Sample records for pulmonary surfactant membranes

  1. Composition, structure and mechanical properties define performance of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Perez-Gil, Jesús


    of breathing and avoiding alveolar collapse, especially at the end of expiration. The goal of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the structure, lipid-protein interactions and mechanical features of surfactant membranes and films and how these properties correlate with surfactant...... biological function inside the lungs. Surfactant mechanical properties can be severely compromised by different agents, which lead to surfactant inhibition and ultimately contributes to the development of pulmonary disorders and pathologies in newborns, children and adults. A detailed comprehension...

  2. Structure-function relationships in pulmonary surfactant membranes: from biophysics to therapy. (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pérez-Gil, Jesús


    Pulmonary surfactant is an essential lipid-protein complex to maintain an operative respiratory surface at the mammalian lungs. It reduces surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface to stabilise the lungs against physical forces operating along the compression-expansion breathing cycles. At the same time, surfactant integrates elements establishing a primary barrier against the entry of pathogens. Lack or deficiencies of the surfactant system are associated with respiratory pathologies, which treatment often includes supplementation with exogenous materials. The present review summarises current models on the molecular mechanisms of surfactant function, with particular emphasis in its biophysical properties to stabilise the lungs and the molecular alterations connecting impaired surfactant with diseased organs. It also provides a perspective on the current surfactant-based strategies to treat respiratory pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholesterol rules: direct observation of the coexistence of two fluid phases in native pulmonary surfactant membranes at physiological temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Simonsen, Adam C


    part in the surfactant structures could be organized heterogeneously in the form of inplane domains, originating from particular distributions of specific proteins and lipids. Here we report novel results concerning the lateral organization of bilayer membranes made of native pulmonary surfactant where...

  4. Interplay of mycolic acids, antimycobacterial compounds and pulmonary surfactant membrane: a biophysical approach to disease. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marina; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Lúcio, Marlene; Caio, João M; Moiteiro, Cristina; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Camacho, Luis


    This work focuses on the interaction of mycolic acids (MAs) and two antimycobacterial compounds (Rifabutin and N'-acetyl-Rifabutin) at the pulmonary membrane level to convey a biophysical perspective of their role in disease. For this purpose, accurate biophysical techniques (Langmuir isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and polarization-modulation infrared reflection spectroscopy) and lipid model systems were used to mimic biomembranes: MAs mimic bacterial lipids of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) membrane, whereas Curosurf® was used as the human pulmonary surfactant (PS) membrane model. The results obtained show that high quantities of MAs are responsible for significant changes on PS biophysical properties. At the dynamic inspiratory surface tension, high amounts of MAs decrease the order of the lipid monolayer, which appears to be a concentration dependent effect. These results suggest that the amount of MAs might play a critical role in the initial access of the bacteria to their targets. Both molecules also interact with the PS monolayer at the dynamic inspiratory surface. However, in the presence of higher amounts of MAs, both compounds improve the phospholipid packing and, therefore, the order of the lipid surfactant monolayer. In summary, this work discloses the putative protective effects of antimycobacterial compounds against the MAs induced biophysical impairment of PS lipid monolayers. These protective effects are most of the times overlooked, but can constitute an additional therapeutic value in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) and may provide significant insights for the design of new and more efficient anti-Tb drugs based on their behavior as membrane ordering agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus


    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of

  6. Segregated phases in pulmonary surfactant membranes do not show coexistence of lipid populations with differentiated dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Orädd, Greger; Bagatolli, Luis


    surfactant membranes and membranes reconstituted from two surfactant hydrophobic fractions (i.e., all the lipids plus the hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C, or only the total lipid fraction). These preparations show micrometer-sized fluid ordered/disordered phase coexistence, associated with a broad...... endothermic transition ending close to 37°C. However, both types of membrane exhibit uniform lipid mobility when analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance with different spin-labeled phospholipids. A similar feature is observed with pulse-field gradient NMR experiments on oriented membranes reconstituted...... from the two types of surfactant hydrophobic extract. These latter results suggest that lipid dynamics are similar in the coexisting fluid phases observed by fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, it is found that surfactant proteins significantly reduce the average intramolecular lipid mobility...

  7. The Biophysical Function of Pulmonary Surfactant


    Rugonyi, Sandra; Biswas, Samares C.; Hall, Stephen B.


    Pulmonary surfactant lowers surface tension in the lungs. Physiological studies indicate two key aspects of this function: that the surfactant film forms rapidly; and that when compressed by the shrinking alveolar area during exhalation, the film reduces surface tension to very low values. These observations suggest that surfactant vesicles adsorb quickly, and that during compression, the adsorbed film resists the tendency to collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase....

  8. The Accelerated Late Adsorption of Pulmonary Surfactant


    Loney, Ryan W.; Anyan, Walter R.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.


    Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air−water interface lowers surface tension (γ) at rates that initially decrease progressively, but which then accelerate close to the equilibrium γ. The studies here tested a series of hypotheses concerning mechanisms that might cause the late accelerated drop in γ. Experiments used captive bubbles and a Wilhelmy plate to measure γ during adsorption of vesicles containing constituents from extracted calf surfactant. The faster fall in γ reflects faster...

  9. The Equilibrium Spreading Tension of Pulmonary Surfactant


    Dagan, Maayan P.; Hall, Stephen B.


    Monomolecular films at an air/water interface coexist at the equilibrium spreading tension (γe) with the bulk phase from which they form. For individual phospholipids, γe is single-valued, and separates conditions at which hydrated vesicles adsorb from tensions at which overcompressed monolayers collapse. With pulmonary surfactant, isotherms show that monolayers compressed on the surface of bubbles coexist with the three-dimensional collapsed phase over a range of surface tensions. γe therefo...

  10. Surfactant Membrane Phases Containing Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Campo, Liliana; Warr, G.G.


    Full text: We describe the structure and stability of sponge and lamellar phases comprising mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. Such mixtures can show limited miscibility with each other, forming for example coexisting populations of hydrocarbon rich and fluorocarbon rich micelles under some circumstances. Our system is based on the well-characterised lamellar and sponge phases of cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol and 0.2M brine, into which the partially fluorinated surfactant N-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluorooctylpyridinium chloride is incorporated. By probing the structures with SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using contrast variation, and by characterizing the dynamic properties with dynamic light scattering, we will describe the effect of incorporating the fluorinated surfactant on the phase equilibria and properties of the surfactant membrane structures. (authors)

  11. The Accelerated Late Adsorption of Pulmonary Surfactant (United States)


    Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air−water interface lowers surface tension (γ) at rates that initially decrease progressively, but which then accelerate close to the equilibrium γ. The studies here tested a series of hypotheses concerning mechanisms that might cause the late accelerated drop in γ. Experiments used captive bubbles and a Wilhelmy plate to measure γ during adsorption of vesicles containing constituents from extracted calf surfactant. The faster fall in γ reflects faster adsorption rather than any feature of the equation of state that relates γ to surface concentration (Γ). Adsorption accelerates when γ reaches a critical value rather than after an interval required to reach that γ. The hydrophobic surfactant proteins (SPs) represent key constituents, both for reaching the γ at which the acceleration occurs and for producing the acceleration itself. The γ at which rates of adsorption increase, however, is unaffected by the Γ of protein in the films. In the absence of the proteins, a phosphatidylethanolamine, which, like the SPs, induces fusion of the vesicles with the interfacial film, also causes adsorption to accelerate. Our results suggest that the late acceleration is characteristic of adsorption by fusion of vesicles with the nascent film, which proceeds more favorably when the Γ of the lipids exceeds a critical value. PMID:21417351

  12. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant mediated by phospholipid oxidation is cholesterol-dependent. (United States)

    Al-Saiedy, Mustafa; Pratt, Ryan; Lai, Patrick; Kerek, Evan; Joyce, Heidi; Prenner, Elmar; Green, Francis; Ling, Chang-Chun; Veldhuizen, Ruud; Ghandorah, Salim; Amrein, Matthias


    Pulmonary surfactant forms a cohesive film at the alveolar air-lung interface, lowering surface tension, and thus reducing the work of breathing and preventing atelectasis. Surfactant function becomes impaired during inflammation due to degradation of the surfactant lipids and proteins by free radicals. In this study, we examine the role of reactive nitrogen (RNS) and oxygen (ROS) species on surfactant function with and without physiological cholesterol levels (5-10%). Surface activity was assessed in vitro in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). Surfactant chemistry, monolayer fluidity and thermodynamic behavior were also recorded before and after oxidation. We report that physiologic amounts of cholesterol combined with oxidation results in severe impairment of surfactant function. We also show that surfactant polyunsaturated phospholipids are the most susceptible to oxidative alteration. Membrane thermodynamic experiments showed significant surfactant film stiffening after free radical exposure in the presence of cholesterol. These results point to a previously unappreciated role for cholesterol in amplifying defects in surface activity caused by oxidation of pulmonary surfactant, a finding that may have implications for treating several lung diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by pulmonary surfactant. (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Yasukawa, Jyunichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa


    We performed a genomewide analysis using a next-generation sequencer to investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant on gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important opportunistic pathogen. RNA sequence (RNA-seq) analysis of bacterial transcripts at late log phase revealed 142 genes that were upregulated >2-fold following the addition of pulmonary surfactant to the culture medium. Among these genes, we confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis that mRNA amounts for genes encoding ESAT-6 secretion system C (EssC), an unknown hypothetical protein (NWMN_0246; also called pulmonary surfactant-inducible factor A [PsiA] in this study), and hemolysin gamma subunit B (HlgB) were increased 3- to 10-fold by the surfactant treatment. Among the major constituents of pulmonary surfactant, i.e., phospholipids and palmitate, only palmitate, which is the most abundant fatty acid in the pulmonary surfactant and a known antibacterial substance, stimulated the expression of these three genes. Moreover, these genes were also induced by supplementing the culture with detergents. The induction of gene expression by surfactant or palmitate was not observed in a disruption mutant of the sigB gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in bacterial stress responses. Furthermore, each disruption mutant of the essC, psiA, and hlgB genes showed attenuation of both survival in the lung and host-killing ability in a murine pneumonia model. These findings suggest that S. aureus resists membrane stress caused by free fatty acids present in the pulmonary surfactant through the regulation of virulence gene expression, which contributes to its pathogenesis within the lungs of the host animal.

  14. Surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D variation in pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Husby, Steffen; Holmskov, Uffe


    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) have been implicated in pulmonary innate immunity. The proteins are host defense lectins, belonging to the collectin family which also includes mannan-binding lectin (MBL). SP-A and SP-D are pattern-recognition molecules with the lectin domains binding...... lavage and blood have indicated associations with a multitude of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In addition, accumulating evidence in mouse models of infection and inflammation indicates that recombinant forms of the surfactant proteins are biologically active in vivo and may have therapeutic potential...... in controlling pulmonary inflammatory disease. The presence of the surfactant collectins, especially SP-D, in non-pulmonary tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and genital organs, suggest additional actions located to other mucosal surfaces. The aim of this review is to summarize studies on genetic...

  15. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)


    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of

  16. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg


    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  17. Biophysical Influence of Airborne Carbon Nanomaterials on Natural Pulmonary Surfactant


    Valle, Russell P.; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y.


    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air–water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handl...

  18. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul


    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant

  19. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

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    Griese Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  20. Biological, pathobiological and bioclinical bases of pulmonary surfactant metabolism in the human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Alfonso; Ojeda, Paulina


    The surfactant metabolism dysfunction pulmonary (SMDP), classically termed as Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) are a unusual respiratory disorder characterized by abundant and excessive accumulation of surfactant-derived phospholipids and protein components in the pulmonary alveoli and distal airways, with disturbances associated secondary of pulmonary gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency. At least three general pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to the characteristic feature of PAP: Primary (idiopathic, essential, acquired or adult), secondary and congenital.

  1. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage in the premature newborn infant: analysis of presurfactant and surfactant eras. (United States)

    Braun, K R; Davidson, K M; Henry, M; Nielsen, H C


    We undertook a case-control study of premature infants who developed clinically significant, severe pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) in the presurfactant and surfactant eras to learn more about the cause of severe PH and whether the pathogenesis of severe PH has changed with the advent of surfactant therapy. Severe PH was defined as an acute onset of severe endotracheal bleeding with an acute drop in hematocrit and the development of multilobar infiltrates on chest radiograph. Eleven premature infants from the presurfactant era population and 17 premature infants from the surfactant era population met the criteria for severe PH, all with gestational ages <32 weeks and birth weights <1,500 g (very low birth weight infants). These were each matched by gestational age, date of birth, birth order (for twins), and birth weight to 2 controls. The incidence of severe PH in infants of gestational age <32 weeks was similar in the two eras (1.8% in the presurfactant era and 3.0% in the surfactant era). Severe PH was not associated with maternal characteristics such as drug use or prenatal care, pregnancy complications, evidence of intrauterine anoxia, hyaline membrane disease, frequency of endotracheal suctioning, or patent ductus arteriosus. Premature infants suffering from severe PH in the presurfactant era required more delivery room resuscitation and had more severe early respiratory disease during the first 12 h of life as compared with their controls. However, these differences were not present in the group from the surfactant era. Infants with severe PH were more likely to have birth weights below the third percentile for gestation (severe intrauterine growth restriction). The proportion of infants receiving surfactant, and the number of surfactant doses used, did not differ between severe-PH infants and their controls in the surfactant era group. We conclude that severe intrauterine growth restriction represents a risk factor for severe PH in very low birth weight infants

  2. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.


    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  3. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A S Almeida

    Full Text Available Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line, frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  4. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant. (United States)

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y


    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  5. Production and characterisation of recombinant forms of human pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukovic, Dunja; Plasencia, Inés; Taberner, Francisco J


    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is an essential component for the surface tension-lowering activity of the pulmonary surfactant system. It contains a valine-rich alpha helix that spans the lipid bilayer, and is one of the most hydrophobic proteins known so far. SP-C is also an essential component of ...

  6. Pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in experimental surfactant dysfunction treated with surfactant installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, K.; John, J.; Lachmann, B.; Robertson, B.; Wollmer, P.


    Background: Breakdown of the alveolo-capillary barrier is a characteristic feature of respiratory distress syndrome. Restoration of alveolo-capillary barrier function may be an important aspect of surfactant replacement therapy. We examined the effect of surfactant installation on alveolo-capillary barrier function in an experimental model of surfactant dysfunction by measuring pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Methods: Nineteen rabbits were tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. Surfactant dysfunction was induced by administration of a synthetic detergent in aerosol form. Detergent was given to 13 rabbits; seven rabbits were then treated with installation of natural surfactant, whereas six rabbits received saline. Six rabbits were used as untreated controls. An aerosol of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was administered to all animals and the pulmonary clearance was measured with a gamma camera. Results: {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA cleared from the lungs with a half-life of 71{+-}22 min in the control animals, 21.4{+-}7.4 min in the surfactant-treated animals and 5.8{+-}1.5 min in the saline-treated animals. The difference in half-life between groups was highly significant (P<0.001). There was no change in arterial oxygenation or compliance in controls or in animals treated with saline. In animals treated with surfactant, a small transient reduction in arterial oxygen tension and a more long-standing reduction in compliance were observed. Conclusion: Surfactant treatment thus significantly attenuated the effect of detergent treatment but did not restore alveolo-capillary transfer of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA to normal. (AU) 26 refs.

  7. Use of therapeutic surfactant lavage in a preterm infant with massive pulmonary hemorrhage

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    Ino Kanavaki


    Full Text Available We report a case of a premature infant presenting with recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage in which we performed a therapeutic lavage with diluted surfactant after an acute episode of bleeding with severe intractable hypoxemia. Repeated small aliquots of diluted surfactant (10x2 mL allowed rapid improvement in oxygenation and reduction of required mean airway pressures during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. This observation may suggest that surfactant lavage could be beneficial in massive pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. A randomized controlled trial might be needed to clarify the potential benefit of this therapeutic intervention on outcome of infants suffering from this life-threatening complication.

  8. Plasma membrane wounding and repair in pulmonary diseases. (United States)

    Cong, Xiaofei; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Li, Changgong; Zhao, Xiaoli


    Various pathophysiological conditions such as surfactant dysfunction, mechanical ventilation, inflammation, pathogen products, environmental exposures, and gastric acid aspiration stress lung cells, and the compromise of plasma membranes occurs as a result. The mechanisms necessary for cells to repair plasma membrane defects have been extensively investigated in the last two decades, and some of these key repair mechanisms are also shown to occur following lung cell injury. Because it was theorized that lung wounding and repair are involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), in this review, we summarized the experimental evidence of lung cell injury in these two devastating syndromes and discuss relevant genetic, physical, and biological injury mechanisms, as well as mechanisms used by lung cells for cell survival and membrane repair. Finally, we discuss relevant signaling pathways that may be activated by chronic or repeated lung cell injury as an extension of our cell injury and repair focus in this review. We hope that a holistic view of injurious stimuli relevant for ARDS and IPF could lead to updated experimental models. In addition, parallel discussion of membrane repair mechanisms in lung cells and injury-activated signaling pathways would encourage research to bridge gaps in current knowledge. Indeed, deep understanding of lung cell wounding and repair, and discovery of relevant repair moieties for lung cells, should inspire the development of new therapies that are likely preventive and broadly effective for targeting injurious pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Structure-function correlations of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B and the saposin-like family of proteins. (United States)

    Olmeda, Bárbara; García-Álvarez, Begoña; Pérez-Gil, Jesús


    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex secreted by the respiratory epithelium of mammalian lungs, which plays an essential role in stabilising the alveolar surface and so reducing the work of breathing. The surfactant protein SP-B is part of this complex, and is strictly required for the assembly of pulmonary surfactant and its extracellular development to form stable surface-active films at the air-liquid alveolar interface, making the lack of SP-B incompatible with life. In spite of its physiological importance, a model for the structure and the mechanism of action of SP-B is still needed. The sequence of SP-B is homologous to that of the saposin-like family of proteins, which are membrane-interacting polypeptides with apparently diverging activities, from the co-lipase action of saposins to facilitate the degradation of sphingolipids in the lysosomes to the cytolytic actions of some antibiotic proteins, such as NK-lysin and granulysin or the amoebapore of Entamoeba histolytica. Numerous studies on the interactions of these proteins with membranes have still not explained how a similar sequence and a potentially related fold can sustain such apparently different activities. In the present review, we have summarised the most relevant features of the structure, lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-B and the saposin-like family of proteins, as a basis to propose an integrated model and a common mechanistic framework of the apparent functional versatility of the saposin fold.

  10. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform

  11. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.


    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  12. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens


    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  13. The potential of fluorinated surfactants in membrane biochemistry. (United States)

    Shepherd, F H; Holzenburg, A


    Detergents are important reagents in membrane biochemistry. Since each membrane system studied places different demands on the detergent in terms of desirous physicochemical properties, detergents new to biochemistry must continuously be sought. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) was investigated, as representative of fluorinated surfactants, in terms of its suitability as a "biological detergent." It did not interfere with the Markwell modification of the Lowry procedure at detergent concentrations of up to 2% (w/v). Critical micellization concentration (cmc) values (0.013-0.0275 M) for this detergent were determined in a number of buffers of biological interest. It was demonstrated that the detergent can be removed by dialysis, albeit slowly. This slow removal may be particularly useful for reconstitution/crystallization studies. Solubilization studies on several membrane systems containing the proteins listed (the major protein of the membrane sector of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (16 kDa protein); photosystem II; equine herpes virus (EHV) envelope proteins) indicate that it is a potent solubilizing agent, likely to enhance the yield in cases where solubilization has already been demonstrated, and, in other cases, to solubilize proteins formerly recalcitrant to solubilization. The removal of APFO from solubilized 16-kDa protein by means of Extracti-Gel D resin as a means of exchanging detergents quickly and with a minimum requirement for second detergent was investigated.

  14. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on pulmonary surfactant function and ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Armin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension and is present at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli where inhaled nanoparticles preferentially deposit. We investigated the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanosized particles (NSP and microsized particles (MSP on biophysical surfactant function after direct particle contact and after surface area cycling in vitro. In addition, TiO2 effects on surfactant ultrastructure were visualized. Methods A natural porcine surfactant preparation was incubated with increasing concentrations (50-500 μg/ml of TiO2 NSP or MSP, respectively. Biophysical surfactant function was measured in a pulsating bubble surfactometer before and after surface area cycling. Furthermore, surfactant ultrastructure was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope. Results TiO2 NSP, but not MSP, induced a surfactant dysfunction. For TiO2 NSP, adsorption surface tension (γads increased in a dose-dependent manner from 28.2 ± 2.3 mN/m to 33.2 ± 2.3 mN/m (p min slightly increased from 4.8 ± 0.5 mN/m up to 8.4 ± 1.3 mN/m (p 2 NSP concentrations. Presence of NSP during surface area cycling caused large and significant increases in both γads (63.6 ± 0.4 mN/m and γmin (21.1 ± 0.4 mN/m. Interestingly, TiO2 NSP induced aberrations in the surfactant ultrastructure. Lamellar body like structures were deformed and decreased in size. In addition, unilamellar vesicles were formed. Particle aggregates were found between single lamellae. Conclusion TiO2 nanosized particles can alter the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant. Particle size and surface area respectively play a critical role for the biophysical surfactant response in the lung.

  15. Human decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional alveolar type II-like cells that synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cerrada

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar type II (ATII cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII cell culture models are not available. In this work, Decidua-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (DMSCs have been differentiated into Alveolar Type II- Like Cells (ATII-LCs, which display membranous cytoplasmic organelles resembling lamellar bodies, the organelles involved in surfactant storage and secretion by native ATII cells, and accumulate disaturated phospholipid species, a surfactant hallmark. Expression of characteristic ATII cells markers was demonstrated in ATII-LCs at gene and protein level. Mimicking the response of ATII cells to secretagogues, ATII-LCs were able to exocytose lipid-rich assemblies, which displayed highly surface active capabilities, including faster interfacial adsorption kinetics than standard native surfactant, even in the presence of inhibitory agents. ATII-LCs could constitute a highly useful ex vivo model for the study of surfactant biogenesis and the mechanisms involved in protein processing and lipid trafficking, as well as the packing and storage of surfactant complexes.

  16. Glucocorticoids regulate surfactant protein synthesis in a pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, M.A.; Gazdar, A.F.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.J.; Wert, S.E.; Hull, W.M.; Whitsett, J.A.


    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C was demonstrated in a cell line derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the lung. The cells contained numerous lamellar inclusion bodies and formed organized groups of cells containing well-developed junctional complexes and apical microvillous membranes. Synthesis of SP-A was detected in the cells by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled protein. SP-A was identified as an Mr 31,000-36,000 polypeptide containing asparagine-linked carbohydrate. Northern blot analysis detected SP-A mRNA of 2.2 kb. Dexamethasone (1-10 nM) enhanced the relative abundance of SP-A mRNA. Despite stimulation of SP-A mRNA, intracellular SP-A content was unaltered or inhibited by dexamethasone. SP-B and SP-C mRNAs and synthesis of the SP-B and SP-C precursors were markedly induced by dexamethasone. ProSP-B was synthesized and secreted primarily as an Mr 42,000-46,000 polypeptide. Proteolysis of the proSP-B resulted in the generation of endoglycosidase F-sensitive Mr = 19,000-21,000 and 25,000-27,000 peptides, which were detected both intra- and extracellularly. SP-C proprotein of Mr = 22,000 and smaller SP-C fragments were detected intracellularly but were not detected in the media. Mature forms of SP-B (Mr = 8,000) and SP-C (Mr = 4,000) were not detected. Glucocorticoids directly enhance the relative synthesis and mRNA of the surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Discrepancies among SP-A mRNA, its de novo synthesis, and cell content suggest that glucocorticoid may alter both pre- and posttranslational factors modulating SP-A expression

  17. Influence of nonionic surfactants on the potentiometric response of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes. (United States)

    Espadas-Torre, C; Bakker, E; Barker, S; Meyerhoff, M E


    The influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based nonionic surfactants (i.e., Triton X-100 and Brij 35) in the sample phase on the response properties of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes containing mobile (lipophilic amines) or covalently bound (aminated-poly-(vinyl chloride)) hydrogen ion carriers is reported. In the presence of these nonionic surfactants, membrane electrode response toward interfering cation activity (e.g., Na+) in the sample phase is increased substantially and the pH measuring range shortened. The degree of cation interference for pH measurements is shown to correlate with the basicity of the hydrogen ion carrier doped within the membrane phase. The observed deterioration in selectivity arises from the partitioning of the surfactant into the membrane and concomitant extraction of metal cations by the surfactants in the organic phase. The effect of nonionic surfactants on pH electrodes prepared with aminated-PVC membranes is shown to be more complex, with additional large shifts in EMF values apparently arising from multidentate interactions between the surfactant molecules and the polymeric amine in the membrane, leading to a change in the apparent pKa values for the amine sites. The effects induced by nonionic surfactants on the EMF response function of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes are modeled, and experimental results are shown to correlate well with theoretical predictions.

  18. Surfactant protein D, a clinical biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with excellent discriminant values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akiki, Zeina; Fakih, Dalia; Jounblat, Rania


    Biological markers can help to better identify a disease or refine its diagnosis. In the present study, the association between surfactant protein D (SP-D) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was studied among subjects consulting for respiratory diseases or symptoms and was compared ...

  19. Selective labeling of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C in organic solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; López-Lacomba, J L


    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C has been isolated from porcine lungs and treated with dansyl isothiocyanate in chloroform:methanol 2:1 (v/v) solutions,under conditions optimized to introduce a single dansyl group covalently attached to the N-terminalamine group of the protein without loss of its...

  20. Molecular characterization of the porcine surfactant, pulmonary-associated protein C gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Nygård, A.B.; Jensen, H.E.


    The surfactant, pulmonary-associated protein C (SFTPC) is a peptide secreted by the alveolar type II pneumocytes of the lung. We have characterized the porcine SFTPC gene at genomic, transcriptional, and protein levels. The porcine SFTPC is a single-copy gene on pig chromosome 14. Two transcripts...

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Performance Studies of Active PVDF Ultrafiltration-Surfactants Membranes Containing PVP as Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Md Fadilah; Abdul Rahman Hassan


    The role of surfactants in the formation of active Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration (AUF) membranes was studied. The effect combination of surfactants that are Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 formulations on performance and morphological structures were investigated for the first time. The influence of surfactants blends on the membrane pores was also examined. Experimental data showed that combination of Tween 80/ Triton X-100 give the highest BSA permeation flux with a value of 285.51 Lm -2 h -1 . With combination of SDS/ Tween 80, the AUF membrane showed the highest protein rejection up to 93 % and 79 % for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Egg Albumin (EA), respectively. Moreover, membranes characterization demonstrated that the addition of SDS/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 were found to affect the performance, surface morphologies and membrane pores of AUF PVDF membranes. (author)

  2. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, L.G.; Wright, J.R.; Hawgood, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Venstrom, K.; Nellenbogen, J.


    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC 50 of 0.1 μg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 100 0 C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control

  3. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  4. Comprehensive characterisation of pulmonary and serum surfactant protein D in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erpenbeck Veit J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D is considered as a candidate biomarker for the functional integrity of the lung and for disease progression, which can be detected in serum. The origin of SP-D in serum and how serum concentrations are related to pulmonary concentrations under inflammatory conditions is still unclear. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising non-smokers (n = 10, young - (n = 10, elderly smokers (n = 20, and smokers with COPD (n = 20 we simultaneously analysed pulmonary and serum SP-D levels with regard to pulmonary function, exercise, repeatability and its quaternary structure by native gel electrophoresis. Statistical comparisons were conducted by ANOVA and post-hoc testing for multiple comparisons; repeatability was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Results In COPD, median (IQR pulmonary SP-D levels were lower (129(68 ng/ml compared to smokers (young: 299(190, elderly: 296(158 ng/ml; p Conclusions Pulmonary and serum SP-D levels are stable markers influenced by smoking and related to airflow obstruction and disease state. Smaller subunits of pulmonary SP-D and the rapid increase of serum SP-D levels in COPD due to exercise support the translocation hypothesis and its use as a COPD biomarker. Trial registration no interventional trial

  5. The adsorption of biomolecules to multi-walled carbon nanotubes is influenced by both pulmonary surfactant lipids and surface chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production and processing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, they may be inhaled and may enter the pulmonary circulation. It is essential that interactions with involved body fluids like the pulmonary surfactant, the blood and others are investigated, particularly as these interactions could lead to coating of the tubes and may affect their chemical and physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize the possible coatings of different functionalized MWCNTs in a cell free environment. Results To simulate the first contact in the lung, the tubes were coated with pulmonary surfactant and subsequently bound lipids were characterized. The further coating in the blood circulation was simulated by incubating the tubes in blood plasma. MWCNTs were amino (NH2- and carboxyl (-COOH-modified, in order to investigate the influence on the bound lipid and protein patterns. It was shown that surfactant lipids bind unspecifically to different functionalized MWCNTs, in contrast to the blood plasma proteins which showed characteristic binding patterns. Patterns of bound surfactant lipids were altered after a subsequent incubation in blood plasma. In addition, it was found that bound plasma protein patterns were altered when MWCNTs were previously coated with pulmonary surfactant. Conclusions A pulmonary surfactant coating and the functionalization of MWCNTs have both the potential to alter the MWCNTs blood plasma protein coating and to determine their properties and behaviour in biological systems.

  6. Effects of Bufei Yishen Granules Combined with Acupoint Sticking Therapy on Pulmonary Surfactant Proteins in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Tian


    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Bufei Yishen granules combined with acupoint sticking therapy (the integrated therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SPs, including SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D may be included in pathophysiology of COPD. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of the integrated therapy on SPs. COPD rat models were established. The treatment groups received Bufei Yishen granules or acupoint sticking or their combination. Using aminophylline as a positive control drug. The levels of SPs in serum, BALF, and lung were measured. The results showed that the integrated therapy markedly reduced the levels of SPs in serum and increased these indicators in the lung. The integrated therapy was better than aminophylline in reducing the levels of SPs and was better than Bufei Yishen granules in reducing SP-A, SP-C, and SP-D in serum. The integrated therapy was better than aminophylline and Bufei Yishen granules in increasing SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D mRNA in the lung. SP-A and SP-D in BALF were positively correlated with PEF and EF50. The levels of SPs are associated with airway limitation. The beneficial effects of the integrated therapy may be involved in regulating pulmonary surfactant proteins.

  7. Effect of Dialkyl Ammonium Cationic Surfactants on the Microfluidity of Membranes Containing Raft Domains. (United States)

    Uyama, Makoto; Inoue, Kaori; Kinoshita, Koichi; Miyahara, Reiji; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Nakano, Minoru


    It has been reported that a lot of receptors localize in lipid raft domains and that the microfluidity of these domains regulates the activation of these receptors. In this study, we focused on the lipid raft and in order to evaluate the physicochemical effects of surfactants on microfluidity of lipid membranes, we used liposomes comprising of egg-yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine, egg-yolk sphingomyelin, and cholesterol as a model of cell membranes containing raft domains. The microfluidity of the domains was characterized by fluorescence spectrometry using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene. Among several surfactants, dialkylammonium-type cationic surfactants most efficiently increased the microfluidity. It is therefore concluded that (1) the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and eggPC/eggSM/cholesterol liposome could be important, (2) surfactants with alkyl chains more effectively inserted into membranes than those with acyl chains, and (3) cationic surfactants with lower T m values have a greater ability to increase the fluidity.

  8. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, S.R.; Gallaher, K.J.; Wallin, R.; Rannels, D.E.


    Rat type II pneumocytes expressed vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity that incorporated 14 CO 2 into microsomal protein precursors of molecular weights similar to those of surfactant-associated proteins (SAP). Compared to carboxylated precursor proteins present in the liver, these molecules appeared to be unique to the lung. Antibodies raised against purified rat surfactant reacted with SAP resolved by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and with surfactant-containing lamellar bodies in type II pneumocyte cytoplasm. NaDodSO 4 /PAGE of microsomal proteins, after carboxylase-catalyzed incorporation of 14 CO 2 , demonstrated radiolabeled, immunoreactive products identical to SAP. The presence of γ-carboxyglutamic acid in these proteins was confirmed by HPLC analysis of SAP hydrolysates. Furthermore, lung carboxylase activity and SAP matured over similar time courses during fetal lung development. These results show that SAP are carboxylated by type II cells via a vitamin K-dependent pathway analogous to that for hepatic carboxylation of clotting factors. Further analogy to the clotting system suggest that γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues in SAP polypeptides play a role in Ca 2+ binding and thus in the known requirements for both cation and SAP in the physiological function of pulmonary surfactant

  9. Polarized light microscopy reveals physiological and drug-induced changes in surfactant membrane assembly in alveolar type II pneumocytes. (United States)

    Haller, Thomas; Cerrada, Alejandro; Pfaller, Kristian; Braubach, Peter; Felder, Edward


    In alveolar type II (AT II) cells, pulmonary surfactant (PS) is synthetized, stored and exocytosed from lamellar bodies (LBs), specialized large secretory organelles. By applying polarization microscopy (PM), we confirm a specific optical anisotropy of LBs, which indicates a liquid-crystalline mesophase of the stored surfactant phospholipids (PL) and an unusual case of a radiation-symmetric, spherocrystalline organelle. Evidence is shown that the degree of anisotropy is dependent on the amount of lipid layers and their degree of hydration, but unaffected by acutely modulating vital cell parameters like intravesicular pH or cellular energy supply. In contrast, physiological factors that perturb this structure include osmotic cell volume changes and LB exocytosis. In addition, we found two pharmaceuticals, Amiodarone and Ambroxol, both of which severely affect the liquid-crystalline order. Our study shows that PM is an easy, very sensitive, but foremost non-invasive and label-free method able to collect important structural information of PS assembly in live AT II cells which otherwise would be accessible by destructive or labor intense techniques only. This may open new approaches to dynamically investigate LB biosynthesis - the incorporation, folding and packing of lipid membranes - or the initiation of pathological states that manifest in altered LB structures. Due to the observed drug effects, we further suggest that PM provides an appropriate way to study unspecific drug interactions with alveolar cells and even drug-membrane interactions in general. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.


    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear

  11. Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials prepared from the uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane and surfactant templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaocong; Ma Jin; Liu Jin; Zhou Chen; Zhao, Yan; Yi Shouzhi; Yang Zhenzhong


    Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials with a bimodal distribution were template-prepared from uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane in the presence of a surfactant via a sol-gel process. Their regularity and morphologies were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The larger channel pores formed by removing the microfibrils of uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane have a broad pore size distribution, and their size is around 13 nm. In contrast, the smaller mesopores formed by surfactant templates have a narrow distribution; their size is about 3.9 nm. The size of the smaller pores could be tuned from 2 to 6 nm by selecting different surfactants and by changing the concentration of reactants

  12. Time-dependent changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonia or aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchenbuch Tim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations to pulmonary surfactant composition have been encountered in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. However, only few data are available regarding the time-course and duration of surfactant changes in ARDS patients, although this information may largely influence the optimum design of clinical trials addressing surfactant replacement therapy. We therefore examined the time-course of surfactant changes in 15 patients with direct ARDS (pneumonia, aspiration over the first 8 days after onset of mechanical ventilation. Methods Three consecutive bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed shortly after intubation (T0, and four days (T1 and eight days (T2 after intubation. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls. Phospholipid-to-protein ratio in BAL fluids, phospholipid class profiles, phosphatidylcholine (PC molecular species, surfactant proteins (SP-A, -B, -C, -D, and relative content and surface tension properties of large surfactant aggregates (LA were assessed. Results At T0, a severe and highly significant reduction in SP-A, SP-B and SP-C, the LA fraction, PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG percentages, and dipalmitoylation of PC (DPPC was encountered. Surface activity of the LA fraction was greatly impaired. Over time, significant improvements were encountered especially in view of LA content, DPPC, PG and SP-A, but minimum surface tension of LA was not fully restored (15 mN/m at T2. A highly significant correlation was observed between PaO2/FiO2 and minimum surface tension (r = -0.83; p Conclusion We concluded that a profound impairment of pulmonary surfactant composition and function occurs in the very early stage of the disease and only gradually resolves over time. These observations may explain why former surfactant replacement studies with a short treatment duration failed to improve outcome and may help to establish optimal composition and duration of surfactant administration in future

  13. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials induced pulmonary surfactant inhibition, cytotoxicity, inflammation and lung fibrosis. (United States)

    Chen, Yunan; Yang, Yi; Xu, Bolong; Wang, Shunhao; Li, Bin; Ma, Juan; Gao, Jie; Zuo, Yi Y; Liu, Sijin


    Environmental exposure and health risk upon engineered nanomaterials are increasingly concerned. The family of mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) is a rising star in nanotechnology for multidisciplinary research with versatile applications in electronics, energy and gas storage, and biomedicine. Meanwhile, there is mounting concern on their environmental health risks due to the growing production and usage of MCNs. The lung is the primary site for particle invasion under environmental exposure to nanomaterials. Here, we studied the comprehensive toxicological profile of MCNs in the lung under the scenario of moderate environmental exposure. It was found that at a low concentration of 10μg/mL MCNs induced biophysical inhibition of natural pulmonary surfactant. Moreover, MCNs at similar concentrations reduced viability of J774A.1 macrophages and lung epithelial A549 cells. Incubating with nature pulmonary surfactant effectively reduced the cytotoxicity of MCNs. Regarding the pro-inflammatory responses, MCNs activated macrophages in vitro, and stimulated lung inflammation in mice after inhalation exposure, associated with lung fibrosis. Moreover, we found that the size of MCNs played a significant role in regulating cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of this nanomaterial. In general, larger MCNs induced more pronounced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects than their smaller counterparts. Our results provided valuable information on the toxicological profile and environmental health risks of MCNs, and suggested that fine-tuning the size of MCNs could be a practical precautionary design strategy to increase safety and biocompatibility of this nanomaterial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The nanoparticle corona in the deep lung : pulmonary surfactant adsorption and its role in nano-bio interactions


    Räsch, Simon Sebastian


    Nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery to the respiratory tract are of considerable interest, for the treatment of chronic and acute pulmonary and systemic disorders, promising the potential for sustained release and targeted delivery. Although the targets for these formulations are usually cells, the NPs, once inhaled, first encounter a non-cellular barrier in the deep lung: the pulmonary surfactant (PS). This is a lipid-protein mixture which covers the alveoli and enables gas exchange as a r...

  15. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Takumi; Ono, Yuri; Kawamura, Yuko; Watanabe, Kunio; Takeuchi, Hiroshi.


    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li + from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  16. Mercury Concentration Reduction In Waste Water By Using Liquid Surfactant Membrane Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Sardjono, Joko


    The objective of this research is ti know effectiveness of liquid surfactant membrane in diminishing mercury found in waste water. This process can be regarded as transferring process of solved mercury from the external phase functioning as a moving phase to continue to the membrane internal one. The existence of the convection rotation results in the change of the surface pressure on the whole interface parts, so the solved mercury disperses on every interface part. Because of this rotation, the solved mercury will fulfil every space with particles from dispersion phase in accordance with its volume. Therefore, the change of the surface pressure on the whole interface parts can be kept stable to adsorb mercury. The mercury adsorbed in the internal phase moves to dispersed particles through molecule diffusion process. The liquid surfactant membrane technique in which the membrane phase is realized into emulsion contains os kerosene as solvent, sorbitan monoleat (span-80) 5 % (v/v) as surfactant, threbuthyl phosphate (TBP) 10 % (v/v) as extractant, and solved mercury as the internal phase. All of those things are mixed and stirred with 8000 rpm speed for 20 minutes. After the stability of emulsion is formed, the solved mercury is extracted by applying extraction process. The effective condition required to achieve mercury ion recovery utilizing this technique is obtained through extraction and re-extraction process. This process was conducted in 30 minutes with membrane and mercury in scale 1 : 1 on 100 ppm concentration. The results of the processes was 99,6 % efficiency. This high efficiency shows that the liquid surfactant membrane technique is very effective to reduce waste water contamined by mercury

  17. Distinct changes in pulmonary surfactant homeostasis in common beta-chain-and GM-CSF-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, JA; Ikegami, M; Robb, L; Begley, CG; Ross, G; Whitsett, JA

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is caused by inactivation of either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) or GM receptor common beta-chain (beta(c)) genes in mice [GM(-/-), beta(c)(-/-)], demonstrating a critical role of GM-CSF signaling in surfactant homeostasis. To

  18. Compositional and structural characterization of monolayers and bilayers composed of native pulmonary surfactant from wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Hansen, Soren; Berzina, Zane


    spectrometry experiments were also performed in order to obtain relevant information on the lipid composition of this material. Bilayers composed of mice pulmonary surfactant showed coexistence of distinct domains at room temperature, with morphologies and lateral packing resembling the coexistence of liquid...

  19. [Clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage]. (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Zhu; Lai, Ji-Dong; Lv, Mei; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Lian; Chen, Chao


    To explore the clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH). A total of 122 neonates diagnosed with NPH between January 2010 and June 2014 were enrolled. After being stratified by gestational age, the neonates were randomly divided into treatment (HFOV+PS) and control (HFOV alone) groups (n=61 each). Both groups were treated with HFOV after the onset of NPH. After 2-4 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group received PS via intratracheal injections, followed by continuous use of HFOV. Dynamic changes in the blood gas, oxygenation index (OI), and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values of the neonates were determined before HFOV treatment and after 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment. The time to hemostasis, duration of ventilation, incidence of complications, and cure rate were compared between groups. After 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group had significantly improved PaO2, PaCO2, O/I, and P/F values compared with the control group (P0.05). HFOV combined with PS is an effective treatment to improve oxygenation, shorten the time to hemostasis and the duration of ventilation, and reduce the incidence of complications in neonates with NPH. However, the dual therapy is unable to reduce the mortality of neonates compared with HFOV monotherapy.

  20. The Effect of Membrane Environment on Surfactant Protein C Stability Studied by Constant-pH Molecular Dynamics. (United States)

    Carvalheda, Catarina A; Campos, Sara R R; Baptista, António M


    Pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a small peptide with two covalently linked fatty acyl chains that plays a crucial role in the formation and stabilization of the pulmonary surfactant reservoirs during the compression and expansion steps of the respiratory cycle. Although its function is known to be tightly related to its highly hydrophobic character and key interactions maintained with specific lipid components, much is left to understand about its molecular mechanism of action. Also, although it adopts a mainly helical structure while associated with the membrane, factors as pH variation and deacylation have been shown to affect its stability and function. In this work, the conformational behavior of both the acylated and deacylated SP-C isoforms was studied in a DPPC bilayer under different pH conditions using constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings show that both protein isoforms are remarkably stable over the studied pH range, even though the acylated isoform exhibits a labile helix-turn-helix motif rarely observed in the other isoform. We estimate similar tilt angles for the two isoforms over the studied pH range, with a generally higher degree of internalization of the basic N-terminal residues in the deacylated case, and observe and discuss some protonation-conformation coupling effects. Both isoforms establish contacts with the surrounding lipid molecules (preferentially with the sn-2 ester bonds) and have a local effect on the conformational behavior of the surrounding lipid molecules, the latter being more pronounced for acylated SP-C.

  1. Evaluation of the interaction of surfactants with stratum corneum model membrane from Bothrops jararaca by DSC. (United States)

    Baby, André Rolim; Lacerda, Aurea Cristina Lemos; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Lopes, Patrícia Santos; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko, Telma Mary


    The interaction of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) and lauryl alcohol ethoxylated (12 mol ethylene oxide) (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the stratum corneum (SC) of shed snake skins from Bothrops jararaca, used as model membrane, and thermal characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Surfactant solutions were employed above of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) with treatment time of 8h. The SDS interaction with the SC model membrane has increased the characteristic transition temperature of 130 degrees C in approximately 10 degrees C for the water loss and keratin denaturation, indicating an augmentation of the water content. Samples treated with CTAC have a decrease of the water loss temperature, while, for the LAE-12OE treated samples, changes on the transition temperature have not been observed.

  2. Control study of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS. Methods: A total of 50 cases of children with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS born and receiving treatment in our hospital from August 2012 to January 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each with 25 cases. Control group received pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP ventilation mode treatment, observation group received pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment, and then differences in blood gas indicators and mechanical ventilation parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, endothelin and nitric oxide levels, blood coagulation and anticoagulation indicators and protein expression levels of CD24, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A of two groups after treatment were compared. Results: PaO2, PH value and oxygenation index of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and PaCO2, positive end-expiratory pressure, peak inspiratory pressure and inspired oxygen concentration were lower than those of control group; pulmonary artery pressure and EF-1 level of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and NO level was higher than that of control group; PC, TPS and AT-Ⅲ levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and D-D and vWF levels were lower than those of control group; protein expression of CD24 and IL-6 of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-17A were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment of children with NRDS can effectively optimize ventilation function and realize homeostasis, and it has active clinical significance.

  3. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei


    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  4. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets. (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun


    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater.

  5. Changes of cerebral hemodynamics following the administration of surfactant in the hyaline membrane disease of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hee [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity according to the time, before and after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease using Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were 15 premature babies who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed HMD. The ratio of male : female was 11:4, the mean gestational age was 30.1 {+-} 2.5 wks, mean body weight was 1.4 {+-} 0.6 kg,mean Apgar score at 5 min was 6.28, and type of delivery was C-section : vaginal delivery 9.6. Before and after, 10 mm, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 1 day, 3 day, 5 day and 7 day after surfactant administration, peak systolic and end-diastolic cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) and resistive index (RI) were estimated by Doppler ultrasonography measuring MCA flow velocity using temporal window. The averages of all data according to the time were obtained and analyzed statistical significance. For the evaluation of the clinical status systemic BP, FiO2, pH, and respiratory rate were also checked according to the same time. The clinical status of FiO2, metabolic acidosis, and tachypnea was significantly improved after surfactant administration. There was no significant change of cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) after the surfactant administration. The change of RI was nor statistically significant. The changes of the systemic BP had no significant changes. In spite of clinical improvement, there were no significant increases of cerebral blood flow velocity and changes of RI after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease.

  6. Changes of cerebral hemodynamics following the administration of surfactant in the hyaline membrane disease of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hee


    To evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity according to the time, before and after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease using Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were 15 premature babies who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed HMD. The ratio of male : female was 11:4, the mean gestational age was 30.1 ± 2.5 wks, mean body weight was 1.4 ± 0.6 kg,mean Apgar score at 5 min was 6.28, and type of delivery was C-section : vaginal delivery 9.6. Before and after, 10 mm, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 1 day, 3 day, 5 day and 7 day after surfactant administration, peak systolic and end-diastolic cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) and resistive index (RI) were estimated by Doppler ultrasonography measuring MCA flow velocity using temporal window. The averages of all data according to the time were obtained and analyzed statistical significance. For the evaluation of the clinical status systemic BP, FiO2, pH, and respiratory rate were also checked according to the same time. The clinical status of FiO2, metabolic acidosis, and tachypnea was significantly improved after surfactant administration. There was no significant change of cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) after the surfactant administration. The change of RI was nor statistically significant. The changes of the systemic BP had no significant changes. In spite of clinical improvement, there were no significant increases of cerebral blood flow velocity and changes of RI after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease.

  7. Surfactant protein-B 121ins2 heterozygosity, reduced pulmonary function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne


    Hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes fatal respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Seventy percent of the cases of hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency are caused by homozygosity for the 121ins2 mutation in the surfactant protein-B gen...

  8. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana I Papaioannou

    Full Text Available Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Serum surfactant proteins (SPs A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival.122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year.SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively. In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05 and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05. SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons. In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI. Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively. SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042. In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05.In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials.

  9. Surfactant-controlled etching of ion track nanopores and its practical applications in membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Mamonova, T.I.; Orelovitch, O.L.; Sartowska, B.; Yamauchi, Yu.


    The effect of surfactants on chemical development of ion tracks in polymers has been studied. It has been shown that surface-active agents added to an alkaline etching solution adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entrances. This reduces the etch rate, which leads to the formation of pores tapered toward the surface. Self-assembly of surfactant molecules at the pore entrance creates a barrier for their penetration into the etched-out nanopores, whereas hydroxide ions diffuse freely. Due to this, the internal pore volume grows faster than the pore surface diameter. The ability to control pore shape is demonstrated with the fabrication of profiled nano- and micropores in polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate. Some earlier published data on small track-etched pores in polycarbonate (in particular, the pore diameter vs. etching time curves measured conductometrically) have been revised in light of the above findings. Adding surfactants to chemical etchants makes it possible to optimize the structure of track membranes, thus improving their retention and permeation properties. Asymmetric membranes with thin skin retention layers have been produced and their performance studied

  10. Cis-acting sequences from a human surfactant protein gene confer pulmonary-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korfhagen, T.R.; Glasser, S.W.; Wert, S.E.; Bruno, M.D.; Daugherty, C.C.; McNeish, J.D.; Stock, J.L.; Potter, S.S.; Whitsett, J.A. (Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))


    Pulmonary surfactant is produced in late gestation by developing type II epithelial cells lining the alveolar epithelium of the lung. Lack of surfactant at birth is associated with respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a highly hydrophobic peptide isolated from pulmonary tissue that enhances the biophysical activity of surfactant phospholipids. Like surfactant phospholipid, SP-C is produced by epithelial cells in the distal respiratory epithelium, and its expression increases during the latter part of gestation. A chimeric gene containing 3.6 kilobases of the promoter and 5{prime}-flanking sequences of the human SP-C gene was used to express diphtheria toxin A. The SP-C-diphtheria toxin A fusion gene was injected into fertilized mouse eggs to produce transgenic mice. Affected mice developed respiratory failure in the immediate postnatal period. Morphologic analysis of lungs from affected pups showed variable but severe cellular injury confined to pulmonary tissues. Ultrastructural changes consistent with cell death and injury were prominent in the distal respiratory epithelium. Proximal components of the tracheobronchial tree were not severely affected. Transgenic animals were of normal size at birth, and structural abnormalities were not detected in nonpulmonary tissues. Lung-specific diphtheria toxin A expression controlled by the human SP-C gene injured type II epithelial cells and caused extensive necrosis of the distal respiratory epithelium. The absence of type I epithelial cells in the most severely affected transgenic animals supports the concept that developing type II cells serve as precursors to type I epithelial cells.

  11. Inactivation of pulmonary surfactant due to serum-inhibited adsorption and reversal by hydrophilic polymers: experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeusch, H William; de la Serna, Jorge Bernardino; Perez-Gil, Jesus


    adsorption of surface active serum proteins. Aqueous suspensions of native porcine surfactant, organic extracts of native surfactant, and the clinical surfactants Curosurf, Infasurf, and Survanta spread on buffered subphases increase the surface pressure, pi, to approximately 40 mN/m within 2 min....... The variation with concentration, temperature, and mode of spreading confirmed Brewster angle microscopy observations that subphase to surface adsorption of surfactant is the dominant form of surfactant transport to the interface. However (with the exception of native porcine surfactant), similar rapid...... increases in pi did not occur when surfactants were applied to subphases containing serum. Components of serum are surface active and adsorb reversibly to the interface increasing pi up to a concentration-dependent saturation value, pi(max). When surfactants were applied to subphases containing serum...

  12. Biosurfactants and surfactants interacting with membranes and proteins: Same but different? (United States)

    Otzen, Daniel E


    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. For several decades they have attracted interest as promising alternatives to current petroleum-based surfactants. Aside from their green profile, they have remarkably low critical micelle concentrations, reduce the air/water surface tension to very low levels and are excellent emulsifiers, all of which make them comparable or superior to their synthetic counterparts. These remarkable physical properties derive from their more complex chemical structures in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are not as clearly separated as chemical surfactants but have a more mosaic distribution of polarity as well as branched or circular structures. This allows the lipopeptide surfactin to adopt spherical structures to facilitate dense packing at interfaces. They are also more complex. Glycolipid BS, e.g. rhamnolipids (RL) and sophorolipids, are produced biologically as mixtures which vary in the size and saturation of the hydrophobic region as well as modifications in the hydrophilic headgroup, such as the number of sugar groups and different levels of acetylation, leading to variable surface-active properties. Their amphiphilicity allows RL to insert easily into membranes at sub-cmc concentrations to modulate membrane structure and extract lipopolysaccharides, leading to extensive biofilm remodeling in vivo, sometimes in collaboration with hydrophobic RL precursors. Thanks to their mosaicity, even anionic BS like RL only bind weakly to proteins and show much lower denaturing potency, even supporting membrane protein refolding. Nevertheless, they can promote protein degradation by proteases e.g. by neutralizing positive charges, which together with their biofilm-combating properties makes them very promising detergent surfactants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  13. Study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of reclaiming chemicals used in micellar polymer and low tension surfactant flooding. Final report. [Ultrafiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, R.H.; Himmelblau, A.; Donnelly, R.G.


    Energy Resources Company has developed a technology for use with enhanced oil recovery to achieve emulsion breaking and surfactant recovery. By using ultrafiltration membranes, the Energy Resources Company process can dewater an oil-in-water type emulsion expected from enhanced oil recovery projects to the point where the emulsion can be inverted and treated using conventional emulsion-treating equipment. By using a tight ultrafiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane, the Energy Resources Company process is capable of recovering chemicals such as surfactants used in micellar polymer flooding.

  14. Surfactant Protein-B 121ins2 Heterozygosity, Reduced Pulmonary Function and COPD in Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne


    .2-4.8) for spirometry defined COPD and of 2.2(1.0-5.1) for hospitalization due to COPD. Among never smokers, 121ins2 heterozygotes did not differ from wildtypes in lung function or risk of COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Surfactant protein-B 121ins2 heterozygosity is associated with reduced lung function and increased risk for COPD......2 mutation have reduced lung function and increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among smokers. METHODS: We genotyped 47,600 individuals from the adult Danish general population and recorded smoking habits, spirometry and hospital admissions due to COPD. The study...... that the effect of genotype differ by smoking status. Among smokers, 121ins2 heterozygotes had 9% reduced FEV1%predicted(p=0.0008), 6% reduced FVC%predicted(p=0.01) and 6% reduced FEV1/FVC(p=0.00007), compared with wildtypes. Also among smokers, 121ins2 heterozygotes had odds ratios of 2.4(95%CI 1...

  15. Surfactant protein D, Club cell protein 16, Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, C-reactive protein, and Fibrinogen biomarker variation in chronic obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Vestbo, J.; Sorensen, G. L.


    for the assessment of patients, prediction of risk, and guidance of treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of observations for a selection of recently investigated pulmonary inflammatory biomarkers (Surfactant protein D (SP-D), Club cell protein 16 (CC-16), and Pulmonary...

  16. Pulmonary Changes in Preterm Neonates with Hyaline Membrane Disease (a Clinicomorphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev


    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal lung morphological changes in preterm neonatal infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD in the use of exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation. Materials and methods. Case histories and autopsy protocols were analyzed in 90 preterm neonates who had died from severe respiratory failure. All the neonates were divided into 4 groups: 1 20 (22.2% infants who had received the exogenous surfactant Curosurf in the combined therapy of HMD; 2 19 (21.1% babies with HMD who had taken Surfactant BL; 3 25 (27.8% surfactant-untreated infants who had died from HMD; 4 26 (28.9% very preterm neonates with extremely low birth weight who had died within the first hour of life. The lungs were histologically and morphometrically examined. Results. The study demonstrated the specific course of HMD when exogenous surfactants and artificial ventilation were used. The contributors to the development of the disease are intranatal amniotic fluid aspiration and intranatal fetal hypoxia. Conclusion. Artificial ventilation and the use of exogenous surfactants do not block the generation of hyaline membranes. The latter differ in formation time, form, and location. The differences in a cell response to hyaline membranes were found in the neonatal infants receiving exogenous surfactants. The characteristic morphological signs of the disease for all the neonates enrolled in the study are alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages and microcirculatory disorders. Key words: preterm neonatal infants, hyaline membrane disease, exogenous surfactants, artificial ventilation, histology, morphometry.

  17. Evaluation of two pilot scale membrane bioreactors for the elimination of selected surfactants from municipal wastewaters (United States)

    González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damiá


    SummaryThe removal of selected surfactants, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and alkylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products were investigated using a two membrane bioreactor (MBR) with hollow fiber and plate and frame membranes. The two pilot plants MBR run in parallel to a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. A total of eight influent samples with the corresponding effluent samples were analysed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS). The results indicate that both MBR have a better effluent quality in terms of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), NH4+ , concentration and total suspended solids (TSS). MBR showed a better similar performance in the overall elimination of the total nonylphenolic compounds, achieving a 75% of elimination or a 65% (the same elimination reached by CAS). LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the three systems investigated and no significant differences were observed.

  18. Bio surfactants production in bioreactor assisted with membrane process; Producao de biossurfactantes em biorreator assistido por processos com membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). COPPE. Programa de Engenharia Quimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails:,,; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Bioquimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Chemically synthesized surfactants are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and oil industries. However, they may eventually be replaced by bio surfactants, which are biodegradable and produced from renewable substrates, the surface active molecules produced by micro-organisms. Currently bio surfactants use is limited to some specific applications as they are not economically competitive. The fermentation technology needs to be improved to expand the production scale and lower costs. The most studied bio surfactants are produced by aerobic microorganisms. The main difficulty of this fermentation process is the excess foam caused by injecting air into the vessel. To overcome this problem, a membrane contactor can be used for the non-dispersive transfer of oxygen from the gas to liquid phase. The main objective of this study was to produce rhamno lipidic type bio surfactants from a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA1), isolated from oil wells. This production used a hollow-fiber membrane contactor to oxygenate the culture medium. The study results indicate this bio surfactant is economically viable in large scale production. (author)

  19. The Stability of Silver Nanoparticles in a Model of Pulmonary Surfactant (United States)

    Fen, Leo Bey; Chen, Shu; Kyo, Yoshihiko; Herpoldt, Karla-Luise; Terrill, Nicholas J.; Dunlop, Iain E.; McPhail, David S.; Shaffer, Milo S.; Schwander, Stephan; Gow, Andrew; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.


    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential impact on the environment and human health. Whether AgNPs dissolve and release Ag+ ions, or coarsen to form large aggregates, is critical in determining their potential toxicity. In this work, the stability of AgNPs in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was investigated as a function of pH. Spherical, citrate-capped AgNPs with average diameters of 14 ± 1.6 nm (n=200) were prepared by a chemical bath reduction. The kinetics of Ag+ ion release was strongly pH-dependent. After 14 days of incubation in sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) solutions, the total fraction of AgNPs dissolved varied from ~10 % at pH 3, to ~2 % at pH 5, with negligible dissolution at pH 7. A decrease in pH from 7 to 3 also promoted particle aggregation and coarsening. DPPC (100 mg.L−1) delayed the release of Ag+ ions, but did not significantly alter the total amount of Ag+ released after two weeks. In addition, DPPC improved the dispersion of the AgNPs and inhibited aggregation and coarsening. TEM images revealed that the AgNPs were coated with a DPPC layer serving as a semi-permeable layer. Hence, lung lining fluid, particularly DPPC, can modify the aggregation state and kinetics of Ag+ ion release of inhaled AgNPs in the lung. These observations have important implications for predicting the potential reactivity of AgNPs in the lung and the environment. PMID:23988335

  20. Conformational Stability of the NH2-Terminal Propeptide of the Precursor of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Bañares-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Assembly of pulmonary surfactant lipid-protein complexes depends on conformational changes coupled with proteolytic maturation of proSP-B, the precursor of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B, along the surfactant biogenesis pathway in pneumocytes. Conformational destabilization of the N-terminal propeptide of proSP-B (SP-BN triggers exposure of the mature SP-B domain for insertion into surfactant lipids. We have studied the conformational stability during GdmCl- or urea-promoted unfolding of SP-BN with trp fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. Binding of the intermediate states to bis-ANS suggests their molten globule-like character. ΔG0H2O was ~ 12.7 kJ·mol-1 either with urea or GdmCl. None of the thermal transitions of SP-BN detected by CD correspond to protein unfolding. Differential scanning calorimetry of SP-BN evidenced two endothermic peaks involved in oligomer dissociation as confirmed with 2 M urea. Ionic strength was relevant since at 150 mM NaCl, the process originating the endotherm at the highest temperature was irreversible (Tm2 = 108.5°C with an activation energy of 703.8 kJ·mol-1. At 500 mM NaCl the process became reversible (Tm2 = 114.4°C and data were fitted to the Non-two States model with two subpeaks. No free thiols in the propeptide could be titrated by DTNB with or without 5.7 M GdmCl, indicating disulfide bonds establishment.

  1. Dense pulmonary opacification in neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Cornish, J.D.; Null, D.M.


    Chest radiographic findings in three neonates with respiratory failure secondary to meconium aspiration treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are described. The degree of pulmonary opacification on the chest radiographs failed to correlate with the patients' clinical status as measured by the arterial oxygen levels but correlated well with the peak airway pressure (PAP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) settings on the mechanical ventilator. Because a variable portion of the arterial blood oxygenation is performed by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and unusually large fluctuations in airway pressure settings can occur in these patients while on ECMO, it is important to realize that the chest radiography may not be an accurate predictor of the patients' clinical status.

  2. Dense pulmonary opacification in neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Cornish, J.D.; Null, D.M.


    Chest radiographic findings in three neonates with respiratory failure secondary to meconium aspiration treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are described. The degree of pulmonary opacification on the chest radiographs failed to correlate with the patients' clinical status as measured by the arterial oxygen levels but correlated well with the peak airway pressure (PAP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) settings on the mechanical ventilator. Because a variable portion of the arterial blood oxygenation is performed by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and unusually large fluctuations in airway pressure settings can occur in these patients while on ECMO, it is important to realize that the chest radiography may not be an accurate predictor of the patients' clinical status. (orig.)

  3. Effect of SP-C on surface potential distribution in pulmonary surfactant: Atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hane, Francis; Moores, Brad; Amrein, Matthias; Leonenko, Zoya


    The air-lung interface is covered by a molecular film of pulmonary surfactant (PS). The major function of the film is to reduce the surface tension of the lung's air-liquid interface, providing stability to the alveolar structure and reducing the work of breathing. Earlier we have shown that function of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) is related to the specific molecular architecture of surfactant films. Defined molecular arrangement of the lipids and proteins of the surfactant film also give rise to a local highly variable electrical surface potential of the interface. In this work we investigated a simple model of artificial lung surfactant consisting of DPPC, eggPG, and surfactant protein C (SP-C). Effects of surface compression and the presence of SP-C on the monolayer structure and surface potential distribution were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We show that topography and locally variable surface potential of DPPC-eggPG lipid mixture are similar to those of pulmonary surfactant BLES in the presence of SP-C and differ in surface potential when SP-C is absent.

  4. Inhibition of pulmonary surfactant adsorption by serum and the mechanisms of reversal by hydrophilic polymers: theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Alig, T F; Alonso, Coralie


    . The depletion force increases with polymer concentration as well as with polymer molecular weight. Increasing the surfactant concentration has a much smaller effect than adding polymer, as is observed. Natural hydrophilic polymers, like the SP-A present in native surfactant, or hyaluronan, normally present...... with the observations reported in the companion article (pages 1769-1779). Adding nonadsorbing, hydrophilic polymers to the subphase provides a depletion attraction between the surfactant aggregates and the interface, which can overcome the steric and electrostatic resistance to adsorption induced by serum...

  5. Interaction of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C with interfacial phospholipid films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Inés; Keough, Kevin M W; Perez-Gil, Jesus


    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C is a 35-residue polypeptide composed of a hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helix and a polycationic, palmitoylated-cysteine containing N-terminal segment. This segment is likely the only structural motif the protein projects out of the bilayer in which SP-C is ins......Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C is a 35-residue polypeptide composed of a hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helix and a polycationic, palmitoylated-cysteine containing N-terminal segment. This segment is likely the only structural motif the protein projects out of the bilayer in which SP...... or anionic phospholipid monolayers. The peptide expands the pi-A compression isotherms of interfacial phospholipid/peptide films, and perturbs the lipid packing of phospholipid films during compression-driven liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed lateral transitions, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy....... These results demonstrate that the sequence of the SP-C N-terminal region has intrinsic ability to interact with, insert into, and perturb the structure of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid films, even in the absence of the palmitic chains attached to this segment in the native protein. This effect has been...

  6. New gluconamide-type cationic surfactants: Interactions with DNA and lipid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Misiak, P.; Wilk, K. A.; Kral, Teresa; Wozniak, E.; Pruchnik, H.; Frackowiak, R.; Hof, Martin; Rózycka-Roszak, B.

    180-181, OCT-NOV (2013), s. 44-54 ISSN 0301-4622 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Glucose-derived surfactant * Soft surfactant * Cationic surfactant Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2013

  7. [Clinical effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of neonatal severe meconium aspiration syndrome complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage]. (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lin, Xin-Zhu; Zheng, Zhi


    To study the clinical effect and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of neonatal severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) complicated by neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH). A total of 48 children with severe MAS complicated by NPH were enrolled, and a retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical effects of HFOV+PS (trial group, 25 children) and HFOV alone (control group, 23 children). The blood gas parameters, oxygenation index (OI), PaO 2 /FiO 2 (P/F) value, duration of pulmonary hemorrhage, ventilation time, length of hospital stay, incidence of complications, and outcome were compared between the two groups. At 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after treatment, the trial group had significantly better PaO 2 , OI, and P/F value than the control group (Phemorrhage (P0.05). HFOV combined with PS can better improve oxygenation function and shorten the duration of NPH and ventilation time. Meanwhile, it does not increase the incidence of adverse events. Therefore, it is a safe and effective therapy.

  8. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung. (United States)

    Abdullah, Mahdi; Goldmann, Torsten


    Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of alveolar epithelial cells type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung.

  9. Surface activity of pulmonary surfactant protein B : from biophysical properties to clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemel, Robert Victor


    The global aim of our studies was to obtain more information about the mechanisms involved in the action of the hydrophobic surfactant components, with a special attention for SP-B. To reach this goal, many different assays and devices were used, including a pressure driven captive bubble

  10. Depth profiles of pulmonary surfactant protein B in phosphatidylcholine bilayers, studied by fluorescence and electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, A; Casals, C; Plasencia, I


    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) has been isolated from porcine lungs and reconstituted in bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) to characterize the extent of insertion of the protein into phospholipid bilayers. The parameters...... for the interaction of SP-B with DPPC or PC using different reconstitution protocols have been estimated from the changes induced in the fluorescence emission spectrum of the single protein tryptophan. All the different reconstituted SP-B-phospholipid preparations studied had similar Kd values for the binding...... that there are significant differences in the extent of insertion of the protein, depending on the method of reconstitution. SP-B reconstituted from lipid/protein mixtures in organic solvents is inserted more deeply in PC or DPPC bilayers than the protein reconstituted by addition to preformed phospholipid vesicles...

  11. Influence of Natural Lung Surfactant Inhalations on Clinical Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Parameters in Patients with Bronchial Asthma. Communication 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Stepanova


    Full Text Available Background: Damage to lung surfactant (LS enabling the lung local immunity may contribute to the development of bronchial inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods and Results: A 40-day course of 16 LS (Surfactant-BL inhalations at the dose of 25mg was added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short/long-acting bronchodilators or combined inhalers in 14 patients with bronchial asthma. After 7 inhalations, patients demonstrated a significant decrease in shortness of breath and bronchospasm attacks, double reduction of ICS dose (p=0.01, and improvement of pulmonary function. Forced vital capacity (FVC increases during treatment in a linear fashion (y=62.9+5.60•x; p<0.05, reaching the normal level (80% after 9 inhalations (Day 15. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1 increases in a linear fashion (y=50.7+4.15•x; p<0.05 without reaching the normal level (80% after 16 inhalations (Day 41. The FEV1/FVC ratio does not change significantly in the time period between Day 1 to Day 15. By Day 41 the value decreases significantly to 67.4±4.66% (p<0.05. The peak expiratory flow (PEF parameter increases in a linear fashion (y=53.9+5.00•x; p<0.01 from 57.7±6.33% to 76.2±9.33% of the predicted value. Conclusion: LS inhalations improve the condition of patients with BA, allow ICS dose reduction by 2 times, and improve pulmonary function parameters.

  12. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants. (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui


    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Quantitation of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in the absence or presence of phospholipids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oviedo, J M; Valiño, F; Plasencia, I


    We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses polyclonal or monoclonal anti-surfactant protein SP-B antibodies to quantitate purified SP-B in chloroform/methanol and in chloroform/methanol extracts of whole pulmonary surfactant at nanogram levels. This method has been...... used to explore the effect of the presence of different phospholipids on the immunoreactivity of SP-B. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies produced reproducible ELISA calibration curves for methanolic SP-B solutions with protein concentrations in the range of 20-1000 ng/mL. At these protein...

  14. Development, optimization and evaluation of surfactant-based pulmonary nanolipid carrier system of paclitaxel for the management of drug resistance lung cancer using Box-Behnken design. (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Murthy, R S Rayasa; Goyal, Amit K


    In the present study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) along with various surfactants loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared by an emulsification technique using a Box-Behnken design. The Box-Behnken design indicated that the most effective factors on the size and PDI were at high surfactant concentration (1.5%), low lipids ratio (6:4) and medium homogenization speed (6000 rpm). Among all the formulations, Tween 20-loaded NLCs show least particle size compared to Tween 80 and Tween 60. Entrapment efficiency of Tween 20, Tween 80 and Tween 60-loaded formulations were 82.40, 85.60 and 79.78%, respectively. Drug release of Tween 80, Tween 20 and Tween 60-loaded NLCs is 64.9, 62.3 and 59.7%, respectively (within 72 h). Maximum cellular uptake was observed with Tween 20 formulation on Caco-2 cell lines. Furthermore, spray drying of resultant NLCs was showed good flow properties and was selected for drug delivery to deeper airways. In-vivo studies demonstrated the better localization of drug within the lungs using different surfactant-based pulmonary delivery systems. From this study, we have concluded that delivering drugs through pulmonary route is advantageous for local action in lungs as maximum amount of drug concentration was observed in lungs. The surfactants could prove to be beneficial in treating drug resistance lung cancer by inhibiting P-gp efflux in the form of nano lipidic carriers.

  15. Asymmetric membranes for destabilization of oil droplets in produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding (United States)

    Ramlee, Azierah; Chiam, Chel-Ken; Sarbatly, Rosalam


    This work presents a study of destabilization of oil droplets in the produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding by using four types of laboratory-fabricated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The PVDF membranes were fabricated via immersion precipitation method with ethanol (0 - 30 %, v/v) as the coagulant. The membranes with the effective area of 17.35 cm2 were tested with synthesized ASP solution as the feed in cross-flow microfiltration process. The ASP feed solution initially contained the oil droplets with radius ranged from 40 to 100 nm and the mean radius was 61 nm. Results have shown that the concentration of the ethanol in the coagulation bath affects the formation of the membrane structure and the corresponding porosity, while no significance influence on the membrane thickness. Coalescence of the oil droplets was occurred when the ASP solution permeated through the asymmetric PVDF membranes. Through the coalescence process, the oil droplets were destabilized where the radius of the oil droplets in the permeates increased to 1.5-4 µm with the corresponding mean radius ranged from 2.4 to 2.7 µm.

  16. Intravenous anti-MRSA phosphatiosomes mediate enhanced affinity to pulmonary surfactants for effective treatment of infectious pneumonia. (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Yun; Sung, Calvin T; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Han; Hu, Kai-Yin; Fang, Jia-You


    The aim of this study was to develop PEGylated phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich nanovesicles (phosphatiosomes) carrying ciprofloxacin (CIPX) for lung targeting to eradicate extracellular and intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Soyaethyl morphonium ethosulfate (SME) was intercalated in the nanovesicle surface with the dual goals of achieving strengthened bactericidal activity of CIPX-loaded phosphatiosomes and delivery to the lungs. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results proved the strong association of SME phosphatiosomes with pulmonary surfactant. We demonstrated a superior anti-MRSA activity of SME phosphatiosomes compared to plain phosphatiosomes and to free CIPX. A synergistic effect of CIPX and SME nanocarriers was found in the biofilm eradication. SME phosphatiosomes were readily engulfed by the macrophages, restricting the intracellular MRSA count by 1-2 log units. SME phosphatiosomes efficiently accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection. In a rat model of lung infection, the MRSA burden in the lungs could be decreased by 8-fold after SME nanosystem application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Pathophysiological Effects of Intratracheal Instillation of Budesonide and Exogenous Surfactant in a Neonatal Surfactant-depleted Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yang


    Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of surfactant or surfactant plus budesonide can improve oxygenation and pulmonary histologic outcome in neonatal surfactant-depleted lungs. The additional use of budesonide does not disturb the function of the exogenous surfactant. Intratracheal administration of a corticosteroid combined with surfactant may be an effective method for alleviating local pulmonary inflammation in severe RDS.

  18. Membranous Septal Aneurysm: An Unusual Case for Sub-Pulmonary Obstruction in cTGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Isik


    Full Text Available Aneurysm of the membranous portion of the interventricular septum is an uncommon congenital cardiac malformation that is rarely diagnosed during life. Perimembranous ventricular septal defects are the most common type of the ventricular septal defects and originates from morphologically membranous interventricular septum. Surgical exposure and accurate closure of a ventricular septal defect with a membranous septal aneurysm beneath the tricuspid septal leaflet carries a risk of tricuspid valve insufficiency and conduction disturbances. The current study presents a case with membranous septal aneursym with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries and sub-pulmonary obstruction, which was surgically corrected.

  19. The Effect of Surfactant and Compatibilizer on Inorganic Loading and Properties of PPO-based EPMM Membranes (United States)

    Bissadi, Golnaz

    Hybrid membranes represent a promising alternative to the limitations of organic and inorganic materials for high productivity and selectivity gas separation membranes. In this study, the previously developed concept of emulsion-polymerized mixed matrix (EPMM) membranes was further advanced by investigating the effects of surfactant and compatibilizer on inorganic loading in poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based EPMM membranes, in which inorganic part of the membranes originated from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The polymerization of TEOS, which consists of hydrolysis of TEOS and condensation of the hydrolyzed TEOS, was carried out as (i) one- and (ii) two-step processes. In the one-step process, the hydrolysis and condensation take place in the same environment of a weak acid provided by the aqueous solution of aluminum hydroxonitrate and sodium carbonate. In the two-step process, the hydrolysis takes place in the environment of a strong acid (solution of hydrochloric acid), whereas the condensation takes place in weak base environment obtained by adding excess of the ammonium hydroxide solution to the acidic solution of the hydrolyzed TEOS. For both one- and two-step processes, the emulsion polymerization of TEOS was carried out in two types of emulsions made of (i) pure trichloroethylene (TCE) solvent, and (ii) 10 w/v% solution of PPO in TCE, using different combinations of the compatibilizer (ethanol) and the surfactant (n-octanol). The experiments with pure TCE, which are referred to as a gravimetric powder method (GPM) allowed assessing the effect of different experimental parameters on the conversion of TEOS. The GPM tests also provided a guide for the synthesis of casting emulsions containing PPO, from which the EPMM membranes were prepared using a spin coating technique. The synthesized EPMM membranes were characterized using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma mass

  20. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rats with oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema and effect of exogenous pulmonary surfactant on its De Novo synthesis. (United States)

    Gao, Xiwen; Qian, Peiyu; Cen, Dong; Hong, Weijun; Peng, Qing; Xue, Min


    In mammals, oleic acid (OA) induces pulmonary edema (PE), which can initiate acute lung injury (ALI) and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary surfactant (PS) plays a key role in a broad range of treatments for ARDS. The aim of the present investigation was to assess changes in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from choline and determine the effect of exogenous PS on its de novo synthesis in rats with OA-induced PE. Experimental rats were randomized into three groups, including a control group, OA-induced PE group, and OA-induced group treated with exogenous PS (OA-PS). Twenty-four rats were sacrificed 4 h after induction of the OA model, and tissue was examined by light and electron microscopy to assess the severity of ALI using an established scoring system at the end of the experiment. After 15 μCi 3H-choline chloride was injected intravenously, eight rats in each group were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 16 h. The radioactivity of 3H incorporated into total phospholipid (TPL) and desaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue (LT) using a liquid scintillation counter and was expressed as counts per minute (CPM). Results showed that TPL, DSPC, and the ratio of DSPC/total protein (TP) in lung tissue decreased 4 h after challenge with OA, but the levels recovered after 8 and 16 h. At 8 h after injection, 3H-TPL and 3H-DSPC radioactivity in the lungs reached its peak. Importantly, 3H-DSPC CPM were significantly lower in the PS treatment group (LT: Control: 62327 ± 9108; OA-PE: 97315 ± 10083; OA-PS: 45127 ± 10034, P exogenous PS treatments may adversely affect endogenous de novo synthetic and secretory phospholipid pathways via feedback inhibition. This novel finding reveals the specific involvement of exogenous PS in endogenous synthetic and secretory phospholipid pathways during the treatment of ARDS. This information improves our understanding of how PS treatment is

  1. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland


    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  2. A moving boundary problem and orthogonal collocation in solving a dynamic liquid surfactant membrane model including osmosis and breakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Biscaia Junior


    Full Text Available A dynamic kinetic-diffusive model for the extraction of metallic ions from aqueous liquors using liquid surfactant membranes is proposed. The model incorporates undesirable intrinsic phenomena such as swelling and breakage of the emulsion globules that have to be controlled during process operation. These phenomena change the spatial location of the chemical reaction during the course of extraction, resulting in a transient moving boundary problem. The orthogonal collocation method was used to transform the partial differential equations into an ordinary differential equation set that was solved by an implicit numerical routine. The model was found to be numerically stable and reliable in predicting the behaviour of zinc extraction with acidic extractant for long residence times.

  3. Changes in outer membrane proteins of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, K.; van Alphen, L.; Eijk, P. P.; Jansen, H. M.; Zanen, H. C.


    Five individual colonies of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from each of one to three cultures of sputum collected from 18 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The isolates were studied to investigate whether the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) changed during

  4. Use of dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering to characterize new surfactants in solution conditions for membrane-protein crystallization (United States)

    Dahani, Mohamed; Barret, Laurie-Anne; Raynal, Simon; Jungas, Colette; Pernot, Pétra; Polidori, Ange; Bonneté, Françoise


    The structural and interactive properties of two novel hemifluorinated surfactants, F2H9-β-M and F4H5-β-M, the syntheses of which were based on the structure and hydrophobicity of the well known dodecyl-β-maltoside (DD-β-M), are described. The shape of their micellar assemblies was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and their intermicellar inter­actions in crystallizing conditions were measured by dynamic light scattering. Such information is essential for surfactant phase-diagram determination and membrane-protein crystallization. PMID:26144228

  5. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.


    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  6. Surfactant-Assisted Perovskite Nanofillers Incorporated in Quaternized Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Composite Membrane as an Effective Hydroxide-Conducting Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Perovskite LaFeO3 nanofillers (0.1% are incorporated into a quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol (QPVA matrix for use as hydroxide-conducting membranes in direct alkaline methanol fuel cells (DAMFCs. The as-synthesized LaFeO3 nanofillers are amorphous and functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB surfactant. The annealed LaFeO3 nanofillers are crystalline without CTAB. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite membrane shows a defect-free structure while the QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 film has voids at the interfaces between the soft polymer and rigid nanofillers. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite has lower methanol permeability and higher ionic conductivity than the pure QPVA and QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 films. We suggest that the CTAB-coated LaFeO3 provides three functions to the polymeric composite: increasing polymer free volume, ammonium group contributor, and plasticizer to enhance the interfacial compatibility. The composite containing CTAB-coated LaFeO3 results in superior cell performance. A maximum power density of 272 mW cm−2 is achieved, which is among the highest power outputs reported for DAMFCs in the literature.

  7. Surface and permeability properties of membranes from polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte surfactant complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, H. H.; Lukáš, Jaromír; Richau, K.


    Roč. 218, 1-2 (2003), s. 1-9 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex membranes * pervaporation * dehydration of organics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2003

  8. Localization of surfactant protein-D in the rheumatoid synovial membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Junker, Kirsten


    and subsequently prepared for immunohistochemistry. In this first, small-scale comparative study on the occurrence of SP-D in the synovial membrane of RA and OA, we report that SP-D was only present in the microvascular endothelium in subsynovial and pannus tissue and that the immunostaining was much stronger than...

  9. Central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requiring pulmonary arterial venting after near-drowning. (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Osamu; Fujimoto, Yoshifumi; Murakami, Arata; Shindo, Takahiro; Kashiwa, Koichi; Ono, Minoru


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective respiratory and circulatory support in patients in refractory cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. Peripheral ECMO sometimes requires left heart drainage; however, few reports state that pulmonary arterial (PA) venting is required during ECMO support. We present a case of a 14-year-old boy who required PA venting during ECMO support after resuscitation from near-drowning in freshwater. A biventricular assist device with an oxygenator implantation was intended on day 1; however, we were unable to proceed because of increasing of pulmonary vascular resistance from the acute lung injury. Central ECMO with PA venting was then performed. On day 13, central ECMO was converted to biventricular assist device with an oxygenator, which was removed on day 16. This case suggests that PA venting during ECMO support may be necessary in some cases of respiratory and circulatory failure with high pulmonary vascular resistance after near-drowning.

  10. Confinement of a nonionic surfactant membrane within a montmorillonite as a new way to prepare organoclay materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Regis, E-mail: [Universite d' Orleans (France); Giovanela, Marcelo [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil)


    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a hybrid layered material (organoclay) with a Na-montmorillonite and the triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether (C{sub 10}E{sub 3} ) nonionic surfactant which forms a lamellar phase at room temperature. The synthesized organoclay was characterized by complementary techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction). Experiments in conjunction with electron density analysis showed that a bilayer or membrane of C{sub 10}E{sub 3} was intercalated within the interlayer space of a naturally exchanged Na-montmorillonite. The intercalation of a bilayer of C{sub 10}E{sub 3} in a clay mineral offers new perspectives for the manufacturing of nanomaterials. While showing a hydrophobic surface and a large interlayer space value, the resulting organoclay preserves the compensating cations within the interlayer space allowing one to perform ion exchanges, making easier the intercalation of further organic molecules of important size with functional properties or for environmental purposes. (author)

  11. Intestinal surfactant permeation enhancers and their interaction with enterocyte cell membranes in a mucosal explant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H


    Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are agents aimed to improve oral delivery of therapeutic drugs with poor bioavailability. The main permeability barrier for oral delivery is the intestinal epithelium, and PEs act to increase the paracellular and/or transcellular passage of drugs. Transcellular...... for the fluorescent polar tracer lucifer yellow, but surprisingly, they all also blocked both constitutive -and receptor-mediated pathways of endocytosis from the brush border, indicating a complete arrest of apical membrane trafficking. At the ultrastructural level, the PEs caused longitudinal fusion of brush border...

  12. Intrinsic structural differences in the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Rivas, L; Casals, C


    Predictive studies suggest that the known sequences of the N-terminal segment of surfactant protein SP-C from animal species have an intrinsic tendency to form beta-turns, but there are important differences on the probable location of these motifs in different SP-C species. Our hypothesis...

  13. Use of marker ion and cationic surfactant plastic membrane electrode for potentiometric titration of cationic polyelectrolytes. (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Imato, Toshihiko


    A plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode sensitive to stearyltrimethylammonium (STA) ion is applied to the determination of cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (Cat-floc) by potentiometric titration, using a potassium poly (vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) solution as a titrant. The end-point of the titration is detected as the potential change of the plasticized PVC membrane electrode caused by decrease in the concentration of STA ion added to the sample solution as a marker ion due to the ion association reaction between the STA ion and PVSK. The effects of the concentration of STA ion, coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution and pH of the sample on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of cationic polyelectrolyte and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2x10(-5) to 4x10(-4) N for Cat-floc, glycol chitosan, and methylglycol chitosan.

  14. Molecular dynamics of surfactant protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Eunice; Santana, Alberto; Cruz, Anthony


    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a membrane-associated protein essential for normal respiration. It has been found that the alpha-helix form of SP-C can undergo, under certain conditions, a transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand conformation that closely resembles amyloid fibrils, which...... are possible contributors to the pathogenesis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Molecular dynamics simulations using the NAMD2 package were performed for systems containing from one to seven SP-C molecules to study their behavior in water. The results of our simulations show that unfolding of the protein...

  15. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök


    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  16. Surfactant-free purification of membrane protein complexes from bacteria: application to the staphylococcal penicillin-binding protein complex PBP2/PBP2a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Sarah; Rosado, Helena; Taylor, Peter W; Jamshad, Mohammed; Dafforn, Timothy R; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Galley, Nicola F; Roper, David I


    Surfactant-mediated removal of proteins from biomembranes invariably results in partial or complete loss of function and disassembly of multi-protein complexes. We determined the capacity of styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to remove components of the cell division machinery from the membrane of drug-resistant staphylococcal cells. SMA-lipid nanoparticles solubilized FtsZ-PBP2-PBP2a complexes from intact cells, demonstrating the close physical proximity of these proteins within the lipid bilayer. Exposure of bacteria to (-)-epicatechin gallate, a polyphenolic agent that abolishes β-lactam resistance in staphylococci, disrupted the association between PBP2 and PBP2a. Thus, SMA purification provides a means to remove native integral membrane protein assemblages with minimal physical disruption and shows promise as a tool for the interrogation of molecular aspects of bacterial membrane protein structure and function. (paper)

  17. Surfactant-free purification of membrane protein complexes from bacteria: application to the staphylococcal penicillin-binding protein complex PBP2/PBP2a (United States)

    Paulin, Sarah; Jamshad, Mohammed; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J.; Galley, Nicola F.; Roper, David I.; Rosado, Helena; Taylor, Peter W.


    Surfactant-mediated removal of proteins from biomembranes invariably results in partial or complete loss of function and disassembly of multi-protein complexes. We determined the capacity of styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to remove components of the cell division machinery from the membrane of drug-resistant staphylococcal cells. SMA-lipid nanoparticles solubilized FtsZ-PBP2-PBP2a complexes from intact cells, demonstrating the close physical proximity of these proteins within the lipid bilayer. Exposure of bacteria to (-)-epicatechin gallate, a polyphenolic agent that abolishes β-lactam resistance in staphylococci, disrupted the association between PBP2 and PBP2a. Thus, SMA purification provides a means to remove native integral membrane protein assemblages with minimal physical disruption and shows promise as a tool for the interrogation of molecular aspects of bacterial membrane protein structure and function.

  18. The Molecular Era of Surfactant Biology


    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.


    Advances in the physiology, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of the pulmonary surfactant system transformed the clinical care and outcome of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The molecular era of surfactant biology provided genetic insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders, previously termed “idiopathic” that affect newborn infants, children and adults. Knowledge related to the structure and function of the surfactant proteins and their roles in alveolar ...

  19. Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-D opsonises carbon nanotubes and augments their phagocytosis and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pondman, K.M.; Paudyal, Basudey; Sim, Robert B.; Kaur, Anuvinder; Kouser, Lubna; Tsolaki, Anthony G.; Jones, Lucy A.; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Khan, Haseeb A.; ten Haken, Bernard; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Kishore, Uday


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly being developed for use in biomedical applications, including drug delivery. One of the most promising applications under evaluation is in treating pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis. Once inhaled or administered, the nanoparticles are likely to be

  20. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino


    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  1. Influencia del reclutamiento alveolar sobre los efectos del surfactante exógeno Influence of pulmonary recruitment on exogenous surfactant effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor R. Herrera


    response to exogenous surfactant administration and the effects of baseline pulmonary volume subsequently used in 20 adult albino rats. Lung-injury was induced by repeated lavages with saline solution. Gas exchange, hemodynamic status, lung mechanics and histopathology were assessed. The rats were divided into four experimental groups. Group 1 was delivered 30 cmH2O sustained insufflation over 15 seconds prior to the surfactant. It was subsequently ventilated at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 10 cm H2O. Group 2 did not receive sustained insufflation and was ventilated at PEEP of 10 cm H2O. Group 3 was delivered sustained insufflation and was ventilated with PEEP of 4 cm H2O; and group 4 did not receive sustained insufflation and was ventilated with PEEP of 4 cm H2O. The surfactant immediate effect was not modified by previous sustained insufflation administration. Increased PaO2 associated to high functional residual capacity (FRC (Group 1 p=0.0001; Group 2 p=0.0001, regardless of sustained insufflation, was observed. The use of sustained insufflation prior to surfactant administration along with high FRC ventilation was associated with polymorphonuclear infiltrates beneath the bronchiolar epithelium (p=0.008. Our results do not advocate the use of sustained insufflation prior to the administration of exogenous surfactant.

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO as salvage treatment for pulmonary Echinococcus granulosus infection with acute cyst rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören L. Becker


    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to severe infections. Although rare, parasites can also cause severe pulmonary disease. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus give rise to the development of cystic structures in the liver, lungs, and other organs. Acute cyst rupture leads to potentially life-threatening infection, and affected patients may deteriorate rapidly. The case of a young woman from Bulgaria who was admitted to hospital with severe dyspnoea, progressive chest pain, and haemoptysis is described. Computed tomography of the chest was pathognomonic for cystic echinococcosis with acute cyst rupture. Following deterioration on mechanical ventilation, she was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. The patient’s condition improved considerably, and she was weaned successfully from ECMO and mechanical ventilation. Following lobectomy of the affected left lower lobe, the patient was discharged home in good condition. This appears to be the first report of the successful use of ECMO as salvage treatment for a severe manifestation of a helminthic disease. Due to recent migration to Western Europe, the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure due to pulmonary echinococcosis with cyst rupture is likely to increase. Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, Infection, Echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid disease, Infection

  3. Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W


    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Arndt Petermann,2 Aikaterini Visouli,3 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Kaid Darwiche,5 Ioanna Kougioumtzi,6 Kosmas Tsakiridis,3 Nikolaos Machairiotis,6 Markus Ketteler,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Division of Nephrology, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 3Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 6Surgery Department (National Health System, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s disease. We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO

  4. Modulation pf pulmonary surfactant secretion from alveolar type II cells by cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]/sub i/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, K.; Voelker, D.R.; Mason, R.J.


    Ca 2+ is regulator of a variety of cellular functions including exocytosis. TPA and terbutaline have been shown to stimulate surfactant secretion from alveolar type II cells. The authors examined changes in [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ and surfactant secretion by secretagogues in primary culture of alveolar type II cells. Cells were isolated from adult rats and were cultured for 24 h with 3 H-choline to label phosphatidylcholine. Percent secretion was determined by counting the lipids of cells and medium; cytotoxicity was excluded by measuring lactate dehydrogenase as cells and medium. [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ was determined by measuring quin2 fluroescence of cells cultured on a glass coverslip. Ionomycin increased secretion as well as [Ca 2+ ] in dose dependent manner at the concentration from 25 to 400 nM. Ionomycin (50 nM) increased terbutaline-induced secretion in a synergistic manner but only increased TPA-induced secretion in an additive manner. Terbutaline mobilized [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ from intracellular stores and increased [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ by 20% from a basal level of 140 nM. TPA itself did not change [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ but inhibited the effect of terbutaline on [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/. Loading of quin2 in the absence of extracellular calcium lowered [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ from 143 nM to 31 nM. Lowering [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ inhibited TPA- or terbutaline-induced secretion by 22% and 40% respectively. These results indicate that [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ effects cAMp-induced secretion more than protein kinase C-mediated secretion in alveolar type II cells

  5. Serum and sputum surfactants -A and -D in multidrug-resistant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal production and function of surfactants are associated with pulmonary diseases. Also, pulmonary infections alter surfactant metabolism. Due to lack of information on the levels of surfactants A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) in Nigerian tuberculosis (TB) patients, this study assessed these surfactants in both sputum and ...

  6. Expression, stabilization and purification of membrane proteins via diverse protein synthesis systems and detergents involving cell-free associated with self-assembly peptide surfactants. (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Dong, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Jie; Li, Duanhua; Li, Feng; Luo, Zhongli


    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in regulating most of physiological actions and metabolism in the bodies, which have become most frequently addressed therapeutic targets for various disorders and diseases. Purified GPCR-based drug discoveries have become routine that approaches to structural study, novel biophysical and biochemical function analyses. However, several bottlenecks that GPCR-directed drugs need to conquer the problems including overexpression, solubilization, and purification as well as stabilization. The breakthroughs are to obtain efficient protein yield and stabilize their functional conformation which are both urgently requiring of effective protein synthesis system methods and optimal surfactants. Cell-free protein synthesis system is superior to the high yields and post-translation modifications, and early signs of self-assembly peptide detergents also emerged to superiority in purification of membrane proteins. We herein focus several predominant protein synthesis systems and surfactants involving the novel peptide detergents, and uncover the advantages of cell-free protein synthesis system with self-assembling peptide detergents in purification of functional GPCRs. This review is useful to further study in membrane proteins as well as the new drug exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; End, Caroline; Renner, Marcus


    BACKGROUND: Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome...

  8. [Techniques and complementary techniques. Complementary treatments: nitric oxide, prone positioning and surfactant]. (United States)

    Martos Sánchez, I; Vázquez Martínez, J L; Otheo de Tejada, E; Ros, P


    The management of hypoxic respiratory failure is based on oxygen delivery and ventilatory support with lung-protective ventilation strategies. Better understanding of acute lung injury have led to new therapeutic approaches that can modify the outcome of these patients. These adjunctive oxygenation strategies include inhaled nitric oxide and surfactant delivery, and the use of prone positioning. Nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that when inhaled, improves oxygenation in clinical situations such as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When applied early in ARDS, prone positioning improves distribution of ventilation and reduces the intrapulmonary shunt. The surfactant has dramatically decreased mortality caused by hyaline membrane disease in premature newborns, although the results have been less successful in ARDS. Greater experience is required to determine whether the combination of these treatments will improve the prognosis of these patients.

  9. Salvage intraosseous thrombolysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Cameron Northey


    Full Text Available Intraosseous access is an alternative route of pharmacotherapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO provides cardiac and respiratory support when conventional therapies fail. This case reports the use of intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO in a patient with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE. A 34-year-old female presented to the emergency department with sudden onset severe shortness of breath. Due to difficulty establishing intravenous access, an intraosseous needle was inserted into the left tibia. Echocardiography identified severe right ventricular dilatation with global systolic impairment and failure, indicative of PE. Due to the patient′s hemodynamic compromise a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase bolus was administered through the intraosseous route. After transfer to the intensive care unit, venous-arterial ECMO was initiated as further therapy. The patient recovered and was discharged 36 days after admission. This is the first report of combination intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO as salvage therapy for massive PE.

  10. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun


    of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged

  11. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  12. Analysis of the immunogenicity and stability of a porcine pulmonary surfactant preparation administered in rabbits Análise da imunogenicidade e da estabilidade do surfactante pulmonar de origem porcina administrado em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Precioso


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the immunogenicity and the stability of the porcine pulmonary surfactant preparation produced by the Instituto Butantan. METHOD: Immunogenicity assay: Sixteen New-Zealand-White rabbits (1000 g body weight were divided into 4 study groups. Each group was assigned to receive either a Butantan surfactant, b Survanta® (Abbott Laboratories, c Curosurf® (Farmalab Chiesi, or d no surfactant. The surfactants were administered intratracheally, and the animals were collected immediately before and 60 and 180 days after surfactant administration. Sera were assayed for the presence of antisurfactant antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Stability assay: The Butantan surfactant used in this assay had been stored for one year in the refrigerator (4 to 8ºC and its stability was evaluated in distinct assay conditions using a premature rabbit model. RESULTS: Immunogenicity assay: None of the surfactants analyzed triggered antibody immune responses against their components in any of the animals. Stability assay: The results of this study demonstrate that Butantan surfactant was as effective as Curosurf when both were submitted to the adverse circumstance of short- and long-term storage at room temperature. A similar level of efficacy for the Butantan surfactant, as compared to Curosurf was demonstrated by the pulmonary dynamic compliance, ventilatory pressure, and pressure-volume curve results. CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrate that Butantan surfactant may be a suitable alternative for surfactant replacement therapy.OBJETIVO: Estudar a imunogenicidade e a estabilidade do surfactante de origem porcina produzido pelo Instituto Butantan. MÉTODO: Experimento imunogenicidade: 16 coelhos da raça New-Zealand-White (Peso de 1000g foram divididos em grupos de 4 animais. Cada grupo foi designado para receber: a Surfactante do Butantan, b Survanta® (Abbott Laboratories, c Curosurf (Farmalab Chiesi e d nenhum

  13. Pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-albumin in rabbits with surfactant dysfunction and lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Wollmer, P.


    We measured the pulmonary clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-albumin in rabbits with surfacant dysfunction induced by dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate and in rabbits with lung injury induced by oleic acid. After inhalation of 99m Tc-albumin in ten animals, clearance of the tracer from the lungs was monitored for 90 min. The first 30 min was a control period. Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate was then administered in aerosol and after another 30 min oleic acid was injected intravenously. Ten other rabbits were given 99m Tc-DTPA, and clearance was externally recorded for 60 min. Five animals inhaled detergent aerosol and five animals were given oleic acid intravenously after 30 min. Airway pressures, tidal volume, and arterial blood gases were measured before and after each intervention. The half-life of 99m Tc-albumin in the lung was 442 ± 123 min during the control period, 363 ± 52 min after detergent administration, and 134 ± 18 min after oleic acid administration. The half-life of 99m Tc-DTPA was 94 ± 16 min before and 10 ± 0.6 min after detergent administration and 75 ± 12 min before and 18 ± 1.8 min after oleic acid administration. Gas exchange was not affected by administration of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate but markedly impaired after injection of oleic acid. Compliance of the respiratory system remained unaffected by detergent but decreased after injection of oleic acid. The results indicate that the rate limiting factors for the alveolo-capillary transfer of 99m Tc-albumin and 99m Tc-DTPA are different. Surfactant dysfunction affects the transfer of 99m Tc-DTPA but not 99m Tc-albumin. (author)

  14. In reply to: "Intra-aortic balloon pump protects against hydrostatic pulmonary oedema during peripheral venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation". (United States)

    Privratsky, Jamie R; Diaz, Sebastian; Nicoara, Alina; Daneshmand, Mani A


    Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an increasingly utilized life-saving measure. However, left-ventricular distention from inadequate left-ventricular off-loading can lead to unwanted pulmonary and cardiac complications. We are writing to indicate our agreement with a recent article by Brechot et al. published in the June 2017 issue where the authors demonstrated that intra-aortic balloon pump provides mechanical support to off-load the left ventricle during VA-ECMO, which prevents pulmonary edema.

  15. Effects of High-Flux versus Low-Flux Membranes on Pulmonary Function Tests in Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Momeni, Ali; Rouhi, Hamid; Kiani, Glareh; Amiri, Masoud


    Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the effects of dialysis on pulmonary function tests (PFT). Dialysis procedure may reduce lung volumes and capacities or cause hypoxia; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no previous study evaluating the effects of membrane type (high flux vs. low flux) on PFT in these patients. The aim of this study was the evaluation of this relationship. In this cross-sectional study, 43 hemodialysis patients without pulmonary disease were enrolled. In these patients dialysis was conducted by low-and high-flux membranes and before and after the procedure, spirometry was done and the results were evaluated by t-test and chi square test. The mean age of patients was 56.34 years. Twenty-three of them were female (53.5%). Type of membrane (high flux vs. low flux) had no effect on spirometry results of patients despite the significant decrease in the body weight during the dialysis session. High flux membrane had no advantage over low flux membrane in terms of improvement in spirometry findings; thus, we could not offer these expensive membranes for this purpose.

  16. [Determination of Trace Lead in Water by UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Combined with Surfactant and Membrane Filtration-Enrichment]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-fang; Zhu, Bi-lin; Li, Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ting; Du, Yi-ping


    In this paper, a method of determination of trace lead in water by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combined with surfactant and membrane filtration enrichment was proposed. In the NH3 x H2O-NH4Cl buffer solution with pH 8.5, the lead(II) ion would react with dithizone to form the red complex under vigorous stirring, which is hydrophobic and can be enriched by the mixed cellulose ester membrane. In addition, the nonionic surfactant Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij-30) was added into the solution to improve the enrichment efficiency, then visible diffuse reflectance spectra of the membrane were measured directly after the membrane were naturally dried. We also optimized the reaction conditions which may affect the complexation reaction process, such as type of surfactants, the concentration of the surfactant, the reaction acidity, the concentration of dithizone as well as the reaction time. The research results show that under the optimum conditions, a good linear correlation between absorbance at 485 nm and concentration of lead in the range of 5.0-100.0 microg x L(-1) was obtained with a squared correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9906, and the detection limit was estimated accordingly to be 2.88 microg x L(-1). To determine real water sample, the interference from some potential coexisting ions was also studied at the optimal conditions when the concentration of lead (II) ion standard solution was fixed to 20 microg x L(-1). The results indicate that the following ions cannot interfere in the determination of lead with the proposed method: 500 times of the K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, CH3COO-, SO4(2-); 10 times of the Al3+ (using 10% NaF as a masking reagent to avoid the interference); 10 times of the Fe3+ (using 10% NaF and 10% sodium potassium tartrate as masking reagents); 10 times of Hg2+ or Zn2+ (using 10% NaSCN and 10% potassium sodium tartrate as masking reagents); the same amount of Cd2+, Cu2+. The proposed method was applied to the

  17. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  18. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.


    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  19. Effects of High-Flux versus Low-Flux Membranes on Pulmonary Function Tests in Hemodialysis Patients


    Momeni, Ali; Rouhi, Hamid; Kiani, Glareh; Amiri, Masoud


    Background Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the effects of dialysis on pulmonary function tests (PFT). Dialysis procedure may reduce lung volumes and capacities or cause hypoxia; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no previous study evaluating the effects of membrane type (high flux vs. low flux) on PFT in these patients. The aim of this study was the evaluation of this relationship. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 43 hemodialysis patients wit...

  20. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, I.


    Roč. 7, Apr 25 (2017), č. článku 1143. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics simulations * differential scanning calorimetry * pulmonary surfactant membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 articles /s41598-017-01247-9

  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in near-drowning patients with cardiac or pulmonary failure. (United States)

    Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Jeong, Jae Han; Ko, Ho Hyun


    The aim of this study was to determine the early outcomes of using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in near-drowning patients with cardiac or pulmonary failure. This study was based on data from 9 patients including 2 children (mean age 33; 8 males, 1 female) who received ECMO after near-drowning between 2008 and 2013. Veno-arterial or veno-arteriovenous ECMO was used in 2 patients with sustained cardiac arrest and veno-venous ECMO was used in 7 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The means of the partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), Murray score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS-II) prior to ECMO were 59.7 ± 9.9 mmHg on 100% oxygen, 3.5 ± 0.6, 11.4 ± 1.9, and 73.0 ± 9.2, respectively. The PaO2 mean improved to 182 ± 152 mmHg within 2 h post-ECMO. The mean of SOFA score and SAPS-II decreased significantly to 8.6 ± 3.2 (p = 0.013) and 46.4 ± 5.1 (p = 0.008), respectively, at 24 h post-ECMO with mean flow rate of 3.9 ± 0.8 l/min. ECMO was weaned at a mean duration of 188 (range, 43-672) h in all patients. Seven patients were discharged home without neurological sequelae, while 2 patients who had hypoxic brain damage died after further referral. The overall survival with favourable neurological outcomes at 3 months was 77.8%. There were no complications related to ECMO. ECMO was safe and effective for patients with ongoing cardiac arrest or ARDS after a near-drowning incident and can be used as a resuscitative strategy in near-drowning patients with cardiac or pulmonary failure resistant to conventional ventilator therapy.

  2. Extractable substances (anionic surfactants) from membrane filters induce morphological changes in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Beekman, W.


    The effect of filtration of medium through different kinds of filters (glass fiber, mixed esters of cellulose and nitrocellulose) on the morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Several compounds potentially released from membrane filters were further investigated, and among

  3. A novel, fast responding, low noise potentiometric sensor containing a carbon-based polymeric membrane for measuring surfactants in industrial and environmental applications. (United States)

    Samardžić, Mirela; Galović, Olivera; Hajduković, Mateja; Sak-Bosnar, Milan


    A new high-sensitivity potentiometric sensor for anionic surfactants was fabricated using the dimethyldioctadecylammonium-tetraphenylborate (DDA-TPB) ion associate as an ionophore that was incorporated into a liquid PVC membrane. Carbon powder was used for immobilization of the ionophore in the membrane, thus significantly reducing its ohmic resistance and reducing its signal drift. The sensor exhibits a sub-Nernstian response for both dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and dodecyl sulfate (DS) in H 2 O (55.3 and 58.5mV/decade of activity, respectively) in a range between 3.2×10 -7 and 4.6×10 -3 M for DS and 2.5×10 -7 and 1.2×10 -3 M for DBS. The sensor also exhibited a sub-Nernstian response for DS and DBS in 10mM Na 2 SO 4 (55.4 and 57.7mV/decade of activity, respectively) between 2.5×10 -7 and 4.6×10 -3 M for DS and 1.5×10 -7 and 8.8×10 -4 M for DBS. The detection limits for DS and DBS in H 2 O were 2.5×10 -7 and 2.0×10 -7 M and in 10mM Na 2 SO 4 the detection limits were 2.5×10 -7 and 1.2×10 -7 M, respectively. The response time of the sensor was less than 5s for changes at higher concentration levels (above 1×10 -4 M) in both water and 10mM Na 2 SO 4. At lower concentrations (below 1×10 -5 M) the response times were 8 and 6s in water and 10mM Na 2 SO 4 , respectively. The signal drift of the sensor was 1.2mV/hour. The new carbon-based sensor exhibited excellent selectivity performance for DS over almost all of the anions commonly present in commercial formulations and it was successfully employed as an end-point detector in potentiometric titrations of anionic surfactants in a pH range from 3 to 12. Three-component mixtures containing sodium alkanesulfonate (C 10 , C 12 and C 14 ) were successfully differentially titrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High postoperative serum levels of surfactant type B as novel prognostic markers for congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Is?k


    Full Text Available Objective: Congenital heart diseases are observed in 5 to 8 of every 1000 live births. The presence of a valuable biomarker during the surgical periods may aid the clinician in a more accurate prognosis during treatment. Methods: For this reason, surfactant protein B plasma levels may help to evaluate patients with cardiac problems diminishing the alveolocapillary membrane stability. In this study, plasma levels of this biomarker were measured in the preoperative and postoperative periods. This study was conducted to detect the differences between pulmonary hypertensive and normotensive patients. The differences before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were examined. Results: The differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time , inotropic support dose, and duration of intensive care of patients with and without pulmonary hypertensive were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05. The results revealed that this pathophysiological state was related to other variables that were studied. We believe that the differences in preoperative and postoperative SPB levels could be attributed to alveolocapillary membrane damage and alveolar surfactant dysfunction. We found that this pathophysiological condition was significantly associated with postoperative parameters. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed that surfactant protein B was present in the blood of patients with a congenital heart disease during the preoperative period. Long by-pass times may exert damage to the alveolocapillary membrane in patients with pulmonary hypertension and preoperative heart failure, and it is recommended to keep the option of surfactant therapy in mind during the postoperative course at the intensive care unit before preparing the patients for extubation.

  5. Contrasting respirable quartz and kaolin retention of lecithin surfactant and expression of membranolytic activity following phospholipase A2 digestion. (United States)

    Wallace, W E; Keane, M J; Mike, P S; Hill, C A; Vallyathan, V; Regad, E D


    Respirable-sized quartz, a well-established fibrogenic mineral dust, is compared with kaolin in erythrocyte hemolysis assays after treatment with saline dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, a primary phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant. Both dusts are rendered inactive after treatment, but the membranolytic activity is partly to fully restored after treatment with phospholipase A2, an enzyme normally associated with cellular plasma membranes and lysosomes. Phospholipid-coated dusts were incubated for periods of 2-72 h at a series of applied enzyme concentrations, and the adsorbed lipid species and hemolytic activity were quantitated at each time for both dusts. Surfactant was lost more readily from quartz than from kaolin, with consequent more rapid restoration of mineral surface hemolytic activity for quartz. Interactions of surfactant and mineral surface functional groups responsible for the mineral-specific rate differences, and implications for determining the mineral surface bioavailability of silica and silicate dusts, are discussed.

  6. Pulmonary surfactant protein A, B, and C mRNA and protein expression in the nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuyl, Minke; Blommaart, Piet jan E.; Keijzer, Richard; Wert, Susan E.; Ruijter, Jan M.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Tibboel, Dick


    Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) suffer from a diaphragmatic defect, lung hypoplasia, and pulmonary hypertension, with poor lung function forming the major clinical challenge. Despite prenatal diagnosis and advanced postnatal treatment strategies, the mortality rate of CDH is

  7. Pulmonary infections in swine induce altered porcine surfactant protein D expression and localization to dendritic cells in bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.M.; Holmskov, U.; Aalbæk, B.


    , the absence of macrophage marker immunoreactivity and the presence of dendritic cell marker immunoreactivity. Increased expression of pSP-D in the surfactant coincided with presence of pSP-D-positive dendritic cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), indicating a possible transport of p...... and with dendritic cells in microbial-induced BALT. The function of the interaction between pSP-D and dendritic cells in BALT remain unclear, but pSP-D could represent a link between the innate and adaptive immune system, facilitating the bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells in BALT.......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that recognizes various microbial surface-specific carbohydrate and lipid patterns. In vitro data has suggested that this binding may lead to increased microbial association with macrophages and dendritic...

  8. Diagnosis and management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Bendapudi, Perraju; Rao, Gopinath Gangadhara; Greenough, Anne


    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of new born (PPHN) is associated with mortality and morbidity; it may be idiopathic or secondary to a number of conditions. The mainstay of diagnosis and to exclude structural abnormalities is echocardiography. Brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are elevated in PPHN, but are insufficiently sensitive to contribute to routine diagnosis. Management includes improving oxygenation by optimising lung volume by ventilatory techniques and/or surfactant and administering pulmonary vasodilator agents. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), a selective pulmonary vasodilator, reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in term infants; it does not, however, improve mortality or have any long term positive effects in prematurely born infants or infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Other pulmonary vasodilators have been reported in case series to be efficacious alone or in combination with iNO. Randomised trials with long term follow up are required to identify the optimum therapeutic strategies in PPHN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative and postoperatively prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides optimally controlled reperfusion and excellent outcome. (United States)

    Moser, Bernhard; Jaksch, Peter; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Muraközy, Gabriella; Lang, Georg; Hager, Helmut; Krenn, Claus; Roth, Georg; Faybik, Peter; Bacher, Andreas; Aigner, Clemens; Matilla, José R; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Hacker, Philipp; Lang, Irene; Klepetko, Walter


    Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension has the highest reported postoperative mortality of all indications. Reasons lie in the complexity of treatment of these patients and the frequent occurrence of postoperative left ventricular failure. Transplantation on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support instead of cardiopulmonary bypass and even more the prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period helps to overcome these problems. We reviewed our experience with this concept. All patients undergoing bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with or without prophylactic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prolongation into the postoperative period between January 2000 and December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Forty-one patients entered the study. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was prolonged into the postoperative period for a median of 2.5 days (range 1-40). Ninety-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for the patient collective were 92.7%, 90.2%, 87.4% and 87.4%, respectively. When compared with 31 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension transplanted in the same period of time without prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period, the results compared favourably (83.9%, 77.4%, 77.4%, and 77.4%; P = 0.189). Furthermore, these results are among the best results ever reported for this particularly difficult patient population. Bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with intraoperative venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support seems to provide superior outcome compared with the results reported about the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Prophylactic prolongation of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the early postoperative period provides

  10. Surfactant Apoprotein D in Preterm Neonates with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the production of surfactant apoprotein D in preterm neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS during artificial ventilation (AV. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the results of studying the production of surfactant protein D (SP-D in various biological fluids in 44 preterm neonates. Two groups of newborn infants were identified according to the clinical manifestations of ARDS. The study group comprised 25 infants with the severe course of the disease, in this connection the preventive administration of the exogenous surfactant Curosurf and AV were made in all the neonates at birth. The control group included 19 preterm babies without signs of ARDS. Results. The study has demonstrated that in parturients and preterm neonatal infants, surfactant apoprotein D is detectable in various biological fluids: amniotic fluid, the gastric aspirate obtained just after birth, residual umbilical cord blood, serum following 8 hours of birth, and bronchoalveolar fluid. Despite the low gestational age of the neonates, the lung surfactant system is able to produce SP-D, as evidenced by its high content in the amniotic fluid and residual umbilical cord blood of preterm neonates. The production of apoprotein D in preterm neonates considerably reduces in the next few hours after birth. Conclusion. The findings suggest that fetal tissues generate SP-D, which improves pulmonary gas exchange in preterm neonates in the first hours after birth and that alveolar-capillary membrane dysfunctions are transient in the neonates on AV. Key words: preterm neonates, acute respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant, surfactant apoprotein D.

  11. SP-A-enriched surfactant for treatment of rat lung transplants with SP-A deficiency after storage and reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Batenburg, JJ; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J


    Background. The function of pulmonary surfactant is affected by lung transplantation, contributing to impaired lung transplant function. A decreased amount of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) after reperfusion is believed to contribute to the impaired surfactant function. Surfactant treatment has been

  12. Marangoni flows induced by non-uniform surfactant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyak, M.


    The spreading dynamics of surfactants is of crucial importance for numerous technological applications ranging from printing and coating processes, pulmonary drug delivery to crude oil recovery. In the area of inkjet printing surfactants are necessary for lowering surface tension of water-based ink

  13. Contrast media inhibit exogenous surfactant therapy in rats with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesecioglu, Jozef; Haitsma, Jack J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Lachmann, Burkhard


    AIM: To test the effects of various contrast media on the pulmonary surfactant system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by lung lavage, the effects of surfactant suspended in saline were compared with surfactant suspended in the contrast

  14. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  15. Effects of early surfactant treatment persisting for one week after lung transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    We investigated whether pulmonary surfactant in rat lung transplants recovered during the first week post-transplantation, along with symptoms of the reimplantation response, and whether this recovery was affected by early surfactant treatment. The severity of pulmonary injury was varied by

  16. The N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant lipopeptide SP-C has intrinsic propensity to interact with and perturb phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Inés; Rivas, Luis; Keough, Kevin M W


    aggregation, and leakage of the aqueous content of the vesicles. The lipid-peptide interaction includes a significant hydrophobic component for both zwitterionic and anionic membranes, although the interaction with phosphatidylglycerol bilayers is also electrostatic in nature. The effects of the SP-C N......-terminal peptides on the membrane structure are mediated by significant perturbations of the packing order and mobility of phospholipid acyl chain segments deep in the bilayer, as detected by differential scanning calorimetry and spin-label ESR. These results suggest that the N-terminal region of SP-C, even...

  17. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, G. L.; Madsen, J.; Kejling, K.


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd...

  18. Kinetics of plasma membrane electron transport in a pulmonary endothelial cell-column. (United States)

    Olson, L E; Merker, M P; Bongard, R D; Brantmeier, B M; Audi, S H; Linehan, J H; Dawson, C A


    Thiazine dyes such as toluidine blue O (TBO) are reduced at the luminal endothelial surface. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of this reaction in endothelial cells in culture. A multiple indicator dilution method was used to measure the reaction kinetics during transient passage of a TBO-containing bolus through a chromatographic column filled with bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells grown on microcarrier beads (cell-column). A bolus containing TBO and an inert extracellular reference indicator (FITC-Dextran) was injected upstream of the cell-column, and the indicator concentrations were measured downstream using on-line photodetection. The effects of column flow rate, PO2, and TBO concentration were studied. The fraction of TBO reduced upon passage through the cell-column decreased with increasing flow indicating that the reaction rate rather than TBO delivery controlled TBO reduction. The fraction of TBO reduced did not change with PO2 or dose in the ranges studied. TBO reduction was about 10 times that for steady state TBO sequestration by these cells which, along with the lack of a PO2 effect indicates that the rapid rate of reduction is not the rate-limiting step in steady state sequestration.

  19. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, R.L.


    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [ 3 H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([ 3 H]TPMP + ), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC 5 . A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na + /K + ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  20. Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iti Som


    Full Text Available Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of surfactant protein D rs2243639, Interleukin (IL)-1β rs16944 and IL-1RN rs2234663 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, healthy smokers, and non-smokers. (United States)

    Issac, Marianne Samir M; Ashur, Wafaa; Mousa, Heba


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease that involves the activity of various inflammatory cells and mediators. It has been suggested that susceptibility to COPD is, at least in part, genetically determined. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between surfactant protein D (SFTPD) rs2243639, interleukin (IL)-1β rs16944 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) rs2234663 gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility, as well as examining the association between the various IL-1RN/IL-1β haplotypes and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Secondly, we aimed to examine the influence of SFTPD rs2243639 polymorphism on serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) level. A total of 114 subjects were recruited in this study and divided into three groups: 63 COPD patients, 25 asymptomatic smokers, and 26 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed for the detection of SFTPD rs2243639 and IL-1β rs16944 polymorphisms. Detection of variable numbers of an 86-bp tandem repeat (VNTR) of IL-1RN was done using PCR. Serum SP-D level was measured using enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. PFTs were measured by spirometry. Carriers of the SFTPD AG and AA polymorphic genotypes constituted 71.4 % of COPD patients versus 48 % in asymptomatic smokers, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.049). Smokers who were carriers of the polymorphic SFTPD rs2243639 A allele (AG and AA genotypes) have a 2.708 times risk of developing COPD when compared with wild-type GG genotype carriers [odds ratio (OR) 2.708 (95 % CI 1.041-7.047)]. Forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75 % predicted was higher in IL-1RN*1/*1 when compared with *1/*2 (p = 0.013). FEF25-75 % predicted in carriers of haplotype IL-1RN *1/IL-1β T (49.21 ± 10.26) was statistically significantly higher than in carriers of IL-1RN *2/IL-1β T (39.67 ± 12.64) [p = 0

  2. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-surface glycoprotein apa as a potential adhesin to colonize target cells via the innate immune system pulmonary C-type lectin surfactant protein A. (United States)

    Ragas, Aude; Roussel, Lucie; Puzo, Germain; Rivière, Michel


    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem, and understanding the mechanism by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) invades and colonizes its host target cells remains an important issue for the control of infection. The innate immune system C-type lectins (C-TLs), including the human pulmonary surfactant protein A (PSP-A), have been recently identified as determinant players in the early recognition of the invading pathogen and in mounting the host defense response. Although the antigenic lipoglycan mannosylated lipoarabinomannan is currently considered to be the major C-TL target on the mycobacterial surface, the recognition by some C-TLs of the only mycobacterial species composing the "Mtb complex" indicates that mannosylated lipoarabinomannan cannot account alone for this specificity. Thus, we searched for the mycobacterial molecules targeted by human PSP-A, focusing our attention on the Mtb surface glycoproteins. We developed an original functional proteomic approach based on a lectin blot assay using crude human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a source of physiological PSP-A. Combined with selective cell-surface protein extraction and mass spectrometry peptide mapping, this strategy allowed us to identify the Apa (alanine- and proline-rich antigenic) glycoprotein as new potential target for PSP-A. This result was supported by direct binding of PSP-A to purified Apa. Moreover, EDTA addition or deglycosylation of purified Apa samples completely abolished the interaction, demonstrating that the interaction is calcium- and mannose-dependent, as expected. Finally, we provide convincing evidence that Apa, formerly considered as mainly secreted, is associated with the cell wall for a sufficiently long time to aid in the attachment of PSP-A. Because, to date, Apa seems to be restricted to the Mtb complex strains, we propose that it may account for the selective recognition of those strains by PSP-A and other immune system C-TLs containing homologous functional

  3. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Wu, Tzong-Jin


    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a severe pulmonary disorder which occurs one in every 500 live births. About 10–50% of the victims will die of the problem and 7–20% of the survivors develop long term impairments such as hearing deficit, chronic lung disease, and intracranial bleed. Most of the adult survivors show evidence of augmented pulmonary vasoreactivity suggesting a phenotypical change. Several animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology and help to develop new therapeutic modality for PPHN. The etiology of PPHN can be classified into three groups: [A] abnormally constricted pulmonary vasculature due to parenchymal diseases; [B] hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature; [C] normal parenchyma with remodeled pulmonary vasculature. Impaired vasorelaxation of pulmonary artery and reduced blood vessel density in lungs are two characteristic findings in PPHN. Medical treatment includes sedation, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, vasorelaxants (inhaled nitric oxide, inhaled or intravenous prostacyclin, intravenous prostaglandin E1, magnesium sulfate), and inotropic agents. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor has recently been studied as another therapeutic agent for PPHN. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibitor has been studied in animal and a case of premature infant with PPHN successfully treated with ET-I inhibitor has been reported in the literature. Surfactant has been reported as an adjunct treatment for PPHN as a complication of meconium aspiration syndrome. Even with the introduction of several new therapeutic modalities there has no significant change in survival rate. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator is used when medical treatment fails and patient is considered to have a recoverable cause of PPHN. PMID:23537863

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 403 days while waiting for a lung transplant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Umei, M.D.

    Full Text Available According to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, the average duration of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO in adults with acute respiratory failure is 10.5–13.5 days. Some patients on V-V ECMO may not recover in such a short period of time, and recently, there have been more reports of prolonged V-V ECMO. However, we do not know how long it is feasible to wait for native lung recovery or lung transplant (LTx with the use of ECMO. We describe a patient with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis supported by ECMO for 403 days while waiting for a LTx. In this case, we kept the patient awake, and he was communicating frequently with his family. We changed the membrane oxygenator 23 times and the cannula 10 times without complication. However, we terminated the treatment on day 403 of ECMO because there was no access site for cannula insertion due to blockage by a venous thrombotic occlusion, making it impossible to continue this bridge to lung transplantation. It has become possible to maintain patients on ECMO for extended periods of time, but it is difficult to manage ECMO for more than one year without the development of a more durable lung support system. Keywords: Lung transplantation, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  5. Self-Assembling Peptide Surfactants A6K and A6D Adopt a-Helical Structures Useful for Membrane Protein Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furen Zhuang


    Full Text Available Elucidation of membrane protein structures have been greatly hampered by difficulties in producing adequately large quantities of the functional protein and stabilizing them. A6D and A6K are promising solutions to the problem and have recently been used for the rapid production of membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. We propose that despite their short lengths, these peptides can adopt α-helical structures through interactions with micelles formed by the peptides themselves. These α-helices are then able to stabilize α-helical motifs which many membrane proteins contain. We also show that A6D and A6K can form β-sheets and appear as weak hydrogels at sufficiently high concentrations. Furthermore, A6D and A6K together in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS can form expected β-sheet structures via a surprising α-helical intermediate.

  6. 肺表面活性物质防治急性呼吸窘迫综合征的实验研究%Pulmonary surfactant in the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光发; 张国清; 张昱; 金先桥; 周新; 闵军


    目的探讨肺表面活性物质(pulmonary surfactant,PS)对内毒素诱发大鼠急性呼吸窘迫综合征(acute respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS)的防治作用.方法 48只健康雄性SD大鼠,手术并给予机械通气后随机分为6组:健康对照组(H组),ARDS模型组(M组),其余动物根据动脉血氧分压(PaO2)/FiO2比值分2个时期(PaO2/FiO2≤300 mm Hg早期-E、PaO2/FiO2≤200 mm Hg晚期-L)和所给猪肺PS分2个剂量(50 mg/kg、100 mg/kg),两两组合成E50、E100、L 50和L100 4组.用PS后共观察6 h.结果 M组和L 50组的PaO2和静态胸肺压力-容积(P-V)曲线肺容积均较H组明显降低(P<0.01),L100组上述指标明显高于M组(P<0.05),而E 50组和E100组PaO2和P-V曲线肺容积均较L100组进一步升高(P<0.05,P<0.01),E50组和E100组间上述指标差别不明显.支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)分析示L 50组和L100组饱和卵磷脂(DSPC)/总蛋白(TP)、TP和最小表面张力(STmin)均较M组改善(P<0.01),但STmin仍高于H组(P<0.01),E50组和E100组的BALF测值均明显优于L100组(P<0.01),且STmin接近H组.结论早期应用PS疗效明显优于晚期,且所需剂量较小,可能是防治ARDS的有效手段之一.

  7. Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange: The Effect of Surfactants (United States)

    Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.


    The purpose of the lung is to exchange gases, primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the atmosphere and the circulatory system. To enable this exchange, the airways in the lungs terminate in some 300 million alveoli that provide adequate surface area for transport. During breathing, work must be done to stretch various tissues to accommodate a greater volume of gas. Considerable work must also be done to expand the liquid lining (hypophase) that coats the interior surfaces of the alveoli. This is enabled by a surface active lipo-protein complex, known as pulmonary surfactant, that modifies the surface tension at the hypophase-air interface. Surfactants also serve as physical barriers that modify the rate of gas transfer across interfaces. We develop a mathematical model to study the action of pulmonary surfactant and its determinative contributions to breathing. The model is used to explore the influence of surfactants on alveolar mechanics and on gas exchange: it relates the work of respiration at the level of the alveolus to the gas exchange rate through the changing influence of pulmonary surfactant over the breathing cycle. This work is motivated by a need to develop improved surfactant replacement therapies to treat serious medical conditions.

  8. Membrane diffusion- and capillary blood volume measurements are not useful as screening tools for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Marieke D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no optimal screening tool for the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. A decreasing transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO is associated with the development of PAH in SSc. TLCO can be partitioned into the diffusion of the alveolar capillary membrane (Dm and the capillary blood volume (Vc. The use of the partitioned diffusion to detect PAH in SSc is not well established yet. This study evaluates whether Dm and Vc could be candidates for further study of the use for screening for PAH in SSc. Methods Eleven SSc patients with PAH (SScPAH+, 13 SSc patients without PAH (SScPAH- and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Pulmonary function testing took place at diagnosis of PAH. TLCO was partitioned according to Roughton and Forster. As pulmonary fibrosis in SSc influences values of the (partitioned TLCO, these were adjusted for fibrosis score as assessed on HRCT. Results TLCO as percentage of predicted (% was lower in SScPAH+ than in SScPAH- (41 ± 7% vs. 63 ± 12%, p vs. 39 ± 12%, p Conclusion SScPAH+ patients have lower Dm% than SScPAH- patients. There are no correlations between Dm% and hemodynamic parameters of PAH in SScPAH+. These findings do not support further study of the role of partitioning TLCO in the diagnostic work- up for PAH in SSc.

  9. Lung Surfactant and Its Use in Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available The review considers the present views of lung surfactant (LS functions with emphasis on its protective and barrier properties and ability to maintain local and adaptive immunity. The composition of commercial LS formulations is analyzed. Data on qualitative and quantitative LS abnormalities are presented in various diseases in neonates and adults. The results of clinical trials of different LS formulations in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults are analyzed in detail. Recent data on the results of and prospects for surfactant therapy for bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary tuberculosis are given. 

  10. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also

  11. Surfactant Phosphatidylcholine Metabolism in Severe Neonatal Lung Disease: Studied with Stable Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.M.T. Janssen (Daphne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Avery and Mead showed in 1959 that pulmonary surfactant deficiency is a major factor in the pathophysiology of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In 1980 Fujiwara et al. administered exogenous surfactant for the first time successfully to preterm infants with RDS

  12. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.


    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo.

  13. Surfactant therapy for maternal blood aspiration: an unusual cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur


    Surfactant replacement therapy is the main treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of other diseases causing neonatal respiratory diseases such as pulmonary hemorrhage, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, pulmonary edema or acute lung injury resulting a secondary surfactant deficiency (SSD). Rarely, as like as in the present patient, exogenous blood aspiration such as breast milk or formula aspiration may lead to SSD. Blood in alveolus leads to a significant biochemical and functional disturbance of the surfactant system and inhibits surfactant production. Here, the authors report a preterm infant of 33 wk gestational age with secondary surfactant deficiency due to maternal blood aspiration because of abruptio placentae. She was received two courses of beractant, a natural bovine surfactant, therapy in 24 h. She was extubated on second day and did not require oxygen on 4(th) day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of SSD due to maternal blood aspiration treated with surfactant. In conditions such as abruptio placentae, infant should be protected from blood aspiration and if respiratory distress occurs, surfactant inhibition and need for surfactant administration should be considered.

  14. Brush border membrane vesicle and Caco-2 cell line: Two experimental models for evaluation of absorption enhancing effects of saponins, bile salts, and some synthetic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of absorption enhancers in the uptake of hydrophilic compounds. The permeation of the two hydrophilic drug models gentamicin and 5 (6-carboxyfluorescein (CF across the brush border membrane vesicles and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated using total saponins of Acanthophyllum squarrosum, Quillaja saponaria, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium glycocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate , and Tween 20 as absorption enhancers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER measurement was utilized to assess the paracellular permeability of cell lines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was performed to obtain images of the distribution of CF in Caco-2 cells. These compounds were able to loosen tight junctions, thus increasing paracellular permeability. CLSM confirmed the effect of these absorption enhancers on CF transport across Caco-2 lines and increased the Caco-2 permeability via transcellular route. It was also confirmed that the decrease in TEER was transient and reversible after removal of permeation enhancers.

  15. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.


    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  16. Constraint and flow: Poiseuille shear response of a surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. To minimize their free energy in aqueous solution, surfactant molecules self-assemble to form some basic morphologies – globular micelles, highly extended thead- like micelles and membrane bilayers – which themselves order to display a rich variety of mesophase symmetries and properties. In membrane ...

  17. Rescue therapeutic strategy combining ultra-protective mechanical ventilation with extracorporeal CO2 removal membrane in near-fatal asthma with severe pulmonary barotraumas: A case report. (United States)

    Pavot, Arthur; Mallat, Jihad; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Thevenin, Didier; Lemyze, Malcolm


    Mechanical ventilation of severe acute asthma is still considered a challenging issue, mainly because of the gas trapping phenomenon with the potential for life-threatening barotraumatic pulmonary complications. Herein, we describe 2 consecutive cases of near-fatal asthma for whom the recommended protective mechanical ventilation approach using low tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and small levels of PEEP was rapidly compromised by giant pneumomediastinum with extensive subcutaneousemphysema. Near fatal asthma. A rescue therapeutic strategy combining extracorporeal CO2 removal membrane with ultra-protective extremely low tidal volume (3 mL/kg) ventilation was applied. Both patients survived hospital discharge. These 2 cases indicate that ECCO2R associated with ultra-protective ventilation could be an alternative to surgery in case of life-threatening barotrauma occurring under mechanical ventilation.

  18. Activity of adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes of pulmonary tissue remote times following nonlethal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slozhenkina, L.V.; Ruda, V.P.; Ushakova, T.E.; Kuzin, A.M.


    Basal and stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase (cyclizing ATP-pyrophosphate lyase, E.C., AC) in plasma membranes of pumonary tissye was being studied during a year after fractionated irradiation of rats (2 Gyx3). Basal and hormone-stimulated activity of AC was shown to vary significantly from normal 6 and 12 months after irradiation. The exposed membranes responded differently to AC activation by isoproterenol and F -

  19. [Persistent pulmonary hypertension in a neonate caused by blood aspiration following vaginal blood loss]. (United States)

    Krüse-Ruijter, M F; Zimmermann, L J I


    A preterm neonate, with a gestational age of 30 1/7 weeks, was born after a period of prolonged rupture of the membranes and a retroplacental haematoma causing vaginal bleeding. During admission to the neonatal intensive-care unit, mechanical ventilation was indicated because of acute respiratory failure following blood aspiration, which was causing oxygenation and ventilation problems. Endotracheal surfactant was administered and, because of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), NO-inhalation therapy was started. A quick recovery was seen and two days post partum the patient could be extubated. Blood aspiration may cause acute respiratory problems and PPHN, with quick recovery after effective mechanical ventilation, surfactant and NO-inhalation therapy.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced control of track-etch pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L.; Samojlova, L.I.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.


    The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few annometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters

  1. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu


    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  2. The cost and effectiveness of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital, November 1991-December 1992. (United States)

    Davies, V A; Ballot, D E; Rothberg, A D


    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) on the outcome of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) and to assess the cost implications of a policy of selective administration of artificial surfactant. The short-term outcome of 103 newborns ventilated for HMD (61 selected for SRT according to initial and/or ongoing oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of 173 infants ventilated for HMD before the introduction of SRT. Mortality and morbidity of HMD including death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pneumothorax, pulmonary haemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus and intraventricular haemorrhage. There were significant demographic differences between the treatment and control groups (black patients 74% v. 28%, P cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD. The selective use of SRT had the effect of converting severe disease into moderate disease rather than achieving maximal benefit in all cases of HMD through routine use of the product. A policy of restricting use may result in cost savings where resources are limited.

  3. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.


    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  4. Pulmonary edema (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  5. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient. (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M


    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  6. Remodelling of Membrane Rafts Expression in Lung Cells as an Early Sign of Mechanotransduction-Signalling in Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palestini


    Full Text Available Membrane rafts (MRs are clusters of lipids, organized in a “quasicrystalline” liquid-order phase, organized on the cell surface and whose pattern of molecules and physicochemical properties are distinct from those of the surrounding plasma membrane. MRs may be considered an efficient and fairly rapid cell-activated mechanism to express or mask surface receptors aimed at triggering specific response pathways. This paper reports observations concerning the role of MRs in the control of lung extravascular water that ought to be kept at minimum to assure gas diffusion, supporting the hypothesis that MRs expression is a potential mechanism of sensing minor changes in the volume of extravascular water. We present the evidence that MRs expression specifically relates to signal-transduction processes evoked by mechanical stimuli arising in the interstitial lung compartment when a small increase in extravascular volume occurs. We further hypothesize that a differential expression of MRs might also reflect the damage to precise components of the extracellular matrix caused by the perturbation in water balance and thus can trigger a molecule-oriented specific matrix remodelling.

  7. Alveolar Thin Layer Flows and Surfactant Dynamics (United States)

    Roumie, Ahmad; Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.


    Pulmonary surfactants play a vital role in everyday respiration. They regulate surface tension in the lungs by diffusing through the hypophase, a liquid layer that lines the interior surface of the alveoli, and adsorbing to the existing air-fluid interface. This decreases the equilibrium surface tension value by as much as a factor of 3, minimizing breathing effort and preventing lung collapse at the end of exhalation. Given that the hypophase thickness h lies within the range 0.1 μm < h <0.5 μm , and that the average alveolar radius R is 100 μm , for some purposes the hypophase may usefully be modeled as a fluid layer on a flat sheet representing the alveolar wall. Moreover, because of the large aspect ratio, the lubrication approximation can be applied. The aim of the present work is to study the interaction between the straining of the alveolar wall and the fluid flow in the hypophase. The analysis is governed by the relative magnitudes of the time scales of surfactant diffusion, adsorption, desorption, viscous dissipation and sheet straining. Cases of particular interest include non-uniform surfactant concentration at the interface, leading to Marangoni flows and a non-uniform hypophase thickness profile. The analytical formulation and numerical simulations are presented. This work is motivated by a need to understand alveolar deformation during breathing, and to do so in a way that derives from improved understanding of the fluid mechanics of the problem.

  8. Gemini (dimeric) Surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is in turn bonded to an identical hydrocarbon tail; alternatively,. ~. Tail spacer ... formed is dependent on surfactant structure, temperature, ionic strength and pH. The models of GS are .... micelle to the air/water interface. Moreover, GS can be ...

  9. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  10. The late administration of surfactant | Ballot | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current recommendations for surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) in the treatment of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) are to administer the drug as soon as possible after starting ventilation in order to prevent ventilator lung damage. We present a review of 18 infants (gestational age 32,4 ± 1,9 weeks and birth weight 1 ...

  11. Secondary structure and lipid interactions of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant SP-C in Langmuir films: IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy and surface pressure studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Flach, Carol R; Pérez-Gil, Jesus


    reversibly with surface pressure (pi), suggestive of the peptide being squeezed out from hydrophobic regions of the monolayer. No such effect was observed for DPPG/peptide monolayers, indicative of stronger, probably electrostatic, interactions. Depalmitoylation produced a weakened interaction with either...... phospholipid as deduced from IRRAS spectra and from pi-area isotherms. S-Palmitoylation may modulate peptide hydration and conformation in the N-terminal region of SP-C and may thus permit the peptide to remain in the film at the high surface pressures present during lung compression. The unique capability...... of IRRAS to detect the surface pressure dependence of protein or peptide structure/interactions in a physiologically relevant model for surfactant is clearly demonstrated. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jul-2...

  12. Factors affecting responses of infants with respiratory distress syndrome to exogenous surfactant therapy. (United States)

    Ho, N K


    Approximately 20% to 30% of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) do not respond to surfactant replacement therapy. Unfortunately there is no uniform definition of 'response' or 'non-response' to surfactant therapy. Response was based on improvement in a/A PO2 and/or mean airway pressure (MAP) by some and on improvement in FIO2 and/or MAP by others. Even the point of time at which evaluation of response was done is different in various reports. There is an urgent need to adopt an uniform definition. Most premature babies are surfactant deficient which is the aetiological factor of RDS. Generally good antenatal care and perinatal management are essential in avoidance of premature birth. Babies with lung hypoplasia and who are extremely premature (less than 24 weeks of gestation) do not respond well to exogenous surfactant replacement because of structural immaturity. Prompt management of asphyxiated birth and shock are necessary as there may be negative response to surfactant replacement. Foetal exposure to glucocorticoids improves responsiveness to postnatal administration of surfactant. Antenatal steroid therapy has become an important part of management of RDS with surfactant replacement. The premature lungs with high alveolar permeability tend to develop pulmonary oedema. With the presence of plasma-derived surfactant inhibitors, the response to exogenous surfactant may be affected. These inhibitors may also be released following ventilator barotrauma. The standard of neonatal intensive care such as ventilatory techniques has an important bearing on the outcome of the RDS babies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Nanofiltration: ion exchange system for effective surfactant removal from water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kowalska


    Full Text Available A system combining nanofiltration and ion exchange for highly effective separation of anionic surfactant from water solutions was proposed. The subjects of the study were nanofiltration polyethersulfone membranes and ion-exchange resins differing in type and structure. The quality of the treated solution was affected by numerous parameters, such as quality of the feed solution, membrane cut-off, resin type, dose and the solution contact time with the resin. A properly designed purification system made it possible to reduce the concentration of anionic surfactant below 1 mg L-1 from feed solutions containing surfactant in concentrations above the CMC value.

  14. Clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B.


    The authors measured clearance of 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. A comparison of micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry-derived pulmonary shunt measurement with Riley shunt in a porcine model. (United States)

    Duenges, Bastian; Vogt, Andreas; Bodenstein, Marc; Wang, Hemei; Böhme, Stefan; Röhrig, Bernd; Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus


    The multiple inert gas elimination technique was developed to measure shunt and the ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung (V(A)'/Q') distributions. Micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS), instead of gas chromatography, has been introduced for inert gas measurement and shunt determination in a rabbit lung model. However, agreement with a frequently used and accepted method for quantifying deficits in arterial oxygenation has not been established. We compared MMIMS-derived shunt (M-S) as a fraction of total cardiac output (CO) with Riley shunt (R-S) derived from the R-S formula in a porcine lung injury model. To allow a broad variance of atelectasis and therefore shunt fraction, 8 sham animals did not receive lavage, and 8 animals were treated by lung lavages with 30 mL/kg warmed lactated Ringer's solution as follows: 2 animals were lavaged once, 5 animals twice, and 1 animal 3 times. Variables were recorded at baseline and twice after induction of lung injury (T1 and T2). Retention data of sulfur hexafluoride, krypton, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone were analyzed by MMIMS, and M-S was derived using a known algorithm for the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Standard formulas were used for the calculation of R-S. Forty-four pairs of M-S and R-S were recorded. M-S ranged from 0.1% to 35.4% and R-S from 3.7% to 62.1%. M-S showed a correlation with R-S described by linear regression: M-S = -4.26 + 0.59 x R-S (r(2) = 0.83). M-S was on average lower than R-S (mean = -15.0% CO, sd = 6.5% CO, and median = -15.1), with lower and upper limits of agreement of -28.0% and -2.0%, respectively. The lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals were -17.0 and -13.1 (P < 0.001, Student's t-test). Shunt derived from MMIMS inert gas retention data correlated well with R-S during breathing of oxygen. Shunt as derived by MMIMS was generally less than R-S.

  16. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for End-Stage Interstitial Lung Disease With Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension at Rest and Exercise: Insights From Simulation Modeling. (United States)

    Chicotka, Scott; Burkhoff, Daniel; Dickstein, Marc L; Bacchetta, Matthew

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a collection of lung disorders with a lethal trajectory with few therapeutic options with the exception of lung transplantation. Various extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) configurations have been used for bridge to transplant (BTT), yet no optimal configuration has been clearly demonstrated. Using a cardiopulmonary simulation, we assessed different ECMO configurations for patients with end-stage ILD to assess the physiologic deficits and help guide the development of new long-term pulmonary support devices. A cardiopulmonary ECMO simulation was created, and changes in hemodynamics and blood gases were compared for different inflow and outflow anatomic locations and for different sweep gas and blood pump flow rates. The system simulated the physiologic response of patients with severe ILD at rest and during exercise with central ECMO, peripheral ECMO, and with no ECMO. The output parameters were total cardiac output (CO), mixed venous oxygen (O2) saturation, arterial pH, and O2 delivery (DO2)/O2 utilization (VO2) at different levels of exercise. The model described the physiologic state of progressive ILD and showed the relative effects of using various ECMO configurations to support them. It elucidated the optimal device configurations and required physiologic pump performance and provided insight into the physiologic demands of exercise in ILD patients. The simulation program was able to model the pathophysiologic state of progressive ILD with PH and demonstrate how mechanical support devices can be implemented to improve cardiopulmonary function at rest and during exercise. The information generated from simulation can be used to optimize ECMO configuration selection for BTT patients and provide design guidance for new devices to better meet the physiologic demands of exercise associated with normal activities of daily living.

  17. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child from an informal settlement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterised by respiratory failure caused by pulmonary surfactant accumulation and resulting in respiratory insu ciency and an increased incidence of infections.[1] e current standard therapy is whole- lung lavage, which is used to physically remove the accumulated.

  18. Surfactant from neonatal to pediatric ICU: bench and bedside evidence. (United States)

    Boet, A; Brat, R; Aguilera, S S; Tissieres, P; De Luca, D


    Surfactant is a cornerstone of neonatal critical care for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome of preterm babies. However, other indications have been studied for various clinical conditions both in term neonates and in children beyond neonatal age. A high degree of evidence is not yet available in some cases and this is due to the complex and not yet totally understood physiopathology of the different types of pediatric and neonatal lung injury. We here summarise the state of the art of the bench and bedside knowledge about surfactant use for the respiratory conditions usually cared for in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Future research direction will also be presented. On the whole, surfactant is able to improve oxygenation in infection related respiratory failure, pulmonary hemorrhage and meconium aspiration syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage with surfactant solution is currently the only means to reduce mortality or need for extracorporeal life support in neonates with meconium aspiration. While surfactant bolus or lavage only improves the oxygenation and ventilatory requirements in other types of postneonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there seems to be a reduction in the mortality of small infants with RSV-related ARDS.

  19. Dust as a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A M; Schram, P P J M; Trigger, S A


    We argue that dust immersed in a plasma sheath acts as a surfactant. By considering the momentum balance in a plasma sheath, we evaluate the dependence of the plasma surface pressure on the dust density. It is shown that the dust may reduce the surface pressure, giving rise to a sufficiently strong tangential force. The latter is capable of confining the dust layer inside the sheath in the direction perpendicular to the ion flow


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.


    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.

  1. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants. (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C


    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  2. Normalisation of surfactant protein -A and -B expression in the lungs of low birth weight lambs by 21 days old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yin Soo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR induced by placental restriction (PR in the sheep negatively impacts lung and pulmonary surfactant development during fetal life. Using a sheep model of low birth weight (LBW, we found that there was an increase in mRNA expression of surfactant protein (SP-A, -B and -C in the lung of LBW lambs but no difference in the protein expression of SP-A or -B. LBW also resulted in increased lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP-3 mRNA expression, which may indicate an increase in either the density of type II Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC or maturity of type II AECs. Although there was an increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LBW lambs, we found no change in the protein expression of these factors, suggesting that the increase in SP mRNA expression is not mediated by increased GC signalling in the lung. The increase in SP mRNA expression may, in part, be mediated by persistent alterations in hypoxia signalling as there was an increase in lung HIF-2α mRNA expression in the LBW lamb. The changes in the hypoxia signalling pathway that persist within the lung after birth may be involved in maintaining SP production in the LBW lamb.

  3. Determination of the mean transit time for the transport of aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA across the pulmonary epithelial membrane. A plasma sample method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sofie; Lassen, N A; Rossing, Niels Nygaard


    During the last decade it has been customary to estimate pulmonary epithelial permeability (P-P) as the pulmonary clearance of inhaled nebulized 99mTc-DTPA from a time-activity (t-a) curve registered externally by monitoring over the chest. The t-a curve, however, is not defined by the degree of ...

  4. Pulmonary tuberculosis (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  5. Surfactant-Mediated Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerheim, H. L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Pan, W.; Kirschner, J.; Popa, I.


    The x-ray structure analysis of the oxygen-surfactant-mediated growth of Ni on Cu(001) identifies up to 0.15 monolayers of oxygen in subsurface octahedral sites. This questions the validity of the general view that surfactant oxygen floats on top of the growing Ni film. Rather, the surfactant action is ascribed to an oxygen-enriched zone extending over the two topmost layers. Surface stress measurements support this finding. Our results have important implications for the microscopic understanding of surfactant-mediated growth and the change of the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni films

  6. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.


    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs

  7. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants. (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.


    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  8. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  9. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho


    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  10. Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods in Binary Surfactant System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Seo, Sun-Hwa; Joe, Ara; Shim, Kyu-Dong; Jang, Eue-Soon [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to reveal the growth mechanism of gold nanorods (GNRs) in a binary surfactant system, we synthesized various GNRs by changing the concentration of the surfactants, AgNO{sub 3}, and HBr in the growth solution. We found that the benzyldime thylhexadecylammoniumchloride surfactant had weak interaction with the gold ions, but it could reduce the membrane fluidity. In addition, we could dramatically decrease the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentration required for GNR growth by adding an HBr solution. Notably, Ag{sup +} ions were necessary to break the symmetry of the seed crystals for GNR growth, but increasing the concentration of Ag{sup +} and Br{sup -} ions caused a decrease in the template size.


    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  12. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung. (United States)

    Casals, C


    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), an oligomeric glycoprotein, is a member of a group of proteins named collectins that contain collagen-like and Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. SP-A interacts with a broad range of amphipathic lipids (glycerophospholipids, sphingophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, lipid A, and lipoglycans) that are present in surfactant or microbial membranes. This review summarizes SP-A/lipid interaction studies regarding the lipid system used (i.e., phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid monolayers, and lipids immobilized on silica or adsorbed on a solid support). The effect of calcium, ionic strength, and pH on the binding of SP-A to lipids and the subsequent lipid aggregation process is discussed. Current evidence suggests that hydrophobic-binding forces are involved in the peripherical association of SP-A to membranes. It is also proposed that fluid and liquid-ordered phase coexistence in surfactant membranes might favor partition of SP-A into those membranes. The binding of SP-A to surfactant membranes containing hydrophobic surfactant peptides makes possible the formation of a membrane reservoir in the alveolar fluid that is protected by SP-A against inactivation and improves the rate of surfactant film formation. In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms.

  13. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.


    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  14. The role of surfactant protein D in chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht von Huth, Sebastian; Rathe, Mathias; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a host defense molecule produced by epithelial cells. SP-D is known for its role in pulmonary innate immunology, but is present in mucosa throughout the body. SP-D has been shown to be regulated in the gastrointestinal (GI-) mucosa of chemotherapy-treated piglets...

  15. Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir


    The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C i E j surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  17. Ontogeny of pulmonary alveolar epithelial markers of differentiation. (United States)

    Joyce-Brady, M F; Brody, J S


    We studied differentiation of the pulmonary epithelium in the periphery of fetal rat lung in vivo and in vitro by comparing the ontogeny of cell-surface glycoconjugates with that of surfactant phospholipids. Apical surface binding of the lectin Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) and expression of a 200-kDa MPA-binding glycoprotein (MPA-gp200) was evident at 20 days gestation in type 2 cells, but did not correlate with ultrastructural features of type 2 cell differentiation. Epithelial cells isolated from peripheral lung of 18-day gestation fetal rats displayed hormone-sensitive surfactant synthesis prior to the hormone-insensitive expression of MPA-gp200. Expression of MPA-gp200 occurred in association with the appearance of many new apical surface proteins suggesting a hormone-independent process of polar membrane differentiation. Thus membrane and secretory differentiation are discordant and can be dissociated. In vivo binding of Ricinus communis 1 agglutinin (RCA1), an apical marker of the differentiated alveolar type 1 cell occurred in undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as early as 18 days gestation, disappeared from differentiating type 2 cells and appeared in differentiated type 1 cells. Both undifferentiated fetal epithelial cells at 18 days gestation and fully differentiated type 1 cells express multiple glycoproteins with terminal beta-linked galactose residues which bind RCA1. Some of these RCA1-binding glycoproteins appear to be similar. These observations suggest that alveolar epithelial type 1 cells may derive directly from undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as well as from fully differentiated type 2 cells. In addition, terminal differentiation of fetal lung peripheral epithelium into type 1 and type 2 cells may involve repression as well as induction of differentiation-related genes.

  18. Design-based stereological analysis of the lung parenchymal architecture and alveolar type II cells in surfactant protein A and D double deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A; Allen, L; Nyengaard, Jens Randel


    Alveolar epithelial type II cells synthesize and secrete surfactant. The surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), members of the collectin protein family, participate in pulmonary immune defense, modulation of inflammation, and surfactant metabolism. Both proteins are known to have......, but the mean volume of a single lamellar body remains constant. These results demonstrate that chronic deficiency of SP-A and SP-D in mice leads to parenchymal remodeling, type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and disturbed intracellular surfactant metabolism. The design-based stereological approach...

  19. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Stayer, Stephen A; Liu, Yang


    Pulmonary hypertension presenting in the neonatal period can be due to congenital heart malformations (most commonly associated with obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage), high output cardiac failure from large arteriovenous malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Of these, the most common cause is PPHN. PPHN develops when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) remains elevated after birth, resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood through foetal circulatory pathways. The PVR may remain elevated due to pulmonary hypoplasia, like that seen with congenital diaphragmatic hernia; maldevelopment of the pulmonary arteries, seen in meconium aspiration syndrome; and maladaption of the pulmonary vascular bed as occurs with perinatal asphyxia. These newborn patients typically require mechanical ventilatory support and those with underlying lung disease may benefit from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Direct pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide, have been shown to improve the outcome and reduce the need for ECMO. However, there is very limited experience with other pulmonary vasodilators. The goals for anaesthetic management are (1) to provide an adequate depth of anaesthesia to ablate the rise in PVR associated with surgical stimuli; (2) to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation; and (3) to be prepared to treat a pulmonary hypertensive crisis--an acute rise in PVR with associated cardiovascular collapse.

  20. Biodegradation of surfactant bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, S.; Chandran, S.; Sasidhar, P.; Lal, K.B.; Amalraj, R.V.


    In nuclear industry, during decontamination of protective wears and contaminated materials, detergents are employed to bring down the level of radioactive contamination within safe limits. However, the surfactant present in these wastes interferes in the chemical treatment process, reducing the decontamination factor. Biodegradation is an efficient and ecologically safe method for surfactant removal. A surfactant degrading culture was isolated and inoculated separately into simulated effluents containing 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm of commercial detergent respectively. The growth of the bacterial culture and the degradation characteristics of the surfactant in the above effluents were monitored under both dynamic and static conditions. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes before 24 weeks of gestation. (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Jane E; Colaizy, Tarah T; Nuangchamnong, Nina; O'Brien, Emily A; Fleener, Diedre K; Rijhsinghani, Asha; Klein, Jonathan M


    To evaluate neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in the era of antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant, and inhaled nitric oxide. A single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates born from 2002-2011 after prolonged (1 week or more) preterm (less than 24 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes was performed. The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Neonates whose membranes ruptured less than 24 hours before delivery (n=116) were matched (2:1) on gestational age at birth, sex, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure with neonates whose membranes ruptured 1 week or more before delivery (n=58). Analysis used conditional logistic regression for categorical data and Wilcoxon signed rank test for continuous data. The prolonged preterm PROM exposed and unexposed cohorts had survival rates of 90% and 95%, respectively, although underpowered to assess the statistical significance (P=.313). Exposed neonates were more likely have pulmonary hypoplasia (26/58 exposed, 1/114 unexposed, Prupture (20.4 weeks exposed, 22.3 weeks unexposed, P=.189), length of rupture (3.7 weeks exposed, 6.4 weeks unexposed, P=.717), and lowest maximal vertical pocket before 24 weeks of gestation (0 cm exposed, 1.4 cm unexposed, P=.114) did not discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors after exposure to prolonged preterm PROM. With antenatal steroid exposure and aggressive pulmonary management, survival to discharge after prolonged preterm PROM was 90%. Pulmonary morbidities were common. Of note, the data were limited to women who remained pregnant 1 week or longer after rupture of membranes.

  2. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI


    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators. (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L


    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela S Inácio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants--nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin, zwitterionic (DDPS, anionic (SDS, and cationic (C(nTAB (n = 10 to 16, C(12PB, and C(12BZK--were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C(12PB and C(12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C(12PB and C(12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  6. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C. (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E


    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  7. Lung-specific loss of α3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott


    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression.

  8. Surfactant treatment before first breath for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm lambs: comparison of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant with porcine-derived surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zyl JM


    Full Text Available Johann M van Zyl,1 Johan Smith2 1Division of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa Background: In a recent study utilizing a saline-lavaged adult rabbit model, we described a significant improvement in systemic oxygenation and pulmonary shunt after the instillation of a novel synthetic peptide-containing surfactant, Synsurf. Respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm lamb more closely resembles that of the human infant, as their blood gas, pH values, and lung mechanics deteriorate dramatically from birth despite ventilator support. Moreover, premature lambs have lungs which are mechanically unstable, with the advantage of being able to measure multiple variables over extended periods. Our objective in this study was to investigate if Synsurf leads to improved systemic oxygenation, lung mechanics, and histology in comparison to the commercially available porcine-derived lung surfactant Curosurf® when administered before first breath in a preterm lamb model. Materials and methods: A Cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia on 18 time-dated pregnant Dohne Merino ewes at 129–130 days gestation. The premature lambs were delivered and ventilated with an expiratory tidal volume of 6–8 mL/kg for the first 30 minutes and thereafter at 8–10 mL/kg. In a randomized controlled trial, the two surfactants tested were Synsurf and Curosurf®, both at a dose of 100 mg/kg phospholipids (1,2-dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine; 90% in Synsurf, 40% in Curosurf®. A control group of animals was treated with normal saline. Measurements of physiological variables, blood gases, and lung mechanics were made before and after surfactant and saline replacement and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180

  9. Surfactant flooding of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.A.


    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of this research program after initial surfactant screening of 21 surfactants. Three of the surfactants were used for the surfactant flooding studies; the results from that phase of the research program are described

  10. Family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and case-control association studies reveal surfactant protein A (SP-A) susceptibility alleles for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and possible race differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floros, J.; Fan, R.; Matthews, A.; DiAngelo, S.; Luo, J.; Nielsen, H.; Dunn, M.; Gewolb, I. H.; Koppe, J.; Van Sonderen, L.; Farri-Kostopoulos, L.; Tzaki, M.; Rämet, M.; Merrill, J.


    A key cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the prematurely born infant is deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. Using the candidate gene approach, we performed family-based

  11. The effects of exogenous surfactant administration on ventilation-induced inflammation in mouse models of lung injury. (United States)

    Puntorieri, Valeria; Hiansen, Josh Qua; McCaig, Lynda A; Yao, Li-Juan; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Lewis, James F


    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential supportive therapy for acute lung injury (ALI); however it can also contribute to systemic inflammation. Since pulmonary surfactant has anti-inflammatory properties, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exogenous surfactant administration on ventilation-induced systemic inflammation. Mice were randomized to receive an intra-tracheal instillation of a natural exogenous surfactant preparation (bLES, 50 mg/kg) or no treatment as a control. MV was then performed using the isolated and perfused mouse lung (IPML) set up. This model allowed for lung perfusion during MV. In experiment 1, mice were exposed to mechanical ventilation only (tidal volume =20 mL/kg, 2 hours). In experiment 2, hydrochloric acid or air was instilled intra-tracheally four hours before applying exogenous surfactant and ventilation (tidal volume =5 mL/kg, 2 hours). For both experiments, exogenous surfactant administration led to increased total and functional surfactant in the treated groups compared to the controls. Exogenous surfactant administration in mice exposed to MV only did not affect peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), lung IL-6 levels and the development of perfusate inflammation compared to non-treated controls. Acid injured mice exposed to conventional MV showed elevated PIP, lung IL-6 and protein levels and greater perfusate inflammation compared to air instilled controls. Instillation of exogenous surfactant did not influence the development of lung injury. Moreover, exogenous surfactant was not effective in reducing the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the perfusate. The data indicates that exogenous surfactant did not mitigate ventilation-induced systemic inflammation in our models. Future studies will focus on altering surfactant composition to improve its immuno-modulating activity.

  12. Short-term Outcome of Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-An Yen


    Conclusion: This data suggests that our current strategy is effective for treating severe pulmonary hemorrhage in VLBW infants. Surfactant therapy for severe pulmonary hemorrhage may also be beneficial for improving lung function and may shorten the duration of high oxygen requirement.

  13. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.


    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  14. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.


    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the

  15. Pulmonary agenesis


    Oyola, Mercedes; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Gordillo, Gisel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; García, Carlos A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Torres, David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana


    Pulmonary agenesis is an infrequent pathology which occurs predominantly among females with no lateral preference. We report on the case of a newborn male diagnosed with prenatal diaphragm hernia though at birth seemed more likely either to be a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (congenital pulmonary airway malformation) or pulmonary agenesis. The patient died six days after birth and necropsy confirmed pulmonary agenesis. La agenesia pulmonar es una alteración poco frecuente, con...

  16. Pulmonary function in space (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.


    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  17. Responsive Amphiphilic Polymers and Membranes for Water Remediation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCormick, Charles


    .... The foulant is solubilized within the micellar hydrophobic core and the stream is then passed through a microporous membrane, such that most of the organic solute and surfactant remain in the retentate...

  18. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.


    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  19. Biomimetic oligosaccharide and peptide surfactant polymers designed for cardiovascular biomaterials (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Mark Andrew

    A common problem associated with cardiovascular devices is surface induced thrombosis initiated by the rapid, non-specific adsorption of plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Control of the initial protein adsorption is crucial to achieve the desired longevity of the implanted biomaterial. The cell membrane glycocalyx acts as a non-thrombogenic interface through passive (dense oligosaccharide structures) and active (ligand/receptor interactions) mechanisms. This thesis is designed to investigate biomimicry of the cell glycocalyx to minimize non-specific protein adsorption and promote specific ligand/receptor interactions. Biomimetic macromolecules were designed through the molecular-scale engineering of polymer surfactants, utilizing a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone to which hydrophilic (dextran, maltose, peptide) and hydrophobic alkyl (hexanoyl or hexanal) chains are simultaneously attached. The structure was controlled through the molar feed ratio of hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic groups, which also provided control of the solution and surface-active properties. To mimic passive properties, a series of oligomaltose surfactants were synthesized with increasing saccharide length (n = 2, 7, 15 where n is number of glucose units) to investigate the effect of coating height on protein adsorption. The surfactants were characterized by infra red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies for structural properties and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry for surface activity. Protein adsorption under dynamic flow (5 dyn/cm2) was reduced by 85%--95% over the bare hydrophobic substrate; platelet adhesion dropped by ˜80% compared to glass. Peptide ligands were incorporated into the oligosaccharide surfactant to promote functional activity of the passive coating. The surfactants were synthesized to contain 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% peptide ligand density and were stable on hydrophobic surfaces. The peptide surface density was

  20. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.-A.


    At one installation in California, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, resulting in contamination at depths from 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. This paper summarizes a surfactant screening/surfactant flooding research program in which 22 surfactants were screened for their effectiveness in mobilizing the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  1. Surfactant -- Where Are We in 2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Lewis


    Full Text Available Surfactant research has progressed over the past several years to the extent that exogenous surfactant administration in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is now being evaluated. Unfortunately, clinical responses have been variable, and we now need to take a look at how surfactant is altered in this disease so that more effective treatment strategies can be developed. This review briefly discusses the biophysical and host defense properties of surfactant, the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV on the endogenous surfactant system and the most recent clinical data involving exogenous surfactant administration in patients with ARDS. Discussions regarding future directions of surfactant research both in ARDS and diseases other than acute lung injury are included.

  2. Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Joachim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S group (n = 5 each. In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4°C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37°C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups or immediately after sacrifice (Control, the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells. Results Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation: CE: 160 mm3 (0.61 vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75; p 3 (0.90 vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p 3 (0.39 vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43; p 3(0.10 and CE+S (481 μm3(0.10 compared with controls (323 μm3(0.07; p Conclusion Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of

  3. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)


    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  4. Cellular uptake and processing of surfactant lipids and apoprotein SP-A by rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.L.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.


    The intracellular pathways and the kinetics of metabolism of surfactant apoprotein and lipid, which may be recycled from the alveolar space, are largely unknown. We used a lipid-apoprotein complex made from liposomes of pure lipids in a ratio found in mammalian pulmonary surfactant plus surfactant apoprotein (SP-A, Mr = 26,000-36,000) to test some possible relationships in the recycling of these major surfactant components between intrapulmonary compartments. After intratracheal instillation of 80 microliters of an apoprotein-liposome mixture with separate radiolabels in the lipid and the apoprotein, rats were killed at times from 8 min to 4 h later. The lungs were lavaged with saline, and subcellular fractions were isolated on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. Both the [ 14 C]lipid radiolabel and the 125 I-apoprotein radiolabel demonstrated a time-dependent increase in radioactivity recovered in a lamellar body-enriched fraction. Uptake of the radiolabels into other subcellular fractions did not exhibit a clear-cut time dependence; more of the protein than the lipid radiolabel was found in the Golgi-rich and microsomal fractions. We conclude that both the lipid and apoprotein portions of lung surfactant are taken up by lung cells and are incorporated into secretory granules of the cells

  5. Derecruitment Test and Surfactant Therapy in Patients with Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Smetkin


    Full Text Available Introduction. A recruitment maneuver (RM may improve gas exchange in acute lung injury (ALI. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive value of a derecruitment test in relation to RM and to evaluate the efficacy of RM combined with surfactant instillation in patients with ALI. Materials and Methods. Thirteen adult mechanically ventilated patients with ALI were enrolled into a prospective pilot study. The patients received protective ventilation and underwent RM followed by a derecruitment test. After a repeat RM, bovine surfactant (surfactant group, n=6 or vehicle only (conventional therapy group, n=7 was instilled endobronchially. We registered respiratory and hemodynamic parameters, including extravascular lung water index (EVLWI. Results. The derecruitment test decreased the oxygenation in 62% of the patients. We found no significant correlation between the responses to the RM and to the derecruitment tests. The baseline EVLWI correlated with changes in SpO2 following the derecruitment test. The surfactant did not affect gas exchange and lung mechanics but increased EVLWI at 24 and 32 hrs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated no predictive value of the derecruitment test regarding the effects of RM. Surfactant instillation was not superior to conventional therapy and might even promote pulmonary edema in ALI.

  6. The content of mucin MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens in the bronchial mucosa membrane of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during acute exacerbation - initial report. (United States)

    Kovalenko, Svetlana; Dorofieiev, Andrey


    Changes in mucin production and dyscrinia are common features of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Immunohistochemical assessment of MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 expression in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of mucous glands and stroma fusiform cells of the bronchial mucosa of COPD patients during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation was performed. 30 patients with stage III COPD were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A - 14 patients with non-infectious acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and group B - 16 patients with infectious AECOPD. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBS) and in vivo bronchial biopsy of bronchial mucosa were implemented to determine the extent and nature of bronchial inflammation. The optical density of specific color in bronchial structures was assessed using immunohistochemical staining to MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens by means of primary monoclonal antibodies to these proteins, and visualization system Dako EnVision + System, Peroxidase (AEC). We detected that in different types of bronchial mucosa epithelial cells, during acute infectious exacerbation, a decrease of antigens MUC-2 and MUC-3 expression of a various degree may occur. This phenomenon in the stroma fusiform cells in AECOPD may be a sign of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, that may play a role in the development of an inflammatory process and progression of fibrosis in COPD.

  7. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.


    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references

  8. The efficacy of surfactant replacement therapy in the growth restricted preterm infant: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul eMalhotra


    Full Text Available Background: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT is an integral part of management of preterm surfactant deficiency (respiratory distress syndrome, RDS. Its role in the management of RDS has been extensively studied. However its efficacy in the management of lung disease in preterm infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR has not been systematically studied.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in the management of preterm IUGR lung disease. Methods: A systematic search of all available randomised clinical trials (RCT of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants was done according to the standard Cochrane collaboration search strategy. Neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared between the preterm IUGR and appropriately-grown for gestational age (AGA preterm infant populations in eligible studies. Results: No study was identified which evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in preterm IUGR infants as compared to preterm AGA infants. The only study identified through the search strategy used small for gestational age (SGA; defined as less than 10th centile for birth weight as a proxy for IUGR. The RCT evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of SRT in preterm SGA group as compared to AGA infants. The rate of intubation, severity of RDS, rate of surfactant administration, pulmonary air leaks and days on the ventilator did not differ between both groups. However, the requirement for prolonged nasal CPAP (p< 0.001, supplemental oxygen therapy (p <0.01 and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days and 36 weeks (both p<0.01 was greater in SGA infants. Discussion: There is currently insufficient data available to evaluate the efficacy of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. A variety of research strategies will be needed to enhance our understanding of the role and rationale for use of surfactant replacement therapy in preterm

  9. Antimicrobial and biophysical properties of surfactant supplemented with an antimicrobial peptide for treatment of bacterial pneumonia. (United States)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W


    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been suggested as future therapeutics for these drug-resistant bacteria, since they have potent broad-spectrum activity, with little development of resistance. Due to the unique structure of the lung, bacterial pneumonia has the additional problem of delivering antimicrobials to the site of infection. One potential solution is coadministration of AMPs with exogenous surfactant, allowing for distribution of the peptides to distal airways and opening of collapsed lung regions. The objective of this study was to test various surfactant-AMP mixtures with regard to maintaining pulmonary surfactant biophysical properties and bactericidal functions. We compared the properties of four AMPs (CATH-1, CATH-2, CRAMP, and LL-37) suspended in bovine lipid-extract surfactant (BLES) by assessing surfactant-AMP mixture biophysical and antimicrobial functions. Antimicrobial activity was tested against methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All AMP/surfactant mixtures exhibited an increase of spreading compared to a BLES control. BLES+CATH-2 mixtures had no significantly different minimum surface tension versus the BLES control. Compared to the other cathelicidins, CATH-2 retained the most bactericidal activity in the presence of BLES. The BLES+CATH-2 mixture appears to be an optimal surfactant-AMP mixture based on in vitro assays. Future directions involve investigating the potential of this mixture in animal models of bacterial pneumonia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Enhanced removal of radioactive particles by fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Harling, O.K.


    The proposed research addressed the application of ESI's particle removal process to the non-destructive decontamination of nuclear equipment. The cleaning medium used in this process is a solution of a high molecular weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid which results in enhanced particle removal. The perfluorinated liquids of interest, which are recycled in the process, are nontoxic, nonflammable, and environmentally compatible, and do not present a hazard to the ozone layer. The information obtained in the Phase 1 program indicated that the proposed ESI process is technically effective and economically attractive. The fluorocarbon surfactant solutions used as working media in the ESI process survived exposure of up to 10 Mrad doses of gamma rays, and are considered sufficiently radiation resistant for the proposed process. Ultrasonic cleaning in perfluorinated surfactant solutions was found to be an effective method of removing radioactive iron (Fe 59) oxide particles from contaminated test pieces. Radioactive particles suspended in the process liquids could be quantitatively removed by filtration through a 0.1 um membrane filter. Projected economics indicate a pre-tax pay back time of 1 month for a commercial scale system

  11. Pulmonary atresia (United States)

    ... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... known way to prevent this condition. All pregnant women should get routine prenatal care. Many congenital defects ...

  12. Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    ... increase the risk for PE, such as: Being bedridden or unable to move around much Having surgery ... of pulmonary embolism (PE) include unexplained shortness of breath, problems breathing, chest pain, coughing , or coughing up ...

  13. Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, B.D.


    Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects

  14. Model Lung Surfactant Films: Why Composition Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selladurai, Sahana L.; Miclette Lamarche, Renaud; Schmidt, Rolf; DeWolf, Christine E.


    Lung surfactant replacement therapies, Survanta and Infasurf, and two lipid-only systems both containing saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and one containing additional palmitic acid were used to study the impact of buffered saline on the surface activity, morphology, rheology, and structure of Langmuir monolayer model membranes. Isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy show that buffered saline subphases induce a film expansion, except when the cationic protein, SP-B, is present in sufficient quantities to already screen electrostatic repulsion, thus limiting the effect of changing pH and adding counterions. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results indicate an expansion not only of the liquid expanded phase but also an expansion of the lattice of the condensed phase. The film expansion corresponded in all cases with a significant reduction in the viscosity and elasticity of the films. The viscoelastic parameters are dominated by liquid expanded phase properties and do not appear to be dependent on the structure of the condensed phase domains in a phase separated film. The results highlight that the choice of subphase and film composition is important for meaningful interpretations of measurements using model systems.

  15. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha


    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  16. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox


    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  17. Fluorescent visualization of a spreading surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallest, David W; Lichtenberger, Adele M; Fox, Christopher J; Daniels, Karen E, E-mail: kdaniel@ncsu.ed [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)


    The spreading of surfactants on thin films is an industrially and medically important phenomenon, but the dynamics are highly nonlinear and visualization of the surfactant dynamics has been a long-standing experimental challenge. We perform the first quantitative, spatiotemporally resolved measurements of the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin fluid layer. During the spreading process, we directly observe both the radial height profile of the spreading droplet and the spatial distribution of the fluorescently tagged surfactant. We find that the leading edge of a spreading circular layer of surfactant forms a Marangoni ridge in the underlying fluid, with a trough trailing the ridge as expected. However, several novel features are observed using the fluorescence technique, including a peak in the surfactant concentration that trails the leading edge, and a flat, monolayer-scale spreading film that differs from concentration profiles predicted by current models. Both the Marangoni ridge and the surfactant leading edge can be described to spread as R{approx}t{sup {delta}}. We find spreading exponents {delta}{sub H}{approx}0.30 and {delta}{sub {Gamma}}{approx}0.22 for the ridge peak and surfactant leading edge, respectively, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions of {delta}=1/4. In addition, we observe that the surfactant leading edge initially leads the peak of the Marangoni ridge, with the peak later catching up to the leading edge.

  18. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  19. Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Notter


    Full Text Available Background This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG, while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight. The objective of the work is to test whether these novel lipid/peptide synthetic surfactants have favorable preclinical activity (biophysical, pulmonary for therapeutic use in reversing surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury. Methods Surface activity of synthetic lipid/peptide surfactants was assessed in vitro at 37 °C by measuring adsorption in a stirred subphase apparatus and dynamic surface tension lowering in pulsating and captive bubble surfactometers. Shear viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate on a Wells-Brookfield micro-viscometer. In vivo pulmonary activity was determined by measuring lung function (arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance in ventilated rats and rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by saline lavage to lower arterial PO2 to <100 mmHg, consistent with clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Results Synthetic surfactants containing 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG or 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 combined with 3% (by wt of S-MB DATK, 3% SP-Css ion-lock 1, or 1.5% each of both peptides all adsorbed rapidly to low equilibrium surface tensions and also reduced surface tension to ≤1 mN/m under dynamic compression at 37 °C. However, dual-peptide surfactants containing 1.5% S-MB DATK + 1.5% SP-Css ion-lock 1 combined with

  20. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna


    of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...... cell polarisation following in vivo allergenic challenge, from pathogenic Th2 to a protective Th1 cytokine response. Interestingly, SP-D gene deficient (-/-) mice show an IL-13 over-expressing phenotype. IL-13 has been shown to be involved in the development of asthma. Transgenic mice over...

  1. Production of a biological surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gladys Rosero


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the scale up work performed at the Colombian Petroleum Institute on a process to produce at pilot plant level a biosurfactant of the rhamnolipid type. By examination of both the activation conditions of the microorganism and design aspects of the broth, a stable condition was achieved which consistently triggers the production mechanisms and thus it was obtained a significant increment in biosurfactant productivity. The biological surfactant exhibited high efficiency in applications such as hydrocarbon biodegradation in saline environments, corrosion inhibition, and crude oil recovery from storage tank bottom sludges.

  2. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.


    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  3. Pulmonary abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Chavez, Maria de la Cruz


    Pulmonary abscess is defined as a suppurative process and bounded, caused by piogens organisms that it progresses to central necrosis and it commits an or more areas of the pulmonary parenchyma. Initially it is impossible to differ of a located pneumonia, but when the lesion communicates with a bronchus, part of the neurotic tissue is replaced by air, producing the classic image radiological fluid-air. The presence of multiple lesions smaller than 2 cms of diameter cm is defined arbitrarily as necrotizing pneumonia it is indistinguishable of an abscess. The paper includes the pathogenesis and etiology, clinical course, diagnostic and treatment

  4. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The role of SP-D in the metabolism of surfactant is as yet quite unclear. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of SP-D in the umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of mature...

  5. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.; Montemagno, C.D.; Lewis, B.


    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which 21 surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  6. [Pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after pulmonary stent implants in a patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome]. (United States)

    Berenguer Potenciano, M; Piris Borregas, S; Mendoza Soto, A; Velasco Bayon, J M; Caro Barri, A


    Vascular tortuosity syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes tortuosity and stenosis of the pulmonary, systemic and / or coronary circulations. As a result of treatment of pulmonary stenosis, symptoms of pulmonary edema, known as lung reperfusion syndrome, may occur. The case is presented of an adolescent patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome who presented with a pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after multiple stent implants in the left pulmonary artery. After the procedure, the patient immediately developed an acute pulmonary edema with severe clinical deterioration, which required assistance with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for recovery. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The interplay of lung surfactant proteins and lipids assimilates the macrophage clearance of nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Ruge

    Full Text Available The peripheral lungs are a potential entrance portal for nanoparticles into the human body due to their large surface area. The fact that nanoparticles can be deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs is of interest for pulmonary drug delivery strategies and is of equal importance for toxicological considerations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of nanoparticle interaction with the structures of this largest and most sensitive part of the lungs is important for both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Astonishingly, there is still little known about the bio-nano interactions that occur after nanoparticle deposition in the alveoli. In this study, we compared the effects of surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A and D (SP-D on the clearance of magnetite nanoparticles (mNP with either more hydrophilic (starch or hydrophobic (phosphatidylcholine surface modification by an alveolar macrophage (AM cell line (MH-S using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both proteins enhanced the AM uptake of mNP compared with pristine nanoparticles; for the hydrophilic ST-mNP, this effect was strongest with SP-D, whereas for the hydrophobic PL-mNP it was most pronounced with SP-A. Using gel electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering methods, we were able to demonstrate that the observed cellular effects were related to protein adsorption and to protein-mediated interference with the colloidal stability. Next, we investigated the influence of various surfactant lipids on nanoparticle uptake by AM because lipids are the major surfactant component. Synthetic surfactant lipid and isolated native surfactant preparations significantly modulated the effects exerted by SP-A and SP-D, respectively, resulting in comparable levels of macrophage interaction for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. Our findings suggest that because of the interplay of both surfactant lipids and proteins, the AM clearance of nanoparticles is essentially the same, regardless

  8. Lung surfactant microbubbles increase lipophilic drug payload for ultrasound-targeted delivery. (United States)

    Sirsi, Shashank R; Fung, Chinpong; Garg, Sumit; Tianning, Mary Y; Mountford, Paul A; Borden, Mark A


    The cavitation response of circulating microbubbles to targeted ultrasound can be used for noninvasive, site-specific delivery of shell-loaded materials. One challenge for microbubble-mediated delivery of lipophilic compounds is the limitation of drug loading into the microbubble shell, which is commonly a single phospholipid monolayer. In this study, we investigated the use of natural lung surfactant extract (Survanta(®), Abbott Nutrition) as a microbubble shell material in order to improve drug payload and delivery. Pulmonary surfactant extracts such as Survanta contain hydrophobic surfactant proteins (SP-B and SP-C) that facilitate lipid folding and retention on lipid monolayers. Here, we show that Survanta-based microbubbles exhibit wrinkles in bright-field microscopy and increased lipid retention on the microbubble surface in the form of surface-associated aggregates observed with fluorescence microscopy. The payload of a model lipophilic drug (DiO), measured by flow cytometry, increased by over 2-fold compared to lipid-coated microbubbles lacking SP-B and SP-C. Lung surfactant microbubbles were highly echogenic to contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging at low acoustic intensities. At higher ultrasound intensity, excess lipid was observed to be acoustically cleaved for localized release. To demonstrate targeting, a biotinylated lipopolymer was incorporated into the shell, and the microbubbles were subjected to a sequence of radiation force and fragmentation pulses as they passed through an avidinated hollow fiber. Lung surfactant microbubbles showed a 3-fold increase in targeted deposition of the model fluorescent drug compared to lipid-only microbubbles. Our results demonstrate that lung surfactant microbubbles maintain the acoustic responsiveness of lipid-coated microbubbles with the added benefit of increased lipophilic drug payload.

  9. Pulmonary circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, G.; Boos, M.; Scheffler, K.; Steinbrich, W.


    Evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature is mainly indicated in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. The routine procedure so far is ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy alone or in combination with diagnostic assessment of the legs to rule out deep venous thrombosis. The results are still not reliable for the majority of patients. In the case of equivocal diagnosis, invasive conventional angiography is considered the gold standard. With steady improvements in tomographic imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), non-invasive alternatives to the routine diagnostic work-up are given. Helical CT and CTA techniques are already in clinical use and estimated to sufficiently serve the demands for detection/exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The disadvantages mainly concern peripheral disease and reconstruction artifacts. MRI and MR angiography have been implemented in the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease since the introduction of contrast-enhanced MRA. In breath-hold techniques, the entire lung vascularization can be delineated and thromboemboli can be detected. The clinical experience in this field is limited, but MRI has the potential to demonstrate its superiority over CT due to its improved delineation of the vascular periphery and the more comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Okuzaki, Takeshi


    When the chest is exposed to x radiation and Co-60 gamma radiation, radiation damage may occur in the lungs 2 to 10 weeks after irradiation. This condition is generally referred to as radiation pneumonitis, with the incidence ranging from 5.4% to 91.8% in the literature. Then radiation pneumonitis may develop into pulmonary fibrosis associated with roentgenologically diffuse linear and ring-like shadows and strong contraction 6 months to one year after irradiation. Until recently, little attention has been paid to pulmonary pneumonitis as a delayed effect of A-bomb radiation. The recent study using the population of 9,253 A-bomb survivors have suggested that the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis tended to be high in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Two other studies using the cohort of 16,956 and 42,728 A-bomb survivors, respectively, have shown that the prevalence of roentgenologically proven pulmonary fibrosis was higher in men than women (1.82% vs 0.41%), was increased with aging and had a higher tendency in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  11. Evaluation of the mechanism of skin enhancing surfactants on the biomembrane of shed snake skin. (United States)

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of different surfactants at various concentrations as a skin penetration enhancer through the biomembrane of the shed skin of Naja kaouthia. Additionally, the enhancer mechanism(s) of each class of surfactants were evaluated using physical characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Our results showed that skin permeability increased with increasing concentrations of surfactants and the degree of increase was higher for the model hydrophilic permeant, deuterium dioxide (D(2)O), than the lipophilic permeant, ketoprofen (KP). Ionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated higher enhancement ability than the polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) non-ionic surfactant, which was consistent with the results from physical characterization studies. Increasing amounts of permeated drug resulted in an increase in membrane interactions. From our observations, it can be assumed that SLS and CTAB can be localized inside the biomembrane and thereby enhance drug permeation mainly through interactions with intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) and the creation of a perturbed microenvironment among lipid alkyl chains and polar head groups.

  12. Glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil


    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, "GNG amphiphiles", is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo ...

  13. Glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study. (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Kruse, Andrew C; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit; Byrne, Bernadette; Lee, John K; Gellman, Samuel H


    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, "GNG amphiphiles", is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. (Science, 2012, 337, 473).

  14. Cleaning UF membranes with simple and formulated solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Duek, A.; Naim, R.; Arkhangelsky, E.; Gitis, V.


    The ultrafiltration membranes fouled by proteins are typically cleaned by consecutive soaking in alkali, surfactant and oxidizing solutions. We combined all three chemicals into a formulated cleaning agent and examined its efficiency to restore the water flux without damaging the membrane or

  15. Zeta-potential of fouled thin film composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Hachisuka, H.; Nakamura, T. [Nitto denko Corp., Ibaraki, (Japan); Kimura, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environ. Chemical Engineering; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The surface zeta-potential of a cross-linked polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was measured using an electrophoresis method. It was confirmed that this method could be effectively applied to analyze the fouling of such membranes. It is known that the water flux of membranes drastically decreases as a result of fouling by surfactants. Although the surfactants adsorbed on reverse osmosis membranes could not be detected by conventional methods such as SEM, EDX and FT-IR, their presence could be clarified by the profile measurements of the surface zeta-potential. The profiles of the membrane surface zeta-potentials changed to more positive values in the measured pH range as a result of fouling by cationic or amphoteric surfactants. This measuring method of surface zeta-potentials allowed us to analyze a very small amount of fouling of a thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane. This method could be used to analyze the fouled surface of the thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane which is used for production of ultrapure water and shows a remarkable decrease in flux. It also became clear that this method is easy and effective for the reverse osmosis membrane surface analysis of adsorbed materials such as surfactants. (author)

  16. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A


    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  17. Respiratory Outcomes of the Surfactant Positive Pressure and Oximetry Randomized Trial (United States)

    Stevens, Timothy P.; Finer, Neil N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Phelps, Dale L.; Walsh, Michele C.; Gantz, Marie G.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Faix, Roger G.; Newman, Jamie E.; Das, Abhik; Do, Barbara T.; Schibler, Kurt; Rich, Wade; Newman, Nancy S.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Vohr, Betty R.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Yolton, Kimberly; Heyne, Roy J.; Evans, Patricia W.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Bodnar, Anna; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Fuller, Janell; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Bauer, Charles R.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Myers, Gary J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.


    Objective To explore the early childhood pulmonary outcomes of infants who participated in the NICHD SUPPORT Trial, using a factorial design that randomized extremely preterm infants to lower vs. higher oxygen saturation targets and delivery room CPAP vs. intubation/surfactant, found no significant difference in the primary composite outcome of death or BPD. Study design The Breathing Outcomes Study, a prospective secondary to SUPPORT, assessed respiratory morbidity at 6 month intervals from hospital discharge to 18–22 months corrected age (CA). Two pre-specified primary outcomes, wheezing more than twice per week during the worst 2 week period and cough longer than 3 days without a cold were compared between each randomized intervention. Results One or more interviews were completed for 918 of 922 eligible infants. The incidence of wheezing and cough were 47.9% and 31.0%, respectively, and did not differ between study arms of either randomized intervention. Infants randomized to lower vs. higher oxygen saturation targets had similar risks of death or respiratory morbidities (except for croup, treatment with oxygen or diuretics at home). Infants randomized to CPAP vs. intubation/surfactant had fewer episodes of wheezing without a cold (28.9% vs. 36.5%, pCPAP rather than intubation/surfactant is associated with less respiratory morbidity by 18–22 months CA. Longitudinal assessment of pulmonary morbidity is necessary to fully evaluate the potential benefits of respiratory interventions for neonates. PMID:24725582

  18. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) deficiency is attenuated in humanised mice expressing the Met(11)Thr short nucleotide polymorphism of SP-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Katharina; Boxler, Laura


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is part of the innate immune system involved in lung homeostasis. SP-D knockout mice show accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, alveolar lipoproteinosis and pulmonary emphysema. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been described in the coding...

  19. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact. (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S


    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  20. Role of a non-ionic surfactant in direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis by fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shota; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji


    Highlights: • Addition of Triton ® X-100 (1%) completely quenches the FDH-catalyzed current at hydrophobic electrode, but causes only small competitive effect at hydrophilic electrode. • Quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the adsorption of FDH and Triton ® X-100 on both of the electrodes. • The surfactant forms a monolayer on the hydrophobic electrode and FDH adsorbs on the surfactant monolayer. • The surfactant forms a bilayer on the hydrophilic electrode and FDH is embedded in the bilayer to communicate with the electrode. - ABSTRACT: A heterotrimeric membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) from Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260 contains FAD in subunit I and three heme C moieties in subunit II as the redox centers, and is one of the direct electron transfer (DET)-type redox enzymes. FDH-catalyzed current density of fructose oxidation at hydrophilic mercaptoethanol (MEtOH)-modified Au electrode is much larger than that at hydrophobic mercaptoethane (MEtn)-modified Au electrode. Addition of a non-ionic surfactant Triton ® X-100 (1%) completely quenches the catalytic current at the MEtn-modified Au electrode, while only small competitive effect is observed at the MEtOH-modified Au electrode. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the adsorption of FDH and Triton ® X-100 on both of the modified electrodes. We propose a model to explain the phenomenon as follows. The surfactant forms a monolayer on the hydrophobic MEtn-modified electrode with strong hydrophobic interaction, and FDH adsorbs on the surface of the surfactant monolayer. The monolayer inhibits the electron transfer from FDH to the electrode. On the other hand, the surfactant forms a bilayer on the hydrophilic MEtOH-modified electrode. The interaction between the surfactant bilayer and the hydrophilic electrode is relatively weak so that FDH replaces the surfactant and is embedded in the bilayer to communicate electrochemically with the hydrophilic electrode

  1. Rhamnolipids--next generation surfactants? (United States)

    Müller, Markus Michael; Kügler, Johannes H; Henkel, Marius; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hörmann, Barbara; Pöhnlein, Martin; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf


    The demand for bio-based processes and materials in the petrochemical industry has significantly increased during the last decade because of the expected running out of petroleum. This trend can be ascribed to three main causes: (1) the increased use of renewable resources for chemical synthesis of already established product classes, (2) the replacement of chemical synthesis of already established product classes by new biotechnological processes based on renewable resources, and (3) the biotechnological production of new molecules with new features or better performances than already established comparable chemically synthesized products. All three approaches are currently being pursued for surfactant production. Biosurfactants are a very promising and interesting substance class because they are based on renewable resources, sustainable, and biologically degradable. Alkyl polyglycosides are chemically synthesized biosurfactants established on the surfactant market. The first microbiological biosurfactants on the market were sophorolipids. Of all currently known biosurfactants, rhamnolipids have the highest potential for becoming the next generation of biosurfactants introduced on the market. Although the metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of biosynthesis are known qualitatively, the quantitative understanding relevant for bioreactor cultivation is still missing. Additionally, high product titers have been exclusively described with vegetable oil as sole carbon source in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Competitive productivity is still out of reach for heterologous hosts or non-pathogenic natural producer strains. Thus, on the one hand there is a need to gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of rhamnolipid production on process and cellular level during bioreactor cultivations. On the other hand, there is a need for metabolizable renewable substrates, which do not compete with food and feed. A sustainable bioeconomy approach should

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Castoldi, Francesca; Fontana, Paola; Cavigioli, Francesco


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Eight consecutive mechanically ventilated term infants with severe ARDS due to MAS underwent BAL with 15 mL/kg of diluted (5.3mg phospholipid/mL) surfactant saline suspension (porcine surfactant [Curosurf]). Treatment was administered slowly in aliquots of 2.5 mL. The mean age of neonates at treatment was 3.5 (range 1-8) hours. Heart rate, systemic blood pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously. Arterial blood gases were measured immediately before treatment, and again at 3 and 6 hours post-treatment. Chest x-rays were taken 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Radiological improvement was evident in all eight patients 6 hours post-treatment. Compared with pre-BAL values, significant improvements (p fluids that had been meconium-stained prior to BAL were clear of meconium after BAL. Only one patient required nitric oxide therapy for transient pulmonary hypertension. No adverse sequelae of treatment occurred during the study. BAL with dilute porcine surfactant administered slowly in 2.5 mL aliquots improved oxygenation and chest x-ray findings, without causing major adverse effects, in mechanically ventilated term infants with ARDS due to MAS.

  3. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler


    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  4. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria (United States)

    Kügler, Johannes H.; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf


    Globally the change towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application. PMID:25852670

  5. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants. (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A


    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina


    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  7. A retrospective evaluation of term infants treated with surfactant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Sürmeli-Onay


    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the clinical and therapeutic characteristics and outcomes of term infants who received surfactant therapy (ST for severe respiratory failure in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Methods: The medical records of term infants (gestational age ≥ 370/7 weeks who received ST between 2003-2012 in NICU of Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children’s Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: During ten years period, 32 term infants received ST; the mean gestational age was 38.1 ± 0.88 wk and the mean birth weight was 2,936 ± 665 g. The underlying lung diseases were severe congenital pneumonia (CP in 13 (40.6%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in 5 (15.6%, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS in 5 (15.6%, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH in 4 (12.5%, respiratory distress syndrome in 3 (9.4% and pulmonary hemorrhage in 2 (6.3% infants. The median time of the first dose of ST was 7.75 (0.5-216 hours. Pulmonary hypertension accompanied the primary lung disease in 9 (28.1% infants. Mortality rate was 25%. Conclusion: In term infants, CP, ARDS and MAS were the main causes of respiratory failure requiring ST. However, further prospective studies are needed for defining optimal strategies of ST in term infants with respiratory failure.

  8. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting. (United States)

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen


    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C 4 E 1 , C 8 E 3 and C 12 E 5 ) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s -1 the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering study of doxorubicin–surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding affinity of doxorubicin within the micelle carrier is enhanced through complex formation of drug and anionic surfactant, aerosol OT (AOT). Electrostatic binding of doxorubicin with negatively charged surfactants leads to the formation of hydrophobic drug–surfactant complexes. Surfactant-induced partitioning of ...

  10. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound. (United States)

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil


    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells in a cultured cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Scott, G.G.


    The functions of pulmonary type II cells, such as synthesis of pulmonary surfactant and metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics, can be studied in primary isolates of lung cells. However, isolated type II cells, when cultured, quickly lose the phenotypic expressions characteristics of type II cells, including surfactant lipid and protein synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. A cultured cell line that maintained expression of type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous for the study of such functions as surfactant synthesis and secretion. Such a cell line would allow generation of a large number of homogeneous cells for study. The purpose of the current study was to induce markers of differentiated type II cells in a cultured cell line to facilitate studies of factors that control surfactant synthesis and secretion

  12. Adsorption of anionic surfactant on porous and nonporous polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yu.; Apel, P.Yu.


    We study the adsorption of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate (SDDD) on three types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates from aqueous solutions of SDDD of different concentrations. Neutral electrolyte (KCl) was added to the solutions to vary the ionic strength. Three types of substrates were used: 1) original PET film; 2) etched nonporous film, obtained from pristine film by chemical etching and bearing negative charge on the surface; 3) etched porous membranes, fabricated from pristine film by ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching. The membranes have negative charge on the flat surface and on the inner pore walls. The comparison shows that the negative charge on the flat surface has weak effect on adsorption of the anionic surfactant, and the SDDD adsorption on the inner walls of pores is much weaker than on flat surface, even if the pore radius is significantly larger than the Debye length. This «exclusion» effect strongly depends on ionic strength of solution. [ru

  13. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawki, Hilal B.; Muhammad, Shakir M.; Reda, Amal N.; Abdulla, Thair S.; Ardalan, Delaram M.


    A 38-year-old Iraqi female, presented with one-year history of exertional dyspnea and exercise intolerance, without systemic or constitutional symptoms. Clinical examination revealed bilateral basal crackles with signs suggestive of left side pleural effusion, chest x-ray showed left sided pleural effusion, and diffuse bilateral basal pulmonary shadowing. Her biochemical analysis, hematological tests, electrocardiogram and echocardiography were normal, aspiration of the fluid revealed a chylothorax, the radiological shadowing was proved by computed tomography scan of the chest to be diffuse cystic lesions involving mostly lower lobes. Open lung biopsy showed dilated lymphatic vessels with surrounding inflammatory cells and smooth muscle fibers consistently with the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. (author)

  14. Insertion of anisotropic particles in lamellar surfactant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Isabelle


    We search for the interactions governing the possibility to mix organic and inorganic colloids. We use laponite, a synthetic anionic clay, made of 30 nm diameter and 1 nm thickness anisotropic disks. Three surfactant Systems, an anionic one (AOT), a cationic one (DDAB) and a nonionic one (C_1_2E_5) investigate three different cases of interaction forces. We establish experimentally the equilibrium phase diagrams and characterise the structure of these ternary Systems by SANS and SAXS experiments. We quantify the adsorption. An AOT bilayer surround the particle edges; an almost complete bilayer of DDAB and C_1_2E_5 is formed on the basal faces. SANS contrast variation experiments under controlled conditions along the adsorption isotherm of C_1_2E_5 allow to determine the average thickness of the adsorbed surfactant layer. In the monophasic lamellar domain, the particles stay between the membranes, when the spacing is larger than the particle thickness. In the biphasic domain, dense clay aggregates are in equilibrium with a lamellar phase, containing few amount of particles. They enter in the AOT bilayers when the space between the bilayers are smaller than 8 A. From the phase diagram and interaction forces study, three conditions of stability emerge: - an osmotic one: the osmotic lamellar pressure is higher or equal to the colloidal one. - an energetic one: the interaction energy between a particle and the surfactant bilayer is close to the particle energy in aqueous suspension. - an entropic one: particles should not inhibit the stabilising fluctuations of the lamellar phase. (author) [fr

  15. Spectrophotometric studies of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Drozdowska


    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea constitute the organic matter from riverine waters discharges as well as the secondary degradation products of marine phytoplankton excretion. They reach the surface microlayer by the upwellings and turbulent motions of water and in the membranes of the vesicles as well as from the atmosphere. To assess concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea, the steady-state spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric measurements of water samples taken from a surface film and a depth of 0.5 m were carried out. Water samples were collected during windless days of the cruise of r/v ‘Oceania’ in November 2012, from the open and the coastal waters having regard to the vicinity of the Vistula and Łeba mouths. In the present paper, fractions of dissolved organic matter having chromophores (CDOM or fluorophores (FDOM are recognized through their specific spectroscopic behavior, i.e., steady-state absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectra. The steady-state spectroscopic measurements revealed the CDOM and FDOM molecules characteristic to both the land and marine origin. Moreover, the concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants significantly depend on the distance from the river mouth. Finally, higher values of absorbance and fluorescence intensity observed in a surface film in comparison to these values in a depth of 0.5 m clearly suggest the higher concentration of organic matter in a marine film. On the other hand, our results revealed that a surface microlayer is composed of the same CDOM and FDOM as bulk water.

  16. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pietralik

    Full Text Available The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration, they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp and siRNA (21 bp. The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16. On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain.

  17. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail:


    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar


    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  19. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  20. Circulação extracorpórea por membrana (ECMO em recém-nascido com insuficiência respiratória por síndrome de aspiração meconial: efeitos da administração de surfactante exógeno Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in a neonate with respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration syndrome: Effect of the administration of exogenous surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Maksoud-Filho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar a evolução clínica de recém-nascido portador de insuficiência respiratória grave neonatal secundária à Sindrome de Aspiração Meconial tratado por Circulação Extracorpórea por Membrana, ou, conforme o termo consagrado em língua inglesa, ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, o efeito do uso de surfactante exógeno neste caso e os custos do procedimento. MÉTODOS: Descrição de um caso de Síndrome de Aspiração Meconial, tratado na UCINE (Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais do Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcantara, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: O suporte extracorpóreo teve a duração de 5 dias, sem complicações clínicas ou mecânicas. Surfactante exógeno de origem porcina foi administrado no 4o dia, após o quê observamos uma melhora significativa na complacência pulmonar. O recém-nascido pôde então ser rapidamente decanulado. Os custos do tratamento foram compatíveis com a realidade nacional em relação a um recém-nascido criticamente enfermo. CONCLUSÕES: a ECMO é indicada em casos de insuficiência respiratória neonatal que não respondam a outros tratamentos existentes. Deve ser disponível em Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo (UTIs neonatais de hospitais terciários e ser empregada conforme critérios bem estabelecidos. A utilização de surfactante exógeno aparentemente antecipou a retirada da ECMO e, portanto, deve ser considerada em casos semelhantes. Os custos do tratamento justificam a organização de Equipes de ECMO nessas UTIs.OBJECTIVES: to present the clinical outcome of a newborn with severe respiratory distress secondary to meconium aspiration syndrome and treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; and to present the effect of the use of exogenous surfactant in this case and the cost of the procedure. METHODS: Case report of a newborn with meconium aspiration syndrome and treated at the neonatal ICU of the

  1. Pulmonary complications of endocrine and metabolic disorders. (United States)

    Milla, Carlos E; Zirbes, Jacquelyn


    There are many important respiratory manifestations of endocrine and metabolic diseases in children. Acute and chronic pulmonary infections are the most common respiratory abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus, although cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are also possible. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 may be indistinguishable from cystic fibrosis (CF) unless serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and urinary electrolytes are measured and mutation analysis rules out CF. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism may alter lung function and affect the central respiratory drive. The thyroid hormone plays an essential role in lung development, surfactant synthesis, and lung defence. Complications of hypoparathyroidism are largely due to hypocalcaemia. Laryngospasm can lead to stridor and airway obstruction. Ovarian tumours, benign or malignant, may present with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusions. Metabolic storage disorders, primarily as a consequence of lysosomal dysfunction from enzymatic deficiencies, constitute a diverse group of rare conditions that can have profound effects on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... more members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  5. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  6. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers




    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  7. Surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids. (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J


    Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions such as temperature and increased osmolarity, such as occur in dry eye, on these properties. Human meibomian lipids were spread on an artificial tear solution in a Langmuir trough. The lipid films were compressed and expanded to record the surface pressure-area (Π-A) isocycles. The isocycles were recorded under different physical conditions such as high pressure, increasing concentration and size of divalent cations, increasing osmolarity, and varying temperature. Π-A isocycles of meibomian lipids showed that they form liquid films that are compressible and multilayered. The isocycles were unaffected by increasing concentration or size of divalent cations and increasing osmolarity in the subphase. Temperature had a marked effect on the lipids. Increase in temperature caused lipid films to become fluid, an expected feature, but decrease in temperature unexpectedly caused expansion of lipids and an increase in pressure suggesting enhanced surfactant properties. Human meibomian lipids form highly compressible, non-collapsible, multilayered liquid films. These lipids have surfactants that allow them to spread across an aqueous subphase. Their surfactant properties are unaffected by increasing divalent cations or hyperosmolarity but are sensitive to temperature. Cooling of meibomian lipids enhances their surfactant properties.

  8. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  9. Diesel exhaust particulate material expression of in vitro genotoxic activities when dispersed into a phospholipid component of lung surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X C; Keane, M J; Ong, T M; Harrison, J C; Slaven, J E; Bugarski, A D; Gautam, M; Wallace, W E, E-mail: mjk3@cdc.go [US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell chromosomal and DNA damage in vitro assays were performed on a diesel exhaust particulate material (DPM) standard in two preparations: as an organic solvent extract, and as an aqueous dispersion in a simulated pulmonary surfactant. U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology DPM SRM 2975 expressed mutagenic activity in the Salmonella reversion assay, and for in vitro genotoxicity to mammalian cells as micronucleus induction and as DNA damage in both preparations: as an acetone extract of the DPM mixed into dimethylsulfoxide, and as a mixture of whole DPM in a dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. Dispersion in surfactant was used to model the conditioning of DPM depositing on the deep respiratory airways of the lung. DPM solid residue after acetone extraction was inactive when assayed as a surfactant dispersion in the micronucleus induction assay, as was surfactant dispersion of a respirable particulate carbon black. In general, a given mass of the DPM in surfactant dispersion expressed greater activity than the solvent extract of an equal mass of DPM.

  10. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batigoec, Cigdem; Akbas, Halide; Boz, Mesut


    Highlights: → Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. → Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. → Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. → The positive values of ΔG cp 0 indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-α-ω-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C 16 alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG cp 0 ), the enthalpy (ΔH cp 0 ) and the entropy (ΔS cp 0 ) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy (ΔG cp 0 ) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic surfactants; however, it decreased with increasing surfactant concentration.

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  12. Solvation thermodynamics of phenylalcohols in lamellar phase surfactant dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniak, A.; Scheuermann, R.; Dilger, H.; Tucker, I.M.; Burkert, T.; Hashmi, A.S.K.; Vujosevic', D.; Roduner, E.


    The distribution and the stability of five phenylalcohols in a lamellar phase composed of simple bilayers separated by water at 298 and 348K is explored using avoided-level-crossing muon-spin resonance (ALC-μSR). The dependence of the alignment of the bilayer chains on temperature appears to be a crucial factor determining the phenylalcohol partitioning: increasing order of the surfactant tails leads to expulsion of the solute. Moreover, we observed a systematic trend, the longer the chain the deeper the phenyl group dips into the lipid bilayer. Recent studies have shown that the hydrophobic effect is adequate to describe membrane partitioning of small amphiphilic molecules. The solvation thermodynamic properties ΔG sol , ΔH sol , and ΔS sol which determine the solute transfer from the double layer into water prove that the distribution also strongly depends on shape, chemical nature and different structure of phenylalcohols

  13. Solvation thermodynamics of phenylalcohols in lamellar phase surfactant dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniak, A. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Scheuermann, R. [Laboratory for muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dilger, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Tucker, I.M. [Unilever Research and Development, Port Sunlight, Wirral CH63 3JW (United Kingdom); Burkert, T. [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hashmi, A.S.K. [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Vujosevic' , D. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Roduner, E. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail:


    The distribution and the stability of five phenylalcohols in a lamellar phase composed of simple bilayers separated by water at 298 and 348K is explored using avoided-level-crossing muon-spin resonance (ALC-{mu}SR). The dependence of the alignment of the bilayer chains on temperature appears to be a crucial factor determining the phenylalcohol partitioning: increasing order of the surfactant tails leads to expulsion of the solute. Moreover, we observed a systematic trend, the longer the chain the deeper the phenyl group dips into the lipid bilayer. Recent studies have shown that the hydrophobic effect is adequate to describe membrane partitioning of small amphiphilic molecules. The solvation thermodynamic properties {delta}G{sub sol}, {delta}H{sub sol}, and {delta}S{sub sol} which determine the solute transfer from the double layer into water prove that the distribution also strongly depends on shape, chemical nature and different structure of phenylalcohols.

  14. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuki, K.T.; Sudibyo, R.; Bambang EHB; Muhadi, A.W.


    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (Kd eksU ) 57 %, and (Kd strippU ) 87 %, Kd eksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  15. Economic evaluation of the use of exogenous pulmonary surfactants in preterm newborns in a Mexican population Evaluación económica de la utilización de surfactantes pulmonares exógenos en recién nacidos pretérmino en población mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salinas-Escudero


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER were MXN$136670 per LYG and MXN$125250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.OBJETIVO: Estimar la razón de costo efectividad incremental del tratamiento de surfactante de rescate en pacientes pretérmino con Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria (SDR cubiertos por el Seguro Médico para una Nueva Generación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Evaluación de costo-efectividad desde la perspectiva del tercer pagador. Los comparadores fueron la terapia de surfactante bovino y la alternativa de no emplear ésta. Se utilizó un árbol de decisión que consideró la esperanza de vida como horizonte temporal y las medidas de efectividad fueron los años de vida ganados (AVG y los años de vida ajustados por calidad de vida ( AVAC.Resultados en pesos mexicanos del 2009. RESULTADOS: Las RCEI por AVG y AVAC fueron de MXN$136670 y MXN$125250. CONCLUSIÓN: La razón de costo por AVG y AVAC para la terapia de surfactantes en pacientes prematuros con SDR en México fue menor a tres veces el PIB per cápita, por lo que es una estrategia costo-efectiva seg

  16. Degradation of surfactants by sono-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, M.; Grieser, F.; Vinodgopal, K.


    Full text: The ultrasound induced decomposition of a commercially available polydisperse nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant (Teric GN9) has been investigated. Nearly 90% mineralization and/or degradation into volatile products of the surfactant is achieved after sonication for 24 hours. Ultrasound has been found to be a useful tool to achieve a number of chemical processes. Linear and branched alkyl benzene sulfonates and alkyl nonylphenol ethoxylates are widely used surfactants which accumulated in the environment and contribute to a well-recognised pollution problem. We have investigated the use of ultrasound in the degradation of both types of surfactants with the aim of understanding the mechanism of degradation in order to optimise the decomposition process. In this presentation, we report on the sonochemical degradation of Teric GN9- polydisperse, a nonylphenol ethoxylate with an average of 9 ethylene oxide units. The ultrasound unit used for the degradation studies of the surfactant solutions was an Allied Signal (ELAC Nautik) RF generator and transducer with a plate diameter of 54.5 mm operated at 363 kHz in continuous wave mode at an intensity of 2 W/cm 2 . Ultrasound induced cavitation events generate primary radicals inside gas/vapour filled bubbles. Due to the extreme conditions (T ∼ 5000 K; P ∼ 100 atm) generated within the collapsing bubble, H and OH radicals are produced by the homolysis of water molecules, if water is the medium of sonication. These primary radicals attack the surfactant molecules adsorbed at the bubble/water interface. The initial rate of reaction of the surfactant was found to be dependent on the monomer concentration in solution below and above the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. This result strongly suggests that the initial radical attack on the surfactants occurs at the cavitation bubble/solution interface, followed by oxidative decomposition and pyrolysis of volatile fragments of the surfactant within

  17. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV

  18. Open lung ventilation preserves the response to delayed surfactant treatment in surfactant-deficient newborn piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lutter, René; Lachmann, Burkhard


    OBJECTIVE: Delayed surfactant treatment (>2 hrs after birth) is less effective than early treatment in conventionally ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate if this time-dependent efficacy of surfactant treatment is also present

  19. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  20. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina


    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current

  1. The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders. (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J


    Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or lungs in different groups of fishes is an example of convergent evolution. We propose that air breathing could not occur without the presence of a surfactant system and suggest that this system may have originated in epithelial cells lining the pharynx. Here we present new data on the surfactant system in swim bladders of three teleost fish (the air-breathing pirarucu Arapaima gigas and tarpon Megalops cyprinoides and the non-air-breathing New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus). We determined the presence of surfactant using biochemical, biophysical, and morphological analyses and determined homology using immunohistochemical analysis of the surfactant proteins (SPs). We relate the presence and structure of the surfactant system to those previously described in the swim bladders of another teleost, the goldfish, and those of the air-breathing organs of the other members of the Osteichthyes, the more primitive air-breathing Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii. Snapper and tarpon swim bladders are lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelial cells, respectively, containing membrane-bound lamellar bodies. Phosphatidylcholine dominates the phospholipid (PL) profile of lavage material from all fish analyzed to date. The presence of the characteristic surfactant lipids in pirarucu and tarpon, lamellar bodies in tarpon and snapper, SP-B in tarpon and pirarucu lavage, and SPs (A, B, and D) in swim bladder tissue of the tarpon provide strong evidence that the surfactant system of teleosts is homologous with that of other fish and of tetrapods. This study is the first demonstration of the presence of SP-D in the air-breathing organs of nonmammalian species and SP-B in actinopterygian

  2. An Underwater Superoleophobic Sepiolite Fibrous Membrane (SFM) for Oil­‐in­‐water Emulsion Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Pinjiang


    Separating oil/water emulsions is significant for the ecosystem and the petroleum and processing industry. To this end, we prepared an underwater superoleophobic membrane inspired by unique wettability of the fish scales. This membrane was fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration process of sepiolite nanofibers and chitosan, and after the cross-linking via glutaraldehyde, a self-standing membrane was obtained. The as-prepared membrane exhibited excellent capability of separating both the surfactant-free and surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high efficiency. This sepiolite fibrous membrane offers a convenient, reliable and efficient way for the large-scale de-emulsification process.

  3. Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102. (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Bobo; Lu, Liping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Ganrong


    The production of pigments by Monascus spp. has attracted increasing attention. Modification of the cell membrane structure by addition of surfactants has proved to be effective for the secretion of intracellular metabolites. Hence in this study the effects and underlying mechanism of surfactants on the production of pigments in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102 were systematically investigated. Various surfactants exerted significant but different impacts on the biomass and production of pigments. The maximum production of pigment (304.3 U mL(-1) ) and highest extracellular/intracellular pigment ratio (1.46) were achieved when 15 g L(-1) Triton X-100 was added at 24 h of fermentation, corresponding to significant increases of 88.4 and 240% respectively compared with the control. Meanwhile, the concentration of citrinin (0.94 mg L(-1) ) was 20.6% lower than that of the control. A further study on the fatty acid composition of M. purpureus H1102 showed that the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the index of unsaturated fatty acid increased significantly with the addition of Triton X-100. The addition of surfactant Triton X-100 could greatly enhance the production of pigment. It was suggested that Triton X-100 facilitated the secretion of intracellular pigment and therefore enhanced pigment production accordingly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel for reversal of multidrug resistance. (United States)

    Ji, Xiufeng; Gao, Yu; Chen, Lingli; Zhang, Zhiwen; Deng, Yihui; Li, Yaping


    Three new nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel (PTX) (NLPs) were prepared to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in PTX-resistance human lung cancer cell line. Three non-ionic surfactants, Solutol HS 15 (HS-15), pluronic F68 (PF-68) and cremophor EL (CrEL) were inserted into liposomes by film hydration method to form NLPs with an average size of around 110, 180 and 110 nm, respectively. There was an obvious increase of rhodamin 123 (Rh123) accumulation in A549/T cells after treated with nanohybrid systems loading Rh123 (NLRs) when compared with free Rh123 or liposomes loading Rh123 without surfactants (LRs), which indicated the significant inhibition effects of NLRs on drug efflux. The P-gp detection and ATP determination demonstrated that BNLs could not only interfere P-gp expression on the membrane of drug resistant cells, but also decrease ATP level in the cells. The cytotoxicity of NLPs against A549/T cells was higher than PTX loaded liposomes without surfactants (LPs), and the best result was achieved after treated with NLPs2. The apoptotic assay and the cell cycle analysis showed that NLPs could induce more apoptotic cells in drug resistant cells when compared with LPs. These results suggested that NLPs could overcome MDR by combination of drug delivery, P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion, and showed potential for treatment of MDR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrathin nanofibrous films prepared from cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants. (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Karan, Santanu; Ichinose, Izumi


    We developed a simple fabrication method of ultrathin nanofibrous films from the dispersion of cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants. The nanostrands were prepared in a dilute aqueous solution of cadmium chloride by using 2-aminoethanol. They were highly positively charged and gave bundlelike fibers upon mixing an aqueous solution of anionic surfactant. The nanostrand/surfactant composite fibers were filtered on an inorganic membrane filter. The resultant nanofibrous film was very uniform in the area of a few centimeters square when the thickness was not less than 60 nm. The films obtained with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) had a composition close to the electroneutral complex, [Cd37(OH)68(H2O)n] x 6(STS), as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. They were water-repellent with a contact angle of 117 degrees, and the value slightly decreased with the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants. Ultrathin nanofibrous films were stable enough to be used for ultrafiltration at pressure difference of 90 kPa. We could effectively separate Au nanoparticles of 40 nm at an extremely high filtration rate of 14000 L/(h m2 bar).

  6. History of surfactant up to 1980. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Remarkable insight into disturbed lung mechanics of preterm infants was gained in the 18th and 19th century by the founders of obstetrics and neonatology who not only observed respiratory failure but also designed devices to treat it. Surfactant research followed a splendid and largely logical growth curve. Pathological changes in the immature lung were characterized in Germany by Virchow in 1854 and by Hochheim in 1903. The Swiss physiologist von Neergard fully understood surfactant function in 1929, but his paper was ignored for 25 years. The physical properties of surfactant were recognized in the early 1950s from research on warfare chemicals by Pattle in Britain and by Radford and Clements in the United States. The causal relationship of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and surfactant deficiency was established in the USA by Avery and Mead in 1959. The Australian obstetrician Liggins induced lung maturity with glucocorticoids in 1972, but his discovery was not fully believed for another 20 years. A century of basic research was rewarded when Fujiwara introduced surfactant substitution in Japan in 1980 for treatment and prevention of RDS. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers. (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E


    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  8. Surfactant use with nitrate-based bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.H.; Hutchins, S.R.; West, C.C.


    This study presents results of an initial survey on the effect of six surfactants on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in bioremediation applications using nitrate as the electron acceptor. Aquifer material from Park City, Kansas, was used for the study. The three atomic surfactants chosen were Steol CS-330, Dowfax 8390 and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS); the three nonionic surfactants were T-MAZ-60, Triton X-100, and Igepal CO-660. Both Steol CS-330 and T-MAZ-60 biodegraded under denitrifying conditions. The Steol inhibited biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes (BTEXTMB). Only toluene was rapidly degraded in the presence of T-MAZ-60. Biodegradation of all compounds, including toluene, appears to be inhibited by Dowfax 8390 and SDBS. No biodegradation of Dowfax 8390 or SDBS was observed. SDBS inhibited denitrification, but Dowfax 8390 did not. For the microcosms containing Triton X-100 or Igepal CO-660, removal of toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, 1,3,5-TMB, and 1,2,4-TMB were similar to their removals in the no-surfactant treatment. These two surfactants did not biodegrade, did not inhibit biodegradation of the alkylbenzenes, and did not inhibit denitrification. Further studies are continuing with aquifer material from Eglin Air Force Base

  9. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  10. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir


    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  11. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri


    Full Text Available Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation. A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group. In the second group (INSURE group, surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage, PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005 in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01 in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively. This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to

  12. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcaterra, G.; Lam, J.; Losekoot, T.G.


    The authors performed retrograde pulmonary arteriography by means of a pulmonary venous wedge injection in 10 patients with no demonstrable intrapericardial pulmonary arteries by 'conventional' angiographic techniques. In all cases but one, the procedure demonstrated the feasibility of a further operation. No complications were observed. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography is an important additional method for determining the existence of surgically accessible pulmonary arteries when other techniques have failed. (Auth.)

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    , thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...... be resistant to and remain active at reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and salinities. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true...... studied. The effect of increased pressure became more significant when combined with increasing temperature. The experiments performed on the oil/ seawater systems were similar to the high pressure experiments for the surfactant system discussed above. Oil was contacted with different brine solutions...

  14. Surfactant mediated liquid phase exfoliation of graphene (United States)

    Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk


    Commercialization of graphene based applications inevitably requires cost effective mass production. From the early days of research on graphene, direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite has been considered as the most promising strategy to produce high-quality mono or few-layer graphene sheets in solvent dispersion forms. Substantial success has been achieved thus far in the LPE of graphene employing numerous solvent systems and suitable surfactants. This invited review article principally showcase the recent research progress as well as shortcomings of surfactant assisted LPE of graphene. In particular, a comprehensive assessment of the quality and yield of the graphene sheets produced by different categories of the surfactants are summarized. Future direction of LPE methods is also proposed for the eventual success of commercial applications.

  15. Preparation of mesoporous nanofibers by vapor phase synthesis: control of mesopore structures with the aid of co-surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Sa Hoon; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin; Bae, Joonwon


    Mesoporous nanofibers (MSNFs) can be fabricated in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using diverse methods. Among them vapor phase synthesis (VPS) provides several advantages over sol–gel or evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) based methods. One powerful advantage is that we can employ multiple surfactants as structural directing agents (SDAs) simultaneously. By adopting diverse pairs of SDAs, we can control the mesopore structures, i.e. pore size, surface area, and even the morphology of mesostructures. Here, we used F127 as a main SDA, which is relatively robust (thus, difficult to change the mesopore structures), and added a series of cationic co-surfactants to observe the systematical changes in their mesostructure with respect to the chain length of the co-surfactant. (paper)

  16. Preparation of mesoporous nanofibers by vapor phase synthesis: control of mesopore structures with the aid of co-surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sa Hoon; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Shinlimdong 56-1, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Joonwon [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of)


    Mesoporous nanofibers (MSNFs) can be fabricated in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using diverse methods. Among them vapor phase synthesis (VPS) provides several advantages over sol-gel or evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) based methods. One powerful advantage is that we can employ multiple surfactants as structural directing agents (SDAs) simultaneously. By adopting diverse pairs of SDAs, we can control the mesopore structures, i.e. pore size, surface area, and even the morphology of mesostructures. Here, we used F127 as a main SDA, which is relatively robust (thus, difficult to change the mesopore structures), and added a series of cationic co-surfactants to observe the systematical changes in their mesostructure with respect to the chain length of the co-surfactant. (paper)

  17. Preparation of mesoporous nanofibers by vapor phase synthesis: control of mesopore structures with the aid of co-surfactants (United States)

    Min, Sa Hoon; Bae, Joonwon; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin


    Mesoporous nanofibers (MSNFs) can be fabricated in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using diverse methods. Among them vapor phase synthesis (VPS) provides several advantages over sol-gel or evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) based methods. One powerful advantage is that we can employ multiple surfactants as structural directing agents (SDAs) simultaneously. By adopting diverse pairs of SDAs, we can control the mesopore structures, i.e. pore size, surface area, and even the morphology of mesostructures. Here, we used F127 as a main SDA, which is relatively robust (thus, difficult to change the mesopore structures), and added a series of cationic co-surfactants to observe the systematical changes in their mesostructure with respect to the chain length of the co-surfactant.

  18. Challenges in analysing and visualizing large-scale molecular dynamics simulations: domain and defect formation in lung surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Villuendas, E; Baoukina, S; Tieleman, D P


    Molecular dynamics simulations have rapidly grown in size and complexity, as computers have become more powerful and molecular dynamics software more efficient. Using coarse-grained models like MARTINI system sizes of the order of 50 nm × 50 nm × 50 nm can be simulated on commodity clusters on microsecond time scales. For simulations of biological membranes and monolayers mimicking lung surfactant this enables large-scale transformation and complex mixtures of lipids and proteins. Here we use a simulation of a monolayer with three phospholipid components, cholesterol, lung surfactant proteins, water, and ions on a ten microsecond time scale to illustrate some current challenges in analysis. In the simulation, phase separation occurs followed by formation of a bilayer fold in which lipids and lung surfactant protein form a highly curved structure in the aqueous phase. We use Voronoi analysis to obtain detailed physical properties of the different components and phases, and calculate local mean and Gaussian curvatures of the bilayer fold.

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  20. Early surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways ... required FiO2 was allowed to rise above 0.4 before surfactant was administered. ... group received surfactant immediately and the high-threshold group ...

  1. The influence of nonionic surfactant Brij 30 on biodegradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2010 ... polluted air stream using biological process is highly efficient and has low ... Brij 30 was the most biodegradable surfactant among Brij 30, Tween 80 and ... The filter material contained surfactants that would enhance the ...

  2. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi


    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  3. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.


    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering

  4. Characterization of a Biomimetic Mesophase Composed of Nonionic Surfactants and an Aqueous Solvent. (United States)

    Adrien, V; Rayan, G; Reffay, M; Porcar, L; Maldonado, A; Ducruix, A; Urbach, W; Taulier, N


    We have investigated the physical and biomimetic properties of a sponge (L 3 ) phase composed of pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C 12 E 5 ), a nonionic surfactant, an aqueous solvent, and a cosurfactant. The following cosurfactants, commonly used for solubilizing membrane proteins, were incorporated: n-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (β-OG), n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside (DDM), 4-cyclohexyl-1-butyl-β-d-maltoside (CYMAL-4), and 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-d-maltoside (CYMAL-5). Partial phase diagrams of these systems were created. The L 3 phase was characterized using crossed polarizers, diffusion of a fluorescent probe by fluorescence recovery after pattern photobleaching (FRAPP), and freeze fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). By varying the hydration of the phase, we were able to tune the distance between adjacent bilayers. The characteristic distance (d b ) of the phase was obtained from small angle scattering (SAXS/SANS) as well as from FFEM, which yielded complementary d b values. These d b values were neither affected by the nature of the cosurfactant nor by the addition of membrane proteins. These findings illustrate that a biomimetic surfactant sponge phase can be created in the presence of several common membrane protein-solubilizing detergents, thus making it a versatile medium for membrane protein studies.

  5. Adsorption of anionic surfactants in limestone medium during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbolat, Serhat; Bagci, Suat [Middle East Technical Univ., Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)


    Foam-forming surfactant performance was evaluated by several experimental methods (interfacial tension, foam stability, corefloods) using commercial surfactants. There is considerable interest in the use of foam-forming surfactants for mobility control in water flood. To provide effective mobility control, the injected surfactant must propagate from the injection well toward the production well. One of the important parameters affecting propagation of foam-forming surfactant through the reservoir is the retention of surfactant due to its adsorption on reservoir rock. The determination of the adsorption of foam-forming surfactants in limestone reservoirs is important for the residual oil recovery efficiency. Adsorption measurements, recovery efficiencies, and surfactant and alkaline flooding experiments carried out with the representative of the selected surfactants alkaline solutions, linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABSA), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), and NaOH in a limestone medium. These surfactants were selected with respect to their foaming ability. Calibration curves formed by pH measurements were used to determine the correct adsorption amount of the used surfactants and recovery efficiency of these surfactants compared with base waterflooding. The results showed that LABSA adsorbed more than SLES in limestone reservoirs. The recovery efficiency of SLES was higher than the recovery efficiency of LABSA, and they decreased the recovery efficiency with respect to only the water injection case. (Author)

  6. The Inhibiting or Accelerating Effect of Different Surfactants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The course of differential capacity curves of the electric double layer at the mercury electrode/surfactant solution interface was described for three different surfactants from different groups. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) it was found that the surfactants had a varying effect on the kinetics of electroreduction of Zn2+ ...

  7. Pulmonary biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, R.D.


    Regeneration of vitamin E from its intermediate oxidation product, the chromanoxyl radical, was studied as a heat-labile, vitamin E-dependent antioxidant activity of glutathione in delaying peroxidation of a microsomal fraction of liver and lung in vitro. The characteristics of this system are consistent with an enzyme-catalyzed reaction between glutathione and the chromanoxyl radical. We have developed a method of labeling the vitamin E of microsomes with tracer amounts of tritiated α-tocopherol. The oxidation of tocopherol can thus be monitored coincidentally with the peroxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acid peroxidation is monitored by spectrophotometrically measuring malondialdehyde and oxidation of vitamin E is monitored by extracting and chromatographing the radiolabelled vitamin E in a system which separates -tocopherol from its oxidation products. We have found that the presence of glutathione in this system retards both peroxidation of membrane phospholipids and oxidation of membrane-associated α-tocopherol, with a time sequence that is consistent with regeneration of vitamin E by reduction of the chromanoxyl radical by glutathione

  8. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants (United States)

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro


    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F6OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F6OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F6OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research.Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and

  9. MFAP4: a candidate biomarker for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis? (United States)

    Mölleken, Christian; Poschmann, Gereon; Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich; Sitek, Barbara; Stühler, Kai; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmiegel, Wolff H; Marcussen, Niels; Helmer, Michael; Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Søren; Schlosser, Anders; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke


    Several comparable mechanisms have been identified for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. The human microfibrillar associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), produced by activated myofibroblasts, is a ubiquitous protein playing a potential role in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and was recently identified as biomarker for hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. The current study aimed to evaluate serum levels of MFAP4 in patients with pulmonary fibrosis in order to test its potential as biomarker in clinical practice. A further aim was to determine whether MFAP4 deficiency in mice affects the formation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. 91 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 23 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and 31 healthy subjects were studied. In the mouse model, C57BL/6 Mfap4+/+ and Mfap4-/- mice between 6-8 weeks of age were studied. Serum levels of MFAP4 were measured by ELISA in patients and in mice. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and LDH were measured as comparison biomarkers in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Morphometric assessment and the Sircol kit were used to determine the amount of collagen in the lung tissue in the mouse model. Serum levels of MFAP4 were not elevated in lung fibrosis - neither in the patients with IPF or HP nor in the animal model. Furthermore no significant correlations with pulmonary function tests of IPF patients could be found for MFAP4. MFAP4 levels were increased in BAL of bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. MFAP4 is not elevated in sera of patients with pulmonary fibrosis or bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. This may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms of liver and lung fibrogenesis. MFAP4 seems to be useful as serum biomarker for hepatic but not for lung fibrosis.

  10. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.


    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga

  11. The effect of novel surfactants and Solutol HS 15 on paclitaxel aqueous solubility and permeability across a Caco-2 monolayer. (United States)

    Alani, Adam W G; Rao, Deepa A; Seidel, Ron; Wang, Jian; Jiao, Jim; Kwon, Glen S


    The effect of novel surfactants on the aqueous solubility and the permeability of paclitaxel across a Caco-2 cell monolayer were examined in this work. The solubility and permeability of paclitaxel was evaluated in the presence of four soft surfactants (SS) KXN441, KXN424, KXN437, and KXN 337 and Solutol HS15. All surfactants increased the aqueous solubility of paclitaxel. Caco-2 cell membrane integrity in the presence of SS and Solutol HS15 was assessed by mannitol permeability and LDH release. All surfactants were tested at 0.5x CMC, 5x CMC and 1.5 mM concentrations. The effect of SSs on paclitaxel permeability was concentration dependent. At all concentrations tested, KXN 441 and Solutol HS 15 showed partially inhibition of drug efflux with no discernable change in mannitol permeability or cytotoxicity as observed with LDH release. At these concentrations, other SSs exhibited some partial efflux inhibition along with compromised membrane integrity and increasing mannitol permeability. In conclusion, all SSs were able to increase the aqueous solubility and permeability of paclitaxel across Caco-2 cells monolayer. However, KXN441 and Solutol HS15 were able to enhance paclitaxel permeability across Caco-2 monolayer without cytotoxicity. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  12. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masakorala, Kanaji [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga.

  13. Surfactants, interfaces and pores : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, H.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of surfactants in porous media by theoretical means. The influence of curvature of a surface on the adsorption has been studied with a mean field lattice (MFL) model, as developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. An analytical theory has been

  14. Influence of surfactant concentration on nanohydroxyapatite growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanohydroxyapatite particles with different morphologies were synthesized through a microwave coupled hydrothermal method using CTAB as a template. A successful synthesis of nanosized HAP spheres, rods and fibres is achieved through this method by controlling the concentration of the surfactant. The concentration ...

  15. of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRl) on the outcome of ... oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of ... The use of SRT added to the total cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD.

  16. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.


    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  17. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.


    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  18. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory Mechanics. Shweta Saxena. Research News Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 91-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.


    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  20. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.


    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  1. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  2. Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at interfaces (United States)

    Rojas, Orlando Jose

    Surface tension and high-resolution laser light scattering experiments were used to investigate the adsorption of isomeric sugar-based surfactants at the air/liquid interface in terms of surfactant surface packing and rheology. Soluble monolayers of submicellar surfactant solutions exhibited a relatively viscous behavior. It was also proved that light scattering of high-frequency thermally-induced capillary waves can be utilized to study surfactant exchange between the surface and the bulk solution. Such analysis revealed the existence of a diffusional relaxation mechanism. A procedure based on XPS was developed for quantification, on an absolute basis, of polymer adsorption on mica and Langmuir-Blodgett cellulose films. The adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on negatively-charged solid surfaces was highly dependent on the polymer ionicity. It was found that the adsorption process is driven by electrostatic mechanisms. Charge overcompensation (or charge reversal) of mica occurred after adsorption of polyelectrolytes of ca. 50% charge density, or higher. It was demonstrated that low-charge-density polyelectrolytes adsorb on solid surfaces with an extended configuration dominated by loops and tails. In this case the extent of adsorption is limited by steric constraints. The conformation of the polyelectrolyte in the adsorbed layer is dramatically affected by the presence of salts or surfactants in aqueous solution. The phenomena which occur upon increasing the ionic strength are consistent with the screening of the electrostatic attraction between polyelectrolyte segments and solid surface. This situation leads to polyelectrolyte desorption accompanied by both an increase in the layer thickness and the range of the steric force. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants readily associate at the solid/liquid interface. Such association induces polyelectrolyte desorption at a surfactant concentration which depends on the polyelectrolyte charge

  3. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  4. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)


    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)


    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  6. Surfactant Sensors in Biotechnology; Part 1 – Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sak-Bosnar


    Full Text Available An overview on electrochemical surfactant sensors is given with special attention to papers published since 1993. The importance of surfactants in modern biotechnology is stressed out. Electrochemical sensors are usually divided according to the measured physical quantity to potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric and impedimetric surfactant sensors. The last ones are very few. Potentiometric surfactant sensors are the most numerous due to their simplicity and versatility. They can be used either as end-point titration sensors or as direct EMF measurement sensors, in batch or flow-through mode. Some amperometric surfactant sensors are true biosensors that use microorganisms or living cells.

  7. Efficiency of Combined Use of a Surfactant and the «Lung Opening» Maneuver in the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vlasenko


    Full Text Available The paper discusses whether the «lung opening» maneuver in combination with the endobronchial administration of a pulmonary surfactant can be used in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS of various genesis. The authors outline data of their studies of the separate use of both methods and present the results of successful treatment in a patient with severe concomitant injury and posttraumatic ARDS in the combined use of the «lung opening» maneuver and Surfactant-BL. With intensive care, the combined use of these methods is a more effective way of improving gas exchange as compared with their use alone. Key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant-BL, «lung opening» maneuver, combined use of both methods.

  8. Effects of simulated microgravity on surfactant and water balance of lung in animals with different resistance to stress (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina; Vasilieva, Natalia

    Weightlessness is accompanied by redistribution of blood flow in lung, changes of lung volumes and gas exchange (Prisk et al., 2002; Grigoriev, Baranov, 2003). On the other hand, it is known that microgravity is considered as a kind of moderate stress (Grigoriev et al., 2004). Stress response may differ in animals resistant or vulnerable to stress (Sudakov, 2007). To study the effects of simulated microgravity upon lung, we used 20 male albino rats tested for behavior in the "open field" and than divided into active (stress resistant - SR ) and passive (stress vulnerable - CV) groups. Two mouse lines were used with similar goal - C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice (n=16). According to data obtained earlier, BALB/c mice referred as more stress vulnerable, in contrast to C57BL/6 mice, which are considered to be relatively stress resistant (Flint et al., 2007). We have previously shown that changes in lung surfactant system after psychosocial stress or long-term immobilization are less pronounced in stress resistant rats (Vasilieva, Bryndina, 2012). The aim of this work is to study the properties and biochemical composition of pulmonary surfactant and lung water balance in rats and mice with different stress resistance in antiorthostatic suspension (AOS) of short and long duration. Simulated microgravity was reproduced according to procedure of Ilyin-Novikov in modification of Morey-Holton. The duration of exposure was 10 days for rats and 30 days for mice. The properties of pulmonary surfactant were assessed by the evaluation of surface activity (surface tension - ST), the content of total phospholipids (PL) and their fractions. Simultaneously we calculated the gravimetric water balance indices: lung coefficient, "dry residue" and wet-to-dry ratio. Total and extravascular lung fluid and pulmonary blood supply were estimated as well. The experiments demonstrated that there was a decrease of surface tension of surfactant films after 10-day AOS in both groups of rats (to a greater

  9. Cerebral aspects of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.C. de; Liem, K.D.; Heijst, A.F.J. van


    Background: Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapeutic approach in newborns suffering from severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory insufficiency, mostly complicated by neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension. However, cerebral damage, intracerebral

  10. Effects of Surfactant on Geotechnical Characteristics of Silty Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Z.A.; Sahibin, A.R.; Lihan, T.; Idris, W.M.R.; Sakina, M.


    Surfactants are often used as a cleaning agent for restoration of oil-contaminated soil. However the effect of surfactant on the geotechnical properties of soil is not clearly understood. In this study, the effects of surfactant on silty soil were investigated for consistency index, compaction, permeability and shear strength. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in this study to prepare the surfactant-treated soil. Our results showed that the soil with added surfactant exhibited a decrease in liquid and plastic limit values. Maximum dry densities increased and optimum moisture contents decreased as contents of added surfactant were increased. The presence of surfactant assists the soil to achieve maximum density at lower water content. The addition of surfactant decreased the permeability of soil from 6.29 x 10 -4 to 1.15 x 10 -4 ms -1 . The shear strength of soil with added surfactant was examined using the undrained unconsolidated triaxial tests. The results showed that the undrained shear strength, Cu was significantly affected, decreased from 319 kPa to 50 kPa for soil with 20 % of added surfactant. The results of this study showed that the presence of surfactant in soil can modify the mechanical behaviour of the soil. (author)

  11. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen


    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.

  12. Silica micro- and nanoparticles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Jurado, Encarnación; Lechuga, Manuela


    In this work, the toxicity of hydrophilic fumed silica micro- and nanoparticles of various sizes (7 nm, 12 nm, and 50 μm) was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. In addition, the toxicity of an anionic surfactant solution (ether carboxylic acid), a nonionic surfactant solution (alkyl polyglucoside), and a binary (1:1) mixture of these solutions all containing these silica particles was evaluated. Furthermore, this work discusses the adsorption of surfactants onto particle surfaces and evaluates the effects of silica particles on the surface tension and critical micellar concentration (CMC) of these anionic and nonionic surfactants. It was determined that silica particles can be considered as non-toxic and that silica particles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. Nevertheless, the toxicity reduction depends on the ionic character of the surfactants. Differences can be explained by the different adsorption behavior of surfactants onto the particle surface, which is weaker for nonionic surfactants than for anionic surfactants. Regarding the effects on surface tension, it was found that silica particles increased the surface activity of anionic surfactants and considerably reduced their CMC, whereas in the case of nonionic surfactants, the effects were reversed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Charging and Screening in Nonpolar Solutions of Nonionizable Surfactants (United States)

    Behrens, Sven


    Nonpolar liquids do not easily accommodate electric charges, but surfactant additives are often found to dramatically increase the solution conductivity and promote surface charging of suspended colloid particles. Such surfactant-mediated electrostatic effects have been associated with equilibrium charge fluctuations among reverse surfactant micelles and in some cases with the statistically rare ionization of individual surfactant molecules. Here we present experimental evidence that even surfactants without any ionizable group can mediate charging and charge screening in nonpolar oils, and that they can do so at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Precision conductometry, light scattering, and Karl-Fischer titration of sorbitan oleate solutions in hexane, paired with electrophoretic mobility measurements on suspended polymer particles, reveal a distinctly electrostatic action of the surfactant. We interpret our observations in terms of a charge fluctuation model and argue that the observed charging processes are likely facilitated, but not limited, by the presence of ionizable impurities.

  14. Surfactant modified clays’ consistency limits and contact angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akbulut


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing a surfactant modified clay (SMC and researching the effect of surfactants on clays' contact angles and consistency limits; clay was thus modified by surfactants formodifying their engineering properties. Seven surfactants (trimethylglycine, hydroxyethylcellulose  octyl phenol ethoxylate, linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, cetyl trimethylammonium chloride and quaternised ethoxylated fatty amine were used as surfactants in this study. The experimental results indicated that SMC consistency limits (liquid and plastic limits changedsignificantly compared to those of natural clay. Plasticity index and liquid limit (PI-LL values representing soil class approached the A-line when zwitterion, nonionic, and anionic surfactant percentageincreased. However, cationic SMC became transformed from CH (high plasticity clay to MH (high plasticity silt class soils, according to the unified soil classification system (USCS. Clay modifiedwith cationic and anionic surfactants gave higher and lower contact angles than natural clay, respectively.

  15. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang


    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  16. Solitary pulmonary nodule (United States)

    ... Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule - front view chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology: noninvasive diagnostic imaging. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, ...

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  18. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Solubilization, Stabilization and Crystallization (United States)

    Rana, Rohini R.; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit


    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, “GNG amphiphiles”, is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. PMID:23165475

  19. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Solubilization, Stabilization and Crystallization


    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R.; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit; Byrne, Bernadette; Lee, John K.; Gellman, Samuel H.


    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, “GNG amphiphiles”, is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al.

  20. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ


    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  1. Surfactant protein B polymorphisms are associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, but not with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzmann Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins (SP are important for the innate host defence and essential for a physiological lung function. Several linkage and association studies have investigated the genes coding for different surfactant proteins in the context of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory distress syndrome of preterm infants. In this study we tested whether SP-B was in association with two further pulmonary diseases in children, i. e. severe infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus and bronchial asthma. Methods We chose to study five polymorphisms in SP-B: rs2077079 in the promoter region; rs1130866 leading to the amino acid exchange T131I; rs2040349 in intron 8; rs3024801 leading to L176F and rs3024809 resulting in R272H. Statistical analyses made use of the Armitage's trend test for single polymorphisms and FAMHAP and FASTEHPLUS for haplotype analyses. Results The polymorphisms rs3024801 and rs3024809 were not present in our study populations. The three other polymorphisms were common and in tight linkage disequilibrium with each other. They did not show association with bronchial asthma or severe RSV infection in the analyses of single polymorphisms. However, haplotypes analyses revealed association of SP-B with severe RSV infection (p = 0.034. Conclusion Thus our results indicate a possible involvement of SP-B in the genetic predisposition to severe RSV infections in the German population. In order to determine which of the three polymorphisms constituting the haplotypes is responsible for the association, further case control studies on large populations are necessary. Furthermore, functional analysis need to be conducted.

  2. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  3. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.; Frankfurt Univ.


    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.) [de

  4. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Nair, P M C; Bataclan, Maria Flordeliz A


    This article attempts to define a complicated, yet not rare disease of the neonate, which presents with extreme hypoxemia due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in diversion of the pulmonary venous blood through persistent fetal channels, namely ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and the various modalities of management are analyzed. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is multi-factorial, which is reflected in the management as well. These babies are extremely labile to hypoxia and should be stabilized with minimum handling. One hundred percent oxygen and ventilation are the mainstay of treatment. The role of hyperventilation, alkalinization, various non-specific vasodilators such as tolazoline, magnesium sulphate, selective vasodilators such as inhaled nitric oxide, adenosine and the role of high frequency oscillatory ventilation and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation are discussed. With the newer modalities of management, the outlook has improved with mortality of less than 20% and fewer long-term deficits.

  5. Determinants of pulmonary blood flow distribution. (United States)

    Glenny, Robb W; Robertson, H Thomas


    The primary function of the pulmonary circulation is to deliver blood to the alveolar capillaries to exchange gases. Distributing blood over a vast surface area facilitates gas exchange, yet the pulmonary vascular tree must be constrained to fit within the thoracic cavity. In addition, pressures must remain low within the circulatory system to protect the thin alveolar capillary membranes that allow efficient gas exchange. The pulmonary circulation is engineered for these unique requirements and in turn these special attributes affect the spatial distribution of blood flow. As the largest organ in the body, the physical characteristics of the lung vary regionally, influencing the spatial distribution on large-, moderate-, and small-scale levels. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  6. The management of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. (United States)

    Dhillon, Rami


    Most neonates with clinically significant pulmonary hypertension (PH) will have either persistent PH of the newborn (PPHN) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Cyanotic congenital heart disease must be actively ruled out as part of the differential diagnosis of PPHN. The maintenance of ductal patency with prostaglandins E1 or E2 in cases of doubt is safe and potentially beneficial given their pulmonary vasorelaxant properties. Specific tools in the treatment of PPHN include modern ventilatory strategies, inhaled nitric oxide, sildenafil, prostacyclin and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Rarely will a cardiac lesion be primarily responsible for neonatal PH although pulmonary vein stenosis and the persistence of an arterial duct must be considered, particularly in the older preterm baby with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael C. Bellettini


    Full Text Available Three polymer-surfactant systems comprised of branched polyethylene imine (PEI with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylsulfate; SDS, a cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TTAB, and a zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate; SB3-14 were studied based on the properties of surface tension, pyrene fluorescence emission, dynamic light scattering, pH, and zeta potential measurements. The critical aggregation concentration (cac and polymer saturation point (psp were determined for all three systems. The effect of these surfactants on the physico-chemical characteristics (diameter and surface charge of the complexes formed was determined. Polymer-surfactant interactions occurred in all of the systems studied, with the strongest interactions, electrostatic in nature, occurring in the SDS-PEI system. After the neutralization of the polymer charges with the addition of the surfactant, the hydrophobic effect started to control the interlacing of the polymer chains. For the PEI-TTAB system, a very dense film was formed at surfactant concentrations above 2.0 mmol L-1. In this case, the bromide counter-ion interacted with both the positively-charged PEI and the head of the surfactant, which is responsible for the formation of double layer coordination complexes. For the system composed of PEI and the zwitterionic surfactant, less cooperative associations occurred in comparison with the other systems.

  8. A novel approach to particle track etching: surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.


    Based on the understanding of the mechanism behind a long observed but thus far unexplained effect, a new method to control the geometry of nano- and micropores is described. Surfactant molecules added to an etching solution used for etching out ion tracks, create a steric-hindrance effect which is responsible for the formation of 'bottleneck' or 'cigar-like' pores. Filtration membranes thus obtained exhibit significantly improved flow rates without deterioration in the retention properties. New applications are made possible with these new pore geometries

  9. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau


    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  10. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G


    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  11. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments. (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman


    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PLUNC: a multifunctional surfactant of the airways


    Bartlett, Jennifer; Gakhar, Lokesh; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Porter, Edith; McCray, Paul B.


    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways. Despite its homology with the innate immune defence molecules BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) and LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), it has been difficult to define the functions of PLUNC. Based on its marked hydrophobicity and expression pattern, we hypothesized that PLUNC is an airway surfactant. We found that purified r...

  13. The surfactant protein C mutation A116D alters cellular processing, stress tolerance, surfactant lipid composition, and immune cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbock Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein C (SP-C is important for the function of pulmonary surfactant. Heterozygous mutations in SFTPC, the gene encoding SP-C, cause sporadic and familial interstitial lung disease (ILD in children and adults. Mutations mapping to the BRICHOS domain located within the SP-C proprotein result in perinuclear aggregation of the proprotein. In this study, we investigated the effects of the mutation A116D in the BRICHOS domain of SP-C on cellular homeostasis. We also evaluated the ability of drugs currently used in ILD therapy to counteract these effects. Methods SP-CA116D was expressed in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells. We assessed in vitro the consequences for cellular homeostasis, immune response and effects of azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Results Stable expression of SP-CA116D in MLE-12 alveolar epithelial cells resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of proSP-C processing intermediates. SP-CA116D expression further led to reduced cell viability and increased levels of the chaperones Hsp90, Hsp70, calreticulin and calnexin. Lipid analysis revealed decreased intracellular levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC and increased lyso-PC levels. Treatment with methylprednisolone or hydroxychloroquine partially restored these lipid alterations. Furthermore, SP-CA116D cells secreted soluble factors into the medium that modulated surface expression of CCR2 or CXCR1 receptors on CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils, suggesting a direct paracrine effect of SP-CA116D on neighboring cells in the alveolar space. Conclusions We show that the A116D mutation leads to impaired processing of proSP-C in alveolar epithelial cells, alters cell viability and lipid composition, and also activates cells of the immune system. In addition, we show that some of the effects of the mutation on cellular homeostasis can be antagonized by application of pharmaceuticals commonly applied in ILD therapy

  14. A study on pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa; Ushio, Keiji; Nishiyama, Shoji; Kono, Michio; Takada, Yoshiki


    A routine examination of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lymphoscintigraphy is tried in this study in order to visualize pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lymphnodes routinely. A method is as follows; 30 - 50 μCi of 198 Au-colloid (0.3 - 0.5 ml of total volume) is injected through the needle of flexible bronchofiberscope into the mucosal membrane or submucosal membrane of the bilateral B 8 or B 9 bronchi. This method was applied to 11 cases of suspected pulmonary carcinoma and gave good results. In case of bronchitis, lung abscess and chronic pneumonia, carinal lymphnodes (which are expected to be as the inferior tracheo-bronchial lymphnodes) and one or more right mediastinal lymphnodes (which are expected to be as the right superior tracheo-bronchial or right paratracheal lymphnodes) were clearly visualized from 24 to 27 hours after the injection. In these cases the pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lymphnodes were expected to be intact on x-rays and CT findings. Among cases of pulmonary carcinoma or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, on the contrary, right mediastinal lymphnodes were not visualized in case with the right hilar lymphnodes involvement, and furthermore neither carinal nor right mediastinal lymphnodes were visualized in case with carinal lymphnodes involvements on X-rays, CT, operation or autopsy findings. From these results, the pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lymphoscintigraphy may give the useful information for the treatment planning, and follow up study of the cases of pulmonary and mediastinal malignant tumors. (author)

  15. Two sides of the coin. Part 1. Lipid and surfactant self-assembly revisited. (United States)

    Ninham, Barry W; Larsson, Kåre; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea


    Hofmeister, specific ion effects, hydration and van der Waals forces at and between interfaces are factors that determine curvature and microstructure in self assembled aggregates of surfactants and lipids; and in microemulsions. Lipid and surfactant head group interactions and between aggregates vary enormously and are highly specific. They act on the hydrophilic side of a bilayer, micelle or other self assembled aggregate. It is only over the last three decades that the origin of Hofmeister effects has become generally understood. Knowledge of their systematics now provides much flexibility in designing nanostructured fluids. The other side of the coin involves equally specific forces. These (opposing) forces work on the hydrophobic side of amphiphilic interfaces. They are due to the interaction of hydrocarbons and other "oils" with hydrophobic tails of surfactants and lipids. The specificity of oleophilic solutes in microemulsions and lipid membranes provides a counterpoint to Hofmeister effects and hydration. Together with global packing constraints these effects determine microstructure. Another factor that has hardly been recognised is the role of dissolved gas. This introduces further, qualitative changes in forces that prescribe microstructure. The systematics of these effects and their interplay are elucidated. Awareness of these competing factors facilitates formulation of self assembled nanostructured fluids. New and predictable geometries that emerge naturally provide insights into a variety of biological phenomena like anaesthetic and pheromone action and transmission of the nervous impulse (see Part 2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated electronic tongue based on potentiometric sensors for the determination of a trinary anionic surfactant mixture. (United States)

    Cortina, Montserrat; Ecker, Christina; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manuel


    An automated electronic tongue consisting of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to resolve mixtures of anionic surfactants. The sensor array was formed by five different flow-through sensors for anionic surfactants, based on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes having cross-sensitivity features. Feedforward multilayer neural networks were used to predict surfactant concentrations. As a great amount of information is required for the correct modelling of the sensors response, a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system was used to automatically provide it. Dodecylsulfate (DS(-)), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS(-)) and alpha-alkene sulfonate (ALF(-)) formed the three-analyte study case resolved in this work. Their concentrations varied from 0.2 to 4mM for ALF(-) and DBS(-) and from 0.2 to 5mM for DS(-). Good prediction ability was obtained with correlation coefficients better than 0.933 when the obtained values were compared with those expected for a set of 16 external test samples not used for training.

  17. pH-dependent Self-Assembling Behaviour of KA6 Surfactant Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurevich, Leonid; Fojan, Peter

      Self-assembly is one of the major driving forces in biological systems. It has been found to play an important role in disease development (Alzheimer, Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease), drug action (self-assembly of anti-microbial peptides (AMP) on the membrane surface) as well as developmental self-a...... be easily tailored on-demand. On the other hand they are fairly simple and inexpensive to produce and may find applications in purification and crystallization of membrane proteins, drug delivery and encapsulation systems or as mild surfactants in the cosmetic industry....

  18. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications (United States)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan


    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  19. Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawignya, Harsa, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Departement University of Pembangunan Nasional Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Prasetyaningrum, Aji, E-mail:; Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Dyartanti, Endah R. [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Enginering Departement Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)


    Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.

  20. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova


    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  1. New-Onset Neonatal Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with a Rhinovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Patel


    Full Text Available A 3.5-week-old male neonate who developed an upper and lower respiratory tract rhinovirus infection that was temporally associated with the development of severe pulmonary hypertension is described. Rhinovirus has not previously been associated with pulmonary hypertension. This child developed severe pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, nitric oxide inhalation and, eventually, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  2. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad


    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  3. Serum surfactant protein D as a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (United States)

    Vinod, Suja; Gow, Andrew; Weinberger, Barry; Potak, Debra; Hiatt, Mark; Chandra, Shaku; Hegyi, Thomas


    Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease. In neonates, elevated SP-D levels in cord blood and on day 1 have been associated with prenatal risk factors and with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and infections. It is not known whether serum SP-D during the first week of life is a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease of prematurity that is associated with lung parenchymal maldevelopment and injury. The goal of this study is to determine whether serum SP-D on days 3 and 7 of life are associated with the development of BPD in preterm infants. Serum samples were obtained on postnatal days 3 and 7 from 106 preterm infants (500-2000 g birth weight, 23-32-week gestation). SP-D was quantified by Western blot. BPD was determined at 36 weeks PMA using NICHD criteria. The mean birth weight was 1145 ± 347 g and gestational age 29.2 ± 7.4 weeks. BPD was diagnosed in 7 and "BPD or death" in 16 infants. Days 3 and 7 values tracked significantly (r = 0.648), and did not correlate with birth weight or gestational age. Contrary to expectations, serum SP-D was not associated with BPD. Significant gender differences were noted, with SP-D dropping from day 3 to day 7 in males, while increasing in females (p D does not appear to be a useful marker for BPD. Decreasing serum SP-D levels in males, as compared to females, during the first week of life are likely related to gender differences in lung maturation, consistent with the higher incidence of BPD in males.

  4. Nanoparticle-enabled delivery of surfactants in porous media. (United States)

    Nourafkan, Ehsan; Hu, Zhongliang; Wen, Dongsheng


    The adsorption of surfactants on the reservoir rocks surface is a serious issue in many energy and environment related areas. Learning from the concept of drug delivery in the nano-medicine field, this work proposes and validates the concept of using nanoparticles to deliver a mixture of surfactants into a porous medium. TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are used as carriers for a blend of surfactants mixtures including anionic alkyl aryl sulfonic acid (AAS) and nonionic alcohol ethoxylated (EA) at the optimum salinity and composition conditions. The transport of NPs through a core sample of crushed sandstone grains and the adsorption of surfactants are evaluated. By using TiO 2 NPs, the adsorption of surfactant molecules can be significantly reduced, i.e. half of the initial adsorption value. The level of surfactant adsorption reduction is related to the NPs transport capability through the porous medium. An application study shows that comparing to surfactant flooding alone, the total oil recovery can be increased by 7.81% of original oil in place (OOIP) by using nanoparticle bonded surfactants. Such work shows the promise of NP as an effective surfactant carrier for sandstone reservoirs, which could have many potential applications in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and environmental remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Large Family with Atypical Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Chibbar


    Full Text Available A large kindred of familial pulmonary fibrosis is reported. Six members from the first two generations of this particular kindred were described more than 40 years previously; six more individuals from the third and fourth generations have also been evaluated. The proband, now 23 years of age, has mild disease; the other 11 documented affected family members all died from their disease at an average age of 37 years (range 25 to 50 years. The pathology was that of usual interstitial pneumonia, as is typical in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the initial radiographic pattern in many of these individuals was upper lobe and nodular and, along with the young age, was atypical for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Several genetic abnormalities have been associated with familial pulmonary fibrosis. The present study examined the genes coding for surfactant protein-C, ATP-binding cassette protein A3 and telomerase, and found no abnormalities.

  6. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shahbazi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  7. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension. (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro


    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow Sandersen, S.


    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled ''smart'' waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows observation of the phase behavior of the different systems at various temperatures and pressures inside the high pressure cell. Phase volumes can also be measured visually through the glass window using precision equipment. The surfactant system for which an experimental study was carried out consisted of the mixture heptane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ 1-butanol/ NaCl/ water. This system has previously been examined at ambient pressures and temperatures but this has been extended here to pressures up to 400 bar and to slightly higher temperatures (40 deg. C, 45 deg. C and 50 deg. C). Experiments were performed at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure increased. Increasing pressures also caused a shift from the three phase region (Winsor III), to a different two phase region, (Winsor I). These changes in equilibrium phase behavior were also dependent on the composition of the system. A number of


    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  10. Management of Pulmonary Nodules


    Arvin Aryan


    Pulmonary nodule characterization is currently being redefined as new clinical, radiological and pathological data are reported, necessitating a reevaluation of the clinical management."nIn approach to an incidentally detected pulmonary nodule, we should consider that there are different risk situations, different lesion morphologies, and different sizes with various management options."nIn this session we will review the different risk situations for patients with pulmonary nodules...

  11. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar


    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  12. Structure formation of lipid membranes: Membrane self-assembly and vesicle opening-up to octopus-like micelles (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi


    We briefly review our recent studies on self-assembly and vesicle rupture of lipid membranes using coarse-grained molecular simulations. For single component membranes, lipid molecules self-assemble from random gas states to vesicles via disk-shaped clusters. Clusters aggregate into larger clusters, and subsequently the large disks close into vesicles. The size of vesicles are determined by kinetics than by thermodynamics. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle called bicelle can be formed. When both surfactants have negligibly low critical micelle concentration, it is found that bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and spontaneous curvature of the membrane monolayer.

  13. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo


    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  14. Pore channel surface modification for enhancing anti-fouling membrane distillation (United States)

    Qiu, Haoran; Peng, Yuelian; Ge, Lei; Villacorta Hernandez, Byron; Zhu, Zhonghua


    Membrane surface modification by forming a functional layer is an effective way to improve the anti-fouling properties of membranes; however, the additional layer and the potential blockage of bulk pores may increase the mass transfer resistance and reduce the permeability. In this study, we applied a novel method of preparing anti-fouling membranes for membrane distillation by dispersing graphene oxide (GO) on the channel surface of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. The surface morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Compared to the membrane surface modification by nanoparticles (e.g. SiO2), GO was mainly located on the pore surface of the membrane bulk, rather than being formed as an individual layer onto the membrane surface. The performance was evaluated via a direct-contact membrane distillation process with anionic and cationic surfactants as the foulants, separately. Compared to the pristine PVDF membrane, the anti-fouling behavior and distillate flux of the GO-modified membranes were improved, especially when using the anionic surfactant as the foulant. The enhanced anti-fouling performance can be attributed to the oxygen containing functional groups in GO and the healing of the membrane pore defects. This method may provide an effective route to manipulate membrane pore surface properties for anti-fouling separation without increasing mass transfer resistance.

  15. Identifying the Imprint of Surfactant Stabilisation in Whitecap Foam Evolution (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, D.


    Surfactants are ubiquitous in the world's oceans and can affect climatically-relevant processes such as air-sea gas exchange, sea spray aerosol (SSA) flux, and air-sea momentum transfer. Surfactants are amphiphilic and help form the physically and chemically distinct ocean surface microlayer (SML), however, the spatial distribution, concentration and composition of the SML is not well understood, especially under conditions of vigorous wave breaking. Like the SML, breaking waves also influence physical exchange processes at the air-sea interface, and oceanic whitecap foam coverage is commonly used to quantify bubble-mediated exchange processes. However, surfactants can increase the lifetime of foam over clean water conditions, potentially complicating the use of whitecap coverage to parameterise air-sea gas exchange and SSA production flux. A better understanding of how surfactants affect the evolution of whitecap foam is needed to improve whitecap parameterisations of bubble-mediated processes, and may also provide a remote sensing approach to map the spatial distribution of surfactants at the water surface. Here we present results from a laboratory study that looked at whitecap foam evolution in "clean" and "surfactant-added" seawater regimes. We find that the whitecap foam area growth timescale is largely insensitive to the presence of surfactants, but that surfactant stabilization of whitecap foam becomes important during the whitecap foam area decay phase. The timescale at which this occurs appears to be consistent for breaking waves of different scale and intensity. A simple method is then used to isolate the surfactant signal and derive an equivalent "clean" seawater foam decay time for the whitecaps in the "surfactant-added" regime. The method is applied to oceanic whitecaps and results compared to the laboratory whitecaps from the "clean" and "surfactant-added" regimes.

  16. The liquid membrane for extraction of Yttrium and Dysprosium from Acid Nitric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johny, W.S.; Raldi-Artono-Koestoer; Kris-Tri-Basuki; Sudibyo


    The determination of surfactant in liquid membrane has been done. The surfactant is span-80 (sorbitol-monooleate), the liquid membrane phase was the organic phase (O), the internal liquid phase (W) with ratio O/W = 1, and surfactant. The organic phase using D 2 EHPA in the kerosene and the internal liquid phase using aqua des or acid nitric. The determination of surfactant with variation of span-80 (0,25 - 2%) in the liquid membrane volume. The speed of stirrer was 3500 rpm in 20 minute. The ratio of liquid membrane phase form and external phase (aqua des or acid nitric) was 1, the speed of stirrer was 350 rpm in 10 minute (permeation process). The liquid phase and the liquid membrane phase was separated and then determinated the volume of liquid membrane, the result of percentage of span-80 was 0,25 % volume. The extraction of yttrium and dysprosium in 2 M HNO 3 was Kd y = 2.945 and Kd D y = 0.019

  17. Study of Catalyst, Aging Time and Surfactant Effects on Silica Inorganic Polymer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pakizeh


    Full Text Available In the present study the sol-gel method is used for synthesis of amorphous nanostructure silica polymer using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as silicon source. This polymer can be used in manufacturing of nanoporous asymmetricmembranes. The effect of catalyst on silica particle size has been studied under acidic and basic conditions.زAcid-catalyzed reaction leads to the formation of fine particles while the base-catalyzed reaction produceslarger particles. The presence of cationic template surfactant namely cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPBزdirects the structural formation of the polymer by preventing the highly branched polymeric clusters. This will increase the effective area of the produced silica membrane. Nitrogen physisorption tests by Brunaver- Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods revealed that the surface area of the membrane increases significantly around 5-folds when acid-catalyzed reaction is used. 29Si-NMR test is also used to study the aging time effect on the level of silica polymer branching. The results show that in acidic condition, aging time up to three weeks can still affect branching. The calcinations process in which the organic materials and CPB (surfactant are burned and released from the silica particles, is studied on template free silica materials as well as templated silica materials using TGA and DTA techniques.

  18. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson


    Full Text Available Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM. Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 µg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume. Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  19. Circulating surfactant protein D is associated to mortality in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Thinggaard, M.; Tan, Q.


    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is produced in the lungs and additional mucosal surfaces. Systemic SP-D levels are previously associated to aging-related- and lifestyle-related disorders and predicts mortality in cardiovascular and lung diseases. However, the association between higher...... in this population-based cohort study. SP-D may serve as a biomarker to track the cardio-pulmonary health status in elderly women......., the bigger intra-pair difference in SP-D level, the higher the probability that the twin with the highest measure died first (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; p=0.047). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that higher circulating SP-D levels are associated with increased mortality rate in elderly women...

  20. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete


    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  1. Prenatal tracheal ligation or intra-amniotic administration of surfactant or dexamethasone prevents some structural changes in the pulmonary arteries of surgically created diaphragmatic hernia in rabbits Ligadura de traquéia no período pré-natal ou administração intra-amniótica de surfactante ou dexametasona evitam algumas alterações estruturais nas artérias pulmonares de fetos de coelho com hérnia diafragmática congênita produzida com cirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo J. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Characterization of the structural changes occurring in the pulmonary arteries resulting from surgically produced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rabbits, with particular emphasis on the preventive effects of prenatal tracheal ligation or administration of intra-amniotic dexamethasone or surfactant. METHODS: Twenty rabbit fetuses underwent surgical creation of a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the 24th or 25th gestational day. They were divided according to the following procedures: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 5, congenital diaphragmatic hernia plus tracheal ligation (n = 5, congenital diaphragmatic hernia plus intra-amniotic administration of dexamethasone 0.4 mg (n = 5 or surfactant (Curosurf 40 mg, n = 5. On gestational day 30, all the fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and killed. A control group consisted of five nonoperated fetuses. Histomorphometric analysis of medial thickness, cell nuclei density, and elastic fiber density of pulmonary arterial walls was performed. RESULTS: Arteries with an external diameter > 100 mum have a decreased medial thickness, lower cell nuclei density, and greater elastic fiber density when compared with arteries with external diameter 100 mum. Prenatal treatments with tracheal ligation or intra-amniotic administration of dexamethasone or surfactant prevented these changes. In arteries with external diameter OBJETIVO: Caracterização das alterações estruturais que ocorrem nas artérias pulmonares de fetos de coelho com hérnia diafragmática congênita produzida com cirurgia, com destaque especial aos efeitos preventivos da ligadura de traquéia ou administração intra-amniótica de dexametasona ou surfactante. MÉTODOS: Vinte fetos de coelho foram submetidos a cirurgia para produção de hérnia diafragmática no 24º ou 25º dia de gestação. Os animais foram divididos de acordo com os procedimentos: hérnia diafragmática congênita (n = 5, hérnia diafragm

  2. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael


    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of a Device for Intra-Pulmonary Aerosol Generation and Delivery (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Naqwi, Amir A.; Dolovich, Myrna; Somani, Arif


    For infants born with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), liquid bolus delivery of surfactant administered through an endotracheal tube is common practice. While this method is generally effective, complications such as transient hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered cerebral blood flow may occur. Aerosolized surfactant therapy has been explored as an alternative. Unfortunately, past efforts have led to disappointing results as aerosols were generated outside the lungs with significant pharyngeal deposition and minimal intrapulmonary instillation. A novel aerosol generator (Microjet™) is evaluated herein for intrapulmonary aerosol generation within an endotracheal tube and tested with Curosurf and Infasurf surfactants. Compared with other aerosol delivery devices, this process utilizes low air flow (range 0.01-0.2 L/min) that is ideal for limiting potential barotrauma to the premature newborn lung. The mass mean diameter (MMD) of the particles for both tested surfactants was less than 4 μm, which is ideal for both uniform and distal lung delivery. As an indicator of phospholipid function, surfactant surface tension was measured before and after aerosol formation; with no significant difference. Moreover, this device has an outside diameter of <1mm, which permits insertion into an endotracheal tube (of even 2.0 mm). In the premature infant where intravenous access is either technically challenging or difficult, aerosol drug delivery may provide an alternative route in patient resuscitation, stabilization and care. Other potential applications of this type of device include the delivery of nutrients, antibiotics, and analgesics via the pulmonary route. PMID:26884641

  4. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.


    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  5. Surface rheology of surfactant solutions close to equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, P.J.M.; Stein, H.N.


    In this paper the authors present surface rheol. measurements of various surfactant solns. close to equil. in a Langmuir trough. The authors find that the storage modulus is, in the systems investigated, higher than the loss modulus. The rheol. behavior depends strongly on the surfactant concn.,

  6. Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinz, D.K.N.


    The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where

  7. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.


    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  8. Effect of Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.E.; Park, J.M.; Kim, C.U.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Natural gas hydrates are formed from water and natural gas molecules at particular temperatures and pressures that become ice-like inclusion compounds. Gas hydrates offer several benefits such as energy resource potential and high storage capacity of natural gas in the form of hydrates. However, the application of natural gas hydrates has been deterred by its low formation rate and low conversion ratio of water into hydrate resulting in low actual storage capacity. This paper presented an experimental study to determine the effect of adding a novel Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation. The experimental study was described with reference to the properties of prepared diols and properties of prepared disulfonates. Gemini surfactant is the family of surfactant molecules possessing more than one hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head group. They generally have better surface-active properties than conventional surfactants of equal chain length. The paper presented the results of the study in terms of the reactions of diols with propane sultone; storage capacity of hydrate formed with and without surfactant; and methane hydrate formation with and without disulfonate. It was concluded that the methane hydrate formation was accelerated by the addition of novel anionic Gemini-type surfactants and that hydrate formation was influenced by the surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. For a given concentration, the surfactant with the highest chain length demonstrated the highest formation rate and storage capacity. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. The effect of nanoparticle aggregation on surfactant foam stability. (United States)

    AlYousef, Zuhair A; Almobarky, Mohammed A; Schechter, David S


    The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions. At fixed surfactant concentration, the addition of NPs at low to intermediate concentrations can produce a more stable foam compared to the surfactant. The production of small population of flocs as a result of mixing the surfactant and NPs can enhance the foam stability by providing a barrier between the gas bubbles and delaying the coalescence of bubbles. Moreover, these flocs can increase the solution viscosity and, therefore, slow the drainage rate of thin aqueous film (lamellae). The measurements of foam half-life, bubble size, and mobility tests confirmed this conclusion. However, the addition of more solid particles or surfactant might have a negative impact on foam stability and reduce the maximum capillary pressure of coalescence as a result of forming extensive aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  11. Adsorption and intercalation of anionic surfactants onto layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) with brucite like structure was modified with various anionic surfactants containing sulfonate, carboxyl, phosphonate and sulfate end group through ion-exchange method. XRD reports indicated that the sulfonate group containing surfactants led to an adsorption process whereas the sulfate ...

  12. Effect of Surfactants on Plasmid DNA Stability and Release from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of surfactants on plasmid DNA during preparation and release from polylactic glycolide (PLGA) microspheres. Methods: Various surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic (Span, Tween, Triton X100, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate), were added during the ...

  13. Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 in polymer-surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 (MC540) in a polymer-surfactant aggregate is studied using picosecond time resolved emission spectroscopy. The aggregate consists of the polymer, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). With increase in the concentration of SDS in an ...

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micellar solution of nonionic surfactant -dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)10OH], C12E10 in D2O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60°C) both in the presence and absence of ...

  15. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  16. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonionic surfactant effects on the toluene dissolved in the water phase and biodegradation kinetic behaviors of toluene in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The toluene dissolved in the water phase was enhanced by the addition of surfactant into aqueous solution and the enhancing effect was more pronounced ...

  17. Transport of Zn(OH)4(-2) ions across a polyolefin microporous membrane (United States)

    Krejci, Ivan; Vanysek, Peter; Trojanek, Antonin


    Transport of ZN(OH)4(2-) ions through modified microporous polypropylene membranes (Celgard 3401, 350140) was studied using polarography and conductometry. Soluble Nafion as an ion exchange modifying agent was applied to the membrane by several techniques. The influence of Nafion and a surfactant on transport of zinc ions through the membrane was studied. A relationship between membrane impedance and the rate of Zn(OH)4(2-) transport was found. The found correlation between conductivity, ion permeability and Nafion coverage suggests a suitable technique of membrane preparation to obtain desired zinc ion barrier properties.

  18. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth


    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  19. Study on removal of cadmium from wastewater by emulsion liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R.; Kosuge, Hitoshi; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H.; Banihashemi, Hamid R.


    Removal of cadmium from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is studied in the present study. A polyamine-type surfactant was used for stabilizing the emulsion phase. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) has been used as a carrier for transferring of cadmium through the membrane. The results show good performance in the separation process. To determine the optimum operation conditions, the effect of several parameters such as surfactant concentration, carrier concentration, pH of external and internal phases, oil to internal phase volume ratio, emulsion to external phase volume ratio, solvent type, solute concentration, presence of iodide and chloride in external phase, and mixing conditions have been investigated.

  20. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  1. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (United States)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel


    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  2. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.


    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  3. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  4. pulmonary tuberculosis, jimma hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program manual. RESULTS: A total of 112 extra pulmonary ... Key words: Clinical audit; extra pulmonary Tuberculosis; National Tuberculosis and. Leprosy Control manual. "Addis Ababa ..... intern influence drug regimen selection. Compliance to the 1997 NTLCP inanual is.

  5. Pulmonary artery aneurysm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Introduction. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare finding in general radiological practice. The possible causes are myriad and diverse in pathophysiolo- gy. Patients with post-stenotic dilata- tion of the main pulmonary artery usually present fairly late with insidi- ous cardiorespiratory symptoms. Diagnosis requires ...

  6. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.


    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  7. Nanoscopic dynamics of bicontinous microemulsions: effect of membrane associated protein. (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S; O'Neill, Hugh M; Tyagi, M; Mamontov, E


    Bicontinous microemulsions (BμE) generally consist of nanodomains formed by surfactant in a mixture of water and oil at nearly equal proportions and are potential candidates for the solubilization and purification of membrane proteins. Here we present the first time report of nanoscopic dynamics of surfactant monolayers within BμEs formed by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) measured on the nanosecond to picosecond time scale using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). BμEs investigated herein consisted of middle phases isolated from Winsor-III microemulsion systems that were formed by mixing aqueous and oil solutions under optimal conditions. QENS data indicates that surfactants undergo two distinct motions, namely (i) lateral motion along the surface of the oil nanodomains and (ii) localized internal motion. Lateral motion can be described using a continuous diffusion model, from which the lateral diffusion coefficient is obtained. Internal motion of surfactant is described using a model which assumes that a fraction of the surfactants' hydrogens undergoes localized translational diffusion that could be considered confined within a spherical volume. The effect of cytochrome c, an archetypal membrane-associated protein known to strongly partition near the surfactant head groups in BμEs (a trend supported by small-angle X-ray scattering [SAXS] analysis), on the dynamics of BμE has also been investigated. QENS results demonstrated that cytochrome c significantly hindered both the lateral and the internal motions of surfactant. The lateral motion was more strongly affected: a reduction of the lateral diffusion coefficient by 33% was measured. This change is mainly attributable to the strong association of cytochrome c with oppositely charged SDS. In contrast, analysis of SAXS data suggested that thermal fluctuations (for a longer length and slower time scale compared to QENS) were increased upon incorporation of cytochrome c. This study

  8. An attempt to use immunohistochemical methods for semi-quantitative determination of surfactant in bronchial secretion after hyperbaric exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Siermontowski


    Full Text Available Background The most significant index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity is a decrease in vital capacity (VC dependent on the duration of exposure and partial pressure of oxygen. The only method to measure this decrease is spirometry performed directly after exposure. Objective The aim of the study was to check whether the extent of lung damage could be assessed by quantitative determination of pulmonary surfactant in bronchial secretion. Design Sputum samples were collected before, during and after hyperbaric air or oxygen exposures; histological preparations were prepared and stained immunohistochemically to visualize surfactant. Amongst 781 samples collected, only 209 contained sputum and only 126 were included in the study. In this group, only 64 preparations could be paired for comparison. Results The semi-quantitative method used and statistical findings have not demonstrated any significance. Conclusions The method suggested for assessing the extent of lung damage has been found unsuitable for practical use due to difficulties in obtaining the proper material; moreover, the study findings do not allow to draw conclusions concerning its effectiveness.

  9. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Sánchez Infante


    Full Text Available La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, caracterizada por alteración en el metabolismo del surfactante, lo que determina su acumulación anormal en el espacio alveolar. Es una enfermedad extremadamente rara. Se han reportado solamente 500 casos en la literatura. Se describió por primera vez en 1958. Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un lactante de 2 meses, con desnutrición proteico energética, que ingresa por dificultad respiratoria e hipoxemia, y, con imágenes radiológicas de tipo retículo-nodulillar, en vidrio deslustrado, en el cual se plantea inicialmente el diagnóstico de bronconeumonía. Ante la evolución desfavorable y no respuesta al tratamiento, se realizó un estudio para descartar enfermedades pulmonares crónicas. El paciente fallece y se confirma el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica. Se realiza una revisión del tema.The pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by surfactant metabolism alteration determining its abnormal accumulation in the alveolar space. It is a disease very rare and in literature only 500 cases have been reported; it was described for the first time in 1958. This is a case presentation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an infant aged 2 months with energetic protein malnutrition admitted due to respiratory difficulty and hypoxemia and with radiologic images of the reticulonodulillary, in frosting glass, where initially is made the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. In the face of unfavorable evolution and no response to treatment, a study was conducted to rule out chronic pulmonary diseases. Patient died confirming the diagnosis according to the pathologic anatomy. A review on subject is carried out.

  10. NMR study of the dynamics of cationic gemini surfactant 14-2-14 in mixed solutions with conventional surfactants. (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Lu, Xing-Yu; Chen, Hong; Mao, Shi-Zhen; Liu, Mai-Li; Luo, Ping-Ya; Du, You-Ru


    Three kinds of conventional surfactants, namely, two nonionic surfactants [polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)], one cationic surfactant [n-tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB)], and an anionic surfactant [sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS)}, were mixed into the quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant [C(14)H(29)N(+)(CH(3))(2)](2)(CH(2))(2).2Br(-) (14-2-14) in aqueous solution. The exchange rate constants between 14-2-14 molecules in the mixed micelles and those in the bulk solution were detected using two nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods: one-dimensional (1D) line shape analysis and two-dimensional (2D) exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). The results obtained from these two methods were consistent. Both showed that mixing a nonionic conventional surfactant, either Brij-35 or TX-100, enhanced the exchange process between the 14-2-14 molecules in the mixed micelles and those in the bulk solution. In contrast, the anionic surfactant SDS and the cationic surfactant TTAB slowed the process slightly.

  11. A multicenter, randomized trial comparing synthetic surfactant with modified bovine surfactant extract in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, E; Vollman, J; Giebner, D; Maurer, M; Dreyer, G; Bailey, L; Anderson, M; Mefford, L; Beaumont, E; Sutton, D; Puppala, B; Mangurten, HH; Secrest, J; Lewis, WJ; Carteaux, P; Bednarek, F; Welsberger, S; Gosselin, R; Pantoja, AF; Belenky, A; Campbell, P; Patole, S; Duenas, M; Kelly, M; Alejo, W; Lewallen, P; DeanLieber, S; Hanft, M; Ferlauto, J; Newell, RW; Bagwell, J; Levine, D; Lipp, RW; Harkavy, K; Vasa, R; Birenbaum, H; Broderick, KA; Santos, AQ; Long, BA; Gulrajani, M; Stern, M; Hopgood, G; Hegyi, T; Alba, J; Christmas, L; McQueen, M; Nichols, N; Brown, M; Quissell, BJ; Rusk, C; Marks, K; Gifford, K; Hoehn, G; Pathak, A; Marino, B; Hunt, P; Fox, [No Value; Sharpstein, C; Feldman, B; Johnson, N; Beecham, J; Balcom, R; Helmuth, W; Boylan, D; Frakes, C; Magoon, M; Reese, K; Schwersenski, J; Schutzman, D; Soll, R; Horbar, JD; Leahy, K; Troyer, W; Juzwicki, C; Anderson, P; Dworsky, M; Reynolds, L; Urrutia, J; Gupta, U; Adray, C

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of a synthetic surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal, Burroughs-Wellcome Co) and a modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta, Ross Laboratories) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design. Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting. Thirty-eight

  12. Heterogeneous Pulmonary Phenotypes Associated With Mutations in the Thyroid Transcription Factor Gene NKX2-1 (United States)

    Deterding, Robin R.; Wert, Susan E.; White, Frances V.; Dishop, Megan K.; Alfano, Danielle N.; Halbower, Ann C.; Planer, Benjamin; Stephan, Mark J.; Uchida, Derek A.; Williames, Lee D.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Lebel, Robert Roger; Young, Lisa R.; Cole, F. Sessions; Nogee, Lawrence M.


    Background: Mutations in the gene encoding thyroid transcription factor, NKX2-1, result in neurologic abnormalities, hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) that together are known as the brain-thyroid-lung syndrome. To characterize the spectrum of associated pulmonary phenotypes, we identified individuals with mutations in NKX2-1 whose primary manifestation was respiratory disease. Methods: Retrospective and prospective approaches identified infants and children with unexplained diffuse lung disease for NKX2-1 sequencing. Histopathologic results and electron micrographs were assessed, and immunohistochemical analysis for surfactant-associated proteins was performed in a subset of 10 children for whom lung tissue was available. Results: We identified 16 individuals with heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations and five individuals with heterozygous, whole-gene deletions of NKX2-1. Neonatal RDS was the presenting pulmonary phenotype in 16 individuals (76%), interstitial lung disease in four (19%), and pulmonary fibrosis in one adult family member. Altogether, 12 individuals (57%) had the full triad of neurologic, thyroid, and respiratory manifestations, but five (24%) had only pulmonary symptoms at the time of presentation. Recurrent respiratory infections were a prominent feature in nine subjects. Lung histopathology demonstrated evidence of disrupted surfactant homeostasis in the majority of cases, and at least five cases had evidence of disrupted lung growth. Conclusions: Patients with mutations in NKX2-1 may present with pulmonary manifestations in the newborn period or during childhood when thyroid or neurologic abnormalities are not apparent. Surfactant dysfunction and, in more severe cases, disrupted lung development are likely mechanisms for the respiratory disease. PMID:23430038

  13. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.


    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  14. Membrane processes (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna


    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  15. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa


    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  16. High-efficiency extracellular release of free fatty acids from Aspergillus oryzae using non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Tamano, Koichi; Miura, Ai; Koike, Hideaki; Kamisaka, Yasushi; Umemura, Myco; Machida, Masayuki


    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are useful for generating biofuel compounds and functional lipids. Microbes are increasingly exploited to produce FFAs via metabolic engineering. However, in many microorganisms, FFAs accumulate in the cytosol, and disrupting cells to extract them is energy intensive. Thus, a simple cost-effective extraction technique must be developed to remove this drawback. We found that FFAs were released from cells of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae with high efficiency when they were cultured or incubated with non-ionic surfactants such as Triton X-100. The surfactants did not reduce hyphal growth, even at 5% (w/v). When the faaA disruptant was cultured with 1% Triton X-100, more than 80% of the FFAs synthesized de novo were released. When the disruptant cells grown without surfactants were incubated for 1h in 1% Triton X-100 solution, more than 50% of the FFAs synthesized de novo were also released. Other non-ionic surfactants in the same ether series, such as Brij 58, IGEPAL CA-630, and Tergitol NP-40, elicited a similar FFA release. The dry cell weight of total hyphae decreased when grown with 1% Triton X-100. The decrement was 4.9-fold greater than the weight of the released FFAs, implying release of other intracellular compounds. Analysis of the culture supernatant showed that intracellular lactate dehydrogenase was also released, suggesting that FFAs are not released by a specific transporter. Therefore, ether-type non-ionic surfactants probably cause non-specific release of FFAs and other intracellular compounds by increasing cell membrane permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption properties of biologically active derivatives of quaternary ammonium surfactants and their mixtures at aqueous/air interface. I. Equilibrium surface tension, surfactant aggregation and wettability. (United States)

    Rojewska, Monika; Biadasz, Andrzej; Kotkowiak, Michał; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Dudkowiak, Alina; Prochaska, Krystyna


    The adsorption properties of surfactant mixtures containing two types of quaternary derivatives of lysosomotropic substances: alkyl N,N-dimethylalaninates methobromides and alkyl N,N-dimethylglycinates methobromides were studied. Quantitative and qualitative description of the adsorption process was carried out on the basis of experimentally obtained equilibrium surface tension isotherms. The results indicated that most of the systems studied revealed synergistic effect both in adsorption and wetting properties. In vitro studies on human cancer cells were undertaken and the data obtained showed that the mixtures suppressed the cancer cells' proliferation more effectively than individual components. Results of preliminary research on the interaction of catanionic mixtures with phospholipids suggested a possibility of a strong penetration of cell membranes by the mixtures investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of surfactant and partial liquid ventilation treatment on gas exchange and lung mechanics in immature lambs: influence of gestational age. (United States)

    Rey-Santano, Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria; Gastiasoro, Elena; Valls-i-Soler, Adolfo; Murgia, Xabier


    Surfactant (SF) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) improve gas exchange and lung mechanics in neonatal RDS. However, variations in the effects of SF and PLV with degree of lung immaturity have not been thoroughly explored. Experimental Neonatal Respiratory Physiology Research Unit, Cruces University Hospital. Prospective, randomized study using sealed envelopes. 36 preterm lambs were exposed (at 125 or 133-days of gestational age) by laparotomy and intubated. Catheters were placed in the jugular vein and carotid artery. All the lambs were assigned to one of three subgroups given: 20 mL/Kg perfluorocarbon and managed with partial liquid ventilation (PLV), surfactant (Curosurf®, 200 mg/kg) or (3) no pulmonary treatment (Controls) for 3 h. Cardiovascular parameters, blood gases and pulmonary mechanics were measured. In 125-day gestation lambs, SF treatment partially improved gas exchange and lung mechanics, while PLV produced significant rapid improvements in these parameters. In 133-day lambs, treatments with SF or PLV achieved similarly good responses. Neither surfactant nor PLV significantly affected the cardiovascular parameters. SF therapy response was more effective in the older gestational age group whereas the effectiveness of PLV therapy was not gestational age dependent.

  19. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B


    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  20. [Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn--recent advances in the management and treatment]. (United States)

    Vakrilova, L; Radulova, P; Hitrova, St; Slancheva, B


    Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is a clinical syndrome with diverse etiology in which the transition from fetal circulation with high pulmonary vascular resistance to postnatal circulation with low pulmonary vascular resistance failed. The persistence of high pulmonary vascular pressure leads to right-left shunts and marked cyanosis. Despite of the advances in neonatology, the treatment of some forms of PPHN is often difficult and mortality rate remains high. In infants with PPHN appropriate interventions are critical to reverse hypoxemia, improve pulmonary and systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ function. Our understanding for management of PPHN has evaluated over decades. This review summarizes the current strategies for treatment of pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: general care, cardiovascular support, the advantages and limitations of different ventilatory strategies, oxygen therapy, extracorporal membrane oxygenation, and the evidence-based inhaled nitric oxide therapy. The balance between pulmonary vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mediators plays an important role for pulmonary vascular resistance. Recent studies are designed to develop evidence-based therapies for regulation of pulmonary vascular tone, safe medications for selective pulmonary vasodilatation effective for treatment of PPHN and other forms of pulmonary hypertension in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  1. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.


    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  2. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.


    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  3. Particle-bound phytochrome: differential pigment release by surfactants, ribonuclease and phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressel, J.; Quail, P.H.


    Surfactants and hydrolytic enzymes were used to probe the nature of the constituent(s) to which phytochrome binds in particulate fractions from red-irradiated Cucurbita, [ 14 C]-choline and [ 3 H]-uridine pre-labelled tissue was used to monitor the release of phospholipids and RNA by these agents. Ribonuclease (RNase) digestion of 20,000 x g pellets eliminates both the phytochrome and ribonucleprotein (RNP) which cosediment at 31S. Little [ 14 C]-choline occurs in the 31S fraction and the amount is not changed by RNase digestion. This is further evidence that phytochrome binds directly to the RNP in the 31S fraction rather than to any membranous material present. The distribution profile of the RNA in a second (='heavy') phytochrome fraction does not correlate with that of the pigment. This suggests that the phytochrome in this fraction is not bound to RNP. The RNA is of ribosomal origin but much less degraded than that of the 31S RNP and is resistant to RNase digestion. Phospholipase C releases 80% of the [ 14 C]-choline from the 'heavy' fraction without freeing phytochrome. This indicates that the pigment does not bind to the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids present. Low concentrations of deoxycholate dissociate phytochrome from this fraction without releasing substantial quantities of integral membrane proteins or phospholipids. Some RNP is dislodged by the surfactant but the phytochrome and RNP are not released as a complex. The data suggest that the pigment in the 'heavy' fraction may be loosely bound to a protein constituent rather than to RNP or polar phospholipids. (auth.)

  4. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain


    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  5. [Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in primary graft dysfunction in a paediatric double lung transplant: presentation of a case]. (United States)

    López-Cantero, M; Grisolía, A L; Vicente, R; Moreno, I; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Torregrosa, S


    Primary graft dysfunction is a leading cause of morbimortality in the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing lung transplantation. Among the treatment options are: lung protective ventilatory strategies, nitric oxide, lung surfactant therapy, and supportive treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to recovery of lung function or re-transplant. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl affected by cystic fibrosis who underwent double-lung transplantation complicated with a severe primary graft dysfunction in the immediate postoperative period and refractory to standard therapies. Due to development of multiple organ failure, it was decided to insert arteriovenous ECMO catheters (pulmonary artery-right atrium). The postoperative course was satisfactory, allowing withdrawal of ECMO on the 5th post-surgical day. Currently the patient survives free of rejection and with an excellent quality of life after 600 days of follow up. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor (United States)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve


    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  7. Contribution of Seawater Surfactants to Generated Primary Marine Aerosol Particles (United States)

    Frossard, A. A.; Gerard, V.; Duplessis, P.; Kinsey, J. D.; Lu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.; Maben, J. R.; Long, M. S.; Chang, R.; Beaupre, S. R.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.; Noziere, B.; Cohen, R. C.


    Surfactants account for minor fractions of total organic carbon in the ocean but may have major impacts on the surface tension of bursting bubbles at the sea surface that drive the production of primary marine aerosol particles (PMA). Surfactants associated with marine aerosol may also significantly reduce the surface tension of water thereby increasing the potential for cloud droplet activation and growth. During September and October 2016, PMA were produced from bursting bubbles in seawater using a high capacity generator at two biologically productive and two oligotrophic stations in the western North Atlantic, as part of a cruise on the R/V Endeavor. Surfactants were extracted from paired PMA and seawater samples, and their ionic compositions, total concentrations, and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were quantified and compared for the four hydrographic stations. Higher surfactant concentrations were determined in the aerosol produced from biologically productive seawater compared to oligotrophic seawater, and the surfactants extracted from productive seawater were stronger (had lower CMCs) than those in the oligotrophic seawater. Surfactants associated with PMA and seawater in productive regions also varied over diel cycles, whereas those in the oligotrophic regions did not. This work demonstrates a direct link between surfactants in seawater and those in PMA.

  8. A simplified treatment of surfactant effects on cloud drop activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen


    Full Text Available Dissolved surface active species, or surfactants, have a tendency to partition to solution surface and thereby decrease solution surface tension. Activating cloud droplets have large surface-to-volume ratios, and the amount of surfactant molecules in them is limited. Therefore, unlike with macroscopic solutions, partitioning to the surface can effectively deplete the droplet interior of surfactant molecules.

    Surfactant partitioning equilibrium for activating cloud droplets has so far been solved numerically from a group of non-linear equations containing the Gibbs adsorption equation coupled with a surface tension model and an optional activity coefficient model. This can be a problem when surfactant effects are examined by using large-scale cloud models. Namely, computing time increases significantly due to the partitioning calculations done in the lowest levels of nested iterations.

    Our purpose is to reduce the group of non-linear equations to simple polynomial equations with well known analytical solutions. In order to do that, we describe surface tension lowering using the Szyskowski equation, and ignore all droplet solution non-idealities. It is assumed that there is only one surfactant exhibiting bulk-surface partitioning, but the number of non-surfactant solutes is unlimited. It is shown that the simplifications cause only minor errors to predicted bulk solution concentrations and cloud droplet activation. In addition, computing time is decreased at least by an order of magnitude when using the analytical solutions.

  9. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.


    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  10. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants on activated carbon (United States)

    Arnelli; Aditama, WP; Fikriani, Z.; Astuti, Y.


    A study on the adsorption of both cationic and anionic surfactants using activated carbon as well as the investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics has been conducted. The results showed that the adsorption of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by activated carbon was Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm while its adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 2.23 x 103 g mg-1 hour-1. Meanwhile, the adsorption of HDTMA-Br by activated carbon showed that the isotherm adsorption tended to follow Freundlich’s isotherm and was pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 89.39 g mg-1 hour-1.

  11. Salt effects in surfactant-free microemulsions (United States)

    Schöttl, Sebastian; Horinek, Dominik


    The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase. In addition, minor charging of the interface as a consequence of differential adsorption of anions and cations occurs. However, this charge separation is overall weakened by the erratic surface of octanol aggregates, where polar hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic patches are both present. Furthermore, ethanol at the interface shields hydrophobic patches and reduces the preferential adsorption of iodide and lithium.

  12. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino


    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  13. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Gulati


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together all the reported pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis and the recent trends in the management.

  14. Surfactant selection for a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. (United States)

    Janoska, Agnes; Vázquez, María; Janssen, Marcel; Wijffels, René H; Cuaresma, María; Vílchez, Carlos


    A novel liquid foam-bed photobioreactor has been shown to hold potential as an innovative technology for microalgae production. In this study, a foam stabilizing agent has been selected which fits the requirements of use in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. Four criteria were used for an optimal surfactant: the surfactant should have good foaming properties, should not be rapidly biodegradable, should drag up microalgae in the foam formed, and it should not be toxic for microalgae. Ten different surfactants (nonionic, cationic, and anionic) and two microalgae genera (Chlorella and Scenedesmus) were compared on the above-mentioned criteria. The comparison showed the following facts. Firstly, poloxameric surfactants (Pluronic F68 and Pluronic P84) have acceptable foaming properties described by intermediate foam stability and liquid holdup and small bubble size. Secondly, the natural surfactants (BSA and Saponin) and Tween 20 were easily biodegraded by bacteria within 3 days. Thirdly, for all surfactants tested the microalgae concentration is reduced in the foam phase compared to the liquid phase with exception of the cationic surfactant CTAB. Lastly, only BSA, Saponin, Tween 20, and the two Pluronics were not toxic at concentrations of 10 CMC or higher. The findings of this study indicate that the Pluronics (F68 and P84) are the best surfactants regarding the above-mentioned criteria. Since Pluronic F68 performed slightly better, this surfactant is recommended for application in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, MJ; Kesecioglu, J

    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  16. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marcus J.; Kesecioglu, Jozef


    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  17. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends. (United States)

    Crombie, R L


    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  18. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.


    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  19. Membranous nephropathy (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  20. Complex phase behavior in solvent-free nonionic surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmyer, M.A.; Bates, F.S.; Almdal, K.


    Unsolvated block copolymers and surfactant solutions are ''soft materials'' that share a common set of ordered microstructures, A set of polyethyleneoxide-polyethylethylene (PEG-PEE) block copolymers that are chemically similar to the well-known alkane-oxyethylene (C(n)EO(m)) nonionic surfactants...... was synthesized here. The general phase behavior in these materials resembles that of both higher molecular weight block copolymers and lower molecular weight nonionic surfactant solutions. Two of the block copolymers exhibited thermally induced order-order transitions and were studied in detail by small...

  1. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  2. Development of High-Antifouling PPSU Ultrafiltration Membrane by Using Compound Additives: Preparation, Morphologies, and Filtration Resistant Properties


    Jie Liu; Zhencheng Zhong; Rui Ma; Weichen Zhang; Jiding Li


    In this study, flat sheet asymmetric polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced antifouling properties were prepared with a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method through compound additives containing a polymeric pore-forming agent, a small molecular non-solvent and a surfactant. The formation processes of the porous asymmetric membranes with different kinds of additives were studied in detail, and the microstructure controllable preparation of membrane was a...

  3. Structure and Conformational Dynamics of DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant and DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant/DNA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kozak


    Full Text Available Amphiphilic dicationic surfactants, known as gemini surfactants, are currently studied for gene delivery purposes. The gemini surfactant molecule is composed of two hydrophilic “head” groups attached to hydrophobic chains and connected via molecular linker between them. The influence of different concentrations of 1,5-bis (1-imidazolilo-3-decyloxymethyl pentane chloride (gemini surfactant on the thermotropic phase behaviour of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC bilayers with and without the presence of DNA was investigated using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR and circular dichroism (CD spectroscopies, small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation and differential scanning calorimetry. With increasing concentration of surfactant in DMPC/DNA systems, a disappearance of pretransition and a decrease in the main phase transition enthalpy and temperature were observed. The increasing intensity of diffraction peaks as a function of surfactant concentration also clearly shows the ability of the surfactant to promote the organisation of lipid bilayers in the multilayer lamellar phase.

  4. Membrane preparation and process development for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K.


    The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil

  5. Membrane preparation and process development for radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others


    The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil.

  6. [Pulmonary Manifestations of Vasculitis]. (United States)

    von Vietinghoff, S


    The variable symptoms and signs of pulmonary vasculitis are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Vasculitis should be considered in rapidly progressing, severe and unusual manifestations of pulmonary disease. Clinical examination of other organ systems typically affected by vasculitis such as skin and kidney and autoantibody measurements are complementary approaches to manage this situation. Pulmonary involvement is common in small vessel vasculitis including anti-GBM disease (Goodpasture syndrome) and the ANCA-associated vasculitides. Life threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and irreversible damage of other organs, frequently the kidney, are important complications necessitating rapid diagnosis of these conditions.Vasculitides are rare diseases of multiple organs and therapies including biologics are evolving rapidly, requiring cooperation of specialities and with specialized centres to achieve best patient care. All involved physicians should be aware of typical complications of immunosuppressive therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Sobrinho, J.H. de; Kambara, A.M.


    Six cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas, isolated, without hemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Symdrome) are reported emphasizing the radiographic, tomographic and angiographic examinations, (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O


    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (United States)

    ... Echocardiogram Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests 6-minute walk test Tests ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  10. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Won-kyung; Au, Virginia; Rose, Anand


    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  11. Size influences the effect of hydrophobic nanoparticles on lung surfactant model systems. (United States)

    Dwivedi, Mridula V; Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Koshkina, Olga; Maskos, Michael; Galla, Hans-Joachim


    The alveolar lung surfactant (LS) is a complex lipid protein mixture that forms an interfacial monolayer reducing the surface tension to near zero values and thus preventing the lungs from collapse. Due to the expanding field of nanotechnology and the corresponding unavoidable exposure of human beings from the air, it is crucial to study the potential effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural organization of the lung surfactant system. In the present study, we investigated both, the domain structure in pure DPPC monolayers as well as in lung surfactant model systems. In the pure lipid system we found that two different sized hydrophobic polymeric nanoparticles with diameter of ~12 nm and ~136 nm have contrasting effect on the functional and structural behavior. The small nanoparticles inserted into fluid domains at the LE-LC phase transition are not visibly disturbing the phase transition but disrupting the domain morphology of the LE phase. The large nanoparticles led to an expanded isotherm and to a significant decrease in the line tension and thus to a drastic disruption of the domain structures at a much lower number of nanoparticles with respect to the lipid. The surface activity of the model LS films again showed drastic variations due to presence of different sized NPs illustrated by the film balance isotherms and the atomic force microscopy. AFM revealed laterally profuse multilayer protrusion formation on compression but only in the presence of 136 nm sized nanoparticles. Moreover we investigated the vesicle insertion process into a preformed monolayer. A severe inhibition was observed only in the presence of ~136 nm NPs compared to minor effects in the presence of ~12 nm NPs. Our study clearly shows that the size of the nanoparticles made of the same material determines the interaction with biological membranes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Immersion pulmonary edema]. (United States)

    Desgraz, Benoît; Sartori, Claudio; Saubade, Mathieu; Héritier, Francis; Gabus, Vincent


    Immersion pulmonary edema may occur during scuba diving, snorke-ling or swimming. It is a rare and often recurrent disease, mainly affecting individuals aged over 50 with high blood pressure. However it also occurs in young individuals with a healthy heart. The main symptoms are dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis. The outcome is often favorable under oxygen treatment but deaths are reported. A cardiac and pulmonary assessment is necessary to evaluate the risk of recurrence and possible contraindications to immersion.

  13. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis presenting as persistent pulmonary hypertension (United States)

    Obeid, Rawad; Kalra, Vaneet Kumar; Arora, Prem; Quist, Felix; Moltz, Kathleen C; Chouthai, Nitin Shashikant


    Neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition caused either by transplacental passage of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins from a mother with Graves’ disease or by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptors and α-subunit of G-protein. The clinical features may vary. We report a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis in an infant born to a mother with Graves’ disease, who presented with cardiorespiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). PPHN resolved with specific antithyroid treatment and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was not required. PMID:22669869

  14. Efficacy of Ultrasonic Homogenization in the Separation of Benzene-n-Heptane Mixture by Liquid Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S.; Chung, T.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul (Korea)


    In the separation of benzene-n-heptane mixture by liquid membrane, the efficacy of ultrasonic homogenization in emulsification was studied with two anionic surfactants. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether sulfate. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether stifle. The highest value of the separation factor obtained by ultrasonic homogenization was approximately three times as large as that for triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and one and a half times as large as that for sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate when the mechanical stirring was used on the same operational conditions. The lowest membrane breakup was observed when the highest value of the separation factor was achieved with sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The interactions between ionic surfactants and phosphatidylcholine vesicles: Conductometry (United States)

    Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Tseng, Wen Liang


    The interaction between ionic surfactants and phosphatidylcholine vesicles, which are prepared without addition of buffer and salt, is investigated by conductivity measurements. On the basis of the vesicle acting as a trap of charge carriers, the bilayer/aqueous phase partition coefficient K and the surfactant/lipid molar ratio Re of nine surfactants are determined. The thermodynamic consistency is satisfied by the measured parameters. The effects of the alkyl chain length (C10-C16) and ionic head group are then studied. The inverse partition coefficient K-1 is linearly related to the critical micelle concentration. The solubilizing ability Reb is a consequence of the competition between the surfactant incorporation into the bilayer and the formation of micelles. Consequently, the K parameter rises whereas the Reb parameter declines as the chain length is increased. The influence due to addition of salt is also discussed.

  16. Nanocomposites of PP and bentonite clay modified with different surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Ueki, Marcelo M.


    The aim of this work was the development of nano composites of polypropylene (PP) and national bentonite clay modified with different surfactants. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the organophilization process was effective. The surfactants led to a significant increase in the basal spacing of Brasgel PA clay. XRD results of the mixture PP/Brasgel PA clay modified with Praepagem WB surfactant indicated that a nanocomposite with intercalated structure was formed. When the Brasgel PA clay was modified with Praepagem HY surfactant, DRX results indicated that a micro composite was formed. Screw speed, clay content and PP viscosity had no influence on the XRD pattern of the obtained materials. (author)

  17. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... Nonionic surfactants are usually used in the bioavailability studies due to their rela- ..... Leson G, Winer AM (1991) Biofiltration: an innovative air pollution control technology for ... thermodynamics and kinetics. Lewis publishers ...


    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  19. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, David


    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each polyelectrolyte-surfactant particle in the region of the CAC, and just beyond, contains many polyelectrolyte chains, held together essentially by micelle bridges. These particles, however, remain net positively charged, and therefore stable. At the other end of the binding range of the surfactant, so many internal micelles are present that the polymer-surfactant particles are now net negatively charged. Indeed binding stops since no further micelles can be accommodated. Again, the particles are stable. However, there exists a range of surfactant concentrations, lying within the range referred to above, where the net charge is reduced sufficiently that the polymer-surfactant particles will flocculate to form much larger structures. The onset of this second range might be termed the 'critical flocculation concentration' (CFC), and the end, the 'critical stabilisation concentration' (CSC). In this work, the CFC and the CSC have been determined for mixtures of

  20. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David


    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each polyelectrolyte-surfactant particle in the region of the CAC, and just beyond, contains many polyelectrolyte chains, held together essentially by micelle bridges. These particles, however, remain net positively charged, and therefore stable. At the other end of the binding range of the surfactant, so many internal micelles are present that the polymer-surfactant particles are now net negatively charged. Indeed binding stops since no further micelles can be accommodated. Again, the particles are stable. However, there exists a range of surfactant concentrations, lying within the range referred to above, where the net charge is reduced sufficiently that the polymer-surfactant particles will flocculate to form much larger structures. The onset of this second range might be termed the 'critical flocculation concentration' (CFC), and the end, the 'critical stabilisation concentration' (CSC). In this work, the CFC and