability worldwide. The diagnosis of COPD largely relies on a history of exposure to noxious stimuli and abnormal lung function test results. Since the pathology of COPD varies and the molecular mechanisms are only slightly understood, the diagnosis and stage assessment of COPD have relied on the results of pulmonary function test. In addition, CT and nuclear medicine study are utilized for assessment of regional morphological and functional abnormalities. Recently, pulmonary functional MR imaging is suggested as a new technique for assessment of regional physiopathologic information in various pulmonary diseases including COPD, pulmonary thromboembolism, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. This review article covers the brief description of theory and clinical application of contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging; hyperpolarized noble gas MR imaging and oxygen-enhanced MR imaging in COPD subjects. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of this new technique will define the real significance of pulmonary functional MR imaging for the future of pulmonary functional imaging and its usefulness for diagnosis and patients' management in COPD. (author)

  15. Definition, classification, and epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeper, Marius M

    2009-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that comprises idiopathic PAH, familial/heritable forms, and PAH associated with connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and some other conditions. The hemodynamic definition of PAH was recently revised: PAH is now defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest > or =25 mm Hg in the presence of a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or =30 mm Hg during exercise) that was used in the old definition of PAH has been removed because there are no robust data that would allow defining an upper limit of normal for the pulmonary pressure during exercise. The revised classification of pulmonary hypertension still consists of five major groups: (1) PAH, (2) pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, (3) pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia, (4) chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and (5) miscellaneous forms. Modifications have been made in some of these groups, such as the addition of schistosomiasis-related pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia to group 1.

  16. Primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Catherine H

    2010-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is rare in children and young adolescents, and occurs predominantly in those with congenital heart disease in whom guidelines exist for VTE prophylaxis. For other paediatric patients, the rarity of the event makes writing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline difficult because each of the known risk factors contributes only a small increase in risk. Thrombophilia screening is controversial because few results assist with prediction of likely thrombosis and may not alter recommendations for prophylaxis. Recent publications highlight the importance of non-pharmacological prevention of VTE in children and adolescents undergoing surgery and the importance of liaison among surgeon, anaesthetist and haematologist. This annotation was written with the aim of collating current evidence for VTE prophylaxis and emphasising the need for further research in vulnerable subgroups.

  17. A retrospective evaluation of associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, and efficacy of chemotherapy and selected laboratory parameters in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Czyżykowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To was to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and active smoking on the efficacy of chemotherapy and complete blood count (CBC in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Material and methods: The retrospective evaluation included 50 patients with stage IIIB–IV NSCLC, who started cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Peripheral blood CBC values were collected for testing before chemotherapy and after the first and third cycles. Results : COPD was diagnosed in 49% of patients, while 42% of those enrolled were current smokers. Current smoking (p = 0.92 and COPD (p = 0.91 status did not affect the response to treatment. The non-COPD population presented a significantly higher pretreatment absolute lymphocyte count (ALC than the COPD population (2.31 vs. 1.81 × 109/l; p = 0.0374. Also, only the non-COPD group demonstrated an elevated absolute monocyte count (AMC following the first and third cycles of chemotherapy (p = 0.004. In current smokers, pretreatment values for white blood cells (WBC, absolute neutrophil count (ANC, and platelets (PLT were higher than in the ex-smoker population (WBC 9.94 vs. 8.7 (× 109/l; p = 0.01; ANC 6.47 vs. 5.61 (× 109/l; p = 0.037; PLT 316 vs. 266 (× 109/l; p = 0.049. Ex-smokers demonstrated AMC level elevation after the first cycle of chemotherapy and PLT level elevation after the third cycle, while current smokers also demonstrated an early decrease in LMR. Conclusions : COPD and smoking induce chronic systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which influence the results of standard laboratory tests, but do not change the response rate of lung cancer on chemotherapy.

  18. [Venous thromboembolism triggered by spinning in a young woman with thrombophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Małek, Małgorzata; Montewska, Dominika; Kurosz, Jolanta; Wróblewski, Dariusz; Zawilska, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    Although regular sports activities decrease the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), VTE cases have been observed among professional and amateur athletes practicing various disciplines. The authors describe a case of a 25-year-old-woman in whom calf pain, as popliteal vein thrombosis manifestation--preceding pulmonary embolism, occurred after she took up spinning, a popular form of indoor cycling. There was no history of leg injury. In hemostasis work up, factor V Leiden mutation and acquired low antithrombin activity-related to oral contraceptives use, were found. Strenuous exercise in an untrained woman might augment prothrombotic hemostasis profile. Vigorous cycling in standing position in the last phase of spinning, seems to be most unfavorable for patients with high VTE risk.

  19. Caplacizumab reduces the frequency of major thromboembolic events, exacerbations and death in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, F; Scully, M; Kremer Hovinga, J A; Knöbl, P; Cataland, S; De Beuf, K; Callewaert, F; De Winter, H; Zeldin, R K

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is linked with significant morbidity/mortality. Caplacizumab's effect on major thromboembolic (TE) events, exacerbations and death was studied. Fewer caplacizumab-treated patients had a major TE event, an exacerbation, or died versus placebo. Caplacizumab has the potential to reduce the acute morbidity and mortality associated with aTTP. Background Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is a life-threatening autoimmune thrombotic microangiopathy. In spite of treatment with plasma exchange and immunosuppression, patients remain at risk for thrombotic complications, exacerbations, and death. In the phase II TITAN study, treatment with caplacizumab, an anti-von Willebrand factor Nanobody ® was shown to reduce the time to confirmed platelet count normalization and exacerbations during treatment. Objective The clinical benefit of caplacizumab was further investigated in a post hoc analysis of the incidence of major thromboembolic events and exacerbations during the study drug treatment period and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-related death during the study. Methods The Standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Query (SMQ) for 'embolic and thrombotic events' was run to investigate the occurrence of major thromboembolic events and exacerbations in the safety population of the TITAN study, which consisted of 72 patients, of whom 35 received caplacizumab and 37 received placebo. Results Four events (one pulmonary embolism and three aTTP exacerbations) were reported in four patients in the caplacizumab group, and 20 such events were reported in 14 patients in the placebo group (two acute myocardial infarctions, one ischemic stroke, one hemorrhagic stroke, one pulmonary embolism, one deep vein thrombosis, one venous thrombosis, and 13 aTTP exacerbations). Two of the placebo-treated patients died from aTTP during the study. Conclusion In total, 11.4% of caplacizumab

  20. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  1. New anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J McRae

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon J McRae, Jeffrey S GinsbergDepartment of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Anticoagulant therapy is effective at preventing the development of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients, and reduces morbidity and mortality in individuals with established thromboembolic disease. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are currently the most commonly used anticoagulant drugs, but they have practical limitations. Therefore, new antithrombotic agents with predictable dose-responses (thereby decreasing the need for monitoring without compromising efficacy or safety, ideally available in an oral formulation and with a rapidly reversible anticoagulant effect, are needed. New drugs fulfilling some of the above criteria have been developed and have proven to be effective agents for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.Keywords: venous thromboembolism, anticoagulants, antithrombotic

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolism in major spinal surgery with no chemical or mechanical prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Tomba, F; Gormaz-Talavera, I; Menéndez-Quintanilla, I E; Moriel-Durán, J; García de Quevedo-Puerta, D; Villanueva-Pareja, F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism in spine surgery with no chemical and mechanical prophylaxis, and to determine the specific risk factors for this complication. A historical cohort was analysed. All patients subjected to major spinal surgery, between January 2010 and September 2014, were included. No chemical or mechanical prophylaxis was administered in any patient. Active mobilisation of lower limbs was indicated immediately after surgery, and early ambulation started in the first 24-48 hours after surgery. Clinically symptomatic cases were confirmed by Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs or chest CT angiography. A sample of 1092 cases was studied. Thromboembolic events were observed in 6 cases (.54%); 3 cases (.27%) with deep venous thrombosis and 3 cases (.27%) with pulmonary thromboembolism. A lethal case was identified (.09%). There were no cases of major bleeding or epidural haematoma. The following risk factors were identified: a multilevel fusion at more than 4 levels, surgeries longer than 130 minutes, patients older than 70 years of age, hypertension, and degenerative scoliosis. There is little scientific evidence on the prevention of thromboembolic events in spinal surgery. In addition to the disparity of prophylactic methods indicated by different specialists, it is important to weigh the risk-benefit of intra- and post-operative bleeding, and even the appearance of an epidural haematoma. Prophylaxis should be assessed in elderly patients over 70 years old, who are subjected to surgeries longer than 130 minutes, when 4 or more levels are involved. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer and age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation to exclude venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach Lapner, Sarah; Julian, Jim A; Linkins, Lori-Ann; Bates, Shannon; Kearon, Clive

    2017-10-05

    Two new strategies for interpreting D-dimer results have been proposed: i) using a progressively higher D-dimer threshold with increasing age (age-adjusted strategy) and ii) using a D-dimer threshold in patients with low clinical probability that is twice the threshold used in patients with moderate clinical probability (clinical probability-adjusted strategy). Our objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer interpretation in patients with a low or moderate clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data and blood samples from two prospective studies. We compared the negative predictive value (NPV) for VTE, and the proportion of patients with a negative D-dimer result, using two D-dimer interpretation strategies: the age-adjusted strategy, which uses a progressively higher D-dimer threshold with increasing age over 50 years (age in years × 10 µg/L FEU); and the clinical probability-adjusted strategy which uses a D-dimer threshold of 1000 µg/L FEU in patients with low clinical probability and 500 µg/L FEU in patients with moderate clinical probability. A total of 1649 outpatients with low or moderate clinical probability for a first suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were included. The NPV of both the clinical probability-adjusted strategy (99.7 %) and the age-adjusted strategy (99.6 %) were similar. However, the proportion of patients with a negative result was greater with the clinical probability-adjusted strategy (56.1 % vs, 50.9 %; difference 5.2 %; 95 % CI 3.5 % to 6.8 %). These findings suggest that clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer interpretation is a better way of interpreting D-dimer results compared to age-adjusted interpretation.

  5. Evaluation of an institutional project to improve venous thromboembolism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital

  6. Hyperthyroidism: A rare cause of pulmonary embolism: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Grine; Nadia Charfi; Mahdi Kamoun; Fatma Mnif; Basma Ben Naceur; Nabila Rekik; Mouna Mnif; Mohamed Abid

    2013-01-01

    Several disorders of coagulation and fibrinolysis have been widely reported in patients with hyperthyroidism. Most reports have focused on only the venous thromboembolism risk, and few of them have studied specifically the association between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary embolism (PE). We report two cases of Graves’ disease complicated by PE. The first patient is a 32 year-old man, and the second patient is a 23-year-old female. PE was suspected on the basis of pulmonary hypertension in pati...

  7. Thrombus Development on a Transseptal Sheath in the Right Atrium Before Electrical Pulmonary Vein Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Romero-Rodriguez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient who developed a thrombus on the transseptal sheath in the right atrium before transseptal puncture for circumferential pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treatment. The use of intracardiac echocardiography allowed to its identification and probably prevented the patient from suffering a serious thromboembolic complication.

  8. Pulmonary Valve Replacement : Twenty-Six Years of Experience With Mechanical Valvar Prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freling, Hendrik G.; van Slooten, Ymkje J.; van Melle, Joost P.; Ebels, Tjark; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Hillege, Hans L.; Waterbolk, Tjalling W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Willems, Tineke P.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    BACKGROUND: Although the thromboembolic risk after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) with mechanical valves is presumed to be high, recent studies suggest promising short-term and mid-term results. However, large studies reporting long-term mortality and valve-related complications are missing.

  9. From Pulmonary Embolism to Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Give Tunnel Vision up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajdini, Masih; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multisystem disorder with gastrointestinal tract involvement. These patients have the higher risk for thromboembolic events compared to normal population. This report describes a unique case of pulmonary embolism as a first manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  11. Pulmonary hypertension: Real-world data from a Portuguese expert referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A; Cruz, C; Rocha, J; Ricardo, M; Vicente, M; Melo, A; Santos, M; Carvalho, L; Gonçalves, F; Reis, A

    2018-04-16

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a heterogeneous, debilitating condition with highly relevant impact on functional capacity, quality of life, and life-expectancy. This study aims to provide long-term data on the Portuguese PH population, by characterising the clinical presentation, evolution, and outcomes of PH patients in a specialised referral centre. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 101 patients with pre-capillary PH (pcPH) referenced to an expert tertiary care referral centre in northern Portugal from 2002 to 2013. Diagnosis was confirmed by right heart catheterisation (RHC). PH classification followed consensus criteria from the 5th World Symposium in Nice, 2013. The most frequent causes of pcPH were Group 1 PH - pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (54.4%) and Group 4 PH - Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (25.7%); importantly, 17.8% of patients presented PH associated with multiple aetiologies. Targeted therapy was used in 91.1% of patients (48.5% combination therapy). 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was estimated at 86.6%, 76.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. Survival was significantly better for those ≤40 years old (10.5 vs. 6.4 years; P=0.003) and for women with I/HPAH (9.3 vs. 4.5 years; P=0.039). This study provides long-term, real-world data for the management of PAH and CTEPH in Portugal and demonstrates the importance of dedicated electronic medical records and well defined clinical management protocols for better patient outcomes. Patients presented mostly with intermediate or high risk of mortality, which suggests delayed diagnosis and highlights the need to increase awareness among clinicians. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. a retrospective study of pulmonary tuberculosis (ptb)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    South East Asia, with 3 million cases a year, and sub-. Saharan Africa, with 2 .... air drying. Carbol fuchsin was applied onto the slides and heated gently for 5 minutes, then washed and drained. ... as a fine red rod against blue background.

  13. Postoperative management of pulmonary endarterectomy and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Iyengar Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy (PTE has been regarded as a promising, potentially curative surgical procedure. However, PTE is associated with specific postoperative complications, such as reperfusion pulmonary edema and right heart failure leading to a considerable mortality of 7-24%. Despite its limitations PTE is a better surgical alternative to lung transplantation which carries high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to analyze the efficacy, safety, morbidity and survival associated in the postoperative period and quality of life after six months of PTE in Indian patients. Forty-one patients with surgically correctable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. All patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II, III or IV. Preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 . All patients were followed up to six months and a telephonic survey was conducted using a standard questionnaire. They were assessed and classified as per NYHA grading. There was a significant reduction in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg to 24.13 ± 7.36 mmHg, P < 0.001 and pulmonary vascular resistance (from 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 to 142.45 ± 36.27 dynes/sec/cm -5 , P < 0.001 with a concomitant increase in the cardiac index (from 1.99 ± 0.20 L/min/m 2 to 3.28 ± 0.56 L/min/m 2 , P < 0.001 during the postoperative period. The mortality rate in our study was 12.19% (five patients. Ninety per cent of the patients reported a significant improvement in the quality of life and exercise tolerance after surgery compared to the preoperative state. Pulmonary endarterectomy is an effective and potentially curative surgical treatment for patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The current techniques of operation make the procedure relatively safe and

  14. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  15. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Olsen, Anne-Marie S; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Dominguez, Helena; Gadsbøll, Niels; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-08-01

    It is presently unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of thrombo-embolic adverse events after interruption of warfarin treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and timing of thrombo-embolism after warfarin treatment interruption. A retrospective, nationwide cohort study of all patients in Denmark treated with warfarin after a first hospitalization with AF in the period 1997-2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of thrombo-embolic events and all-cause mortality were calculated using the Poisson regression analyses. In total, 48 989 AF patients receiving warfarin treatment were included. Of these, 35 396 patients had at least one episode of warfarin treatment interruption. In all, 8255 deaths or thrombo-embolic events occurred during treatment interruption showing an initial clustering of events with 2717, 835, 500, and 427 events occurring during 0-90, 91-180, 181-270, and 271-360 days after treatment interruption, respectively. Correspondingly, the crude incidence rates were 31.6, 17.7, 12.3, and 11.4 events per 100 patient-years. In a multivariable analysis, the first 90-day interval of treatment interruption was associated with a markedly higher risk of death or thrombo-embolism (IRR 2.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-2.8) vs. the interval of 271-360 days. In patients with AF, an interruption of warfarin treatment is associated with a significantly increased short-term risk of death or thrombo-embolic events within the first 90 days of treatment interruption.

  16. 1 venous thromboembolism in orthopaedics references

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-23

    2004; 126: 338-400S. 3. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. American Academy of orthopaedic Surgeons clinical guidelines on prevention of symptomatic pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty.www.aaos.org/Research/ guidelines/PE_guideline. Pdf (accessed May 23, 2008). 4.

  17. Thromboembolic Complications in Thermally Injured Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    profilaxis con brdld vanec entre 0.4% et 7%. La signification cliniquc de ces heparina, militan en contra de su uso rutinario, excepto en Ev~nements est...centros adopten rutinariamente la profilaxis 8. Purdue, G.F., Hunt, J.L.: Pulmonary emboli in burned patients. J. con heparina de baja dosificaci6n. Se

  18. Pulmonary edema predictive scoring index (PEPSI), a new index to predict risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema and improvement of hemodynamics in percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Taguchi, Hiroki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to identify useful predictors for hemodynamic improvement and risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE), a major complication of this procedure. Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PTPA has not been widespread because RPE has not been well predicted. We included 140 consecutive procedures in 54 patients with CTEPH. The flow appearance of the target vessels was graded into 4 groups (Pulmonary Flow Grade), and we proposed PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index) = (sum total change of Pulmonary Flow Grade scores) × (baseline pulmonary vascular resistance). Correlations between occurrence of RPE and 11 variables, including hemodynamic parameters, number of target vessels, and PEPSI, were analyzed. Hemodynamic parameters significantly improved after median observation period of 6.4 months, and the sum total changes in Pulmonary Flow Grade scores were significantly correlated with the improvement in hemodynamics. Multivariate analysis revealed that PEPSI was the strongest factor correlated with the occurrence of RPE (p PEPSI to be a useful marker of the risk of RPE (cutoff value 35.4, negative predictive value 92.3%). Pulmonary Flow Grade score is useful in determining therapeutic efficacy, and PEPSI is highly supportive to reduce the risk of RPE after PTPA. Using these 2 indexes, PTPA could become a safe and common therapeutic strategy for CTEPH. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on diagnostic strategies of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Heussel, C.P.; Thelen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a frequent disease with non-specific findings, high mortality, and multiple therapeutic options. A definitive diagnosis must be established by accurate, non-invasive, easily performed, cost-effective, and widely available imaging modalities. Conventional diagnostic strategies have relied on ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy complemented by venous imaging. If the results are inconclusive, pulmonary angiography, which is regarded as the gold standard, is to be performed. Recently, marked improvements in CT and MRI and shortcomings of scintigraphy led to an update of the diagnostic strategy. Spiral CT is successfully employed as a second-line procedure to clarify indeterminate scintigraphic results avoiding pulmonary angiography. It can also be used as a first-line screening tool if service and expertise is provided. Venous imaging is indicated if CT is inconclusive. The MRI technique can be applied as an alternative second-line test if spiral CT is not available or is contraindicated. It has the greatest potential for further developments and refinements. Echocardiography should be used as a first-line bedside examination in critical patients. If inconclusive stabilized patients undergo spiral CT, unstable patients should be referred for pulmonary angiography. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare sequela of acute pulmonary embolism which can be cured surgically. Morphology, complications, and differential diagnoses are better illustrated by spiral CT and MRA, whereas invasive acquisition of hemodynamic data is the sole advantage of angiography. (orig.)

  20. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  1. Review of thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients attending Cork University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Stephen; Weaver, Daniel Timothy

    2013-06-01

    Although preventable, venous thromboembolism remains a common cause of hospital acquired morbidity and mortality. Guidelines, such as the one produced by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), are aimed at reducing hospital associated venous thromboemboli. Unfortunately the majority of studies have revealed inadequate adherence to these guidelines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis at Cork University Hospital. Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. Data from the patient's chart, drug kardex and laboratory results were recorded during April 2010. A Caprini score, a venous thromboembolism risk factor assessment tool, was subsequently calculated for each patient based on data collected. Appropriate prophylaxis was determined after examining data collected, Caprini score and prophylactic regime according to the ACCP 8th edition guidelines. Primary outcome was to analyse adherence to VTE prophylaxis guidelines. A total of 394 patients met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed, of which, 60% (n = 236) were medical and 37% (n = 146) were surgical patients. In total 63% of patients received some form of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Furthermore, 54% of medical and 76% of surgical patients received prophylaxis. However only 37% of the patients studied received appropriate thromboprophylaxis according to the ACCP 8th edition guidelines (Geerts et al. in chest 133(6 Suppl):381S-453S, 2008). Additionally 51% of surgical and 27% of medical patients received appropriate prophylaxis. Data collected from Cork University Hospital revealed poor adherence to international venous thromboembolism prophylaxis guidelines. As stated in the ACCP 8th edition guidelines, every hospital should develop a formal strategy for venous thromboembolism prevention (Geerts et al. in chest 133(6 Suppl):381S-453S, 2008). In order to improve adherence to guidelines, Cork University Hospital should develop, implement and

  2. Thrombophilia in children with venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Kenet, Gili

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in children are usually associated with underlying clinical conditions such as central venous line, cancer and cardiac diseases. The objective of this review is to present the importance of thrombophilia to the occurrence of childhood VTE. The reported prevalence of thrombophilia in children with VTE varies extremely between 10% and 78% in different registries. The variation in the reported prevalence most probably reflects differences in the clinical characteristics of the children studied and differences in study designs. The initial management of children with thrombophilia and VTE is similar to those individuals who do not have a specific inherited thrombophilic risk factor, except in the rare events of homozygous deficiencies of prothrombotic coagulation proteins. The impact of thrombophilic markers on long-term therapy and outcome of children with VTE has not been completely clarified. According to the current guidelines for thrombophilia, all children with VTE should be tested for a full panel of genetic and acquired prothrombotic traits. However, re-evaluation of co-morbid risk factors other than thrombophilic markers and careful consideration of the prognostic value of thrombophilic markers might help to change future attitude from the rigidity of current guidelines to more rational schemes.

  3. Obesity and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Pathophysiologic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a potentially life-threatening condition arising from a wide variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Effective treatment requires a systematic diagnostic approach to identify all reversible mechanisms. Many of these mechanisms are relevant to those afflicted with obesity. The unique mechanisms of PH in the obese include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anorexigen use, cardiomyopathy of obesity, and pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Novel mechanisms of PH in the obese include endothelial dysfunction and hyperuricemia. A wide range of effective therapies exist to mitigate the disability of PH in the obese.

  4. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of antithrombotic therapy in the risk of hematoma recurrence and thromboembolism after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornebo, Ida; Sjåvik, Kristin; Alibeck, Mark

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the risk of recurrence in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) on antithrombotic treatment (AT, i.e., antiplatelets and anticoagulants). Secondary end points were perioperative morbidity and mortality between groups (AT vs. no-AT group) and exploration if timing...... of resumption of AT treatment (i.e., prophylactic early vs. late resumption) influenced the occurrence of thromboembolism and hematoma recurrence. MATERIALS: In a population-based consecutive cohort, we conducted a retrospective review of 763 patients undergoing primary burr hole procedures for cSDH between...

  6. Manual calf massage and passive ankle motion reduce the incidence of deep vein thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Norio; Ito, Tomoyuki; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Endo, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism is one of the general complications following total hip arthroplasty, wherein various preventive treatments have been recommended. Several studies reported that venous thromboembolism incidence after total hip arthroplasty was similar in patients who were administered prophylaxis with a conventional mechanical procedure alone, and those who were administered pharmacological anticoagulation therapy. Therefore, the optimum methods of prophylaxis are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether manual calf massage and passive ankle motion could lower the risk for venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 126 consecutive patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty wherein manual calf massage and passive ankle motion were performed after the surgery at our hospitals between January and October 2014. The 138 patients of the control group underwent total hip arthroplasty using the same surgical approach and pre- and postoperative protocols without this mechanical prophylaxis between January and December 2013. This mechanical prophylaxis was performed simultaneously 30 times during approximately 10 s; these procedures were repeated thrice immediately after total hip arthroplasty. Duplex ultrasonography was performed to observe the veins of both legs in all the patients on postoperative day 7. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 6.52% and 0.79% in the control and manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups, respectively. The odds ratio for the manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups was 8.72. Performing this mechanical prophylaxis reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. This mechanical prophylaxis is not only simple and easy, but is also safe and inexpensive. We therefore recommend that manual calf massage and passive ankle motion be performed in patients who will undergo total hip

  7. Venous Thromboembolism in Podiatric Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jemma H; Terrill, Alexander J; Barwick, Alex L; Butterworth, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    The extent to which podiatric surgeons follow venous thromboembolism guidelines is unknown. The aim of this study therefore, was 2-fold: (a) to determine the rate of venous thromboembolism following podiatric surgery and (b) to investigate the factors that influence the use of thromboprophylaxis. Data from 4238 patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery over 2 years were analyzed. Venous thromboembolism within the first 30 days following surgery was recorded using the Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons surgical audit tool. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to determine the factors that influenced thromboprophylaxis. Of the 4238 patient records, 3677 records (87%) provided complete data (age range 2-94 years; mean ± SD, 49.1 ± 19.7 years; 2693 females). A total of 7 venous thromboembolic events (0.2% rate) were reported. Operative duration and age (OR 12.63, 95% CI 9.47 to 16.84, P < 0.01), postoperative immobilization (OR 6.94, 95% CI 3.95 to 12.20, P < 0.01), and a prior history of VTE (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.04, P = 0.04) were the strongest predictors of thromboprophylaxis. Podiatric foot and ankle surgery is associated with a low rate of venous thromboembolism. This may be due in part to the thromboprophylaxis regime implemented by podiatric surgeons, which closely aligns with current evidence-based guidelines. Level II: Prospective cohort study.

  8. Risk of a venous thromboembolic episode due to caesarean section and BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Ladelund, S; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery.......BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery....

  9. The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation or the deletion-deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme to postoperative thromboembolic events following total joint arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Carrie

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are subjected to similar risk factors that predispose to thromboembolism, only a subset of patients develop this complication. The objective of this study was to determine whether a specific genetic profile is associated with a higher risk of developing a postoperative thromboembolic complication. Specifically, we examined if the Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation or the deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene increased a patient's risk for postoperative thromboembolic events. The FVL mutation has been associated with an increased risk of idiopathic thromboembolism and the deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been associated with increased vascular tone, attenuated fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation. Methods The presence of these genetic profiles was determined for 38 patients who had a postoperative symptomatic pulmonary embolus or proximal deep venous thrombosis and 241 control patients without thrombosis using molecular biological techniques. Results The Factor V Leiden mutation was present in none of the 38 experimental patients and in 3% or 8 of the 241 controls (p = 0.26. Similarly there was no difference detected in the distribution of polymorphisms for the ACE gene with the deletion-deletion genotype present in 36% or 13 of the 38 experimental patients and in 31% or 74 of the 241 controls (p = 0.32. Conclusions Our results suggest that neither of these potentially hypercoaguable states are associated with an increased risk of symptomatic thromboembolic events following total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis.

  10. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events 10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (Ptopical TXA is effective in knee replacement and can safely be given to patients with a thromboembolic history >12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Oyola, Mercedes; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Gordillo, Gisel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; García, Carlos A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Torres, David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is an infrequent pathology which occurs predominantly among females with no lateral preference. We report on the case of a newborn male diagnosed with prenatal diaphragm hernia though at birth seemed more likely either to be a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (congenital pulmonary airway malformation) or pulmonary agenesis. The patient died six days after birth and necropsy confirmed pulmonary agenesis. La agenesia pulmonar es una alteración poco frecuente, con...

  12. Incidence of venous thromboembolic events in enhanced recovery after surgery for colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendler, M M I; Haidari, T A; Waage, J E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Both the Danish and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend prolonged thromboprophylaxis (PT) with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for 28 days postoperatively after elective surgery for colon cancer. The evidence relies on data from two randomized clinical...... trials (RCTs) that included not only colon cancers but also other abdominal cancers or benign colorectal diseases. Neither of those studies investigated the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) under enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). We aim to describe the risk of VTE and estimate the cost...... of preventing one case of VTE by PT under ERAS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of 2230 patients undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer Stage I-III in the Capital Region of Denmark, 1 June 2008 to 31 December 2013. Patients who were discharged on postoperative day 28 or later, died during admission...

  13. A possible casual relationship between defective fibrinolysis and pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.C.; Ziady, F.; Hugo, N.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with multiple thrombi in the pulmonary arteries or with diffuse microembolization from a cryptic source. A 27-year-old man without any of the recognized clinical risk factors for venous thrombo-embolic disease presented with repeated attacks of chest pain and dyspnoea. Haemodynamic studies were compatible with the diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension. Despite intensive study there was no evidence of peripheral venous thrombosis. A 125 I isotope study was done. Plasma fibrinolytic profile showed unequivocal evidence of low spontaneous plasma fibrinolytic activity. The plasminogen activator activity of the venous wall was also markedly reduced. From these findings it would seem that a defective fibrinolytic defence mechanism may be an important predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of 'primary' pulmonary hypertension

  14. Elevated risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michał Nowak, Katarzyna Królak-Nowak, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Jakub Fichna, Marcin Włodarczyk Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a multifactorial disease manifesting as either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Its prevalence makes VTE a significant issue for both the individual – as a negative factor influencing the quality of life and prognosis – and the society due to economic burden. VTE is the third most common vascular disorder in Western countries, after myocardial infarction and stroke, making it a major cause of in-hospital mortality, responsible for 5%–10% of hospital deaths. Despite many studies conducted, only 50%–60% provoking factors have been identified, while the remaining 40%–50% have been classified as idiopathic or unprovoked. Chronic inflammatory disorders, with their underlying prothrombotic state, reveal an increased risk of VTE (six to eight times compared with the general population. Among the inflammatory disorders, we can identify inflammatory myopathies – a group of rare, chronic diseases featuring weakness and inflammation of muscles with periods of exacerbation and remission; their main classes are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The objective of this review is to emphasize the need of VTE prophylaxis in individuals with inflammatory myopathies in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among those patients and improve their quality of life and prognosis. Keywords: deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, inflammation, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, prothrombotic state

  15. Pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism: Part I- Deep vein thrombus diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gahtani, Farjah H.

    2009-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications are leading causes of mortality in the developed world. Over the past 20 years, there has been an increase of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the pregnant women, and this increase may be explained by the risk factors including older age, cesarean section, history of VTE and presence of thrombophilia. To reduce the incidence of VTE in pregnancy and improve the outcomes, a wider understanding of the risk factors and a better identification of women at a risk of the thrombosis, with objective diagnosis and provide the optimal effective and safe treatment. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, considered manifestations of the same disease, are often preventable and usually treatable. Nevertheless, VTE remains a substantial problem despite the dramatic decline in pregnancy-related mortality in industrialized countries over the past century. While diagnosis and management of VTE in pregnancy are challenging, and many diagnosis tests are less accurate in pregnant than non-pregnant patients and the available options are suboptimal. This is a review in 2 parts, in part I, we address the following questions. In pregnant women, who developed DVT; how to diagnose and the treatment once the diagnosis is confirmed. For each of these problems, the relevant background is briefly summarized, approaches recommended and the suggested practical and relatively safe diagnostic management approaches. Part II, we address pregnant women with pulmonary embolism, how to diagnose and treat. (author)

  16. An unusual finding of massive pulmonary embolism in a patient during treatment with high-dose ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilora, Franca; Adamo, Angelo; Pomerri, Fabio; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We report for the first time, the case of a patient who developed massive pulmonary embolism after a long period of treatment with high doses of ibuprofen. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with severe dyspnea while on treatment with high doses of ibuprofen for diffuse spine pain due to arthrosis. A spiral computed tomography showed a massive pulmonary embolism. No other explanation for the thromboembolic disorder was found. She was successfully treated with therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin followed by rivaroxaban. Ibuprofen was discontinued and replaced by tramadol. High-dose ibuprofen is likely to have accounted for the life-threatening thromboembolic disorder.

  17. Frequency of venous thromboembolism events during acute inpatient rehabilitation in a comprehensive cancer centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Ng

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Cancer patients with low FIM transfer scores and lower extremity oedema are at higher risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients with these clinical findings at admission may require measures for more aggressive surveillance for the presence of venous thromboembolism. Patients with venous thromboembolism had an increased length of stay in rehabilitation, but ultimately did not have significant differences in FIM score changes.

  18. Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Ağca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality in which atresia was encountered in the short segment of the right or left pulmonary arteries. It can be isolated or associated with cardiac abnormalities such as tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects or pulmonary stenosis.The majority of cases are diagnosed in childhood whereas some cases yield no symptoms until adulthood. We evaluated retrospectively 5 pulmonary artery agenesis cases diagnosed in our clinics between 1998-2010 with respect to the literature.

  19. [Pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Dror; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder defined by elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PAH can be idiopathic or associated with a variety of medical conditions such as scleroderma, congenital heart disease, left heart failure, lung disease or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. This progressive disease can cause severe right heart failure and death. Normal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy may produce fatal consequences in PAH patients. Current guidelines recommend that pregnancy be avoided or terminated early in women with PAH. During the past decade, new advanced therapies for PAH have emerged gathering reports of successful pregnancies in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Substantial risk still exists and current recommendations have not changed. Nevertheless, in selected cases, if a patient insists on continuing the pregnancy, being fully aware of the risks involved, an intensive treatment approach should be implemented in experienced centers. This is necessary in order to control pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy and reduce the risk so as to improve outcomes. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of PAH in pregnancy and appropriate management during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period.

  20. Heart disease in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Piovella, Chiara; Prandoni, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Several heart diseases are promoters of left-side cardiac thrombosis and could lead to arterial embolism. The same mechanism may be responsible for right-side cardiac thrombosis and therefore be a direct source of pulmonary embolism. Yasuoka et al. showed a higher incidence of perfusion defects in lung scan in patients with spontaneous echocontrast in the right atrium than in those without it (40% and 7% respectively; P=0.006). We recently assessed the prevalence of heart diseases in 11.236 consecutive patients older than 60 years discharged from Venetian hospitals with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We observed a higher prevalence of all-cause heart diseases (odds ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.40) in patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism alone (secondary or unprovoked) compared with those discharged with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism associated with deep vein thrombosis, generating the hypothesis that some specific heart diseases in older patients could themselves be a possible source of pulmonary emboli. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings, which have the potential to open new horizons for the interpretation and management of venous thromboembolic disease.

  1. Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage pulmonary sarcoidosis: therapeutic effect of sildenafil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Burton, C.M.; Iversen, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the effect of sildenafil treatment in patients with recalcitrant pulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS: This investigation was a single-center, retrospective study of all patients (n = 25...

  2. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Aspirin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism: the INSPIRE collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, John; Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Eikelboom, John W; Kirby, Adrienne C; Mister, Rebecca; Prandoni, Paolo; Brighton, Timothy A

    2014-09-23

    In patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) the risk of recurrent VTE remains high after anticoagulant treatment is discontinued. The Aspirin for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (the Warfarin and Aspirin [WARFASA]) and the Aspirin to Prevent Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (ASPIRE) trials showed that aspirin reduces this risk, but they were not individually powered to detect treatment effects for particular outcomes or subgroups. An individual patient data analysis of these trials was planned, before their results were known, to assess the effect of aspirin versus placebo on recurrent VTE, major vascular events (recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death) and bleeding, overall and within predefined subgroups. The primary analysis, for VTE, was by intention to treat using time-to-event data. Of 1224 patients, 193 had recurrent VTE over 30.4 months' median follow-up. Aspirin reduced recurrent VTE (7.5%/yr versus 5.1%/yr; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.90; P=0.008), including both deep-vein thrombosis (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92; P=0.01) and pulmonary embolism (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.41-1.06; P=0.08). Aspirin reduced major vascular events (8.7%/yr versus 5.7%/yr; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86; P=0.002). The major bleeding rate was low (0.4%/yr for placebo and 0.5%/yr for aspirin). After adjustment for treatment adherence, recurrent VTE was reduced by 42% (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85; P=0.005). Prespecified subgroup analyses indicate similar relative, but larger absolute, risk reductions in men and older patients. Aspirin after anticoagulant treatment reduces the overall risk of recurrence by more than a third in a broad cross-section of patients with a first unprovoked VTE, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding. www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000684921. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.C.; Dunn, M.; Van der Merwe, B.; Katz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Pulmonary embolism is often misdiagnosed by many clinicians because of confusion with pulmonary infarction. According to present literature, the latter seldomly occurs, thus pleuritic pain and hemoptysis are usually absent. The purpose of our study was to re-evaluate the clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism with specific reference to the presence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary infarction. Materials and methods: Ethical committee approval was obtained to study fifteen patients with abnormal lung perfusion and high probability for pulmonary embolism retrospectively. Clinical data will be presented in table format. Appropriate symptoms and signs not mentioned was considered absent. Specific investigations not available was considered not done. Results: Will be displayed in table format. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1. Dyspnea was present in all the patients; 2. Pleuritic pain and hemoptysis was absent in all the patients; 3. None of the patients had clinical signs of pulmonary hypertension or infarction; 4. The available special investigations confirmed the above mentioned findings. Conclusion: The absence of pulmonary infarction and pulmonary hypertension with submassive pulmonary embolism (<60% of pulmonary vascular bed occluded) was reconfirmed and should be emphasized more in clinical practice. (author)

  5. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lee, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  6. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  7. Clinical validity of a normal pulmonary angiogram in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism - A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Brouwers, Elise M.J.; Song Bin; Stein, Paul D.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the validity of a normal pulmonary angiogram in the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE), based on the safety of withholding anticoagulant therapy in patients with a normal pulmonary angiogram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of English reports published between 1965 and April 1999 was carried out. Eligible articles described prospective studies in patients with suspected PE and a normal pulmonary angiogram, who remained untreated and were followed-up for a minimum of 3 months. Articles were evaluated by two authors, using pre-defined criteria for strength of design. End points consisted of fatal and non-fatal recurrent thromboembolic events. A sensitivity analysis was performed, by removing one study at a time from the overall results and by comparing pre- and post-1990 publications. RESULTS: Among 1050 patients in eight articles included in the analysis, recurrent thromboembolic events were described in 18 patients (1.7% 95% CI: 1.0-2.7%). These were fatal in three patients (0.3% 95% CI: 0.02-0.7%). The recurrence rate of PE decreased from 2.9% (95% CI: 1.4-6.8%) before 1990 to 1.1% (95% CI: 0.5-2.2%) after 1990. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the ability to exclude PE by angiography has improved over the years, as indicated by recurrence rate of PE. The low recurrence rate of PE supports the validity of a normal pulmonary angiogram for the exclusion of PE. Beek, E.J.R. van et al. (2001)

  8. Isolated traumatic brain injury and venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Bandle, Jesse; Calvo, Richard Y; Zander, Ashley L; Olson, Erik J; Shackford, Steven R; Peck, Kimberly A; Sise, C Beth; Sise, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered an independent risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the role of TBI severity in VTE risk has not been determined. We hypothesized that increased severity of brain injury in patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) is associated with an increased incidence of VTE. The records of patients admitted from June 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed for injury data, VTE risk factors, results of lower extremity surveillance ultrasound, and severity of TBI. Patients were identified by DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes for TBI, and only those with a nonhead Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 1 or lower, indicating minimal associated injury, were included. The association of iTBI and VTE was determined using a case-control design. Among iTBI patients, those diagnosed with VTE (cases) were matched for age, sex, and admission year to those without VTE (controls). Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. There were 345 iTBI patients: 41 cases (12%) and 304 controls (88%). A total of 151 controls could not be matched to an appropriate case and were excluded. Of the remaining 153 controls, 1 to 16 controls were matched to each of the 41 VTE cases. Compared with the controls, the cases had a higher mean head-AIS score (4.4 vs. 3.9, p = 0.001) and overall Injury Severity Score (20.4 vs. 16.8, p = 0.001). Following adjustment for all factors found to be associated with VTE (ventilator days, central line placement, operative time > 2 hours, chemoprophylaxis, history of VTE, and history of cancer), the cases were significantly more likely to have a greater head injury severity (head-AIS score ≥ 5; odds ratio, 5.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-17.30; p = 0.006). The incidence of VTE in iTBI patients was significantly associated with the severity of TBI. VTE surveillance protocols may be warranted in these high-risk patients, as early detection of VTE could guide subsequent therapy

  9. Pulmonary arterial lesions in explanted lungs after transplantation correlate with severity of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jørn; Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Boesgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular findings are largely unreported in end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Pulmonary vascular lesions in explanted lungs from 70 patients with COPD/emphysema or α-1-antitrypsin deficiency were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were stratified...... of pulmonary vascular lesions in COPD correlate with the severity of PH. Morphologic lesions similar to those characteristic of IPAH can be observed as PH in COPD progresses to levels characteristic of IPAH....... by the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) assessed by right-heart catheterization in 3 hemodynamically distinct groups: (1) non-PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP]50 mm Hg; median HE Grade 4 (range 3-6), with generalized arterial dilatation and plexiform lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extent...

  10. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  11. The risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, P J H L; Bazelier, M T; Uitdehaag, B M J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), disability and autoinflammatory processes may result in an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of VTE associated with MS. METHODS: We conducted an observational-cohort study within the Clinical Practice...

  12. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Prins, Martin H.; Bauersachs, Rupert; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Davidson, Bruce L.; Decousus, Hervé; Freitas, Maria C. S.; Holberg, Gerlind; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Haskell, Lloyd; van Bellen, Bonno; Pap, Akos F.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S.; Prandoni, Paolo; Bianchi, Alessandra; Brighton, Tim; Carroll, Patrick; Chong, Beng; Chunilal, Sanjeev; Coughlin, Paul; Curnow, Jennifer; Jackson, David; Tran, Huyen; Ward, Chris; Brodmann, Marianne; Kyrle, Paul; Marschang, Peter; Petkov, Ventzislav; Hainaut, Philippe; Jordens, Paul; Vandekerkhof, Jos; Wautrecht, Jean-Claude; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce; Correa, Joao; Cukier, Alberto; Freire, Antonio; Pereira, Adamastor; Porto, Carmen; Sacilotto, Roberto; Vasconcelos Costa, Agenor; Della Siega, Anthony; Dolan, Sean; Le Gal, Gré goire; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous

  13. Is there a role for thrombolytic therapy in venous thromboembolism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanson, B. J.; Büller, H.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, thrombolytic therapy would appear to offer benefits over standard heparin therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism based on the more rapid resolution of thrombus. In this paper, the results of clinical trials performed with thrombolytic agents in the initial treatment of

  14. The Risk of Thromboembolism in Users of Antidepressants and Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming

    2017-01-01

    Arterial and venous thromboembolism are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Mental disorders are also highly prevalent with a lifetime risk of experiencing any psychiatric disease ranging between 32 % and 37 %. Depression and schizophrenia may increase the risk...

  15. METABOLIC DISORDERS AND PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2015-01-01

    patients (40%. In the group body mass index (BMI was (29.24 ± 7.87 kg/m2 . Obesity diagnosed in 157patients (20.9%. It occurs in24.7% of cases for women andin 15.2% of cases for men. If a patient had obesity grade 3 was found to increase the risk of a massive thromboembolism in 3.27 times (OR = 3.27; 95% confidence interval [1.60–6.69]; p = 0.001 and an increase in the risk of fatal thromboembolism 3.56 times(OR = 3.56; 95% CI [1.73–7.43]; p = 0.001. It does not detect the influence of obesity 1 and 2 degrees on the development of a massive pulmonary embolism, or PE, which would cause the patient's death. Significant effect of type 2 diabetes was found on the development of the heavy flow of fatal pulmonary embolism. 

  16. Safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for pulmonary embolism diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Palard, Xavier; Robin, Philippe; Abgral, Ronan; Querellou, Solene; Salaun, Pierre-Yves [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Service de medecine nucleaire, Brest (France); Delluc, Aurelien; Couturaud, Francis [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Departement de medecine interne et de pneumologie, Brest (France); Le Gal, Gregoire [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Brest (France); University of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); CHRU de la Cavale Blanche, Departement de medecine interne et de pneumologie, Brest (France); Universite de Brest, Brest (France)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this management outcome study was to assess the safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) using for interpretation the criteria proposed in the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for V/Q scintigraphy. A total of 393 patients with clinically suspected PE referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Brest University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2013, with either a high clinical probability or a low or intermediate clinical probability but positive D-dimer, were retrospectively analysed. V/Q SPECT were interpreted by the attending nuclear medicine physician using a diagnostic cut-off of one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches. The final diagnostic conclusion was established by the physician responsible for patient care, based on clinical symptoms, laboratory test, V/Q SPECT and other imaging procedures performed. Patients in whom PE was deemed absent were not treated with anticoagulants and were followed up for 3 months. Of the 393 patients, the prevalence of PE was 28 %. V/Q SPECT was positive for PE in 110 patients (28 %) and negative in 283 patients (72 %). Of the 110 patients with a positive V/Q SPECT, 78 (71 %) had at least one additional imaging test (computed tomography pulmonary angiography or ultrasound) and the diagnosis of PE was eventually excluded in one patient. Of the 283 patients with a negative V/Q SPECT, 74 (26 %) patients had another test. The diagnosis of PE was finally retained in one patient and excluded in 282 patients. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in the patients not treated with anticoagulants was 1/262: 0.38 % (95 % confidence interval 0.07-2.13). A diagnostic management including V/Q SPECT interpreted with a diagnostic cut-off of ''one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches'' appears safe to exclude PE. (orig.)

  17. Safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for pulmonary embolism diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Palard, Xavier; Robin, Philippe; Abgral, Ronan; Querellou, Solene; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Delluc, Aurelien; Couturaud, Francis; Le Gal, Gregoire

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this management outcome study was to assess the safety of ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) using for interpretation the criteria proposed in the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for V/Q scintigraphy. A total of 393 patients with clinically suspected PE referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Brest University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2013, with either a high clinical probability or a low or intermediate clinical probability but positive D-dimer, were retrospectively analysed. V/Q SPECT were interpreted by the attending nuclear medicine physician using a diagnostic cut-off of one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches. The final diagnostic conclusion was established by the physician responsible for patient care, based on clinical symptoms, laboratory test, V/Q SPECT and other imaging procedures performed. Patients in whom PE was deemed absent were not treated with anticoagulants and were followed up for 3 months. Of the 393 patients, the prevalence of PE was 28 %. V/Q SPECT was positive for PE in 110 patients (28 %) and negative in 283 patients (72 %). Of the 110 patients with a positive V/Q SPECT, 78 (71 %) had at least one additional imaging test (computed tomography pulmonary angiography or ultrasound) and the diagnosis of PE was eventually excluded in one patient. Of the 283 patients with a negative V/Q SPECT, 74 (26 %) patients had another test. The diagnosis of PE was finally retained in one patient and excluded in 282 patients. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in the patients not treated with anticoagulants was 1/262: 0.38 % (95 % confidence interval 0.07-2.13). A diagnostic management including V/Q SPECT interpreted with a diagnostic cut-off of ''one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches'' appears safe to exclude PE. (orig.)

  18. Pulmonary atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... known way to prevent this condition. All pregnant women should get routine prenatal care. Many congenital defects ...

  19. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk for PE, such as: Being bedridden or unable to move around much Having surgery ... of pulmonary embolism (PE) include unexplained shortness of breath, problems breathing, chest pain, coughing , or coughing up ...

  20. Sex-specific differences in the presenting location of a first venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheres, L J J; Brekelmans, M P A; Beenen, L F M; Büller, H R; Cannegieter, S C; Middeldorp, S

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Whether the location of venous thromboembolism (VTE) differs between the sexes is not known. Pulmonary embolism as presenting location was relatively more common in women than in men. The difference was consistent among age groups and most prominent in unprovoked VTE. The underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Background The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) differs between men and women. Some risk factors seem to influence the presenting location of VTE. Sex-specific differences in the presenting VTE location have not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed data from the MEGA case-control study and the Hokusai-VTE study, and used published data from the RIETE registry. Data from patients with a symptomatic first VTE were included (MEGA, n = 4953; Hokusai-VTE, n = 6720; RIETE, n = 40 028). Distributions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and combined DVT and PE as the presenting VTE location were calculated for men and women, and presented as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sex-specific differences were explored for different age categories and for unprovoked and provoked events. Results In the MEGA study, PE was the presenting location in 35.5% of women and in 29.5% of men with VTE (difference 6.0%, 95% CI 3.4-8.6). In the Hokusai-VTE study, these proportions were 35.1% for women and 25.2% for men (difference 10.0%, 95% CI 7.8-12.2). In the RIETE registry, PE (with or without DVT) was also observed more often as the presenting location in women (53.3%) than in men (47.7%), with a difference of 5.6% (95% CI 4.7-6.6). The observed higher proportion of PE as the presenting location in women was present in all age groups and was most prominent among unprovoked VTE events. Conclusions In three large studies, the distribution of the presenting VTE location differed consistently between the sexes, whereby PE was more often the primary location of presentation in women than in men. © 2017

  1. Pathophysiology of Venous Thromboembolism with Respect to the Anatomical Features of the Deep Veins of Lower Limbs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Mukai, Toshiji

    2017-06-25

    Here the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism is reviewed with respect to the anatomical features of the deep veins of lower limbs. A thrombus is less likely to form in the thigh veins compared with that in the calf veins; however, clinical symptoms are more likely to appear in the thigh veins owing to vascular occlusion. When a patient is bedridden, thrombosis is more likely to occur in the intramuscular vein, which mainly depends on muscular pumping and the venous valve, rather than in the three crural branches, which mainly depends on the pulsation of the accompanying artery. Thrombi are prone to be generated in the soleal vein compared with those in the gastrocnemius vein because of the vein and muscle structures. A soleal vein thrombosis grows toward the proximal veins along the drainage veins. To prevent a sudden pulmonary thromboembolism-related death in bedridden patients, preventing soleal vein thrombus formation and observing the thrombus proximal propagation via the drainage veins are clinically important. When deep vein thrombosis occurs, avoiding embolization and sequela caused by the thrombus organization is necessary.

  2. Comparative safety of direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin in venous thromboembolism: multicentre, population based, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Min; Lix, Lisa M; Durand, Madeleine; Dahl, Matt; Paterson, J Michael; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Yao, Shenzhen; Renoux, Christel; Tamim, Hala; Wu, Cynthia; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2017-10-17

    Objective  To determine the safety of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use compared with warfarin use for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Design  Retrospective matched cohort study conducted between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2016. Setting  Community based, using healthcare data from six jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. Participants  59 525 adults (12 489 DOAC users; 47 036 warfarin users) with a new diagnosis of venous thromboembolism and a prescription for a DOAC or warfarin within 30 days of diagnosis. Main outcome measures  Outcomes included hospital admission or emergency department visit for major bleeding and all cause mortality within 90 days after starting treatment. Propensity score matching and shared frailty models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of the outcomes comparing DOACs with warfarin. Analyses were conducted independently at each site, with meta-analytical methods used to estimate pooled hazard ratios across sites. Results  Of the 59 525 participants, 1967 (3.3%) had a major bleed and 1029 (1.7%) died over a mean follow-up of 85.2 days. The risk of major bleeding was similar for DOAC compared with warfarin use (pooled hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.03), with the overall direction of the association favouring DOAC use. No difference was found in the risk of death (pooled hazard ratio 0.99, 0.84 to 1.16) for DOACs compared with warfarin use. There was no evidence of heterogeneity across centres, between patients with and without chronic kidney disease, across age groups, or between male and female patients. Conclusions  In this analysis of adults with incident venous thromboembolism, treatment with DOACs, compared with warfarin, was not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding or all cause mortality in the first 90 days of treatment. Trial registration  Clinical trials NCT02833987. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  3. Incidence of venous thromboembolism following the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for epithelial type of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Devendra Manik; Huang, Zhen; Song, Kun; Parimi, Leela Rani Haricharan; Yang, Xing Sheng; Zhang, Xiangning; Liu, Peishu; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Youzhong; Kong, Beihua; Li, Li

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).A retrospective audit was conducted examining 147 patients treated for EOC. Surgical treatment with curative intent, with or without NACT and adjuvant chemotherapy, is the treatment approach, which was modified according to the patient's condition. The incidence of VTE with the most commonly used chemotherapy regimen, carboplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, and others were evaluated.This study found a 13.6% incidence of VTE in patients undergoing therapy with curative intent for EOC. No association was seen between NACT and VTE compared to VTE after standard treatment: 2/16 (12.5%) vs 5/131 (3.8%) (P = .16). Univariate and multivariate analyses also demonstrated that NACT has no risk for VTE with odds ratio (OR) = 0.89 (95% CI = 0.18-4.28) and P = 1. Results did not vary significantly with the type of chemotherapy used. Furthermore, increased incidence of VTE as an incidental finding supports the well-established role of malignancy in VTE occurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that VTE occurred more frequently in menopausal women than nonmenopausal women (17.9% vs 5.8%) with OR = 3.55 (95% CI = 0.99-12.78) and P = .04 in patients aged ≥60 (19.3% vs 10%) with OR = 2.15 (95% CI = 0.83-5.57) and P = .13 but is not statistically significant.We conclude that NACT has no association with VTE and the currently used common chemotherapeutic drug combinations for ovarian cancer carry the minimal risk of thromboembolic events.

  4. Estimating right ventricular stroke work and the pulsatile work fraction in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Denis; Castelain, Vincent; Zhu, Kaixian; Papelier, Yves; Creuzé, Nicolas; Hoette, Susana; Parent, Florence; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc; Herve, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) replaces mean systolic ejection pressure (msePAP) in the classic formula of right ventricular stroke work (RVSW) = (mPAP - RAP) × stroke volume, where RAP is mean right atrial pressure. Only the steady work is thus taken into account, not the pulsatile work, whereas pulmonary circulation is highly pulsatile. Our retrospective, high-fidelity pressure study tested the hypothesis that msePAP was proportional to mPAP, and looked at the implications for RVSW. Eleven patients with severe, precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) (six patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and five with chronic thromboembolic PH; mPAP = 57 ± 10 mm Hg) were studied at rest and during mild to moderate exercise. Eight non-PH control subjects were also studied at rest (mPAP = 16 ± 2 mm Hg). The msePAP was averaged from end diastole to dicrotic notch. In the full data set (53 pressure-flow points), mPAP ranged from 14 to 99.5 mm Hg, cardiac output from 2.38 to 11.1 L/min, and heart rate from 53 to 163 beats/min. There was a linear relationship between msePAP and mPAP (r² = 0.99). The msePAP matched 1.25 mPAP (bias, -0.5 ± 2.6 mm Hg). Results were similar in the resting non-PH group and in resting and the exercising PH group. This implies that the classic formula markedly underestimates RVSW and that the pulsatile work may be a variable 20% to 55% fraction of RVSW, depending on RAP and mPAP. At rest, RVSW in patients with PH was twice as high as that of the non-PH group (P work fraction was similar between the two groups (26 ± 4% vs 24 ± 1%) because of the counterbalancing effects of high RAP (11 ± 5 mm Hg vs 4 ± 2 mm Hg), which increases the fraction, and high mPAP, which decreases the fraction. Our study favored the use of an improved formula that takes into account the variable pulsatile work fraction: RVSW = (1.25 mPAP - RAP) × stroke volume. Increased RAP and increased mPAP have opposite effects on the pulsatile work

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  6. The comparison of CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Yang Xufeng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Ziping; Fan Miao; Chen Jindi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the principal HRCT features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma and to explore their pathological mechanism, in order to improve the recognition of the CT signs of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma. Methods: The principal HRCT signs of thirty-five cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and forty cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively to explore the relationship between CT features and pathological findings. Results: The main features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma included larger masses, clear boundary, superficial sublobes and intra-tumor necrosis. While peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma mostly demonstrated as smaller nodules, deep sublobes, spiculations, spiculate protuberance, pleural indentation, vessel converging signs, and vacuole signs. The different of these above findings of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were significant (P<0.05). Peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma may depict bronchial casts and polygonal nodules; and peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma may demonstrate ground glass-like nodules. Conclusion: The difference of the CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and peripheral adenocarcinoma is based on their different histological features and biological behaviors. It is possible to differentiate them before operation in combination with clinical information. (authors)

  7. Hyperthyroidism: A rare cause of pulmonary embolism: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Grine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several disorders of coagulation and fibrinolysis have been widely reported in patients with hyperthyroidism. Most reports have focused on only the venous thromboembolism risk, and few of them have studied specifically the association between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary embolism (PE. We report two cases of Graves′ disease complicated by PE. The first patient is a 32 year-old man, and the second patient is a 23-year-old female. PE was suspected on the basis of pulmonary hypertension in patient one, and clinical presentation in the other patient. The first patient had also right heart failure. PE was confirmed in both patients by a lung perfusion-ventilation scan test. Thrombophilia screen revealed normal findings in the first patient and an elevation in coagulation factor VIII in the second one. Both patients received heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy. In addition, they were treated with radioactive iodine resulting in partial recovery from hyperthyroidismforpatient oneand clinical euthyroidism for patient two.The former died of acute heart failure secondary to a chest infection, while the later was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, including PE. Potential mechanisms involved in this association include endothelial dysfunction, decreased fibrinolytic activity, and increased coagulation factors levels. Thyroid evaluation is recommended in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolic events. Conversely, the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism should be considered in patients with hyperthyroidism, particularly if additional prothrombotic risk factors are present.

  8. Is prolonged immobilization a risk factor for symptomatic venous thromboembolism in elderly bedridden patients? Results of a historical-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Moshe E; Paltiel, Ora; Bursztyn, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Prolonged immobilization and advanced age are considered to be important risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nevertheless, the need for VTE prophylaxis in long-term bedridden patients is not known. To assess whether very prolonged immobilization (i.e. over three months) carries an increased risk for clinically apparent VTE, we performed a historical-cohort study of nursing home residents during a ten-year period. Data concerning patient's mobility and incidence of overt deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were registered. The mean resident age was 85+/-8.4 years. Eighteen mobile and eight immobile patients were diagnosed with clinically significant thromboembolic events, during 1137 and 573 patient-years of follow up, respectively. The incidence of venous thromboembolic events was similar in both chronically immobilized and mobile patient groups, 13.9 and 15.8 per thousand patient years, respectively (p=0.77). The rate ratio for having a VTE event in the immobilized patient group as compared with the mobile group was 0.88 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.13). When taking into account baseline characteristics, risk factors and death rates by various causes, no differences were found between the two groups. In conclusion, chronically immobile bedridden patients are no more prone to clinically overt venous thromboembolic events than institutionalized mobile patients. Until further studies are performed concerning the impact of very prolonged immobilization on the risk of VTE, there is no evidence to support primary prevention after the first three months of immobilization. Evidence for efficacy or cost effectiveness beyond this early period is not available.

  9. Aerobic actinomycetes that masquerade as pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing recognition of organisms in the order Actinomycetales including Nocardia sp. causing lung infections that mimic pulmonary tuberculosis or fungal pneumonias. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of patients in the southeastern United States in whom a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was initially entertained but who eventually were found to have infection caused by Rhodococcus sp. or Tsukamurella sp. Results: Among a cohort of 52 indi...

  10. Diagnosis of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Evans, A.L.; Owen, A.R.; Gleeson, F.V.

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a leading cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy. Early and accurate radiological diagnosis is essential as anticoagulation is not without risk and clinical diagnosis is unreliable. Although the disorder is potentially treatable, unnecessary treatment should be avoided. Most of the diagnostic imaging techniques involve ionizing radiation which exposes both the mother and fetus to finite radiation risks. There is a relative lack of evidence in the literature to guide clinicians and radiologists on the most appropriate method of assessing this group of patients. This article will review the role of imaging of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnant patients, highlight contentious issues such as radiation risk, intravenous contrast use in pregnancy and discuss the published guidelines, as well as suggesting an appropriate imaging algorithm based on the available evidence

  11. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous...... thromboembolism to receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. All the study patients had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months...... in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio...

  12. Practice patterns of retrievable inferior vena cava filters and predictors of filter retrieval in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jieun; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi-Young; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Huh, Jin Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2017-12-01

    Retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are increasingly used in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) who have contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. However, previous studies have shown that many retrievable filters are left permanently in patients. This study aimed to identify the common indications for IVC filter insertion, the filter retrieval rate, and the predictive factors for filter retrieval attempts. To this end, a retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary care center in South Korea between January 2010 and May 2016. Electronic medical charts were reviewed for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) who underwent IVC filter insertion. A total of 439 cases were reviewed. The most common indication for filter insertion was a preoperative/procedural aim, followed by extensive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Retrieval of the IVC filter was attempted in 44.9% of patients. The retrieval success rate was 93.9%. History of cerebral hemorrhage, malignancy, and admission to a nonsurgical department were the significant predictive factors of a lower retrieval attempt rate in multivariate analysis. With the increased use of IVC filters, more issues should be addressed before placing a filter and physicians should attempt to improve the filter retrieval rate.

  13. Pulmonary histiocytosis X - imaging aspects of pulmonary involvement; Histiocitose X - aspectos radiologicos do acometimento pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Maeda, Lucimara; Ferreira, Daniel Miranda; Montandon, Cristiano; Marins, Jose Luiz C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is an idiopathic disease which is and uncommon but important cause of pulmonary fibrosis in young adults. Chest radiographs and high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lungs of 7 patients diagnosed as pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined retrospectively. The authors reviewed the pathologic, clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary histiocytosis X, focusing on differential diagnosis and disease progression. Pulmonary histiocytosis X can be suspected on the basis of chest radiographic findings; predominantly upper lobe nodules and cysts present an increased sensitivity and are virtually pathognomonic of this disorder. Chest HRCT allows good assessment of the evolution of pulmonary histiocytosis X and is also valuable in distinguishing histiocytosis from other disorders that produces nodules or cysts. (author)

  14. Factors associated with thromboembolic events following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Amihai; Kalish, Yosef; Kleinstern, Geffen; Yaacov, Almog Ben; Dux, Joseph; Nissan, Aviram

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the risk factors, incidence, and role of thromboprophylaxis in the development of thrombosis following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We reviewed data of patients with CRS/HIPEC in three hospitals. Overall, 192 patients underwent CRS/HIPEC during 2007-2016. Mechanical (thigh-length pneumatic compression stockings) and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (40 mg enoxaparin daily, starting 12 h before surgery until discharge) was provided for all patients; and 116 (60.4%) also received an extended course of enoxaparin for 2-4 weeks after discharge. Twenty-six patients experienced thrombotic complications (13.5%) including portal-splenic-mesenteric venous thrombosis (n = 11, 5.7%), pulmonary embolism (n = 10, 5.2%), and deep vein thrombosis (n = 5, 2.6%); most (n = 21, 80.8%) occurred after hospital discharge. Univariate analysis identified Peritoneal Cancer Index, intraoperative transfusion requirement, operative blood loss, operative time, lengths of hospital, and intensive care unit stay, and lack of administration of anticoagulation at discharge as significantly associated with thrombosis. With multivariate analysis, only the lack of anticoagulation therapy at discharge remained significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.0001). Thromboembolic complications are common following CRS/HIPEC. As significantly lower rates of thrombosis were found in patients who received an extended course of anticoagulation, we support its use for at least 2 weeks after discharge. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Predictors of Venous Thromboembolic Events Associated with Central Venous Port Insertion in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hohl Moinat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous port (CVP catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE. However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE, or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4–7.3% at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4–13.2% at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0–9.3% at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1–17.6% at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis.

  16. Venous thromboembolism: the prevailing approach to diagnosis, prevention and treatment among Internal Medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.

  17. Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarctions from the Aorta in a Patient with Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a rare complication of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and its pathogenesis has not been well clarified yet. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a patient with CSS due to embolism from a thrombus on the wall of the aorta. A 39-year-old man had multiple cerebral infarctions with symptoms of mild left hemiparesis and reduced vision. He was clinically diagnosed to have CSS based on remarkable eosinophilia, history of asthma, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, and histologically proven extravascular eosinophilic infiltrates in the specimen of gastric mucosa. Cerebral angiography did not show any stenotic lesions in cerebral arteries. A thrombus was detected on the wall of the aorta by transesophageal echocardiography, which was considered as the source of embolism. The thrombus resolved on follow-up examination 3 months after the onset of the stroke. This is the first case report on cerebral infarction caused by aortogenic thromboembolism in a CSS patient. Other than cerebral vasculitis, embolism from cardiovascular system, including the wall of the aorta, is a possible cause of cerebral infarctions in a CSS patient. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of an acute venous thromboembolism clinical pathway reduces healthcare utilization and mitigates health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misky, Gregory J; Carlson, Todd; Thompson, Elaina; Trujillo, Toby; Nordenholz, Kristen

    2014-07-01

    Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent, expensive, and deadly. Published data at our institution identified significant VTE care variation based on payer source. We developed a VTE clinical pathway to standardize care, decrease hospital utilization, provide education, and mitigate disparities. Target population for our interdisciplinary pathway was acute medical VTE patients. The intervention included order sets, system-wide education, follow-up phone calls, and coordinated posthospital care. Study data (n = 241) were compared to historical data (n = 234), evaluating outcomes of hospital admission, length of stay (LOS), and reutilization, stratified by payer source. A total of 241 patients entered the VTE clinical care pathway: 107 with deep venous thrombosis (44.4%) and 134 with a pulmonary embolism (55.6%). Within the pathway, uninsured VTE patients were admitted at a lower rate than insured patients (65.9 vs 79.1%; P = 0.032). LOS decreased from 4.4 to 3.1 days (P historical patients (9.4%, P = 0.254). Individual cost of care decreased from $7610 to $5295 (P cost, particularly among uninsured patients. Results of this novel study demonstrate a model for improving transitional care coordination with local community health clinics and delivering care to vulnerable populations. Other disease populations may benefit from the development of a similar model. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS - AN ALARMING RISK OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Darpanarayan Hazra; Dr. Shahid Mahdi; Dr. Amit Madan; Dr. Neeraj Bhalla

    2017-01-01

    Venous thrombo-embolic disease (VTE) is a potentially life threatening clinical event. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a significantly increased risk of developing VTE. Management of acute proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) depends on the clinical status of the affected limb, extent of the thrombus and comorbidities of the patient. Semba and Dake introduced Catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) to treat 21 patients of DVT in 1994. CDT is a life or limb sav...

  20. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...

  1. Pulmonary abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Chavez, Maria de la Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary abscess is defined as a suppurative process and bounded, caused by piogens organisms that it progresses to central necrosis and it commits an or more areas of the pulmonary parenchyma. Initially it is impossible to differ of a located pneumonia, but when the lesion communicates with a bronchus, part of the neurotic tissue is replaced by air, producing the classic image radiological fluid-air. The presence of multiple lesions smaller than 2 cms of diameter cm is defined arbitrarily as necrotizing pneumonia it is indistinguishable of an abscess. The paper includes the pathogenesis and etiology, clinical course, diagnostic and treatment

  2. Early chemoprophylaxis is associated with decreased venous thromboembolism risk without concomitant increase in intraspinal hematoma expansion after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ronald; Scerbo, Michelle H; Schmitt, Karl M; Adams, Sasha D; Choi, Timothy J; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2017-12-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), there is increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but chemoprophylaxis (PPX) may cause expansion of intraspinal hematoma (ISH). Single-center retrospective study of adult trauma patients from 2012 to 2015 with SCI. VTE diagnosis, death, or discharge within 48 hours. Patients were dichotomized based on early (≤48 hours) heparinoid and/or aspirin PPX. Intraspinal hematoma expansion was diagnosed intraoperatively or by follow-up radiology. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards to estimate the effect of PPX on risk of VTE and ISH expansion controlling for age, injury severity score (ISS), complete SCI, and mechanism as static covariates and operative spine procedure as a time-varying covariate. Five hundred one patients with SCI were dichotomized into early PPX (n = 260 [52%]) and no early PPX (n = 241 [48%]). Early PPX patients were less likely blunt injured (91% vs 97%) and had fewer operative spine interventions (65% vs 80%), but age (median, 43 vs 49 years), ISS (median 24 vs 21), admission ISH (47% vs 44%), and VTE (5% vs 9%) were similar. Cox analysis found that early heparinoids was associated with reduced VTE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.84) and reduced pulmonary embolism (PE) (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.69). The estimated number needed to treat with heparinoids was 10 to prevent one VTE and 13 to prevent one PE at 30 days. Early aspirin was not associated with reduced VTE or PE. Seven patients (1%) had ISH expansion, of which four were on PPX at the time of expansion. Using heparinoid and aspirin as time-varying covariates, neither heparinoids (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.32-11.41) nor aspirin (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 0.64-20.88) was associated with ISH expansion. Early heparinoid therapy was associated with decreased VTE and PE risk in SCI patients without concomitant increase in ISH expansion. Therapeutic, level IV.

  3. Is tamoxifen associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction? [Ist die Einnahme von Tamoxifen zum Zeitpunkt der mikrovaskulären Brustrekonstruktion mit einer erhöhten Rate an thrombembolischen Komplikationen assoziiert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Tamoxifen is associated with a twofold increased risk of thromboembolic events. Third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane have therefore replaced tamoxifen in the adjuvant therapy of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. A retrospective review was performed in patients who underwent delayed microvascular breast reconstruction and received tamoxifen at the time of surgery in order to assess the risk of both minor and major flap complications including thromboembolic events.Patients and methods: Twenty-nine patients who underwent delayed microsurgical breast reconstruction with autologous tissue between 2006 and 2012 were included in the study. The overall complication rates were compared between patients who did versus those who did not receive tamoxifen at the time of microsurgical breast reconstruction. Results: Breast reconstruction was performed with a DIEP flap in and with a TRAM flap in 4 patients. Overall, the complication rate was 37.9% (n=11 consisting of 5 major (including one total flap loss and 6 minor complications. In patients receiving tamoxifen (n=5, we observed one minor complication and one major complication with a total flap loss due to thrombus formation at the anastomosis site. In one patient pulmonary embolism occurred without association to tamoxifen. The number of thromboembolic events was equivalent in both groups (p=0.642. No increase of major (p=0.858 or minor (p=0.967 complications in the tamoxifen group could be observed. Taking the over