WorldWideScience

Sample records for publicly traded securities

  1. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  2. An analysis of security price risk and return among publicly traded pharmacy corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Adrienne M; Skrepnek, Grant H

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been subject to intense and increasing competition in the past several decades. To determine the security price risk and rate of return of publicly traded pharmacy corporations present on the major U.S. stock exchanges from 1930 to 2009. The Center of Research in Security Prices (CRSP) database was used to examine monthly security-level stock market prices in this observational retrospective study. The primary outcome of interest was the equity risk premium, with analyses focusing upon financial metrics associated with risk and return based upon modern portfolio theory (MPT) including: abnormal returns (i.e., alpha), volatility (i.e., beta), and percentage of returns explained (i.e., adjusted R(2)). Three equilibrium models were estimated using random-effects generalized least squares (GLS): 1) the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM); 2) Fama-French Three-Factor Model; and 3) Carhart Four-Factor Model. Seventy-five companies were examined from 1930 to 2009, with overall adjusted R(2) values ranging from 0.13 with the CAPM to 0.16 with the Four-Factor model. Alpha was not significant within any of the equilibrium models across the entire 80-year time period, though was found from 1999 to 2009 in the Three- and Four-Factor models to be associated with a large, significant, and negative risk-adjusted abnormal returns of -33.84%. Volatility varied across specific time periods based upon the financial model employed. This investigation of risk and return within publicly listed pharmacy corporations from 1930 to 2009 found that substantial losses were incurred particularly from 1999 to 2009, with risk-adjusted security valuations decreasing by one-third. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public assessment of new surveillance-oriented security technologies: Beyond the trade-off between privacy and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Esposti, Sara Degli

    2012-07-01

    As surveillance-oriented security technologies (SOSTs) are considered security enhancing but also privacy infringing, citizens are expected to trade part of their privacy for higher security. Drawing from the PRISE project, this study casts some light on how citizens actually assess SOSTs through a combined analysis of focus groups and survey data. First, the outcomes suggest that people did not assess SOSTs in abstract terms but in relation to the specific institutional and social context of implementation. Second, from this embedded viewpoint, citizens either expressed concern about government's surveillance intentions and considered SOSTs mainly as privacy infringing, or trusted political institutions and believed that SOSTs effectively enhanced their security. None of them, however, seemed to trade privacy for security because concerned citizens saw their privacy being infringed without having their security enhanced, whilst trusting citizens saw their security being increased without their privacy being affected.

  4. 76 FR 58772 - Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... trade media, direct mail, industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at... International Trade Administration Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce...

  5. Security Communication Model of Wireless Trade System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-kai; ZHANG Si-yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a C/S system model for K Java and PDA named Net-Wireless. It is a discussion and proposal on information security and solutions for K-Java handsets and PDAs in wireless network. It also explains the scheme which between client security module and server security module. Also, We have developed a Security Server and a K-Java encryption module for e-commerce system and other trade systems.

  6. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  7. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  8. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  9. Publicly Traded Ed. Companies Are Rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    K12 Inc., the nation's largest provider of online precollegiate education, was launched in 2000 and went public seven years later after raising about $140 million in revenue. Like other companies, it moved from being privately held to being publicly traded to raise more money quickly, increase brand awareness, and accelerate business goals. The…

  10. 75 FR 55574 - Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') and... which invited participants will discuss swap execution facilities and security-based swap execution...

  11. 17 CFR 41.23 - Listing of security futures products for trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products for trading. 41.23 Section 41.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Listing of security futures products for trading. (a) Initial listing of products for trading. To list new security futures products for trading, a designated contract market or registered derivatives...

  12. THE ROLE OF REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS IN ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to identify certain relationships between international trade and food security with special emphasis on regional trade agreements. The study was conducted on the basis of domestic and foreign sources of literature. Unresolved problem of food insecurity indicate not only identification of the source of this state , but also ways to improve the food situation in the world. One of the factors that improve directly and indirectly food security level is international trade. Limited capability for performing trade liberalization at the global level means that the way of improving access to food is regionalism. However, taking full advantage of regional trade agreements to solve the problem of food insecurity must be accompanied by elimination or reduction the non-tariff barriers, that still exist.

  13. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  14. 78 FR 46921 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maureen Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI),...

  15. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a ] meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maureen Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI),...

  16. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries,...

  17. US public perspectives on security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2011 on public assessments of contemporary and emerging interstate nuclear threats, support for strategic arms control, and preferences for responding to limited nuclear attacks on the United States. Additionally, we analyze public views of the threat of terrorism, including cyber attacks, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and preferences for responding to an act of radiological terrorism against the United States. Also, we report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2011 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public views on energy requirements, preferences for energy sources, energy conservation versus development, energy independence, implications of events at Fukushima, Japan, for US public support of nuclear generation, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and trust in nuclear risk assessments from government and other public sources. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  18. US public perspectives on security :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2012-02-01

    We report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2011 on public assessments of contemporary and emerging interstate nuclear threats, support for strategic arms control, and preferences for responding to limited nuclear attacks on the United States. Additionally, we analyze public views of the threat of terrorism, including cyber attacks, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and preferences for responding to an act of radiological terrorism against the United States. Also, we report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2011 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public views on energy requirements, preferences for energy sources, energy conservation versus development, energy independence, implications of events at Fukushima, Japan, for US public support of nuclear generation, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and trust in nuclear risk assessments from government and other public sources. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1445-8 - Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs). 1.1445-8 Section 1.1445-8... estates upon the disposition of U.S. real property interests. Except as otherwise provided in this... Bonds § 1.1445-8 Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real...

  20. 77 FR 58356 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law...

  1. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... of DOC small modular reactor report 5. Discussion of subcommittees' work and progress on their... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade...

  2. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  3. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  4. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental...

  5. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Midoguti Joia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Brazil adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Studies involving publicly traded companies in different countries around the world indicate that these new standards tend to improve the information quality and make it more comparable and transparent. This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies (except for financial institutions. The data were extracted from the three-monthly financial statements of the databases from Economática and the Brazilian Securities Commission for the period from 2006 till 2011. To achieve the research objectives, two tests were applied. The first showed that the average discretionary accruals, calculated through the Modified Jones Model, were lower after 2010. Next, the regression analysis was elaborated, using panel data with Newey-West’s correction. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of the IFRS affected the earnings management level in the period under analysis, but showed that the size and indebtedness significantly explain the discretionary accruals, independently of the adoption of the IFRS. The results suggest that larger companies with a large proportion of own capital tend to produce higher quality reports, independently of the adoption of the IFRS.

  6. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2013-02-07

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms.

  7. 77 FR 35941 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law...

  8. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi... Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from September 28-October 1, 2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical infrastructure...

  9. Idology and Its Applications in Public Security and Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shenghui; Zheng, Jianhua; Huang, Zhiqiu; Li, Zhoujun; Tang, Zhenmin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Shuwang

    2016-01-01

    Fraud (swindling money or property by fictional, counterfeit, forged, or imitative things or by impersonating other persons) forms its threats against public security and network security. Anti-fraud is essentially the identification of a person or thing. In this paper, the authors first propose the concept of idology - a systematic and scientific study of identifications of persons and things, and give the definitions of a symmetric identity and an asymmetric identity. Discuss the conversion...

  10. 31 CFR 357.10 - Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES) § 357.10 Laws governing a Treasury book... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements. 357.10 Section 357.10 Money and Finance:...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1446-4 - Publicly traded partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-4 Publicly traded partnerships. (a) In general. This section sets forth... whether such amounts are subject to withholding because of a treaty or statutory exemption; (ii) Amounts effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, but not subject to withholding under section 1446...

  12. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Midoguti Joia; Silvio Hiroshi Nakao

    2014-01-01

    .... This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies...

  13. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi..., until the maximum of 20 participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms...

  14. 75 FR 7546 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 RIN 0607-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security... Social Security Number (SSN) as an identification number when registering to file and filing electronic... collecting, compiling, and publishing export and import trade statistics for the United States under...

  15. 12 CFR 551.150 - How do my officers and employees file reports of personal securities trading transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of personal securities trading transactions? 551.150 Section 551.150 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... TRANSACTIONS Securities Trading Policies and Procedures § 551.150 How do my officers and employees file reports of personal securities trading transactions? An officer or employee described in § 551.140(d)...

  16. Calling Out Cheaters : Covert Security with Public VerifiabilitySecurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    propose (and formally define) an extension of the model where, when an honest party detects cheating, it also receives a certificate that can be published and used to persuade other parties, without revealing any information about the honest party’s input. In addition, malicious parties cannot create fake...... certificates in the attempt of framing innocents. Finally, we construct a secure two-party computation protocol for any functionality f that satisfies our definition, and our protocol is almost as efficient as the one of Aumann and Lindell. We believe that the fear of a public humiliation or even legal...... consequences vastly exceeds the deterrent given by standard covert security. Therefore, even a small value of the deterrent factor ε will suffice in discouraging any cheating attempt...

  17. The Conception of Management of the Economic Security for Retail Trade Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumilo Olga S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The general conception of management of the economic security for retail trade enterprise, proposed by the author, is based on the system-wide approach to both the management and the theory of functional systems. This conception stipulates the implementation of managerial influence on the system of the economic security for retail trade enterprises, established upon principles of the theory of functional systems, as well as provides, according to the context, to use different models of economic security – whether balancing or protective. The developed conception of management of the economic security for retail trade enterprise based on both the system-wide and the functional systems allows to increase the efficiency of management of the economic security of enterprise that will contribute to ensuring the sustainable operation of retail trade enterprise, as well as its ability to adapt to the changing internal and external environment.

  18. Training Methodology on Radiation Security for Major Public Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To the Olympics, radiological security for major public events (MPEs) is paid more and more attention. The radiological security is always an important issue for MPEs security. In the past few years,

  19. Secure Electronic Cards in Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TOMA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the electronic wallet solution implemented within a GSM SIM technology for accessing public services. The solution is implemented in the medical field to provide information on the patient’s medical history and payment for private medical services. The security issue is a very important one as the patient’s history is confidential and the payment has to be safe.

  20. China Initiates Voluntary Certification of Public Security Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.

  1. The governance of publicly traded limited liability companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomtsyan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The limited liability company is not only a widespread business form for non-listed firms but also is used by listed companies. There were 20 publicly traded Delaware LLCs in September 2013. Given the policy of the Delaware legislators and courts to give a maximum effect to the principle of freedom

  2. The governance of publicly traded limited liability companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomtsyan, S.

    The limited liability company is not only a widespread business form for non-listed firms but also is used by listed companies. There were 20 publicly traded Delaware LLCs in September 2013. Given the policy of the Delaware legislators and courts to give a maximum effect to the principle of freedom

  3. The governance of publicly traded limited liability companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomtsyan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The limited liability company is not only a widespread business form for non-listed firms but also is used by listed companies. There were 20 publicly traded Delaware LLCs in September 2013. Given the policy of the Delaware legislators and courts to give a maximum effect to the principle of freedom

  4. Privacy versus collective security: driver and barriers behind a trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, B.H.A. van; Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Huijboom, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many decisions concerning technological development and related policies in the field of protecting the privacy of individuals and security at the societal level include a perceived trade-off between these two interests. Sometimes, this trade-off is made explicitly, but often it is an implicit choic

  5. 77 FR 7131 - Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will be changed to include additional topics. DATES... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  6. Secure data sharing in public cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramana, Kanaparti; Naveen Kumar, R.; Tatekalva, Sandhya; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Secure multi-party protocols have been proposed for entities (organizations or individuals) that don't fully trust each other to share sensitive information. Many types of entities need to collect, analyze, and disseminate data rapidly and accurately, without exposing sensitive information to unauthorized or untrusted parties. Solutions based on secure multiparty computation guarantee privacy and correctness, at an extra communication (too costly in communication to be practical) and computation cost. The high overhead motivates us to extend this SMC to cloud environment which provides large computation and communication capacity which makes SMC to be used between multiple clouds (i.e., it may between private or public or hybrid clouds).Cloud may encompass many high capacity servers which acts as a hosts which participate in computation (IaaS and PaaS) for final result, which is controlled by Cloud Trusted Authority (CTA) for secret sharing within the cloud. The communication between two clouds is controlled by High Level Trusted Authority (HLTA) which is one of the hosts in a cloud which provides MgaaS (Management as a Service). Due to high risk for security in clouds, HLTA generates and distributes public keys and private keys by using Carmichael-R-Prime- RSA algorithm for exchange of private data in SMC between itself and clouds. In cloud, CTA creates Group key for Secure communication between the hosts in cloud based on keys sent by HLTA for exchange of Intermediate values and shares for computation of final result. Since this scheme is extended to be used in clouds( due to high availability and scalability to increase computation power) it is possible to implement SMC practically for privacy preserving in data mining at low cost for the clients.

  7. 17 CFR 41.27 - Prohibition of dual trading in security futures products by floor brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... predetermined algorithm, a transaction for the same security futures product on the same designated contract... place advantage or the ability to override a predetermined algorithm must submit an appropriate rule... predetermined algorithm from trading a security futures product for accounts in which these same...

  8. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    examines President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade ageement to reveal how trade agreements...Gernwny.”3 In a 1950 letter to West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Schuman proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. In...the coal and steel industries that supported the two states’ armament production. These industries were located in the coal- rich Saar-Ruhr region

  9. Determinants of Audit fees by Brazilian Companies Publicly Traded

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Victor Placeres; Nardi,Paula Carolina Ciampaglia; Silva, Ricardo Luiz Menezes da

    2017-01-01

    The studies on the determinants of audit fees in Brazil became possible with the mandatory disclosure of audit expenses in 2009. Thus, the objective of this research was to identify the determinants of the fees paid by Brazilian publicly traded companies to independent auditors in 2010 to 2014. The analysis took place through regression with data arranged in panel. Size, performance, complexity, audit firm size, adoption of corporate governance practices, audit rotation, industry and litigati...

  10. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  11. Supplemental Security Income Public-Use Microdata File, 2001 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The SSI Public-Use Microdata File contains an extract of data fields from SSA's Supplemental Security Record file and consists of a 5 percent random, representative...

  12. COST STRUCTURE IN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES IN THE FOOTWEAR SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak David Simão Kavesk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The administration costs of an organization composes part of its strategic policy and contribute to the identification of operational risks, that is why strategic cost management and knowledge of fixed and variable costs are critical. Therefore, the objective of this work is to identify the cost structure (fixed costs and variable costs of publicly traded companies in the footwear segment. The research is descriptive, conducted through document analysis and quantitative approach. The sample consists of the publicly traded companies in the footwear segment of the BM&FBovespa, recorded in the period 2009-2011. To perform the study we use the quarterly information disclosed by companies. The results show that the cost structure of companies in the footwear segment are similar, the contribution margin varies from 22 % to 30 % and the costs and expenses vary mostly. According to the evidence, we conclude that the publicly traded companies in the footwear segment have considerable flexibility in their strategies considering that reductions in demand are ccompanied by a reduction of its costs and expenses, favoring positive results even in adverse scenarios.

  13. Unconditionally-secure and reusable public-key authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannou, Lawrence M

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum-public-key identification protocol and show that it is secure against a computationally-unbounded adversary. This demonstrates for the first time that unconditionally-secure and reusable public-key authentication is possible in principle with (pure-state) public keys.

  14. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    products and services between the partnered countries. The exchange of goods, services, and business investment facilitates cultural exposure and... Foreign Affairs, (November/December 2014), under “Americas,” https://www.foreiunaffairs.comlarticles/americas/strategic-logic-trade (accessed February...particularly along their shared industrial corridor. French foreign minister Robert Schurnan recognized that long-term peace and prosperity required that

  15. Free Trade With Mexico and U.S. National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    without NAFTA U.S. corporations have been shifting production abroad, in the case of Mexico through the " maquiladora " program wherein U.S.-produced...place the " maquiladora " program within the larger free trade context and help open Mexican markets for our exports. As concluded by Rüdiger

  16. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershen, Drew L

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed.

  17. Water and food security in China: virtual water trade associated with crop trade between Chinese provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-12-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socio-economic development, diet shifts and climate change. Water availability presents a significant spatial heterogeneity in the country. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization to model inter-provincial crop trade in China. We combine these trade simulations with province-scale estimates of Virtual Water Content of these crops, from the H08 hydrological model to build the domestic virtual water trade network of China. We find that there is a wide heterogeneity in water-use efficiency among Chines provinces, with a few of the least water efficient provinces using disproportionately high amounts of irrigation water versus rainwater for crop production. We study the food trade patterns and the virtual water flows and savings associated with it.

  18. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide.

  19. Analysis of China's Water Security and Virtual Water Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongrui; Liu Xinghan; Dong Yanyan; Wang Junhong

    2006-01-01

    Producing goods and services all needs water consumption. The water used in the process of an agricultural or industrial product is called the "Virtual Water" contained in this product.Through international trade, water-scarce countries and regions could purchase water-intensive products--especially foods, from water-rich countries to balance their water deficits and achieve water safety. China is one of the 13 most water-deficit countries whose water safety have been severely challenged. This paper generalized the recent global research development and made a brief introduction about the methods calculating virtual water content in specific products. As a case study, we qualified China's annual virtual water flows from year 2000 to 2002 with trade in crops, and ended with some policy advice for application and practice of virtual water strategy.

  20. Securing military information systems on public infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Military information systems require high levels of security to protect sensitive information within these systems. Encrypted private networks are a common method of securing such systems. However these networks are not always available or practical...

  1. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  2. SECURITY BREACH IN TRADING SYSTEM-COUNTERMEASURE USING IPTRACEBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Rajakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, economic scenario is often facing security breach that has heavy impact on the financial soundness of a company particularly, stock prices on firms. The utmost consequence being the whole business comes to a standstill. From the estimates attributed by the financial sector, it has been inferred that the loss incurred on virus and worms attack is said to have the greatest impact that hampers the prosperity of a business entity. Thus, security strategies attempt on revolving around the act of security breach, thereby targeting to curb the financial losses of a company totally or at least minimize the losses. If the operating system of the stock market or financial sector gets corrupted the whole system need to be formatted, a new operating system has to be reinstalled and the antivirus software tends to be useless in such cases. In this study, virus and worms are encountered using IPTraceback technique and network security is ensured. The effective integration of spectral analysis, worm detection and IPTraceback, alerts the user dynamically and kills the source which distributes the virus. Real time traffic data are used for evaluating the performance.

  3. Secure public cloud platform for medical images sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Prigent, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing promises medical imaging services offering large storage and computing capabilities for limited costs. In this data outsourcing framework, one of the greatest issues to deal with is data security. To do so, we propose to secure a public cloud platform devoted to medical image sharing by defining and deploying a security policy so as to control various security mechanisms. This policy stands on a risk assessment we conducted so as to identify security objectives with a special interest for digital content protection. These objectives are addressed by means of different security mechanisms like access and usage control policy, partial-encryption and watermarking.

  4. Public Security and Fundamental Principles of Criminal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is “public security and constitutional principles of criminal law”. This paper presents some thoughts and formulates some questions concerning developments in the broad area of criminal law and public security which pose a challenge to constitutional law. The paper focuses no

  5. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded companies. (KB)

  6. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The...

  7. Security trade-offs in ancilla-free quantum bit commitment in the presence of superselection rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiVincenzo, David P; Smolin, John A; Terhal, Barbara M [IBM Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Security trade-offs have previously been established for one-way bit commitment. We study this trade-off in two superselection settings. We show that for an [lsquo]abelian[rsquo] superselection rule (exemplified by particle conservation), the standard trade-off between sealing and binding properties still holds. For the non-abelian case (exemplified by angular momentum conservation), the security trade-off can be more subtle, which we illustrate by showing that if the bit commitment is forced to be ancilla-free, an asymptotically secure quantum bit commitment is possible.

  8. Security Trade-offs in Ancilla-Free Quantum Bit Commitment in the Presence of Selection Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vincenzo, D P; Terhal, B M

    2004-01-01

    Security trade-offs have been established for one-way bit commitment in quant-ph/0106019. We study this trade-off in two selection settings. We show that for an `abelian' selection rule (exemplified by particle conservation) the standard trade-off between sealing and binding properties still holds. For the non-abelian case (exemplified by angular momentum conservation) the security trade-off can be more subtle, which we illustrate by showing that if the bit-commitment is forced to be ancilla-free an asymptotically secure quantum bit commitment is possible.

  9. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... harmonization of global environmental regulations, standards, and certification programs; analysis of existing environmental goods and services data sources; trade liberalization negotiations; development of trade promotion...

  10. Satisfying the demand for financial information in public traded companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    A public traded company which wishes to comply with IAS standards and stock exchange requirements for full public disclosure of relevant information faces a major communication task. The Investor Relation policy of such a company has to satisfy a demand for financial information which seems...... and detailed information is, however, in stark contrast to reports on the demands by leading financial analysts. In the ongoing process of improving Investor Relation policies, the companies are often meet by financial analysts looking for condensed figures and tell-all financial ratios. This paper examines...... that Investor Relation policies are still made from a supply viewpoint, i.e., the perceived need for the company to provide specific information even when presenting the condensed information through key figures and financial ratios. There is no panacea in satisfying the demand for comparable financial figures....

  11. General characteristics of the OTC market. Principles of organization of the OTC securities trading

    OpenAIRE

    Prjanishnikova Marija Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    Topicality of research is determined by the role of the OTC securities market in the structure of the modern stock market. As harmonization and standardization of trading rules and procedures in the OTC market increases its value in the process of conversion of stock values. The aim of the study is to identify the principal features of the OTC securities market to justify its basic functions and to analyze the process of development. The subject of research is over-the-counter securities m...

  12. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over 'disguised protectionism' and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue.

  13. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave.

  14. Public Health Surveillance: At the Core of the Global Health Security Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicki, Sara Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Blazes, David L; Pitts, Dana L; Iskander, John K; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Global health security involves developing the infrastructure and capacity to protect the health of people and societies worldwide. The acceleration of global travel and trade poses greater opportunities for infectious diseases to emerge and spread. The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted in 2005 with the intent of proactively developing public health systems that could react to the spread of infectious disease and provide better containment. Various challenges delayed adherence to the IHR. The Global Health Security Agenda came about as an international collaborative effort, working multilaterally among governments and across sectors, seeking to implement the IHR and develop the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern. When examining the recent West African Ebola epidemic as a case study for global health security, both strengths and weaknesses in the public health response are evident. The central role of public health surveillance is a lesson reiterated by Ebola. Through further implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, identified gaps in surveillance can be filled and global health security strengthened.

  15. What's public? What's private? Policy trade-offs and the debate over mandatory annual influenza vaccination for health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L

    2008-01-01

    Policy decisions about public health services differ from those for personal health services. Both require trade-offs between such policy goals as liberty, security, efficiency, and equity. In public health, however, decisions about who will approve, pay for, and deliver services are often accompanied by decisions on when and how to compel individual behaviour. Policy becomes complex because different stakeholders interpret evidence differently: stakeholders may assign different weights to policy goals and may even define the same goals differently. In the debate over mandatory annual influenza vaccination for health care workers, for example, proponents as well as opponents of mandatory vaccination may convey arguments in security terms. Those in favour of mandatory vaccination emphasize subclinical infections and duty of care (public security) while those opposed emphasize risk of adverse events (personal security). Proponents assert less worker absenteeism (efficiency) while opponents stress coercion and alternate personal infection control measures (liberty and individual rights/responsibilities). Consequently, stakeholders talk past each other. Determining the place of mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers thus demands reconciling policy trade-offs and clarifying the underlying disputes hidden in the language of the policy debate.

  16. 17 CFR 249.820 - Form 19b-4(e) for the listing and trading of new derivative securities products by self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and trading of new derivative securities products by self-regulatory organizations that are not deemed... listing and trading of new derivative securities products by self-regulatory organizations that are not... self-regulatory organization's listing and trading of a new derivative securities product that is...

  17. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Gleeson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials. PMID:28812819

  18. 76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS..., transfer, and storage of Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) in bulk within the U.S. Marine Transportation System....Bergan@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In September 2009, the Coast Guard held a...

  19. A Secure Public-key Image Authentication Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    Digital watermark can be used for image ownership verification or authentication. In this paper, we propose a new image authentication plan concentrating on its security performance. Digital watermark is first turbo coded, scaled and then processed in wavelet domain. To enhance security level, public key cryptosystem is utilized to replace traditional watermark key. Simulation results are finally given by experiment.

  20. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  1. 78 FR 12127 - Vitaminspice Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... COMMISSION Vitaminspice Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for...

  2. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  3. Financing Public Security: Tax and Non-tax Instruments to Finance Citizen Security and Crime Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Isaias Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the innovative sources of financing for public security that have developed in Latin American and the Caribbean in recent years, this paper reviews the main revenue instruments that can be used to finance various aspects of citizen security. The paper focuses on the structure of financing for the security budget and does not attempt to provide an assessment of expenditure needs and efficiency. If an in-depth country analysis concludes that more resources are needed, the paper provi...

  4. Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Koshiba, T

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to adversaries, we generally discuss what are the right security notions for (quantum) public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting. Moreover, we consider the security of quantum public-key cryptosystems known so far.

  5. Adoption of information security measures in public research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo de Albuquerque Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several Information Security measures recommended by international standards and literature, but the adoption by the organizations should be buoyed by specific needs identified by Information Security Governance structure of each organization, although it may be influenced by forces of the institutional environment in which organizations are inserted. In public research institutes, measures may be adopted as a result of pressure from Government and other organizations that regulate their activities, or by the influence of Information Security professionals, or simply adopting the same measures of leading organizations in the organizational field. This study aimed to investigate whether in public research institutes the adoption of Information Security measures is influenced by organizational factors relating to the Information Security Governance, and by external factors relating to its institutional environment. The results show that these organizations are subject to institutional influences more than organizational influences.

  6. 26 CFR 1.883-2T - Treatment of publicly-traded corporations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of publicly-traded corporations... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-2T Treatment of publicly-traded corporations (temporary). (a) through (e)(1) . For further guidance, see § 1.883-2(a) through (e)(1)....

  7. 26 CFR 1.883-2 - Treatment of publicly-traded corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of publicly-traded corporations. 1.883...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-2 Treatment of publicly-traded corporations. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership test of § 1.883-1(c)(2)...

  8. A Look at the Law, Public Safety, Corrections & Security Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    A month after the 9/11 terrorist attack in 2001, an advisory group met in Little Rock, Arkansas, to begin the development of the Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security (LPSCS) career cluster. At that time there were five pathways of what was then called the Law and Public Safety cluster--fire and emergency services, law enforcement,…

  9. Public Health Security in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Verma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global cooperation, collaboration, and investment are necessary to ensure a safer future. This means a multi-sectoral approach to managing the problem of global disease that includes governments, industry, public and private financiers, academia, international organizations and civil society, all of whom have responsibilities for building public health security.

  10. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... the value of the respective function on the internal state of the respective device (namely, on its secret share, internal randomness, and results of intermediate computations). We present distributed public key encryption (DPKE) and distributed identity based encryption (DIBE) schemes that are secure...

  11. Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Koshiba, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to ad...

  12. Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. is rapidly negotiating a raft of new regional and bilateral trade agreements. The most recent agreement, with Central America, [was to] come before Congress for a vote as soon as late May. There is growing concern that international trade agreements threaten health care and the health of communities. . . . The Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), developed by CPATH which planned a campaign around the issues, analyzes key provisions from the perspective of public health and suggests reframing the trade debate in terms of health.

  13. Security analysis of public key watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott A.; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2001-12-01

    Traditional watermarking systems require the complete disclosure of the watermarking key in the watermark verification process. In most systems an attacker is able to remove the watermark completely once the key is known, thus subverting the intention of copyright protection. To cope with this problem, public-key watermarking schemes were proposed that allow asymmetric watermark detection. Whereas a public key is used to insert watermarks in digital objects, the marks can be verified with a private key. Knowledge of this private key does not allow piracy. We describe two public-key watermarking schemes which are similar in spirit to zero-knowledge proofs. The key idea of one system is to verify a watermark in a blinded version of the document, where the scrambling is determined by the private key. A probabilistic protocol is constructed that allows public watermark detection with probability of 1/2; by iteration, the verifier can get any degree of certainty that the watermark is present. The second system is based on watermark attacks, using controlled counterfeiting to conceal real watermark data safely amid data useless to an attacker.

  14. Status Report on Publicly Traded Child Care Companies--An Interview with John McLaughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Interview with editor of "Education Industry Report" reveals why child care companies choose to go public on stock exchanges and how publicly traded child care companies are faring. Discusses potential for growth in the industry, advantages of private placement, and recommended steps for going public. Describes nine publicly traded…

  15. Correlation Method for Public Security Information in Big Data Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual improvement of the informationization level in public security area, the concept "Information led policing" has been formed, many information systems have been built and vast amounts of business data have been accumulated down, But these systems and data are isolated and becoming the isolated information islands. This thesis proposes an architecture of information analysis system on big data platform, then discuss the question of data integration, finally proposes the correlation method for public security information: direct association and indirect association.

  16. Increasing security through public health: a practical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R David

    2011-01-01

    As political and social changes sweep the globe, there are opportunities to increase national security through innovative approaches. While traditional security methods such as defense forces and homeland security provide both pre-emptive and defensive protection, new methods could meet emerging challenges by responding to the political, financial, and social trends. One method is the integration of defense, medicine and public health. By assisting a nation by providing basic services, such as healthcare, collaborative efforts can increase stabilization in areas of unrest. Improved health outcomes leads to increased domestic security, which can create a ripple effect across a region. Assessment, uptake and sustainability by the host nation are critical for program success. The proposed methodology focuses on the use of primarily extant resources, such as programs used by Special Operations Forces and other health and defense programs. Additional components include evaluation, set objectives and mission collaborations. As the nexus between foreign affairs, security, and public health is increasingly validated through research and practice, standardized interventions should be developed to minimize overlapping expenditures, promote security and strengthen international relations.

  17. SPEED AND SECURITY ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.SAIGEETHA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is true that the transfer of data is essential in the fast developing world. It is equally true that the transfer of data tobe taken place with much security by not giving groom to the intruders. This paper presents the analysis of the security of information with enhanced the speed of encryption and decryption process. This process uses public key cryptography via RSA algorithm with some modification. There are two keys used in RSA algorithm foreffectiveness in the aspect of security one being the public key used for all and the other being the secret key. The implementation is done in the JAVA language and crypt analysis is performed to check the level of protection and speed .

  18. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    public health needs that require attention (such as poor prenatal health, teen pregnancy , and sexually transmitted diseases) it is not difficult to...Security objectives. It also assumes that war and terrorism are the sole results of poor health, nutrition , and housing, while ignoring other

  19. Health Security Intelligence: Assessing the Nascent Public Health Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Information Sharing System MOU Memorandum of Understanding NBIC National Biosurveillance Integration Center NCMI National Center for...definition, have come to the fore in the literature, biosurveillance and health security. Biosurveillance , as a term, is too limited to provide the...purposes. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) in a 2006 report on public health infrastructure described biosurveillance as, “…automated

  20. Trading with the Future and Futures Trading. Series on Public Issues No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Leonardo

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, it is proposed that speculation is often misunderstood, particularly in the operation of the futures markets. These are markets in which obligations to consummate sales and purchases at some time in the future are traded at a…

  1. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  2. Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Urban Public Security Treatment Mechanisms and Analysis of Policy References

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Zhang Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    From the viewpoint of disaster prevention in the urban areas, this paper analyzes the value of urban public security system, selects typical cases to make a comparison of Chinese and foreign public security treatment mechanisms, and makes systematic summarization of the Chinese and foreign historic experiences. Then, the paper puts forward some designs on structure of the Chinese urban public security system structure. This paper is of the opinion that at present the management of urban public security concerning unexpected incidents should be strengthened. The effective way is to set up the sound urban public security system, urban public security mechanism and related laws and regulations.

  3. 78 FR 15402 - Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 6, 2013. It appears to the Securities and... potentially manipulative conduct in the trading of Xytos shares. The Commission is of the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of...

  4. 76 FR 33803 - Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading June 7, 2011. IN THE MATTER OF AMERICAN PACIFIC RIM COMMERCE GROUP... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed companies is suspended for...

  5. 77 FR 10004 - C$ cMoney, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... COMMISSION C$ cMoney, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 16, 2012. It appears to the Securities... the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading... the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company...

  6. Public private partnership in free trade zone project of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓拉

    2014-01-01

    Free trade zone is a commonly used method in developing countries to generate economic growth, to at ract foreign direct investment, to increase employment and to improve living conditions. The progres of Mongolian FTZ projects is far behind schedule due to lack of financial resources. This paper analyses the pos ibility of private sector participation and gives some suggestions for finding an appropriate model of private sector participation on FTZ projects in Mongolia.

  7. Secure Cloud StorageForPrivacy-Preserving Public Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShekhAhamadhusen D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Cloud Environment, using cloud storage service, users can remotely store their data and enjoy the on-demand high-quality applications and services from a shared pool of configurable computing resources, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the fact that users no longer have physical possession of the outsourced data makes the data integrity protection in cloud computing a formidable task, especially for users with constrained computing resources. Moreover, users should be able to just use the cloud storage as if it is local, without worrying about the need to verify its integrity. Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud storage is of critical importance so that users can resort to a third-party auditor (TPA to check the integrity of outsourced data and be worry free. To securely introduce an effective TPA, the auditing process should bring in no new vulnerabilities toward user data privacy, and introduce no additional online burden to user. In this paper, we propose a secure cloud storage system supporting privacy-preserving public auditing. We further extend our result to enable the TPA to perform audits for multiple users simultaneously and efficiently. Extensive security and performance analysis show the proposed schemes are provably secure and highly efficient.

  8. The securitisation of pandemic influenza: framing, security and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamradt-Scott, Adam; McInnes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how pandemic influenza has been framed as a security issue, threatening the functioning of both state and society, and the policy responses to this framing. Pandemic influenza has long been recognised as a threat to human health. Despite this, for much of the twentieth century it was not recognised as a security threat. In the decade surrounding the new millennium, however, the disease was successfully securitised with profound implications for public policy. This article addresses the construction of pandemic influenza as a threat. Drawing on the work of the Copenhagen School, it examines how it was successfully securitised at the turn of the millennium and with what consequences for public policy.

  9. 17 CFR 230.139a - Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dealers distributing asset-backed securities. 230.139a Section 230.139a Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Publications by brokers or dealers distributing asset-backed securities. The publication or distribution by a broker or dealer of information, an opinion or a recommendation with respect to asset-backed securities...

  10. 76 FR 1101 - Property Traded on an Established Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ71 Property Traded on an Established Market AGENCY... traded on an established market (that is, publicly traded) for purposes of determining the issue price of... and that is part of an issue some or all of which is traded on an established securities market...

  11. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  12. Development and Validation of Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument for Sustainable Job Security in Yobe State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Gishua Garba; Dawha, Josphine Musa; Kamar, Tiamiyu Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument (METSAI) is aimed at determining the extent to which students have acquired practical skills before graduation that will enable them get employment for sustainable job security in Yobe state. The study employed instrumentation research design. The populations of the study were 23 mechanical…

  13. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  14. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  15. Public Open Access and Private Timber Harvests: Theory and Application to the Effects of Trade Liberalization in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2000-01-01

    A common popular assertion is that trade liberalization encourages deforestation. But whether this is true depends on how trade policies affect the allocation of land among competing uses and how they influence illegal cutting of public forests. A model is presented that allows for forests to be either public or private, and public forests are divided into protected (...

  16. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... take place from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. This meeting is open to the public and time will be permitted for..., Regulations, and Certification Subcommittee; and Innovation Subcommittee. Each group will provide an...

  17. Satisfying the demand for financial information in public traded companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    to be an ever increasing factor. The financial reporting has to fulfill the requirements for official fillings to the stock exchange and the capital market as well as more voluntary Internet reporting to make annual, semi-annual and even quarterly reports publicly available. This demand for extensive...

  18. Security, at what cost? A stated preference approach toward understanding individuals' privacy and civil liberties trade-offs regarding security measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, N.; Potoglou, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the presently heightened security environment there are a number of examples of policy that must strike a delicate balance between strengthening security without jeopardising public liberties and personal privacy. The introduction of national identity cards and biometric passports, the expansion

  19. Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chun-Yan; Li Xi-Han; Deng Fu-Guo; Zhou Hong-Yu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  20. REVIEWING AND APPLYING SECURITY SERVICES WITH NON-ENGLISH LETTER CODING TO SECURE SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS IN LIGHT OF SOFTWARE TRADE-OFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Hussein Rahouma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Important software applications need to be secured by choosing the suitable security services. In this paper, a shopper program is designed and implemented using VB.NET to follow up the movement of goods in the store and the shopping place. The program uses five files to store: the passwords, the information of goods in the store and the shopping place. A literature review is carried out to collect the information system and software trade-offs. The applied security services are then analyzed in light of these trade-offs. For security purposes, files and folders are hidden and files are set to ReadOnly. The files' contents are encrypted by applying XOR operation with a random key generator. The file's contents are hashed and signed by the user to protect the integrity and authenticity of the files' contents. The applied security services do not result in much complexity and thus it does not affect the system resources. The program usability is easy to handle. The software is not freely available and in case of hunting a copy, it would be hard to run it without disclosing the needed keys. Applying the Arabic letter coding adds more credit to the program usability and availability.

  1. Secure Internet Voting System based on Public Key Kerberos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khalid Abd-Alrazzq

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting system is an important tool which allows voters to vote over the Internet without the geographical restrictions with considers important criteria in evaluating electronic voting schemes such as the mobility, democracy, and privacy. In this paper secure remote voting system has been presented. The proposed system uses public key Kerberos which is another form of traditional Kerberos as infrastructure deal with voters. The public key is used in all steps of Kerberos (not only in initial. The proposed system utilizes the advantages of threshold cryptography to prevent anyone to decrypt or sign the ballot alone without agreement all authorities, and use threshold blind signature to prevent discovers the vote or the identity of voter and protect the content of the ballot during casting and provide verifiable and discourages ballot buying.

  2. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  3. Private security, public/private sector partnership, crime prevention, police, public safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Gómez Hecht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment in El Salvador is characterized by high levels of insecurity and criminality. Public authorities confronting this problem need to resort to new alternatives for solving or at least managing the situation. One of these alternatives is the public/private sector partnership in crime prevention which is a promising option. Research has analyzed the current state of the public/private sector partnership between the National Civil Police and Private Security Services in El Salvador, revealing among other things that this relationship is at an incipient stage, but has promising results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1759

  4. PROFITABILITY - CAPITAL STRUCTURE TRADE OFF: CASE OF PUBLICLY ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoc Claudiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of empirical works that test what drives firm profitability, since it is an objective and at the same time a frame of how a company is performing. The main aim of this paper is to test capital structure, noncurrent assets ratio and tax rate as determinants for profitability, with capital structure as main focus. Using a sample of 62 publicly Romanian for period 2001-2011 and panel data model the results suggest that financial statement variables considered are significant in gauging profitability. It was concluded that there is evidence for pecking order theory and firms with large amounts of noncurrent assets are under performing.

  5. Exploring Public Health's roles and limitations in advancing food security in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Barbara A; Lang, Tim M; Caraher, Martin J; Ostry, Aleck S

    2014-07-22

    This research analyzes the roles and limitations of Public Health in British Columbia in advancing food security through the integration of food security initiatives into its policies and programs. It asks the question, can Public Health advance food security? If so, how, and what are its limitations? This policy analysis merges findings from 38 key informant interviews conducted with government and civil society stakeholders involved in the development of food security initiatives, along with an examination of relevant documents. The Population Health Template is used to delineate and analyze Public Health roles in food security. Public Health was able to advance food security in some ways, such as the adoption of food security as a core public health program. Public Health's leadership role in food security is constrained by a restricted mandate, limited ability to collaborate across a wide range of sectors and levels, as well as internal conflict within Public Health between Food Security and Food Protection programs. Public Health has a role in advancing food security, but it also faces limitations. As the limitations are primarily systemic and institutional, recommendations to overcome them are not simple but, rather, require movement toward embracing the determinants of health and regulatory pluralism. The results also suggest that the historic role of Public Health in food security remains salient today.

  6. Study on Promotion of City Public Security and Improvement of City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. Problems existing in city publicsecurity The city public security (CPS) refers tothe security guarantee provided and led by governments for the people, property,as well as important lifeline systems of

  7. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Public Health Security and... potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. In determining whether to include an agent...

  8. 78 FR 6168 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service... Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), we are publishing this notice to advise the public of...

  9. 77 FR 3836 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service... Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), we are publishing this notice to advise the public of...

  10. Synergy effects between MINUSTAH and public security in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Harig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the complex relationship between UN Peace Operations and public security in Brazil. It shows that there are obvious similarities at an operational level between military actions in MINUSTAH and Rio´s Pacification, which arguably result in reciprocal learning processes among troops. With the establishment of dedicated training centres and a considerable amount of practical experience in missions that differ significantly from combat-orientated warfare, soldiers are becoming increasingly familiar with police tasks. Considering the extension of the legal framework for allowing domestic military actions, I argue that this “police-ization of the military” (Dunlap, 1999, p. 222 is probably more significant for internal “Guaranteeing Law and Order” (GLO missions than for further Brazilian participations in Peace Operations.

  11. 75 FR 55575 - Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security-Based Swaps, Swap Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security- Based Swaps, Swap Data Repositories, Security-Based Swap Data Repositories, and Real-Time Public... will discuss data for swaps and security-based swaps, swap data repositories, security-based swap...

  12. Corporate Governance Provisions, Family Involvement, and Firm Performance in Publicly Traded Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Memili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the moderation effects of corporate governance provisions on the link between family involvement (i.e., family ownership and family management in publicly-traded firms and firm performance by drawing upon agency theory, with a focus on principal-principal agency issues, and the extant family governance literature. We develop and test the hypotheses on 386 of the S&P 500 firms longitudinally. Findings support the hypotheses suggesting the moderation effects of the use of provisions (a protecting controlling owners in terms of their sustainability of controlling status, and (b protecting management legally on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and firm performance. We also found support for the moderation effects of provisions (c protecting controlling owners in terms of their voting rights, (d protecting noncontrolling owners, and (e protecting management monetarily on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family management and firm performance. By this, our study provides empirical support for the principal-principal agency perspective on the corporate governance in publicly-traded family firms. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the corporate governance literature, as well as for the theory of the family firm. Our study also offers insights to policy directed toward monitoring the actions of large shareholders such as family and enhancing the overall shareholder value in publicly-traded family firms.

  13. Free Trade, A New National Security Policy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-30

    the principles of Adam Smith . The United States appointed itself the leader and protector of western democracies and benefactor of those nations with...Since its beginnings, the United States has embraced the tenets of free trade. Its trade policy has reflected the theories of Adam Smith who viewed

  14. Sit down at the ball game: How trade barriers make the world less food secure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Shutes, L.J.; Meijerink, G.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of trade policy responses to rising world food prices by carrying out a series of stylised experiments in the wheat market using a world trade model, GTAP. The sequence of events that is modelled comprises a negative wheat supply shock and subsequent implementation of

  15. Enhancing U.S. National Security: The Case for Hemispheric Free Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    economic and political reforms, is willing to challenge the political power of the old oligarchies; -- women have a growing role in the work force...Riahts Concerns Those who oppose hemispheric free trade on human rights grounds argue that free trade will engender sweatshop conditions in the lower

  16. General characteristics of the OTC market. Principles of organization of the OTC securities trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prjanishnikova Marija Vladimirovna

    2016-10-01

    The field of application of the research results. The results of the study are recommended for use in the development of concepts development of the securities market, the formation courses in the discipline of the securities market.

  17. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T. managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and their implementation aiming greater control of information security risks and opportunities related to information technology security.

  18. National Security in the Nuclear Age: Public Library Proposal and Booklist. May 1987 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Ernest B.

    To increase public understanding of national security issues, this document proposes that a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on national security in the nuclear age be included in all U.S. public libraries. The proposal suggests that the books be grouped together on an identified shelf. Selection criteria for the…

  19. A Trusted Centralized Public Key to Secure Border Gateway Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Raimagia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Secure Border Gateway Protocol (S-BGP is used when two different Autonomous System communicate with each other and upon reception of UPDATE from neighbor Autonomous System. A core layer Router in single Autonomous System called BGP speaker first verifies the receiving update and signs the full path with own digital signature and send it to neighbor AS. In Real scenario so many ASes and Routers communicate to each other. So due to several digital signatures mandates, large storage require in router as well as high processor overhead and more time require for sign generation and verification in S-BGP. In this paper, we propose a new approach that less burden on BGP Speaker for verify and generate number of digital signatures using Autonomous System makes trusted through KDC server. The Central KDC Server will send master certificate to validate autonomous system. In this environment each BGP speaker verify only one sign on each update and verify path only between itself and neighbor router. After verification of UPDATE, each BGP speaker sign full path encrypt routing table with neighbor’s public key,

  20. Whether trade openness has increased all the components of Portuguese public expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Reis Mourao

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at identifying the public outlays that has been influenced by the growth of Portuguese trade openness since the end of World War II. For the Portuguese reality, it is one of the first attempts to discuss a large set of simultaneously tested control variables. For this purpose, the methodology started from a model that tries to the public expenditures to a system of simultaneous macroeconomic forces and, for testing, it followed the steps associated with cointegration analysis. Using the most convenient techniques, a restrictive set of four expenditures (subsidies, interest payments, other current expenditures, and total public expenditures as a proportion of GDP was found among the wider set suggested by the Literature. The nature of these expenditures supports the claim that, for the Portuguese case, a particular validity of the compensation hypothesis has been observed. The achieved evidence promotes an important rule: in addition to there being a long-term relation between (some public expenditures and trade openness, short-term relations may also appear.

  1. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  2. Determinants of corporate cash holdings: Evidence from Portuguese publicly traded firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, Filipa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of cash holdings of publicly traded Portuguese firms. We find that such firms hold less cash than similar companies operating in countries where both shareholders and creditors’ rights are more tightly protected by the law. In addition, our regression results suggest that leverage, other liquid assets, and firm growth are negatively correlated with our sample firms’ cash holdings whereas long-term debt and financial distress are positively correlated. Our findings cannot be reconciled with just one of the existent theories (trade-off, pecking order and free cashflow theory, and emphasize the importance of a country’s legal, institutional, and economic environment for explaining firms’ cash holdings decisions.

  3. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza; Carlos Hideo Arima; Renata Maria Nogueira de Oliveira; Getulio Akabane; Napoleão Verardi Galegale

    2016-01-01

    Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T.) managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and thei...

  4. Study on the Community Policing Administration Innovation from the Perspective of the Public Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIN

    2015-01-01

    Since the 20th century, human public security accidents occurred frequently, so that the developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and Russia took the lead in strengthening the study of the public security administration. Since the 21th century, all walks of life have paid more attention to the public security administration in China, along with the deepened implementation of the reform and opening-up policy and the rapid development of economic construction and the effects from the outbreak of the SARS crisis and the frequent occurrence of many coal mine security accidents, etc. In this process, the non-traditional security issues and man-made crisis are gradually becoming the main threats currently to the public security of China, because the conflicts of interest and the social contradictions overlap and the social crisis such as cadres-masses and police-masses conflicts is being aggravated. At present, the Ministry of Public Security of China is pushing forward a community policing reform and great numbers of community polices in community policing administration will directly confront with the challenges of the public security administration complexity, and therefore, the promotion of community policing urgently needs the innovation of administration concept.

  5. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  6. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  7. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction.......We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  8. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction.......We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  9. 75 FR 47675 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... foreign country's markets; (10) Trade restrictions affecting electronic commerce (e.g., tariff and non... separate cover letters to electronic submissions; rather, include any information that might appear in...

  10. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli K. Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in influencing health outcomes and are integral to achieving the One Health, One World vision. International trade, for example, opens markets not only to life-saving products such as vaccines, medicines, and medical equipment, but also to life-threatening products such as tobacco and asbestos. If strengthened and enforced, environmental law can decrease air and water pollution, major causes of death and disability. World hunger has been exacerbated by the global economic crisis and climate change, increasing the urgency for international law to enhance food security. Humanitarian law must similarly be strengthened to protect civilians adequately as the nature of warfare continues to change. Refugee law plays a pivotal role in protecting the health of deeply vulnerable people who lack food, shelter, and social stability. Higher standards and more effective compliance are necessary for international law to realize its full potential to safeguard the world's population.

  11. FOOD SECURITY IN A WATER-SCARCE WORLD: MAKING VIRTUAL WATER COMPATIBLE WITH CROP WATER USE AND FOOD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oscar YAWSON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual water has been proposed as a mechanism with potential to reduce the effects of water scarcity on food security. To evaluate the role of virtual water in reducing the effect of water scarcity on food security, all components of the available water resource in agricultural areas must be quantified to provide a basis for evaluating food imports driven by water scarcity. We refer to this situation as ‘agri-compatible connections’ among water scarcity, virtual water, and food security. To date, this has not been captured in the literature on water scarcity, virtual water flows and food security. The lack of agri-compatibility has rendered the virtual water concept seemingly inconsistent with trade theories and water-food security policy needs. We propose two requirements for achieving agri-compatible connections: (i the limit of crop production imposed by water scarcity should be captured by quantifying all components of the water available to satisfy specific crop water requirement in the importing economy, and (ii food import should satisfy ‘water-dependent food security’ need, which is the actual or potential food security gap created by insufficient available water from all sources for crop production (all other things being equal. Further, we propose that agri-compatible water scarcity should capture three key elements: (i a reflection of aridity or drought potential, (ii quantification of all the components of water resource available to a given crop at a given locality and time, and (iii use of crop- and catchment-specific water scarcity factors to evaluate the effect of crop production and virtual water on water scarcity. In this paper, we show the conceptual outlines for the proposed agri-compatible connections. Achieving agri-compatible connections among water scarcity, virtual water and food security will enhance the analysis and understanding of the role of virtual water for food security in the importing economy and water

  12. Danish Rules on Securities and other protective rights in the chartparty trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    of ships’ finance under Danish Law relevant to the charterparty trade. The factual starting point for the paper is that a vessel is working in or intended to work in the charterparty trade, most particularly under long term time charterparties or Contracts of Affreightment. In such a situation, we find...... a tri-party relationship between the Financers, the Owners and the Charterers. When things are well, the interests of these three parties are on a par. The Charterers wish to use the vessel in order to make a profit, enabling them to pay the Owners. The Owners, receiving the hire or freight, are able...

  13. Securities Trading: SEC Action Needed to Address National Market System Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    goals. (See p. 35.) I Development of Trading In May 1989, sec approved a maor change to the way stock options will Linkage for Multiple be listed and...December 1989) Table 1.1: Average Daily Volume of U.S. Stock Exchanges 50 0 and NASIDQ (1969) Table 1.2: Average Daily Stock Options Contract Volume 55 of...U.S. Options Exchanges (199) Table 1.3: Number of Stock Options Listed at Options 55 Exchanges (December 1989) Figures FIgure 2.1: N’SE Block Trades

  14. Dynamic Data Storage and Public Auditability for Cloud Storage Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    IT has moved into next generation with cloud computing being realized. The way application software and databases are stored has been changed. Now they are stored in cloud data centers in which security is a concern from client point of view. The new phenomenon which is used to store and manage...... data without capital investment has brought many security challenges which are not thoroughly understood. This paper focuses on the security and integrity of data stored in cloud data servers. The data integrity verification is done by using a third party auditor who is authorized to check integrity...

  15. Relationship Between the Police Educational Formation System and Public Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Beu

    2013-04-01

    formationcenters in Europe and region will enable a more effective fight against crime and will leadto the so desirable product of enhancement of public trust towards police and an increaseof the perception of security.

  16. Legitimizing Security in the Ivory Tower: Canadian University Corporate Security Services' Public Quest for Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Blair

    2016-05-01

    This article examines how university corporate security (UCS) services engage in legitimation work in their attempts to make their university communities (i.e., faculty, staff, students) and political masters (i.e., university administrators, boards of governors, senators) believe that they are honest, trustworthy, and caring and have authority that should be deferred to. This is accomplished through the analysis of interview and observational data collected as part of a research project exploring UCS services at five Canadian universities and an examination of how UCS services at 14 Canadian universities communicate using the social media service Twitter. These UCS services were found to primarily use Twitter for the purposes of soliciting or requesting information and for networking. In communicating through Twitter, UCS services engage in public legitimation work in which they make claims about and attempt to demonstrate their expertise, authority, and accountability. This article argues that both UCS services' particular legitimacy problem (i.e., their possession of both private and public attributes) and the interactive nature of public legitimation work create tensions that may serve to disrupt UCS services' ability to attain legitimacy. Cet article examine la manière dont les services de sécurité d'entreprise à l'université (SEU) s'engagent à légitimer leurs tentatives de persuader leurs communautés universitaires (c'est-à-dire le corps professoral, le personnel et les étudiants) ainsi que la haute administration (c'est-à-dire les administrateurs de l'université, le conseil des gouverneurs et les sénateurs) qu'ils sont honnêtes, attentifs, dignes de confiance, et qu'ils possèdent un niveau d'autorité auquel quiconque devrait se référer. Ceci sera accompli en analysant un corpus d'entrevues et d'observations dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche examinant les services de type SEU dans cinq universités canadiennes, ainsi qu'une étude sur

  17. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity.

  18. Securing U-Healthcare Sensor Networks using Public Key Based Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, Md Mokammel; Hong, Choong Seon

    2008-01-01

    Recent emergence of electronic culture uplifts healthcare facilities to a new era with the aid of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Due to the sensitiveness of medical data, austere privacy and security are inevitable for all parts of healthcare systems. However, the constantly evolving nature and constrained resources of sensors in WSN inflict unavailability of a lucid line of defense to ensure perfect security. In order to provide holistic security, protections must be incorporated in every component of healthcare sensor networks. This paper proposes an efficient security scheme for healthcare applications of WSN which uses the notion of public key cryptosystem. Our entire security scheme comprises basically of two parts; a key handshaking scheme based on simple linear operations and the derivation of decryption key by a receiver node for a particular sender in the network. Our architecture allows both base station to node or node to base station secure communications, and node-to-node secure commun...

  19. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  20. Cryptonite: A Secure and Performant Data Repository on Public Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-06-29

    Cloud storage has become immensely popular for maintaining synchronized copies of files and for sharing documents with collaborators. However, there is heightened concern about the security and privacy of Cloud-hosted data due to the shared infrastructure model and an implicit trust in the service providers. Emerging needs of secure data storage and sharing for domains like Smart Power Grids, which deal with sensitive consumer data, require the persistence and availability of Cloud storage but with client-controlled security and encryption, low key management overhead, and minimal performance costs. Cryptonite is a secure Cloud storage repository that addresses these requirements using a StrongBox model for shared key management.We describe the Cryptonite service and desktop client, discuss performance optimizations, and provide an empirical analysis of the improvements. Our experiments shows that Cryptonite clients achieve a 40% improvement in file upload bandwidth over plaintext storage using the Azure Storage Client API despite the added security benefits, while our file download performance is 5 times faster than the baseline for files greater than 100MB.

  1. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food.

  2. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  3. 网上证券交易监管有关法律问题初论%The relevant legal issues of online securities trading regulation on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈益杰

    2014-01-01

    the Internet securities transaction in modern society is a typical mode of e-commerce transactions, it has the advantages of low cost, fast amount is large, virtual, international characteristic, therefore, the rapid development, has become the main trade form of modern securities trading. It is the traditional securities exchange has great influence, therefore, urgently for the supervision of the. This paper is on the online securities trading of the relevant legal problems are simple at the beginning of, with a view to the in-depth study of the online securities trading is some help.%网上证券交易是现代社会一种典型的电子商务交易模式,它具有费用低廉、快捷量大、虚拟性、国际性的特点,因此,发展迅猛,成为现代证券交易的主要交易形式。它对传统证券交易具有很大的影响,因此,亟待对其进行相应的监管。本文就是对网上证券交易的有关法律问题进行简单的初论,以期对深入研究网上证券交易有些许帮助。

  4. Economically sustainable public security and emergency network exploiting a broadband communications satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Lasisi Salami

    2014-01-01

    The research contributes to work in Rapid Deployment of a National Public Security and Emergency Communications Network using Communication Satellite Broadband. Although studies in Public Security Communication networks have examined the use of communications satellite as an integral part of the Communication Infrastructure, there has not been an in-depth design analysis of an optimized regional broadband-based communication satellite in relation to the envisaged service coverage area, with l...

  5. Efficient Identity Based Signcryption Scheme with Public Verifiability and Forward Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Fei-yu; CHEN Wen; CHEN Ke-fei; MA Chang-she

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we point out that Libert and Quisquater's signcryption scheme cannot provide public verifiability. Then we present a new identity based signcryption scheme using quadratic residue and pairings over elliptic curves. It combines the functionalities of both public verifiability and forward security at the same time. Under the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman and quadratic residue assumption, we describe the new scheme that is more secure and can be somewhat more efficient than Libert and Quisquater's one.

  6. Public Health, Safety, and Security for Mass Gatherings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    many more duties. It simply does not have the human, animal , or physical resources to do so.131 Local personnel are fully aware of their... Disney World, dense population centers,146 and other characteristics such as urban areas that qualify for funding under the Urban Area Security

  7. Aviation Security, Risk Assessment, and Risk Aversion for Public Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark G.; Mueller, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates risk reductions for each layer of security designed to prevent commercial passenger airliners from being commandeered by terrorists, kept under control for some time, and then crashed into specific targets. Probabilistic methods are used to characterize the uncertainty of rates of deterrence, detection, and disruption, as well…

  8. 75 FR 15687 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... and multinational companies that demand quality, durability and state-of- the-art technology. However... Brazilian Association of Electronic Security Companies (ABESE), approximately 5,000 companies serve the... companies). Participants will receive a briefing that will include market intelligence, as well as an...

  9. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... and multinational companies that demand quality, durability and state-of- the-art technology. However... Brazilian Association of Electronic Security Companies (ABESE), approximately 5,000 companies serve the... companies). Participants will receive a briefing that will include market intelligence, as well as an...

  10. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper......This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... points to a possible future status of public diplomacy under the influence of nation branding: Public diplomacy may maintain a function pertinent to national security but as this function is incapable of managing real risks it will only serve as auto-communication that legitimizes security policy towards...

  11. Public Health Crisis in War and Conflict - Health Security in Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John; Zelený, Tomáš; Subramaniam, Rammika; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-03-01

    Public health status of populations is multifactorial and besides other factors it is linked to war and conflict. Public health crisis can erupt when states go to war or are invaded; health security may be reduced for affected populations. This study reviews in aggregate multiple indices of human security, human development and legitimacy of the state in order to describe a predictable global health portrait. Paradigm shift of large global powers to that non-state actors and proxies impact regional influence through scaled conflict and present major global health challenges for policy makers. Small scale conflict with large scale violence threatens health security for at-risk populations. The paper concludes that health security is directly proportional to state security.

  12. A Study of Customer Satisfaction on Online Trading System Application of Securities Company in Indonesia Using Servqual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Hery

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the service  quality of online trading system implemented by PT  KDB  Daewoo  Securities  Indonesia.  The study is  a part of the company  efforts to provide  the best solution  services. The study  is performed   to determine the influence of service quality  factors on the customer satisfaction by means of ServQual  method. The method takes  into account  five  independent  variables,  namely, reliability (X1 ,  responsiveness  (X2 ,  assurance  (X3 , empathy (X4 , and tangibility (X5 . Meanwhile,  the cus- tomer satisfaction is considered as the dependent variable (Y . The population of of the study  is all 67 900 online traders at the company and the sample size is 265 traders. The data are collected via questionnaires and interviews. From the study results, we conclude that the five variables have  significant  influence  on the customer  satisfaction on the online trading system application   at PT KDB Daewoo Securities Indonesia. To  improve  the customer satisfaction, the company  should prioritize the quality- related factors,  and expand  and upgrade  the existing facilities and infrastructures.

  13. The Game Analysis of Public Participation in Food Security Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on public participating in food safety supervision, this thesis comes to fully manifest the influential role and the significance of public participation in food safety supervision in the use of game theory by analyzing the behavior strategy performance of public, enterprises and government. It aims to provide a wide range of management theory on public’s participation in food safety supervision and the multiplication of management.

  14. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  15. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  16. Determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in Brazilian publicly traded companies. Therefore, a descriptive research was developed by means of document analysis and a quantitative approach, using logistic regression. The sample consists of 158 companies, using data for the period from 2009 till 2012. The results evidenced an increase in the number of companies with stock option plans during the period. Among the factors company size, liquidity constraint, stock concentration, horizon problem, stockholder participation of CEO, dual function of CEO and chairman of the board, described in the literature as influences for the use of stock option plans, three were confirmed in the sample analyzed. The factors “current liquidity” between 2010 and 2012; “horizon problem” between 2009 and 2012; and “stockholder participation” in 2012, further evidence positive relations in the Brazilian context.

  17. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  18. Alavi, Hamid R., Aira Htenas, Ron Kopicki, Andrew W. Sheperd and Ramon Clarete (eds (2012, Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ming CHIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the edited compilation: Alavi, Hamid R., Aira Htenas, Ron Kopicki, Andrew W. Sheperd and Ramon Clarete (eds (2012, Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia, Washington DC: The World Bank, ISBN: 978-0-8213-8626-2, 264 pages

  19. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key "trade talk" terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalization treaties.

  20. 78 FR 51744 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing..., Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2 at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field... role of digital trade in the U.S. and global economies at the request of the U.S. Senate Committee...

  1. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On July 21, 2010, the Department of Health and Human...

  2. The involvement of citizens evaluating public security policies: Baja California’s case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jesús González Reyes

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of citizen involvement in the evaluation processes of public security policy in Baja California, as a revealing need of establishing new options for public management, through which relationships of mutual responsibility between society and government are enacted.

  3. Urban Security; Public Spaces A Review and Survey of Security Levels in Parks of Qom's Second District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Pourahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNowadays, improvement of security levels in public spaces around the world is considered as one of the most important issues for managers, planners and urban designers. Parks can be very effective, particularly from the viewpoint of urban planners, in increasing or decreasing sense of security. They are one of the most important components of urban and natural systems and their characteristics such as location, design, accessibility, lighting, construction, population, etc. should be considered seriously in urban planning. Urban parks have scattered trees with synthetic or natural grass. They are the most popular place for human recreation and usually provide a pleasant environment for citizens to get involved in social activities, comfort, leisure, family affairs. This paper explored the security level of parks in Qom's 2nd district as one the most populated destinations of travelers in the city. As for defining the term security, different sources have different definitions. For example, Moein's dictionary defines security as something which is safe, secure and immune, without fear. Likewise, in Amid dictionary, security is defined in terms of comfort, convenience and safety, which above all, is said to have an important role in the origin of city life in modern time, especially in public places. Materials & MethodsThis research is a practical research and its method is descriptive – analytical, which is based on case study. However, a theoretical framework is used besides field method in order to collect data. Based on Cochran formula, 384 individuals were selected as sample size and a researcher-made questionnaire was distributed among them randomly during the summer of 2012. Meanwhile, few hypotheses were developed concerning the situation of security in aforementioned parks. SPSS software was used to analysis the data and measure sense of security.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe result of the study show that only 11

  4. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  5. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... a domestic audience. In the public diplomacy efforts towards transnational publics the link to national security will completely disappear whereby the public relations of states is transformed to the marketing of states....... terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper...

  6. On Public Security and Social Security%试论公共保障与社会保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余斌

    2015-01-01

    In the western public economics, generally only mentioned social security rather than public security, or confused the latter with the former. We defined public security as the various measures, institutions and career to maintain the social reproduction of social sustainable healthy development. Correspondingly, the social security is defined as the measures, institutions and career to maintain reproduction of labor force taken by society. The material reserves played the important role in ensuring smoothly process of social reproduction. For the state and society, the public reserve is also necessary. Western capitalists gradually realized, it is very beneficial to them that provide a certain amount of social security to maintain the survival of the unemployed according to the name of the country. However, the decisive role of the market in resources allocation made the government's efforts to adjust income distribution reached little effect. The reform of social security system must implement the four cardinal principles of the public security, which are common, full specified amount, equality and the rule of law. So we should vigorously develop the labor unions and peasant organizations, and in these organizations establish political group, using the organic unification of "the leadership of the party, the people are masters of the country, run country by the rule of law" brought in the fourth plenary session of the party's 18 to promote and safeguard the public security.%在西方公共经济学中,一般只提社会保障而不提公共保障,或者将后者与前者混为一谈。我们将公共保障定义为:社会所采取的维护社会再生产可持续健康发展的各种措施、制度和事业的总称。相应地,社会保障的定义是:社会所采取的维护劳动力再生产的各种措施、制度和事业的总称。物资储备在确保社会再生产顺利进行上起着非常重要的作用。对于国

  7. 78 FR 21002 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... entered into a bilateral free trade agreement. Colombia was no longer an eligible beneficiary country under the ATPA as of May 15, 2012, when the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Andean...

  8. 77 FR 61816 - Trade Policy Staff Committee: Request for Comments From the Public Regarding Granting Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... such country; (3) the degree to which such country follows the accepted rules of international trade... local content requirements which distort international trade; (5) the degree to which the trade policies... become a party to and implement the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption; and (8) the extent...

  9. 76 FR 49503 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Airport Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public..., aircraft piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries, or weapons aboard an aircraft....

  10. Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

  11. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

  12. Agricultural trade publications and the 2012 Midwestern U.S. drought: A missed opportunity for climate risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Church

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Midwestern United States experienced a devastating drought in 2012, leading to reduced corn and soybean yields and increased instances of pests and disease. Climate change induced weather variability and extremes are expected to increase in the future, and have and will continue to impact the agricultural sector. This study investigated how agricultural trade publications portrayed the 2012 U.S. Midwestern drought, whether climate change was associated with drought, and whether these publications laid out transformative adaptation measures farmers could undertake in order to increase their adaptive capacity for future climate uncertainty. We performed a content analysis of 1000 media reports between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014, sampled from ten agricultural trade publications. The results lead us to suggest that trade publications’ 2012 U.S. Midwestern drought discussion lacked information that would allow farmers and agricultural advisors to assess climate change risk and subsequent potential adaptive management strategies. Agricultural risk from climate change is very real, and farmers will need to adapt. The agricultural trade publications studied missed an opportunity to convey risk from climate change and the transformative adaptation practices necessary for a sustainable and resilient agricultural system.

  13. A Research Study on the Projected Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Albert; And Others

    This report estimates the number of recent immigrant students that would enroll in Texas public schools as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and recommends educational strategies to address the unique needs of recent immigrants. Research approaches included a review of existing research on immigration trends and…

  14. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lu; Jiguo Li

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certific...

  15. Intelligent Public Transport System with Information Forensics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nagaraj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To increase the usability of a public transport system it needs to go under revolutionary changes in its operating procedure. It is an attempt to make this possible using recent computer technology, mobile computing advancements and Wi-Fi or GPRS.The Intelligent Public Transport Information System will be specifically developed for Commercial public Transport. In this System passenger can get information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route. This system includes two phases. One is for user and other for administrator. At user side, user can request for information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route using Wi-Fi or GPRS technology from his mobile or PDA. At administrator side, administrator can update, delete and insert information about all buses, routes, timings of buses, all stops in any particular route and helpline numbers. Administrator can have all rights about database operations .The administrator requires the authentication of smart card for addition or deletion of information from commercial public transport

  16. Securing Our Future? Rethinking Public Investments in America's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanishi, Ruby; Chen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the Great Recession provides us with the opportunity to engage in a long overdue conversation about public investments in America's children. Less than ten percent of the Fiscal Year 2010 federal budget of $3.603 trillion is allocated to children and youth. This percentage is likely to decline in the next decade if current laws…

  17. Synergies and trade-offs between food security and biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotoks, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Human land use activities have transformed a large proportion of the world's land surface and in particular, the expansion of agriculture has been a major driver in global land use change. The conversion of natural ecosystems to crop and pasture lands has contributed significantly to deforestation and associated biodiversity loss through habitat destruction. This loss has raised concerns about associated loss of ecological functions which directly support over one billion people worldwide. Furthermore, agriculture itself is heavily reliant on a number of ecosystem services which are essential for crop production. It is therefore essential that the global problems of food insecurity and biodiversity loss are not viewed independently as the methods used to address one will necessarily involve choices affecting the other. This poster will examine the relationship between food security provision and biodiversity hotspots by using global spatial datasets of land use and conservation value.

  18. Return to work after renal transplantation: a study of the Brazilian Public Social Security System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D

    2014-12-15

    Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.

  19. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  20. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    Full Text Available One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a global food security and (b environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  1. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  2. Leveraging Social Media to Engage the Public in Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    date information. “Our team knew where we could buy gas, we knew what roads were open and most importantly, we knew who needed help and where they were...more complete warning messages and how the public utilizes social media as an emergency moves into an extended length of time—do their habits ...so that they can define their needs.  You need to get to “Robust Statement of Needs” 84 Enablers  New Generation (The Millennials ) are

  3. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  4. The Analysis on Money Laundering Particularity of Insider Trading of Securities Companies%证券公司内幕交易洗钱特殊性辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文力; 赵馨田

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the insider trading of the securities market has frequency happened, and the number of cases has ranked the top, which severely disrupts the market fairness, and is not conducive to the healthy development of the industry. It is usually be-lieved that the insider trading is one of the main forms of money laundering of the securities market, so studying the money laundering of the insider trading of the securities companies is of important theoretical value and practical significance. By legal theoretical analy-sis and case statistics, the paper summarizes the money laundering particularity of the insider trading, and from the perspectives of the securities companies, further puts forward suggestions on perfecting monitoring measures on the insider trading.%近年来,证券市场内幕交易多发频发,案件数量高居榜首,严重扰乱了市场的公平公正,也不利于行业的健康发展。通常认为,内幕交易是证券市场最主要的一种洗钱形式,因此研究证券公司内幕交易洗钱行为,具有重要的理论价值和现实意义。本文通过法理分析和案例统计,对内幕交易洗钱的特殊性进行总结辨析,并从证券公司视角进一步提出了内幕交易监测措施的完善建议。

  5. 证券交易底层通讯平台--MOB平台的开发%Development of securities trading floor communication platform--MOB Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何福君

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the development of information industry development of China's securities industry not only stay in the transactions, while securities trading platform has also undergone great changes. With the continuous development of China's securities industry,for a multi-functional, comprehensive, personalized trading platform is becoming increasingly important.This paper studies the connotation and features of MOB, MOB and construction-based securities trading the underlying communications platform.%信息产业的发展对我国证券业的发展的影响不仅停留在交易方式上,同时,证券交易平台也发生了很大变化。随着我国证券业的不断发展,对于一个多功能、全方位、个性化的交易平台显得越来越重要。本文主要研究MOB的内涵以及特点,以及基于MOB的证券交易底层通讯平台的建设。

  6. Public Spending on Private Security Services in El Salvador: Preliminary Descriptive Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rigoberto Lopez Ramírez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study of the cost it represents for the Salvadoran government to finance the ongoing expense of engaging private security service providers. This relates to the situation of public finances, and implications for security and surveillance of public facilities by private companies. A desk review of institutional data was undertaken, measuring the central trend of this expense. Finally, the conclusions describe the issue in its relevant dimensions, and other pertinent topics of research also come to light.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1582

  7. Analysis of cost-benefit trade-offs of complex security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Mary J.

    1997-01-01

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of cost and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. CPA (cost and performance analysis) is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance tools: ACE and ASSESS. ACE is an existing DOD PC-based cost analysis tool that supports cost analysis over the full life-cycle of the system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. These tools are integrated using C++ and Microsoft Excel macros. Cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path element levels.

  8. Novel Techniques for Secure Use of Public Cloud Computing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    of a few common standard assumptions presented in this format : Discrete Logarithm (DL)[1]: Let G be a cyclic group with generator g. Let D be the...for the system. AuthoritySetup(GP)→ MS KA, APA Each authority runs the authority setup algorithm with the global parameters GP and produces a master...secret key MS KA and some public authority parameters APA for an authority A. DomainKeyGeneration(GP, MS KA, APA , IDdomain = 〈id1, ..., id`〉, h′)→ DS K

  9. Implementation and evaluation of the strategy Pairs Trading for Colombian public debt bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Rodriguez, Sandra Milena

    2017-01-01

    Pair trading is a statistical trading strategy based on the concept of mean reverting; investors select two related assets and establish a relation between them buying the underpriced asset and selling the overpriced. When the market returns to the equilibrium the strategy create profit from the short and long position. The empirical application of this paper proposes the evaluation of three methodologies for the implementation of the pair trading strategy using the information of Colombian p...

  10. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  11. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  12. News framing and public support for a common foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kandyla, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A common EU foreign and security policy (CFSP) can be framed by elites and media as a risk or as an opportunity. This article examines the effects of framing in terms of ‘risk’ and ‘opportunity’ on public support. Moreover, we examine first whether the effect of framing CFSP as a ‘risk for

  13. Architecture design of Exit-Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Limin; JIANG Du

    2007-01-01

    In retrospect of the architecture design of Exit- Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau, this paper elaborates on the architect's pursuit of the symbol of the image, the fluidity of the space and the sequence of the function. It promotes a case which deals with the harmony of the architecture individuality and the urban space commonness in city center.

  14. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  15. Multi-Organizational Collaborative Public Safety and Security Planning for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    gained from V2010: 1. What C3 structure is required for federal whole-of-government major event public safety and security planning and...sensibilisation aux positions de collaboration multiorganisationnelle. Le présent document énumère les facteurs qui ont contribué à l’établissement des

  16. A Needs Assessment Study and Curriculum Development for a Public and Private Security Program at Alvin Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethscheider, John

    A needs assessment for a community college curriculum in public and private security was conducted by surveying 50 high schools, four-year colleges, and private security agencies in the Alvin Community College area; 36 institutions responded. Findings revealed: most have a designated director of their security program; most would rather hire the…

  17. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for sale or an offer to sell a security or general solicitation or general advertising, in connection... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139...

  18. Liberalisation in a Asia Pacific--Why a Free Trade Area Would Benefit Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Oxley, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The dominant question in trade policy today is how to secure greater trade liberalisation in the Asia Pacific region. Most of the public discussion of this has been based on theoretical, rather than empirical, analyses of the economic conditions to be addressed. In addition, an important aspect of the political economy of trade liberalisation has been neglected. Thinking in Australia about how to promote trade liberalisation in the region has been deficient in as much as its contribution to h...

  19. Trade union activity, cultural, public and political life of Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute in the second half of 1950s–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Valeriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on rich documentary, the article studies the activity of the trade union organization in Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute and the impact the trade union had on the cultural, public and political life of the Institute in the second half of the 1950s-1980s. The activity is stated to be held in different forms and areas: amateur arts, propaganda, wall-newspaper and house magazine, vigilant groups, University of Culture, student club, lecturing agitation group, student construction brigades, department, groups and hostels competitions. The authors come to the conclusion that involving students and faculty members into cultural, public and political life added greatly to fostering the future engineers as it took them less time to adapt to the team-spirited workforce after graduating from the higher educational establishment. The article is intended for the people interested in history of higher education in Siberia and Russia.

  20. Evaluation of Physical Components of Public Spaces and their Impact on Social Security of Babolsar Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Security has been one of the most fundamental needs of human society and the incidence of crime is one of the most important problems in cities. Security feeling in urban spaces is one of the crucial indicators of a good space quality which is dependent upon different aspects of socio-economic and cultural status of each society. Today social scientists try to identify the factors which impact and influence the incidence of crime in public spaces. Urban planners analyze the role of physical and environmental variables in the level of public security in urban communities. The present research attempted to study the connection between public space security and spatial and environmental factors to formulate the main planning guidelines for maintaining security and prevent crime occurrence in the city of Babolsar.     Materials and Methods   The city of Babolsar is located in the southern part of the Caspian Sea and is one of the important tourist destinations in Mazandaran province. The methodology of the research is based on descriptive and analytical approaches and the required data and information were collected by conducting a field work to complete the research questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was justified by Cronbach Alfa coefficient (0.792 and the validity of the questions were confirmed by the help of several experts. The statistical society of the present research includes 14422 households of Babolsar city and the sample was selected via Cochran formula (350 household heads. In general, nine main components and 35 indicators were used to measure the physical components of public spaces. Also three components and 22 indicators were applied for investigating the social security in this research. The data was processed vial SPSS and different statistical tests such as Pearson regression and T test were used to determine the possible relationships among the variables.     Discussion of Results and

  1. 77 FR 59690 - Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 26, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Titan Resources International, Corp. (``Titan''). Titan is a Wyoming corporation... releases and other public statements concerning Titan's business operations and financial condition....

  2. Modeling an emissions peak in China around 2030: Synergies or trade-offs between economy, energy and climate security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Min Chai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved a political consensus around the need to transform the path of economic growth toward one that lowers carbon intensity and ultimately leads to reductions in carbon emissions, but there remain different views on pathways that could achieve such a transformation. The essential question is whether radical or incremental reforms are required in the coming decades. This study explores relevant pathways in China beyond 2020, particularly modeling the major target choices of carbon emission peaking in China around 2030 as China-US Joint Announcement by an integrated assessment model for climate change IAMC based on carbon factor theory. Here scenarios DGS-2020, LGS2025, LBS-2030 and DBS-2040 derived from the historical pathways of developed countries are developed to access the comprehensive impacts on the economy, energy and climate security for the greener development in China. The findings suggest that the period of 2025–2030 is the window of opportunity to achieve a peak in carbon emissions at a level below 12 Gt CO2 and 8.5 t per capita by reasonable trade-offs from economy growth, annually −0.2% in average and cumulatively −3% deviation to BAU in 2030. The oil and natural gas import dependence will exceed 70% and 45% respectively while the non-fossil energy and electricity share will rise to above 20% and 45%. Meantime, the electrification level in end use sectors will increase substantially and the electricity energy ratio approaching 50%, the labor and capital productivity should be double in improvements and the carbon intensity drop by 65% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level, and the cumulative emission reductions are estimated to be more than 20 Gt CO2 in 2015–2030.

  3. Energy security and renewable electricity trade-Will Desertec make Europe vulnerable to the 'energy weapon'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilliestam, Johan, E-mail: johan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegrafenberg A31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Ellenbeck, Saskia [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegrafenberg A31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Solar power imports to Europe from the deserts of North Africa, as foreseen in the Desertec concept, is one possible way to help decarbonising the European power sector by 2050. However, this approach raises questions of threats to European energy security in such an import scenario, particularly in the light of increasing import dependency and Russia's use of the 'energy weapon' in recent years. In this paper we investigate the threat of North African countries using the Desertec electricity exports as an 'energy weapon'. We develop and use a new model to assess the interdependence - the bargaining power symmetry, operationalised as costs - of a disruption in a future renewable electricity trade between North Africa and Europe. If Europe maintains current capacity buffers, some demand-response capability and does not import much more than what is described in the Desertec scenario, it is susceptible to extortion and political pressure only if all five exporter countries unite in using the energy weapon. Europe is not vulnerable to extortion by an export cut from only one country, as the European capacity buffers are sufficient to restore the power supply: no single exporter country would have sustained bargaining power over Europe. - Highlights: > European vulnerability to energy weapon extortion in a Desertec-style electricity future is assessed. > The vulnerability to the energy weapon is conceptualised as the direct disruption costs on both sides. > The paper shows that Europe is not vulnerable to single-country export disruptions. > If all exporters cut supplies simultaneously, Europe may be vulnerable to the energy weapon.

  4. SECURITY STRATEGY AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF TIANJIN GRAIN & OIL COMMODITY ELECTRONIC TRADING PLATFORM SYSTEM%天津粮油商品电子交易平台系统安全策略及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢智勇; 吴维吉; 赵韫珂; 杜宝峰

    2015-01-01

    The security of the electronic trading platform plays a vital role in the process of the operation of the system.Aiming at improving the security of electronic trading system,the paper expounds on the security strate-gy of Tianjin Grain &Oil Electronic Trading System in the light of the development process of Tianjin Grain &Oil Electronic Trading System from 4 aspects such as system security,server security,network security,applica-tion system security,in order to reduce the security risk of the trading system to the maximum extent.%电子交易平台的安全性在系统运行过程中起着至关重要的作用。以提高电子交易系统安全性为目的,结合天津粮油电子交易系统的开发过程,从系统安全、服务器安全、网络安全、应用系统安全等4方面,阐述了天津粮油电子交易系统所使用的安全策略,最大程度降低了交易系统运行的安全风险。

  5. Rio De Janeiro’s Olympic Legacy: Public Security for Whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Rekow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As Rio de Janeiro struggles to hold itself together through the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, its much lauded public security Games plan, including its highly controversial police pacification program—long promoted as one of the cornerstones of Rio’s Olympic legacy—descends into a state of near total collapse. This paper takes an intimate look at what is likely the last days of this contentious pacification policy, the part it plays in the wider ‘Games Security Plan’, and how and why it has been implemented in the lead up to the 2016 Summer Olympics.

  6. Privacy, security, and the public health researcher in the era of electronic health record research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal D; Sarwate, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Health data derived from electronic health records are increasingly utilized in large-scale population health analyses. Going hand in hand with this increase in data is an increasing number of data breaches. Ensuring privacy and security of these data is a shared responsibility between the public health researcher, collaborators, and their institutions. In this article, we review the requirements of data privacy and security and discuss epidemiologic implications of emerging technologies from the computer science community that can be used for health data. In order to ensure that our needs as researchers are captured in these technologies, we must engage in the dialogue surrounding the development of these tools.

  7. 78 FR 47826 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAMMIN; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... small groups''. Geographic Region: ``Maryland, Virginia, Washington, DC, North Carolina, South Carolina... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  8. 78 FR 30388 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OSPREY; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Puerto Rico'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  9. 76 FR 79763 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO... of the vessel TANGO is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Sightseeing, sportfishing, scuba...

  10. SAFETY AND SECURITY IMPROVEMENT IN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BASED ON PUBLIC PERCEPTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Basuki JOEWONO

    2006-01-01

    Three aspects of an improvement agenda are proposed based on the perception data, namely technology, management, and institution. This agenda is clarified by a set of action plans incorporating the responsible parties and a time frame. The action plan is divided into three terms to define a clear goal for each step. The short-term action focuses on the hardware and on preparing further steps, whereas the medium-term action focuses on developing and improving the standard of safety and security. The long-term action focuses on advancing safety and security practices. The effectiveness of this agenda and action plan rests upon a set of assumptions, such as the degree of seriousness from the authoritative institution, fair distribution of information, the availability of reasonable resources, and coordinated and collaborative action from all parties involved to reach the objective.

  11. SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION USING PRE-SHARED PUBLIC PARAMETERS FOR A SECURE TFTP PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. MOHAMED

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the communication technology of embedded systems have led to the situation where nowadays almost all systems should implement security for data safety. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP has advantages for use in embedded systems due to its speed and simplicity, however without security mechanisms, it is vulnerable to various attacks. As an example, during upgrading of Wireless Access Points (WAPs, attackers can access the information and modify it, and then install malicious code to interrupt the system. This work proposes security implementation of Diffie Hellman Key Exchange in TFTP by pre-sharing public parameters that enable two parties to achieve same secret key without the risk of Man-In-The-Middle (MITM attacks. The implementation is integrated with compression and encryption methods to significantly reduce computational requirements in TFTP communication.

  12. Robbers aboard: workplace violence and (in)security in public transport in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, E P; Levenstein, C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on the working conditions, health, and security of bus drivers and bus conducters in the public transport system of Salvador, Brazil. The research included in-depth extensive interviews with workers, labor union officials, users, managers, and police. The typical social profile of offenders is as poor, unemployed youths, mostly without criminal records, seeking easy money mainly for leisure pursuits. Takes are minimal. We observed a pattern of bus robbery as a psychological power-game which for the bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with users, and labor conflicts regarding the recuperation of stolen fares and worker and user security issues. We outline and evaluate the efficiency of security measures, including the use of lethal force by police.

  13. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Runkle, Jennifer R; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A; Bennett, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  14. 77 FR 34127 - Notice of Open Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... experts on national security implications of the U.S. bilateral trade and economic relationship with China. The June 14 hearing is aimed at sharpening our understanding of contemporary Chinese trade and... U.S.-China Trade and Investment Relationship.'' Background: This is the sixth public hearing the...

  15. 77 FR 35754 - Notice of Open Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... experts on national security implications of the U.S. bilateral trade and economic relationship with China. The June 14 hearing is aimed at sharpening our understanding of contemporary Chinese trade and..., ``Evolving U.S.-China Trade and Investment Relationship.'' BACKGROUND: This is the sixth public hearing the...

  16. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: kaiwang@seu.edu.cn; Pei Wenjiang [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zou Liuhua [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cheung Yiuming [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); He Zhenya [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2006-12-25

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP){sup m}, where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications.

  18. The intelligent security system based on the public switch telephone network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper elaborates the design and development of the intelligent security system based on the public switch telephone network.The system includes two parts:security detection emission,and radio reception and signal process connected to the phone line with the telephone set at home or in the office.The core of radio reception and signal process is Micro Control Unit,which, in coordination with other peripheral circuits such as telephone line interface,signaling tone detection,dual tone multi-frequency(DTMF)reception and emission,and voice notification,informs the subscriber of the alarm via voice through Public Switch Telephone Network(PSTN).In addition,the subscriber can easily modify telephone numbers stored in the system.

  19. 我国公安机关网络舆论引导浅析%Analysis of network of public opinion of the public security organs to guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琦; 王越琳; 王晓宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounds the formation and characteristics of the network of public opinion, the lack of the guide of network of public opinion of Chtna's public security organs, and proposed some methods of improve the guide of public opinion of public security organ network.%本文通过分析网络舆论的形成和特点,我国公安机关网络舆论引导工作存在的不足,提出了加强公安机关网络舆论引导的途径。

  20. DETERMINATION OF CYBER SECURITY AWARENESS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES AND CONSCIOUSNESS-RISING SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure Turkish government employees’ awareness of cyber security and cyber space elements. Participants were 71 Turkish public employees working for various ministries. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to get the most detailed information from the participants. A survey was administered to cyber security officers in chosen state institutions. For qualitative research, open-ended questions were administered to the participants. Reliability and validity issues were established for both surveys. Results show that employees have enough information about cyber security and cyber warfare. Findings clearly suggests that cyber defense policy should be planned in coordination with other state institutions and experiences should be shared. In order to create feasible and realistic cyber security policy at institutional level, experts at cyber security must be trained, hired and help must be requested from specialized individuals and institutions. This study recommends that rapid reaction teams (RRT should be established to take care of cyber systems, to react against cyber breaches in time, to alert staff for cyber-attacks in order to establish effective recovery.

  1. On the Construction of Public Security Culture%关于公安文化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国清

    2014-01-01

    当前和今后一个时期公安文化建设的主要任务是,在深刻领会并准确把握公安文化内涵的基础上,大力实施人才工程、精品工程和惠警工程,并把警营文化建设与人民警察核心价值观主题教育、和谐警民关系、实现民警快乐生活幸福工作紧密结合起来,进一步推动公安文化大发展大繁荣,实现文化软实力向公安核心战斗力转化。%At present and for a certain period of time in the future , the major task of construction of public se-curity culture is to vigorously implement the Talent Project , Quality Project and Police-benefiting Project based on having a profound comprehension and grasping the connotation of public security culture , and to closely integrate the culture construction with the theme education of police's core value , the harmonious police and citizen relation-ship, and the realization of police's felicity in life and happiness in work , so as to further promote the grand devel-opment and grand prosperity of public security culture , and achieve the transformation from cultural soft power to core fighting capacity of public security .

  2. Secure encapsulation and publication of biological services in the cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Xuehui; Lu, Bo; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2013-01-01

    Secure encapsulation and publication for bioinformatics software products based on web service are presented, and the basic function of biological information is realized in the cloud computing environment. In the encapsulation phase, the workflow and function of bioinformatics software are conducted, the encapsulation interfaces are designed, and the runtime interaction between users and computers is simulated. In the publication phase, the execution and management mechanisms and principles of the GRAM components are analyzed. The functions such as remote user job submission and job status query are implemented by using the GRAM components. The services of bioinformatics software are published to remote users. Finally the basic prototype system of the biological cloud is achieved.

  3. A Public Policy Advocacy Project to Promote Food Security: Exploring Stakeholders' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkey, Kayla M; Raine, Kim D; Storey, Kate E; Willows, Noreen D

    2016-09-01

    To achieve food security in Canada, comprehensive approaches are required, which involve action at the public policy level. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 14 stakeholders engaging in a 9-month participatory public policy advocacy project to promote community food security in the province of Alberta through the initiation of a campaign to develop a Universal School Food Strategy. Through this exploration, four main themes were identified; a positive and open space to contribute ideas, diversity and common ground, confidence and capacity, and uncertainty. Findings from this study suggest that the participatory advocacy project provided a positive and open space for stakeholders to contribute ideas, through which the group was able to narrow its focus and establish a goal for advocacy. The project also seems to have contributed to the group's confidence and capacity to engage in advocacy by creating a space for learning and knowledge sharing, though stakeholders expressed uncertainty regarding some aspects of the project. Findings from this study support the use of participatory approaches as a strategy for facilitating engagement in public policy advocacy and provide insight into one group's advocacy experience, which may help to inform community-based researchers and advocates in the development of advocacy initiatives to promote community food security elsewhere.

  4. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  5. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR... of the vessel JAGUAR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``For bare boat/lease recreational use...

  6. 77 FR 24555 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...., provides trade benefits for eligible Andean countries. The original Act allowed only Bolivia, Ecuador... Bolivia no longer satisfies the eligibility criteria related to counternarcotics and suspended...

  7. The Potential Impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vogli, Roberto; Renzetti, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes. However, the TTIP chapter on Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) that expand and extend patent monopolies, and delay the availability of generic drugs, are likely to cause underutilization of needed medications among vulnerable populations. The TTIP's Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) arbitration system, a mechanism that allows transnational companies (TNCs) to sue governments when a policy or law reduces the value of their investment, is likely to generate a negative impact on regulations aimed at increasing access to healthcare, and reducing tobacco, alcohol consumption, and diet-related diseases. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) of the TTIP is expected to weaken regulations in the food and agricultural sectors especially in the EU, with potentially negative effects on food safety and foodborne diseases. Finally, the ISDS is likely to infringe the ability of governments to tackle environmental problems such as climate change deemed to be the most important global health threat of the century. Our review concludes by discussing policy implications and the effect of the TTIP on democracy, national sovereignty and the balance of power between large TNCs and governments. It also discusses the adoption of an evidence-based precautionary principle

  8. 77 FR 20872 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Research Workshop; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Research Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting... Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) will hold a free public meeting on the Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I...://www.itsa.org/v2i . This public meeting is being held in support of the V2I for Safety Program...

  9. 7 CFR 1950.104 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate. 1950.104 Section 1950.104 Agriculture... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate... borrowers with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans secured by real estate who...

  10. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented.

  11. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda Comment on "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Is It Everything We Feared for Health?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Gleeson, Deborah

    2016-09-28

    Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  13. Secured Wireless Communication using Fuzzy Logic based High Speed Public-Key Cryptography (FLHSPKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper secured wireless communication using fuzzy logic based high speed public-key cryptography (FLHSPKC has been proposed by satisfying the major issues likes computational safety, power management and restricted usage of memory in wireless communication. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has several major constraints likes’ inadequate source of energy, restricted computational potentiality and limited memory. Though conventional Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC which is a sort of public-key cryptography used in wireless communication provides equivalent level of security like other existing public–key algorithm using smaller parameters than other but this traditional ECC does not take care of all these major limitations in WSN. In conventional ECC consider Elliptic curve point p, an arbitrary integer k and modulus m, ECC carry out scalar multiplication kP mod m, which takes about 80% of key computation time on WSN. In this paper proposed FLHSPKC scheme provides some novel strategy including novel soft computing based strategy to speed up scalar multiplication in conventional ECC and which in turn takes shorter computational time and also satisfies power consumption restraint, limited usage of memory without hampering the security level. Performance analysis of the different strategies under FLHSPKC scheme and comparison study with existing conventional ECC methods has been done.

  14. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  15. 76 FR 76981 - Request for Public Comments Concerning U.S.-Canada Action Plan for Perimeter Security and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... SECURITY Request for Public Comments Concerning U.S.-Canada Action Plan for Perimeter Security and Economic... allies, vital economic partners, neighbors, and steadfast friends. We share common values, communities... between our two countries has helped ensure that our societies remain open, democratic, prosperous, and...

  16. 76 FR 46830 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Secure Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...: 60-day Notice. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on... comments by October 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments may be e-mailed to TSAPRA@dhs.gov or delivered to the TSA PRA Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security...

  17. 公安网络舆情分析中的关键技术研究%Research on key technologies of public security network public opinion analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2015-01-01

    Faced with online public opinions, It’s a practical problem which must be deeply studied and confronted for the public security organs on how to find , collect, analyze and deal with these opinions timely, and effectively enhance the credibility of the public security organization. Therefore, this article will be focused on a study related to public security methods and techniques involved in the network public opinion analysis.%面对网络舆情,公安机关如何及时发现并采集、分析并处理,切实提升公安机关的公信力,是公安机关必须深入研究和对待的现实问题。本文重点就公安网络舆情分析中涉及的相关方法和技术展开研究。

  18. A Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences, and Key Events for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Win and Keep Big Customers. Austin: Bard Press, 2005. Kotler , Philip and Kevin Lane Keller. Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ...stimulate awareness and demand with little or no cost. Kotler and Keller describe public relations and publicity as “a variety of programs designed to...broadcast media to promote something.”13 Kotler and Keller also argue that there is an appeal to the use of public relations and publicity that is based

  19. Designing a Secure Storage Repository for Sharing Scientific Datasets using Public Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2011-11-14

    As Cloud platforms gain increasing traction among scientific and business communities for outsourcing storage, computing and content delivery, there is also growing concern about the associated loss of control over private data hosted in the Cloud. In this paper, we present an architecture for a secure data repository service designed on top of a public Cloud infrastructure to support multi-disciplinary scientific communities dealing with personal and human subject data, motivated by the smart power grid domain. Our repository model allows users to securely store and share their data in the Cloud without revealing the plain text to unauthorized users, the Cloud storage provider or the repository itself. The system masks file names, user permissions and access patterns while providing auditing capabilities with provable data updates.

  20. Concept Of The Public Safety In The Russian Federation As A Legal Measure Of The Educational Institutions (Organizations Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Chesnokov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches basic positions presented in the Concept of Public Security in the Russian Federation and focused on the educational institutions (organizations. Author analyzes main sources of threat to the public security: the threat of a criminal nature; terrorist threats; extremist activity; increase in the number of crimes; complication of the crime situation; increase in the number of criminals; high levels of corruption; illegal migration; internal migration; social tension in society; deterioration of the technical state of transport infrastructure; likelihood of emergencies; risk of harm to the human life and health, environment; high probability of fire occurrence in Russia; natural variations in the characteristics of the hydrological regime of water bodies; seismic hazard. Author defines goals of public security, outlines priority (main and other tasks, as well as the principles and key activities to ensure public security. In the conclusion author concludes that public safety, in fact, involves complex nature of activity and contributes to the legal security of educational institution (organization, gives definition of the public security of the educational institution (organization and results of operations for its assuring.

  1. 谫论公安战略情报分析%Analysis of Public Security Strategic Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清松

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of public security strategic intelligence remains an important part of public security in-telligence analysis, which plays a vital role in making full use of intelligence and drawing conclusions. Therefore, clarifying the concept, characteristics and types of the public security strategic intelligence, discussing the theo-retical basis for the public security strategic intelligence analysis can better guide the public security work, and really plays the role of intelligence in the field of public security.%公安战略情报分析作为公安情报分析的一个重要内容,在辅助决策,实现情报功能上起着重要的作用。而厘清公安战略情报的概念、特点、类型,探讨公安战略情报分析的理论基础,能够更好地指导公安战略情报分析工作,真正发挥情报在公安领域的作用。

  2. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  3. [Perspectives on veterinary public health, food security, and the "One Health" joint initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartín-Rojas, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Veterinarians play a key role in food security. The health of millions of people, stimulation of national economies, development of sustainable livestock production related to this food source, and the different agricultural production systems that compose value chains, and access to more profitable international markets all depend on their efficient and transparent work. Shifting nutritional patterns globally, along with expected population growth, and the increase in marketable food commodity routes and volumes, forecast that demand for animal source food will steadily intensify over the coming decades. To successfully address these challenges, the veterinary profession should establish more practical and up-to-date conceptual and methodological frameworks for academic and professional profiles, focusing the profession on the different public health subject areas, in undergraduate and graduate courses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary alliances should also be developed--such as the "One Health" approach proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Health Organization (WHO)--to establish frameworks for joint work and public policies more in line with the domestic conditions of Latin American countries, using a collaborative, sustainable, and comprehensive approach to animal health, food security, and public health policy.

  4. At the crossroads: new paradigms of food security, public health nutrition and school food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Leah M; Sonnino, Roberta

    2013-06-01

    Public health nutrition sits at the nexus of a global crisis in food, environmental and health systems that has generated - along with numerous other problems - an urgent and changing problem of food insecurity. The 'new' food insecurity, however, is different from the old: it is bimodal, encompassing issues of both under- and over-consumption, hunger and obesity, quantity and quality; it has assumed a decidedly urban dimension; and it implicates rich and poor countries alike. The complexity of the expressions of this challenge requires new approaches to public health nutrition and food policy that privilege systemic, structural and environmental factors over individual and mechanistic ones. In this context, the current paper argues that school food systems rise with buoyant potential as promising intervention sites: they are poised to address both modes of the food security crisis; integrate systemic, structural and environmental with behavioural approaches; and comprise far-reaching, system-wide efforts that influence the wider functioning of the food system. Based on a discussion of Bogotá and other pioneering policies that explicitly aim to create a broader food system with long-term foundations for good public health and food security, the paper suggests a new research and action agenda that gives special attention to school food in urban contexts.

  5. Determination of Retail Prices of Public Services: An Experimental Approach to Brazilian Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Maximiliano Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates Price Management in order to attract clients to public services. The object investigated is the National Institute of Social Security – INSS. In this public service the clients/citizens have to contribute monthly in order to access benefits from this public service. Among many segments attended by INSS, undergraduate students are not obliged to make monthly contributions, but it is necessary for them to contribute if they want to access Social Security Benefits. In this sense, the problem to be researched is: What is the ideal price range for undergraduate students to contribute to INSS?  The objective is to identify an acceptable price range for this segment to increase their access to the services provided by INSS. A Factorial Experiment was carried out to verify the effects of Information Availability and Reference Price variables on Average Price to Pay Pre-Disposition. The main and interaction effects of the variables were analyzed. The research was conducted with four randomized sample groups considering treatment conditions regarding this experiment. The results provided strong evidence that Information Availability can increase INSS services accessibility and the Average Price to Pay Pre–Disposition concerning undergraduate students. Reference Price use showed a decrease regarding Average Price Pre-Disposition in this segment, but it is capable of increasing the accessibility concerning to citizens/clients. 

  6. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  7. Value Relevance vis-à-vis Disclosure on Business Combinations and Goodwill Recognized by Publicly Traded Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Melo de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to examine the value relevance of the level of disclosure on business combinations and goodwill recognized by publicly traded Brazilian companies. The research sample is composed of publicly traded Brazilian companies that carried out any type of business combination, as the acquiring entity, between 2010 and 2013, yielding a total sample of 202 observations. To measure the disclosure level of each, a metric was created based on CPC-15 R1 (2011 to examine certain disclosure items in order to render a greater level of detail. Data collection was carried out using the footnotes to the annual consolidated standardized financial statements (DFPs available from the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA website. The results revealed that disclosure levels for business combinations are positively and significantly associated with the stock price of the companies analyzed. As to the recognition of goodwill during business combinations, despite the fact that it represents a significant share of the value of the transactions, no statistical significance explaining stock price behavior was found. It also bears mentioning that the average level of disclosure identified in the explanatory notes in the sample was very low, indicating that companies need to improve when it comes to transparency of information.

  8. Design and Implementation of Secure Area Expansion Scheme for Public Wireless LAN Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Recently, wireless LAN (WLAN) technology has become a major wireless communication method. The communication bandwidth is increasing and speeds have attained rates exceeding 100 Mbps. Therefore, WLAN technology is regarded as one of the promising communication methods for future networks. In addition, public WLAN connection services can be used in many locations. However, the number of the access points (AP) is insufficient for seamless communication and it cannot be said that users can use the service ubiquitously. An ad-hoc network style connection can be used to expand the coverage area of a public WLAN service. By relaying the user messages among the user nodes, a node can obtain an Internet connection via an AP, even though the node is located outside the AP's direct wireless connection area. Such a coverage area extending technology has many advantages thanks to the feature that no additional infrastructure is required. Therefore, there is a strong demand for this technology as it allows the cost-effective construction of future networks. When a secure ad-hoc routing protocol is used for message exchange in the WLAN service, the message routes are protected from malicious behavior such as route forging and can be maintained appropriately. To do this, however, a new node that wants to join the WLAN service has to obtain information such as the public key certificate and IP address in order to start secure ad-hoc routing. In other words, an initial setup is required for every network node to join the WLAN service properly. Ordinarily, such information should be assigned from the AP. However, new nodes cannot always contact an AP directly. Therefore, there are problems about information delivery in the initial setup of a network node. These problems originate in the multi hop connection based on the ad-hoc routing protocols. In order to realize an expanded area WLAN service, in this paper, the authors propose a secure public key certificate and address provision

  9. Commentary: Moving towards policy coherence in trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen; Baker, Phillip; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    International trade has brought economic benefits to many countries, but the association of trade and investment liberalisation with poor health outcomes concerns the public health community. The need to secure more 'healthy' trade is a recognised priority, especially as countries move from global to regional/bilateral trade agreements - with greater public health risks. However, a transition towards 'healthier trade' may be hindered by worldview differences between the trade and health communities. There is a tendency for health actors to perceive trade as a threat to population health, and for trade actors to view health as a constraint to trade objectives of reducing barriers to cross-border commercial flows and economic growth. Unless such differing worldviews can be aligned, finding ways forward for addressing public health in trade policy is likely to be difficult. Moving forward will involve understanding the values and drivers of the respective groups, and developing solutions palatable to their various interests. Given the power imbalances between the two areas, it is likely that the health community will have to make the first moves in this respect. This article outlines the key issues involved and suggests areas where such moves have been, and may be made.

  10. Development of nuclear power and impacts on public safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochmann, H.P.

    1985-07-01

    The author summarizes the contribution of nuclear power to the overall power supply in the FRG, impacts of the nuclear power industry on public safety and security, and the legal instruments available to protect the public. He concludes his discussion of facts and arguments with the following statements: protection against interference or any other harmful actions of third parties aimed against nuclear installations must be devised so as to practically guarantee prevention of sabotage or any acts of terrorism. Preventive measures have to be made with an eye to what is sensible in practice, as perfectionism might have the adverse effect. The available concept of integrated protection and engineered safety, which has been set up in 1977, will be a sufficient means of reacting to near developments and information in a flexible and effective manner.

  11. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Mousseau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA. Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  12. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  13. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  14. Equity Value of Slovenian Publicly Traded Companies on the Basis of Discounted Free Cash Flows, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Trunk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to assess the equity value of Slovenianpublicly traded companies, before and after financial-economic crises,on the basis of discounted free cash flows to equity and to compare itwith market equity values of companies. The fundamental equity valueof the selected companies (25 is calculated by a two-stage model. Themethod of paired-samples t-tests did not confirm the hypothesis thatthe fundamental value of Slovenian publicly traded companies betterreflects market values currently in financial and economic crisis (2011as before (2006. However we found out that the market equity valueof companies in relation to the fundamental equity value of companiesis lower in 2011 than in 2006. Fundamental value of company isimportant for both management, as well as external stakeholders. Thewide variation in market and fundamental values are the basis for highvalue adjustments, which reduces confidence in the capital market.This has a negative impact on the operation of financial institutions,individual and companies investment. There are various models of thebasic calculations used in the model evaluation. This study shows theproblem of company valuation on small and emerging capital marketswith a short history of data.

  15. Restrictions on European Union Citizens’ Freedom of Movement and Residence in the Country on Grounds of Public Policy, Public Security and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junevičius Algis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The free movement of persons is one of the most successful European Union projects, serving as a majorly important factor promoting the European integration processes. The adoption of the Treaty on the European Union and the creation of EU citizenship implemented significant changes: the status of EU citizens and their right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States can no longer be interpreted in the way it was before the adoption of the Treaty on the European Union. There are no requirements for EU citizens within the Treaty to pursue professional or independent activities or to work under an employment contract in order to access provided rights. However, the right of free movement is not unlimited. The administrations of the Member State governments are authorized to impose restictions on the free movement of citizens. In the light of these facts, this article examines exceptions in the field of free movement of persons and indentifies concepts of public policy, public security and public health. Special attention is given to so-called rule limitation of restrictions and to the mechanism of protection against expulsion from the country. The article concludes by saying that the institutions of Member State governments have the right to evaluate threats within the territory of the country and to decide on the content of public security by themselves. However, their discretion can not be used as an instrument to treat the conduct of other Member State citizens in a worse way than that of their own local citizens.

  16. Exploring the Public Health Impacts of Private Security Guards on People Who Use Drugs: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Private security guards occupy an increasingly prominent role in the policing of private and public spaces. There are growing concerns regarding security guards' potential to shape violence, discrimination, and adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD). This is relevant in Vancouver, Canada, where private security guards have increasingly been employed by private organizations to manage public and private spaces, including those within urban drug scenes. This qualitative study sought to understand interactions between PWUD and private security guards and explore their impacts on health care access, risks, and harms among PWUD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 PWUD recruited from two ongoing prospective cohort studies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a coding framework comprised of a priori and emergent categories. Study data indicate that participants experience pervasive, discriminatory profiling and surveillance by security guards, which exacerbates existing social marginalization and structural vulnerability, particularly among PWUD of Aboriginal ancestry. Participants reported that security guards restrict PWUD's access to public and private spaces, including pharmacies and hospitals. PWUD also reported that their interactions with security guards often involved interpersonal violence and aggression, experiences that served to increase their vulnerability to subsequent risks and harms. Our findings highlight that private security forces contribute significantly to the everyday violence experienced by PWUD within drug scenes and elsewhere and do so in a manner very similar to that of traditional police forces. These findings point to the urgent need for greater oversight and training of private security guards in order to protect the health and safety of PWUD.

  17. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization" frame, with its…

  18. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…

  19. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…

  20. Risk trade-offs in fish consumption: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Hammitt, James K

    2012-11-20

    Fish consumption advisories instruct vulnerable consumers to avoid high mercury fish and to limit total fish intake to reduce neurotoxic risk. Consumption data from the U.S. suggest that nontarget consumers also respond to such advice. These consumers reduce exposure to mercury and other toxicants at the cost of reduction in cardioprotective fatty acids. We present a probabilistic model to assess these risk trade-offs. We use NHANES consumption data to simulate exposure to contaminants and nutrients in fish, employ dose-response relationships to convert exposure to health end points, and monetize them using benefit transfer. Our results suggest that newborns gained on average 0.033 IQ points from their mothers' compliance with the prominent FDA/EPA advisory. The welfare gain for a birth cohort is estimated at $386 million. This gain could be fully offset by increments in cardiovascular risk if 0.6% of consumers aged 40 and older reduced fish intake by one monthly meal until they reached the age of 60 or if 0.1% of them permanently reduced fish intake.

  1. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... addressing counterfeiting and piracy. USTR is requesting written comments from the public on the final text... international cooperation, enforcement practices and legal frameworks for addressing counterfeiting and...

  2. 7 CFR 1950.103 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. 1950.103 Section 1950.103 Agriculture Regulations... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. (a... actions to take in connection with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  3. 7 CFR 1901.506 - Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 securities-issuance and redemption of certificate by Reserve bank. 1901.506... and Insured Notes § 1901.506 Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...) Issue book-entry FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities by means of entries...

  4. 17 CFR 270.32a-2 - Exemption for initial period from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for certain registered separate accounts... from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for certain registered separate accounts... 32(a) of the Act that selection of an independent public accountant shall have been submitted...

  5. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  6. Secure Digital Certificate Design Based on the Public Key Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi ming

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available     With the popularity of the Internet, more and more people choose online shopping, however, in the case of lacking security measures, there is a great deal of risk on the Internet. to this situation,In response to this situation, this paper presents a digital certificate based on the X.509 standard. This paper uses the C language generation public key algorithm (RSA,Realization of the digital certificate registration, verification and certificate generation process,the identity of certification users can be verified and provide proof of identity on the Internet transactions ,reducing the transaction risks greatly , ensuring the user's property and interests are not infringed.

  7. Pacification & Mega-events in Rio de Janeiro: Urbanization, Public Security & Accumulation by Dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Rekow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how Brazil's latest public security initiative-its highly controversial Police Pacification Campaign (UPP-is an integral component of a neoliberal political framework that is enacting rapid urbanization projects in and around strategically located favelas (informal settlements or slums of Rio de Janeiro. Specifically, it evaluates what kinds of economic development initiatives are moving forward, how they are facilitated by the UPP, how they connect to the city's mega-events, and who is profiting from them. The article also examines how the pacification has affected residents in three favelas over a seven-year period from the inauguration of the UPP in 2008 through to mid-2015.

  8. An efficient and provably-secure certificateless public key encryption scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Shi, Huixian; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-10-01

    Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) promote the traditional medical and healthcare services by information and communication technology. Since the physician and caregiver can monitor the patient's physiological condition remotely in TMIS, the confidentiality of this sensitive data should be protected, which is the key issue in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. In this paper, we propose an efficient certificateless public key encryption scheme without bilinear pairing for TMIS. Our proposal is proved to be secure in the random oracle model under the hardness assumption of computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Moreover, after modifying the original model of the certificateless encryption, this scheme achieves Girault's trust level 3. Compared with the related protocols, the perform evaluations show that our scheme is more efficient and appropriate to collocate with low power mobile devices for TMIS.

  9. Public order and security: citizens' privacy protection in the Sovereign State of Bolívar, 1857-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roicer Alberto Flórez Bolívar.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author offers his understanding of how the lack of economic resources and the quarrelling between extreme liberals and conservatives originated an instability political climate where between 1857-1886 the local elites from the Sovereign State of Bolívar were involved. This situation makes that citizens’ security is not in charge of the State but in individuals or families with bosses and chiefs whose authority was assumed as State functions in areas where the State had little or no presence. From journalism sources and official documents, the author reports events and situations that show the unstable government and political climate, that leads the approval of a bill about police and formation of night watchmen bodies with residents, civil servants and local dealers participation. The free trade of arms established in 1863 led to local elites to actively participate in its trade and offering in times of armed insurgencies in favor or against the State until 1886.

  10. War, Trade and Desire: Urban Design and the Counter Public Spheres of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McGrath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses an emergent public sphere in Bangkok in order to reveal the gap between ideals of public space as representation of power, nationhood, and modernity, versus its social production in everyday political struggles. The setting for political demonstrations recently shifted from royalist-nationalist Ratchadamnoen Avenue to the Ratchaprasong intersection, the heart of Bangkok’s shopping district. Ratchadamnoen, formerly a stage-set for royalist and nationalist pomp, has been continuously occupied for political uprisings.In contrast, as the political base of protest in Thailand widened, the glittering shopping malls at Ratchaprasong became a new site of protest, fuelled by urban and rural working poor who sensed they could not afford to partake in Bangkok’s phantasmagorical splendours. The paper argues that in following Bangkok’s historical cycles of blood and massacre in the street lies the possibility of finding new forms of urban design and a public sphere not yet imagined in the West.

  11. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    substantial public health risk. PM is at the core of diverse policy issues related to air quality, public health, and environmental security, at scales from local to global. Interdisciplinary earth and health science investigations are crucial to the development of effective policy. For example, earth science input will be key for understanding and managing potential risks associated with living on or near asbestos-containing rocks. Particularly in dry climates, a better understanding of the roles of geogenic PM versus anthropogenic PM as triggers of disease is needed in the development of appropriate air quality regulations at local to regional scales; this issue will only increase in importance in the future as human inhabitation increases in some arid regions, and as arid regions expand or shift due to climate change or human-induced stresses. Over the last decade, it has been recognized that dusts can transport contaminants and pathogens between continents. Hence, human practices and policies that influence dust generation in one continent or country may ultimately have an impact on public health, policy, and environmental security in distant downwind countries.

  12. Insurance with frequent trading

    OpenAIRE

    José Penalva

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the dynamic management of risk in an economy with discrete time consumption and endowments and continuous trading. I study how agents in such an economy deal with all the risk in the economy and attain their Pareto optimal allocations by trading in a few natural securities: private insurance contracts and a common set of derivatives on the aggregate endowment. The parsimonious nature of the implied securities needed for Pareto optimality suggests that in such contexts comp...

  13. The global counterfeit drug trade: patient safety and public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2011-11-01

    Counterfeit drugs are a global problem with significant and well-documented consequences for global health and patient safety, including drug resistance and patient deaths. This multibillion-dollar industry does not respect geopolitical borders, and threatens public health in both rich and resource-poor nations alike. The epidemiology of counterfeits is also wide in breadth and scope, including thousands of counterfeit incidents per year, encompassing all types of therapeutic classes, and employing a complex global supply chain network enabling this illegal activity. In addition, information technologies available through the Internet and sales via online pharmacies have allowed the criminal element to thrive in an unregulated environment of anonymity, deception, and lack of adequate enforcement. Though recent global enforcement efforts have led to arrests of online counterfeit sellers, such actions have not stemmed supplies from illegal online sellers or kept up with their creativity in illegally selling their products. To address this issue, we propose a global policy framework utilizing public-private partnership models with centralized surveillance reporting that would enable cooperation and coordination to combat this global health crisis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Analysis of Public Information Network Security%浅析当前公共信息网络安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦恩国

    2012-01-01

    随着互联网技术的发展,我们的工作生活与公共信息网络越来越密不可分。公共信息网络给我们带来很大便利,同时网络的安全威胁和脆弱点逐渐被越来越多的不法分子所关注,利用网络的漏洞谋取利益,扰乱社会公共秩序,甚至危害国家安全。公共信息网络安全问题必须被更多的民众关注,了解网络安全现状,提高网络安全意识。本文首先对公共信息网络安全进行描述,从当前网络现状出发,从几个方面剖析危及公共信息网络安全的因素和网络犯罪的表现,给广大民众提高网络安全意识一个警示。%With the development of Internet technology,our work life and public information network more and more inseparable.Public Information Network has brought us great convenience,and security threats and vulnerabilities of the network gradually concern a growing number of criminals,the use of loopholes in the network to the benefit of,disturb the social order,and may even harm the national security.Public information network security issues must be more attention from the public to understand the network security situation and to promote awareness of network security.The first Public Information Network Security description,starting from the current network status,analysis of several factors that endanger the public information network security and cyber crime,the performance of a warning to the general public to improve awareness of network security.

  15. Correlates of the sex trade among African-American youth living in urban public housing: assessing the role of parental incarceration and parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby

    2014-04-01

    African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.

  16. The security agenda under review: shocking cases, issues and public problems in Argentina's democratic period (1983-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the emergence of issues and the formation of public problems that constitute the security agenda in Argentina in the democratic stage from processes associated to the public problematisation of violent deaths constituted as shocking cases. The analysis integrates reconstructions of shocking cases in the register of public action with a review of research from social sciences presenting dimensions of violent death and problems related to national security agenda. As a point of arrival we emphasize the capacity that currently expresses insecurity to absorb and integrate dimensions, a problem which it is constituted as a privileged cultural script for the understanding of violence, which synthesizes social meanings of risk and serves as a platform for political demand for large segments of the public

  17. Croatian bank investments in securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Jurman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the basic characteristics of debt securities and shares and analyses the amount, structure and characteristics of the securities portfolio in Croatian banks in period from 1993 to 2004. The analysis shows that in the entire analyzed period Republic of Croatia together with state funds and other public institutions was the main issuer of securities that banks have in their portfolios. The securities issued by banks and companies represent only a marginal part of banks’ portfolios but it is also true that banks have strongly supported the privatization process of state owned companies by providing credit for purchasing of shares and later on swapping their credit claims for shares. In this way banks acquired a significant portfolio of shares that they later sold on the open market. Data about the significant reduction of securities portfolio in the banking assets structure, from 46.1% in 1993 to only 10.6% in 2004, is indicative of a low level of trading in securities. This means that in the following years, central and local government should secure the necessary funds more by issuing securities than by credit, especially not by taking credit from abroad. Furthermore, in order to spread business with securities, banks should also substitute a portion of their credit portfolio with short and long term securities. In this way, the investors would be able to use the benefits of investing in securities instead of investing their funds in bank deposits as they have done until now.

  18. Technical difficulties. Recent health IT security breaches are unlikely to improve the public's perception about the safety of personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Cinda

    2006-02-20

    Consumers who claimed in recent surveys that they were "more afraid of cyber crimes than physical crimes" may have had reason for caution. A spate of well-publicized information thefts and security breaches at healthcare organizations have eroded trust in technology, says Carol Diamond, left, of the Markle Foundation, and that could have an adverse effect on acceptance of electronic medical records.

  19. 76 FR 63680 - Public Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... various issues related to the Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities. The roundtable... following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules...

  20. A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bernard B.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2006-05-01

    We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

  1. 75 FR 68636 - 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading November 4, 2010. It appears to the Securities and... require a suspension of trading in the securities of 8000, Inc. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the...

  2. 78 FR 44185 - RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities and... trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company...

  3. 77 FR 16113 - Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 15, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company...

  4. private placements as sources of long term funds for publicly quoted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies. These practices previously .... (proportion of profit that is not spent). External sources of ... security does not benefit from access to the Stock Exchange trading market. Also they tend to be ...

  5. Trade in medicines and the public's health: a time series analysis of import disruptions during the 2015 India-Nepal border blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Kaplan, Warren A

    2017-08-22

    Nepal was struck by devastating earthquakes in April-May 2015, followed by the India-Nepal border blockade later that year. We used the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics (UN Comtrade) database to analyse exports of various health commodities from India to Nepal from January 2011-September 2016. We used time-series regressions of trading volume vs. unit price to ask how well Nepal's trading history with India prior to the earthquake and blockade was able to predict unit prices of health commodities imported into Nepal during and after the earthquake and the blockade. Regression residuals were used to quantify the extent to which the blockade impacted the price of healthcare commodities crossing into Nepal. During the blockade period (September 2015-early February 2016), the volume of all retail medicines traded across the India-Nepal border was reduced by 46.5% compared to same months in 2014-2015. For medical dressings, large volumes were exported from India to Nepal during and shortly after the earthquakes (May-June 2015), but decreased soon thereafter. During the earthquake, the difference between observed and predicted values of unit price (residuals) for all commodities show no statistical outliers. However, during the border blockade, Nepal paid USD 22.3 million more for retail medicines than one would have predicted based on its prior trading history with India, enough to provide healthcare to nearly half of Kathmandu's citizens for 1 year. The India-Nepal blockade was a geopolitical natural experiment demonstrating how a land-locked country is vulnerable to the vagaries of its primary trading partner. Although short-lived, the blockade had an immediate impact on traded medicine volumes and prices, and provided a large opportunity cost with implications for public health.

  6. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-06-01

    Industrial renewal in the bio/nanopharma sector is important for the long term strength of the Australian economy and for the health of its citizens. A variety of factors, however, may have caused inadequate attention to focus on systematically promoting domestic generic and small biotechnology manufacturers in Australian health policy. Despite recent clarifications of 'springboarding' capacity in intellectual property legislation, federal government requirements for specific generic price reductions on market entry and the potential erosion of reference pricing through new F1 and F2 categories for the purposes of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) assessments, do not appear to be coherently designed to sustainably position this industry sector in 'biologics,' nanotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics. There also appears to have been little attention paid in this context to policies fostering industry sustainability and public affordability (as encouraged by the National Medicines Policy). One notable example includes that failure to consider facilitating mutual exchanges on regulatory assessment of health technology safety and cost-effectiveness (including reference pricing) in the context of ongoing free trade negotiations between Australia and China (the latter soon to possess the world's largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity). The importance of a thriving Australian domestic generic pharmaceutical and bio/nano tech industry in terms of biosecurity, similarly appears to have been given insufficient policy attention.Reasons for such policy oversights may relate to increasing interrelationships between generic and 'brand-name' manufacturers and the scale of investment required for the Australian generics and bio/nano technology sector to be a significant driver of local production. It might also result from singularly effective lobbying pressure exerted by Medicines Australia, the 'brand-name' pharmaceutical industry association, utilising

  7. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  8. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of the Secretary Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement... Article 17.5 of the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA), the International Labor Affairs Bureau...) of the U.S.-Colombia TPA, including activities of the Labor Cooperation Mechanism established...

  9. Public Procurement of Security Technology : A multiple case study of Swedish municipalities and regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rolandsson, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Municipalities and regions in Sweden have an increasing need to purchase security technology to secure their properties and their operations. However this procurement process is strictly regulated by the Swedish procurement act (“Lagen om Offentlig Upphandling”, LoU), leading to a similar procurement process. However no academic studies have been done on the procurement of security technology in local authorities.This thesis explores and maps this process and the important aspects which affec...

  10. Social Security Administration Public Inquiry Data - Average Processing Time (in days)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset shows the average processing time for completed inquiries. The data source is the Electronic Management of Assignments and Correspondence system (EMAC)....

  11. 77 FR 56697 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable... entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss ways to promote... Trading and Markets, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-7010....

  12. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  13. Urban crime prevention and the logics of public security policies in Brazil – a relational perspective on the local fields of negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubrich, Dominik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public security is a highly contested issue in urban societies. It involves, stresses or excludes a wide spectrum of actors, policies and spaces on different scales and time lapse. Meanwhile, public security possesses a central position in the recent transcontextual discussion of area-based urban security studies. Therein, both questions of social change and the spatial, political and economical reflection of (insecurity issues are increasingly concerning the current transforming logic of public security policies. To capture this transformation from a theoretical as well as empirical perspective, this papers looks at the local security governance field in the municipality of São Paulo. It argues that the political field of local crime prevention councils (CONSEG, hosted on the district level once a month, is suited to understand the conceptual shift of the crime control paradigm in general and its spatial translation into discourses, programs, instruments and measures of local security provision in particular.

  14. 76 FR 66127 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP II; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ..., Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP...

  15. 17 CFR 240.12f-3 - Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-3 Section 240.12f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-3 Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges. (a) The issuer of any security for which unlisted trading...

  16. 加强和改进公安法学教育的理性思考%Rational Thinking on Strengthening and Improving Public Security Law Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉伟

    2015-01-01

    Public security law education is the basis of public se-curity education. It plays an irreplaceable role in the culture of public security reserve talents. But there are some problems in public security law education at present, such as unreasonable arrangement of law courses, lack of public security characteristic of specified teaching materials, disjunction of teaching contents and public security practice, relatively single and backward of teaching methods, and so on. So the basic position public security law education hasn't been really established. The reasons of these problems are complicated and multi-level. In order to promote the reformation of public security law education, and strengthen and improve public security law education, we should positively cope with from three levels of country, university and teacher.%公安法学教育是公安教育的基础,在公安后备人才培养中具有不可替代的作用。当前公安法学教育中存在着法学课程安排不合理、指定教材缺乏公安特色、教学内容与公安执法实践脱节、教学方法相对单一落后等诸多问题,公安法学教育的基础地位并未真正确立。而造成这些问题产生的原因是复杂的、多层次的。推动公安法学教育改革,加强和改进公安法学教育,应当从国家、学校、教师三个层面进行积极应对。

  17. Public Security and Nuclear Monitoring%公共安全与核监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛用泽; 王善强; 梁卫平

    2012-01-01

    Four kinds of emergency social security events have been defined based on The People’s Republic of China Law on Response to Emergencies.This paper expounds one of the most challenging threats from the four types terrorism attack means of nuclear and radiation terrorist events which is considered in the range of international public security.According to the above law,the principle "Prevent firstly,Combining prevention with emergency response" is also put forward,which includes the corresponding action spectrum.Nuclear monitoring is the core technology for nuclear and radiation terrorist events prevention and emergency response.This paper has systematically discussed the special nuclear monitoring techniques,including strategy research of nuclear monitoring on nuclear and radiation terrorist events prevention and response.To prevent nuclear and radiation terrorist events,it is necessary to establish a national radiation monitoring network(system) to detect,alarm,locate and distinguish for the nuclear material and other radioactive substances and IND,RDD,RED.The radiation monitoring special requirements and the corresponding technology are described on nuclear and radiation terrorist events in the management of the consequences of emergency response.%针对"中华人民共和国突发事件应对法"界定的四类突发事件中社会安全事件,从核和辐射恐怖突发事件公共安全角度阐述了核和辐射恐怖主义四类袭击手段的潜在威胁是在国际范围内对公共安全最具挑战性的威胁之一。按照"应对法"提出了"预防为主,预防与应急响应相结合"原则以及相应的行动谱。核和辐射恐怖突发事件的防范与应急响应的核心技术是核监测。全面系统地论述了核监测技术,包括:开展核和辐射恐怖事件防范与响应的核监测战略研究;为防范核和辐射恐怖事件,对核材料与其他放射性物质以及IND,RDD,RED的探测、报警、定位与识

  18. 77 FR 52766 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... day roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss... ways in which market participants design, implement, and manage complex and inter-connected...

  19. A Public Choice Approach to the Unequal Treatment of Securities Market Participants and Home Borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Macey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contrasts the protections provided to participants in U.S. securities markets with the protections provided to participants in the U.S. mortgage markets. Participants in securities markets purchase and sell equity and debt securities. Participants in the mortgage markets borrow money to buy homes, using those homes as collateral for the mortgage loans they receive. Even after Dodd-Frank, participants in securities markets are afforded significantly higher levels of protection than participants in mortgage markets. The doctrine of suitability is a prime example of this inequity. Exploring possible explanations for this odd asymmetry of treatment, I conclude that interest group politics is to blame for the anomaly.

  20. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ..., Security and Authentication, and Network Evolution working groups. A more detailed agenda will be released... Commission will also provide audio and/or video coverage of the meeting over the Internet from the FCC's...

  1. Cybersecurity via Intermediaries: Analyzing Security Measurements to Understand Intermediary Incentives and Inform Public Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of information security economics has clarified how attacker and defender incentives affect cybersecurity. It has also highlighted the role of intermediaries in strengthening cybersecurity. Intermediaries are organizations and firms that provide the Internet’s infrastructure

  2. Sports Venue Security: Public Policy Options for Sear 4-5 Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    SEAR 4–5 events in real-time (such as NFL , MLB, MiLB or NCAA athletic events), from the terrorists’ perspective, the phenomenon of displacement is...Professional sports league Security Directors from MLB, NFL , NBA, NHL, and MLS; • Three select NCAA Security Directors, such as one each from...federally provided equipment and personnel in varying degrees, but unlike the NSSEs, they receive no direct federal funding. For example, the NFL

  3. Storage and starvation: public granaries as agents of "food security" in early modern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Collet, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    "The development of the 'food security' concept in the 1990s marked a significant change away from state-centered strategies that focused on food availability, towards policies aimed at food access and strengthening individual 'entitlements' (A. Sen) to food. This essay applies the food security approach to early modern food regimes, drawing on the example of the state-granary system in 18th century Prussia to investigate their agents, zones of conflict, and limits. The evident failure of tec...

  4. Evaluation of the awareness and effectiveness of IT security programs in a large publicly funded health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Shelanne L; Tarraf, Rima C; Birney, Arden; Arain, Mubashir Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records are becoming increasingly common in the health care industry. Although information technology (IT) poses many benefits to improving health care and ease of access to information, there are also security and privacy risks. Educating health care providers is necessary to ensure proper use of health information systems and IT and reduce undesirable outcomes. This study evaluated employees' awareness and perceptions of the effectiveness of two IT educational training modules within a large publicly funded health care system in Canada. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups included a variety of professional roles within the organisation. Participants also completed a brief demographic data sheet. With the consent of participants, all interviews and focus groups were audio recorded. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the IT security training modules. Five main themes emerged: (i) awareness of the IT training modules, (ii) the content of modules, (iii) staff perceptions about differences between IT security and privacy issues, (iv) common breaches of IT security and privacy, and (v) challenges and barriers to completing the training program. Overall, nonclinical staff were more likely to be aware of the training modules than were clinical staff. We found e-learning was a feasible way to educate a large number of employees. However, health care providers required a module on IT security and privacy that was relatable and applicable to their specific roles. Strategies to improve staff education and mitigate against IT security and privacy risks are discussed. Future research should focus on integrating health IT competencies into the educational programs for health care professionals.

  5. Relationship Between the Police Formation System and Public Security ISSN: 2239-5938 Educational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Beu

    2013-04-01

    formationcenters in Europe and region will enable a more effective fight against crime and will leadto the so desirable product of enhancement of public trust towards police and an increaseof the perception of security.

  6. Do Managers Face a Performance Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk

    2017-01-01

    equity, accountability, and procedural justice. However, our knowledge of whether such trade-offs exist is scarce. Using an administrative 10-year panel data set of Danish public schools and principals, this paper analyzes trade-offs between production performance (measured by student performance...... and student pass rate) and process performance (measured by equity, accountability, and procedural justice). Results show no evidence of trade-offs. In contrast, principals who succeed in raising student performance generally also succeed in securing high pass rates, high equity, high accountability, and high...... procedural justice. These results suggest that managers who are able to secure high performance on one dimension of performance will likely also be high performing on other performance dimensions....

  7. Public Security Information System Network Security Platform Design%公安系统网络安全信息平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亮; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    how to design fast and effective security measures to protect against unauthorized access to system resources and data, is the current public security system, an important and pressing issues in the field of network security. This pa-per presents an approach based on support vector machines (Support Vector Machine, SVM) fast intrusion detection ap-proach, building an intrusion detection model using SVM and intrusion detection using smaller eigenvalues, with fast and efficient features. This method for KDDCUP1999 data analysis of its performance, the results show: the intrusion detec-tion algorithms have made high detection rate and a low rate of false detections.%  如何设计快速有效的安全措施来防范未经授权访问系统的资源和数据,是当前公安系统网络安全领域的一个重要而迫切的问题。本文提出一种基于支持向量机的快速入侵检测方法,利用SVM建立一个入侵检测模型,并且利用较少特征值进行入侵检测,具有快速高效的特点。将本文方法用于KDDCUP1999数据分析其性能,实验结果显示,所提出的入侵检测算法得到较高的检测率和较低的误检率。

  8. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in...

  9. 17 CFR 155.4 - Trading standards for introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for introducing brokers. 155.4 Section 155.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.4 Trading standards for introducing brokers. (a) Each introducing...

  10. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and...

  11. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.

  12. 78 FR 4907 - In the Matter of AlphaTrade.com; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of AlphaTrade.com ; Order of Suspension of Trading January 18, 2013. It appears to... concerning the securities of AlphaTrade.com because it has not filed any periodic reports for any...

  13. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  14. Security audits of multi-tier virtual infrastructures in public infrastructure clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Schunter, Matthias; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has gained remarkable popularity in the recent years by a wide spectrum of consumers, ranging from small start-ups to governments. However, its benefits in terms of flexibility, scalability, and low upfront investments, are shadowed by security challenges which inhibit its adoption...... security configurations. In this article we present a novel approach in the security assessment of the end-user configuration of multi-tier architectures deployed on infrastructure clouds such as Amazon EC2. In order to perform this assessment for the currently deployed configuration, we automated...... the process of extracting the configuration using the Amazon API. In the assessment we focused on the reachability and vulnerability of services in the virtual infrastructure, and presented a way for the visualization and automated analysis based on reachability and attack graphs. We proposed a query...

  15. Security audits of multi-tier virtual infrastructures in public infrastructure clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Schunter, Matthias; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has gained remarkable popularity in the recent years by a wide spectrum of consumers, ranging from small start-ups to governments. However, its benefits in terms of flexibility, scalability, and low upfront investments, are shadowed by security challenges which inhibit its adoption....... Managed through a web-services interface, users can configure highly flexible but complex cloud computing environments. Furthermore, users misconfiguring such cloud services poses a severe security risk that can lead to security incidents, e.g., erroneous exposure of services due to faulty network...... the process of extracting the configuration using the Amazon API. In the assessment we focused on the reachability and vulnerability of services in the virtual infrastructure, and presented a way for the visualization and automated analysis based on reachability and attack graphs. We proposed a query...

  16. 32 CFR 700.1121 - Disclosure, publication and security of official information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance to a foreign power; nor shall any person in the Department of the Navy make any public speech or... the United States. The regulations concerned with the release of information to the public through any... departmental regulation. (d) Any person in the Department of the Navy receiving a request from the public for...

  17. 78 FR 64284 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG OL; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ....'' Geographic Region: ``New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina.'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG...

  18. 26 CFR 1.897-9T - Treatment of certain interest in publicly traded corporations, definition of foreign person, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during the calendar... regularly traded for any calendar quarter during which it is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a... dealer holds himself out to buy or sell interests in such class at the quoted price. Stock of...

  19. 75 FR 22121 - Request for Public Comment on the Scope of Viewpoints Represented on the Industry Trade Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... and functional committees were to ``be representative of the producing sectors of our economy'' to... information on trade advisory committees is available at http://www.ustr.gov/about-us/intergovernmental... Secretary for Manufacturing and Services, U.S. Department of Commerce. Dated: April 19, 2010. Myesha Ward...

  20. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  1. The relevance of security analyst opinions for investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or

  2. Discalced Carmelites as Focus of Attention of Polish People’s Republic Security Force in Cracow Voivodship in the Light of Preserved Reports Sent to Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Years 1947-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Marecki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the times of the Polish People’s Republic, national security issues and, at the same time, surveillance of the society and suppression of many institutions – the Catholic Church included - were in the hands of appropriate services, modelled on the Soviet NKVD. At first this was the Ministry of Public Security and since 1956 the Security Police. The first part of the article presents the organization of security units in the voivodship of Cracow and the distribution of monastic communities, while the second throws light on the activities of these units uh the basis of preserved reports sent from Cracow to the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Officials of the Security Police who worked in the voivodship and district departments took a close interest in the Discalced Carmelite monks, taking account of their wartime past, pastoral activity and connections with the Church hierarchy. To ensure influence upon the life of the Discalced Carmelite Province as well as access to information on monastic internal issues they gained several secret collaborators within the congregation itself and its lay associates. The article is the first attempt at showing the methods of the Security Police (SB and the Security Office (UB activities directed at monastic orders; methods aiming at subjugating to the authorities not only the orders themselves, but the whole Catholic Church in Poland.

  3. Game Theoretic Modeling of Security and Interdependency in a Public Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    but spread to other nodes (or infrastructures) due to contagion . Kamhoua et al. analyzed cyber security problem that cannot be solved by a single...estimate of a quantity. The red-teams have real financial incentives for making correct predictions of the POMDP probabilities. Finally, the POMDP’s

  4. Cybersecurity via Intermediaries: Analyzing Security Measurements to Understand Intermediary Incentives and Inform Public Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of information security economics has clarified how attacker and defender incentives affect cybersecurity. It has also highlighted the role of intermediaries in strengthening cybersecurity. Intermediaries are organizations and firms that provide the Internet’s infrastructure an

  5. Cybersecurity via Intermediaries: Analyzing Security Measurements to Understand Intermediary Incentives and Inform Public Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of information security economics has clarified how attacker and defender incentives affect cybersecurity. It has also highlighted the role of intermediaries in strengthening cybersecurity. Intermediaries are organizations and firms that provide the Internet’s infrastructure an

  6. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  7. Public security policies in the beginnings: police force and the law in São Paulo (1870-1924)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemberg,André

    2012-01-01

    In this article we intend to present the basis for the development of public security policies in a period in which they did not constitute a subject of the political agenda. We focus on examples taken from police reports in order to monitor the legal evolution that concerns the organization of the São Paulo police force from 1868, when the CorpoPolicial Permanente was created, to 1901, the milestone of the last major legal change which fixed the police organization until 1924. Therefore, it ...

  8. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  9. New Future for Stock Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Securities regulators formulated the risk-control mechanism prior to launch of stock index futures in China For three years Wang Liangguang, an experienced stock investor, waited patiently for the trading of stock index futures. And now, that day has

  10. Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In this publication the IEA examines the history of major gas markets' development in OECD Europe, and explores the possible expansion of trading through the mechanism of different hubs across the region. Lessons learned from North American markets on the benefits of regulatory convergence and investor-friendly legal framework are an important part of the analysis. Competitive trading based on transparent, non-discriminatory rules in a flexible and integrated European gas market will lead to more efficiency, timely investment, and greater market resilience, therefore ensuring more security for both customers and suppliers in the long term.

  11. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... trade media, direct mail, industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at... International Trade Administration Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission...

  13. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

    2006-05-01

    Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

  15. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  16. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  17. 工会组织在社会保障制度建设中的角色定位%The Trade Union’ s Role in the Construction of Social Security System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛艾红

    2014-01-01

    工会组织是由劳动者组成的代表其利益的社会组织,在维护劳动者合法权益、争取劳动者正当权利等方面发挥着极其重要的作用。社会保障制度是促进社会稳定发展、保障社会公平的一项福利制度,是包括劳动者在内的全体公民应该享有的权利。随着社会保障制度的发展和工会组织的壮大,工会组织越来越多地介入社会保障制度,尤其是在社会保障制度逐渐完善的今天。我国社会保障制度的快速发展要求作为劳动者利益代表的工会组织要确定自己的努力方向,充分扮演好推动者、维护者、监督者、咨询者等社会角色,做好劳动者的坚强后盾。%The organization of trade union is a kind of social organization which is united by workers ’ rep-resentatives and stand by the workers ’ interests .It plays a significant role during the process of safeguarding workers’ legal rights.The social security system is a system which can provide social stable development and social equity and it means all social members ’ legal rights should be protected .With the development of social security system and improvement of trade union , the trade union participates in dealing with social security more, specially, in the improving today’s system.The development of our national social security demands that we should specify the direction of development as an organization of trade union .We should act like an promot-er, maintainer, supervisor, consulter and other social characters to be the solid shield for all workers .

  18. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  19. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading...

  20. 77 FR 13294 - Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 180-4, Secure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing... announces the Secretary of Commerce's approval of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication... announces the Secretary of Commerce's approval of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)...

  1. Freedom and Information. Assessing Publicly Available Data Regarding U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    we learn, One bit of counsel consultants say applies to just about any business : Don’t post sensitive information on the Internet. Says...about adjacent public and private spaces (e.g., small marinas near major seaports, residential 34 Freedom and Information areas, or business parks...cases, this information is necessarily in the public domain because it provides an important service. For instance, as noted above, ecommerce sites for

  2. 全面深化公安改革背景下加强警辅队伍建设和整合的探索--以上海市公安局嘉定分局为例%Discussion on the Building and Potency of Public-Security Managerial Assistants--Take for Example of Jiading Branch of Shanghai Public Security Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚方盛

    2015-01-01

    As the capable helper, the public-security managerial assistant has given great assistance to the public security organ in the public-security managerial process. At present, the public-security managerial assistants have become the new emerging forces to safeguard the public order. In the new situation, the public security organ should play a big role in the public order management and make the best possible use of public-security managerial assistants.%警辅队伍是指由《人民警察法》等法律法规规定的,政府认可并出资保障,由公安机关直接领导、管理的安全防范组织或在公安机关协助处理外部警务活动的组织。目前,警辅队伍已成为维护社会治安不可或缺的力量。在新的形势下,我们要进一步发挥警辅队伍的工作效能,激发其潜在活力,实现警力的无增长改善。

  3. The Public Security Organs of Public Opinion to Guide the Network in the Background of Social. Management Innovation To "public security weibo" Perspective%社会管理创新背景下的公安机关网络舆论引导——以“公安微博”为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越琳

    2012-01-01

    进一步加强和完善信息网络管理,提高对虚拟社会的管理水平,健全网上舆论引导机制.是公安工作社会管理创新的迫切要求。日渐勃兴的“公安微博”正是公安机关用最“时尚”的方式搭建起的与民众沟通、倾听民声民意的互动平台。针对目前“公安微博”存在的问题,各地公安机关应从微博管理、提升微博互动性、整合微博功能等方面着手,使公安微博在舆论引导中充分发挥时效快、覆盖广的重要作用。%To further st r engthen and improve the information network management, to improve the management level of the virtual community, and to improve the mechanism for guiding public opinion online, public security work is an urgent requirement for social management innovation.The growing emergence of "public security microblogging" is the public security organs with the most "fashionable" way to build up the communication with the public, the public voice of the people to listen to the interactive platform. The emergence of public secrity weibo is the most fashionable way used by the public security organs as an interactive platform to communicate with the public and listen to the public. To solve the current "security weibo" problems, the public security organs should do some weibo, enhance weibo interactivity, integrate weibo functionality and other aspects, make the weibo guide full time in the fast,wide converage of the important role on the media guide block.

  4. PUBLIC LINEAR PROGRAMMING SOLUTION FOR THE DESIGN OF SECURE AND EFFICIENT COMPUTING IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.V.Krishnaiah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This next generation of computing holds enormous potential to stimulate economic growth and enable governments to reduce costs, increase transparency and expand services to citizens. Cloud computing robust computational power to the society at reduced cost and enables customers with limited computational resources to outsource their large computation workloads to the cloud, and economically enjoy the massive computational power, bandwidth, storage, and even appropriate software that can be shared in a pay-per-use manner. Despite the tremendous benefits, security is the primary obstacle that prevents the wide adoption of this promising computing model, especially for customers when their confidential data are consumed and produced during the computation.

  5. Transforming Homeland Security [video

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, David; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2011-01-01

    A pioneer in homeland security, and homeland security education, David McIntyre discusses the complexities in transforming homeland security from a national program in its inception, to also include state and local agencies and other public and private parties.

  6. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  7. Pilot study on IOT mobile application for public security%公安物联网移动应用初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽坤; 唐前进; 颜志国

    2013-01-01

    The public security IOT has become one of key aspects of IOT development in China. Mobile application of IOT for public security is the speciifc application of mobile internet in public security ifeld, and it plays a very important role in the development of public security IOT. Mobile application business, overall architecture and three key techniques of LBS, security technology of terminal and trucking communication in the development progress are introduced. Police digital device(PDD), as typical application system of public security IOT is introduced to do some help to understand, develop and promote the application of the public security IOT.%公安物联网已成为我国物联网发展的重要方向之一。公安物联网移动应用是移动互联网在公安安全领域的具体应用,在公安物联网发展中占据了非常重要的地位。文中对公安物联网移动应用业务、总体架构、发展所涉及的三项关键技术(基于位置的应用、终端安全技术和集群通信技术)进行了阐述,并对公安物联网移动应用的公安数字化单兵系统进行了介绍,以期为了解、发展和推进公安物联网及应用起到一定的作用。

  8. The Preliminary Discussions of the Aesthetic Characteristics of Public Security Literature%公安文学审美特征刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡婷

    2015-01-01

    公安文学是与公安工作相关的一种文学形式,既具有文学的审美特征,又有其独特的艺术魅力,本文通过对公安文学的剖析和相关作品的评述,总结出“从下里巴人到阳春白雪”、“从平凡百姓到崇高英雄”、“从张扬个性到警醒人生”三个审美特征,目的在于肯定其文学价值和教化价值,从而呼吁更多人从事公安文学创作。%Public Security Literature is a literary form associated with public security work. It not only has literary aesthetic characteristics, but also the unique artistic charm. Through the analysis of public security literature and the reviews of relevant works, this paper summarizes three aesthetic characteristics, including “from the highbrow to the common”, “from the ordinary people to lofty heroes” and “from advocating individuality to alerting life”. This paper aims to affirm the literary values and enlightened values of public security literature, which in order to call on more people to join public security literature creation.

  9. Asset management perspective on the duration of public-private partnership contracts: cost-control trade-off?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, van M.; Hartmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    The risk-incentive model of principal-agent relations and its extensions to infrastructural public-private partnerships outline the efficiency implications of parameters such as contract duration. The predominant focus on individual contracts is of limited use for public agencies that need to alloca

  10. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in Europ

  11. Symmetries and security of a quantum-public-key encryption based on single-qubit rotations

    CERN Document Server

    Seyfarth, U; Alber, G

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the symmetries underlying a previously proposed encryption scheme which relies on single-qubit rotations, we derive an improved upper bound on the maximum information that an eavesdropper might extract from all the available copies of the public key. Subsequently, the robustness of the scheme is investigated in the context of attacks that address each public-key qubit independently. The attacks under consideration make use of projective measurements on single qubits and their efficiency is compared to attacks that address many qubits collectively and require complicated quantum operations.

  12. 78 FR 35351 - Polar Petroleum Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Polar Petroleum Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 10, 2013. It appears to the Securities... trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company...

  13. 77 FR 26056 - LocatePlus Holdings Corporation; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... of Suspension of Trading April 30, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company, and any equity securities of...) of the Exchange Act, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company, and any...

  14. Security Issues on Testing of Public Cloud Applications%公有云应用中测试的安全问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udhyan Timilsina; Leah Riungu- Kalliosaari; Ossi Taipale; Kari Smolander; 王伟军

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate security issues of cloud testing. Organizations are increasingly mov ing to the cloud and sharing their information, but there are concerns about security issues and risks that may arise due to security breaches. This paper extends the concept of security approach during testing. It makes use of a literature review to evaluate the risk of eight security issues when testing in public clouds. The security issues including trust, governance, compliance, identity and access management, availability, data security, instance isolation and its failures, and architecture in testing on a public cloud. The paper also includes an empirical survey to evaluate the current security strategies of different public cloud providers on the eight security issues.%本研究旨在探讨云测试的安全问题。虽然越来越多的企业开始向云环境迈进并共享信息,但他们同样十分关注云环境的安全问题和可能存在的风险。综述测试过程中安全保障方法的现有概念,在此基础上重点归纳和分析公共云测试中的信任、治理、承诺、认证与访问管理、可用性、数据安全、隔离及失败、架构这8类安全问题的风险程度,并对典型的公共云服务提供商在这8类安全问题上所采取的安全策略进行实证分析。

  15. Study on Preserving Public Security of Installing 22 kV Distribution Equipment on Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi; Oka, Keisuke; Uemura, Satoshi; Ariga, Yasuo

    To cope with restructuring of electricity market, application of 22kV distribution systems to areas with high load density, is promising. To expand them, it is important to install 22kV distribution equipment on pavements and lots without fences. On the other hand, the neutral grounding method is expected for the 22kV distribution equipment in terms of rationalization of insulation. In this case, one line-to-ground fault current will be large. Therefore, to make safety of people, it is essential to decrease the contact voltage. In this paper, we will perform the simulation of current distribution in the case of one line-to-ground fault and study the security of human from the viewpoint of both step voltage and contact voltage. We will also clarify that we can lower the contact voltage by grounding mutually insulated inner box and outer box separately. Then we will propose the improved grounding method.

  16. A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Swai

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

  17. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). Conclusion: this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged. PMID:27463107

  18. 公安物联网标准体系研究%Research on Standard System of IoT in Public Security Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐前进; 邵杰; 吴晶

    2011-01-01

    为了解决公安物联网在起步之初标准规范缺乏的问题,通过文献查阅、实地考察、专家咨询、总结归纳等手段,并综合运用了普查法、归纳法、类比法、案例分析等方法,在对公安物联网标准体系的特点和范畴进行分析的基础上,提出了公安物联网标准体系构建的总体目标、原则和体系框架需求,给出了构建基于6个分体系的标准体系框架,同时指出了当前公安物联网标准化工作的重点。%The Internet of Things (loT) in the field of public security has just been at an early stage, and which is lack of standard specification. Based on the specific application of IoT in the field of public security, and by means of referring to literature, reviewing on the spot, and consulting related experts, the characteristics and requirement of stan- dard system of IoT in the public security application are analyzed, the scope of the loT in public security application is proposed, and the overall goals and principle of construction of standard system of lot in public security applications are put forward. The structure of the standard system which is divided into 6 subsystems is provided, and the important parts of current standardization work for loT in the field of public security are proposed.

  19. 78 FR 33882 - Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Trading June 3, 2013. 3CI Complete Compliance Corp. AHPC Holdings, Inc. American Utilicraft Corp. Austin... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed companies. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading...

  20. 论因特网与公安网条件下公安院校教育信息资源共享%Discussion on Internet and Education Information Resources Sharing in Public Security Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the public security education information resources sharing is a formidable task .On how public security education uses the advanced Internet and public security network to realize public security education information resource sharing issues ,this paper has made preliminary discus-sions .%实现公安教育信息资源共享是一项艰巨的任务。文章就公安教育如何利用发达的互联网和公安网,实现公安教育信息资源共享问题,进行了初步探讨。

  1. Definition and Standardization Construction of the Public Security Law Enforcement Behavior%论公安执法行为之界定与规范化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾方舟

    2016-01-01

    完善执法权力运行机制作为公安改革的七大任务之一,在基层公安工作中占据执牛耳之地位。但是实践中对公安执法行为的界定并不清晰,尤其是个人行为和公务行为、行政管理行为和刑事侦查行为的区分争议较大。通过系统的规范化建设,公安执法行为必将立足于真正的人权保障与社会正义。%We will improve the mechanism of law enforcement power operation as one of the seven tasks of public security re-form,ranking of the best player in the grass-roots public security work. But the practice of public security law enforcement ac-tion definition is not clear. Especially the distinction between the individual behavior and public behavior and the one between the administrative behavior and criminal investigation behavior are controversial. Through the standardization of the system con-struction,the public security law enforcement activities will be based on the real human rights and social justice.

  2. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international...

  3. Secure Application-Aware Service Differentiation in Public Area Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisong Shi; Sharun Santhosh; Hanping Lufei

    2005-01-01

    We are witnessing the increasing demand for pervasive Internet access from public area wireless networks (PAWNs). As their popularity grows, the inherent untrusted nature of public places and the diverse service requirements of end users are two key issues that need to be addressed. We have proposed two approaches to address these issues. First,the Home-based Authentication Protocol (HAP) that provides a framework by which to establish trust between a nomadic client and a service provider using a trusted third party (home). Second, we argue that the best-effort-based service model provided by many access points is not enough to satisfy the end user fairness and to maximize the wireless link utilization for a diverse user population. We have proposed an application-aware service differentiation (AASD) mechanism that takes both application semantics and user requirements into consideration. Our analysis of this framework shows several fruitful results. The total authentication latency increases with the number of clients but at a rate that is much less than linear increasing latency. Also, in comparison with two other bandwidth allocation approaches, the best effort and static access control, our proposed application-aware service differentiation method, outperforms them in terms of the client fairness and wireless bandwidth utilization.

  4. Securities Margin Trading's Impact on Stock Prices---Based on Empirical Evidence of Shanghai A-share Index%融资融券对股价的影响--基于沪市A股的经验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱民武

    2014-01-01

    文章基于2010年3月31日至2012年底沪市A股数据和融资融券余额交易数据,通过建立误差修正模型,利用协整检验和Granger因果检验的计量方法研究沪市A股指数和融资融券交易余额之间的关系,实证检验融资融券交易的推行对于沪市A股指数的影响,结果表明:融资融券余额和沪市A股指数之间存在长期稳定的协整关系,沪市A股指数是融资融券余额的Granger因,但融资融券余额不是沪市A股指数的Granger因,股价的变动会影响融资融券滞后一期和滞后二期的交易量,但融资融券的推行并没有加剧A股市场的波动。不过样本期内融资融券交易中融券卖空交易占比过少,融券卖空对冲作用的发挥受到卖空量的约束,应通过增加卖空标的、加快发展转融券等方式提升融券卖空交易量。%In this paper, the methods of cointegration and Granger causality test measurement are used to test the relationship between Shanghai A-share Index and securities margin trading balance based on the data of March 31, 2010 to December 31, 2012 to investigate the impact of the implementation of securities margin trading on Shanghai A-share Index. The empirical results show that there exists stable long-term cointegration relationship between margin balance and the Shanghai A-share Index. The Shanghai A-share Index is the Granger cause of securities margin trading balance, while the margin balance is not the Granger cause of Shanghai Composite Index. The change of stock price will influence the first-lagged and second-lagged margin trading volume, while the implementation of securities margin trading does not exacerbate the volatility of Shanghai share market. However, the volume of short-selling is too small to hedging the market effectively. We should increase the volume of short-selling by expanding the source of underlying stocks.

  5. Enhancing the credibility of public security law enforcement by using the network public relations platform%利用网络公关平台提升公安执法的公信力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓬

    2012-01-01

    随着互联网行业发展的外部环境不断优化,我国网民的规模持续扩大。但由于网络建设机制不健全,网络监管不到位,在网络上影响公安执法公信力的现象时有发生。为提升公安执法的公信力,应采取开通网络发布平台,调控舆论导向;应用网络公关树立公安正面执法形象;不断健全网络公关工作机制;提高舆论事件的研判能力,稳妥处置危机;利用网络公关提高群众对公安机关的满意度等措施。%With the Internet industry development's external environment continues to be optimized,the size of the Internet users in China continues to expand. Because of the inadequate network construction system and management, on the network the phenomenon that public security law enforcement credibility has been affected sometimes happens. To enhance the credibility of the public security law enforcement, it should be taken to open Web publishing platform to control public opinion guidance; apply network public relations to establish positive law enforcement of public security image;continuously improve network public relations mechanism;enhance the ability of analyzing public opinion events and properly handle crisis ; use network public relations measures to increase public satisfaction with public security organs etc.

  6. Information Hiding in CSS : A Secure Scheme Text-Steganography using Public Key Cryptosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Kabetta, Herman; Suyoto,

    2012-01-01

    In many recent years, the programming world has been introduced about a new programming language for designing websites, it is CSS that can be be used together with HTML to develop a web interface. And now, these two programming languages as if inseparably from each other. As a client-side scripting, CSS is visible by all users as the original script, but it can not be granted changed. Website is a tool of information disseminator throughout the world, this is certainly can be used to a secret communication by using CSS as a message hider. This paper proposed a new scheme using web tools like CSS for hiding informations. This is a secret communication mechanism using text steganography techniques that is embedded messages on CSS files and is further encrypted using RSA as a public key cryptographic algorithm.

  7. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  8. Reunderstanding on Public Security and Social Security---Discussion with Mr .Yu Bin%关于公共保障与社会保障几个问题的再认识--与余斌先生商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健夫; 陈丽莎

    2015-01-01

    Public security is closely linked with fiscal expenditure .It is a mean that the governments use to meet social needs by providing public goods when market mechanism fails to do so .Unlimitedly expanding the concept of public security and over‐extending its function will result in the crowding‐out effect to market’ s resources allocation function . As an important component of the public security system ,social security is a major innovation in the social management field to adapt to the change of industrialized social production mode .T he key value of social security is to make institutional arrange‐ments for social members ,especially for the vulnerable groups ,leading by the government .The current construction of social security system in China needs to adhere to the principle of universality ,as well as to prevent blind improvement of social security level beyond economic affordability .T hus ,the principle of moderation should be the basic principle for social security system .%公共保障与公共财政支出存在密切联系,它是由政府通过提供公共产品来满足市场机制无力解决的社会需求的手段。无限制地扩大公共保障的内涵,过度扩大公共保障的功能,会对市场机制配置资源的功能形成挤出效应。社会保障作为公共保障体系的重要组成部分,是适应工业化社会生产方式的变化在社会管理领域的一大创新。它所体现的价值在于由政府主导对社会成员尤其是弱势群体的基本生活条件进行制度性安排。我国目前社会保障制度的建设,也需要在坚持普遍性原则的同时,防止脱离经济承受能力,盲目提高社会保障水平。适度原则应该成为社会保障制度的基本原则。

  9. Reserves and trade jointly determine exposure to food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  10. Rapid immune colloidal gold strip for cetacean meat restraining illegal trade and consumption: implications for conservation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chieh; Chin, Li-Te; Chu, Chi-Shih; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of cetacean meat is geographically common and often of undetermined sustainability. Besides, it can expose humans to contaminants and zoonotic pathogens. The illegality of possessing cetacean meat was likely under-reported in some countries due to lack of attention paid by the officials although DNA analysis of market products helped to show such practices. We developed two monoclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides of myoglobin (Mb) for constructing a rapid immune colloidal gold strip. Only cetacean Mb is capable of binding to both antibodies and presents positive signal while the Mb from other animals can bind only 1 of the antibodies and presents negative result. The strip for cetacean meat would be an applicable and cost-effective test for field inspectors and even the general public. It contributes to increase the reporting capacity and coverage of illegal cetacean meat possession, which has implications for global cetacean conservation and public health.

  11. Secure verifier-based three-party authentication schemes without server public keys for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Hung; Lee, Tian-Fu

    2014-05-01

    Secure verified-based three-party authentication scheme for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems enables two users only store their verifiers computed from their actual password in authentication server's database. Then the authentication server can verify the users' verifiers and help them to exchange electronic medical records or electronic health records securely and conveniently. This investigation presents an efficient and secure verified-based three-party authentication scheme for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems. The proposed scheme does not use server's public keys and includes the key confirmation without extra numbers of messages and rounds. Compared to related verified-based approaches, the proposed scheme possesses higher security, has lower computational cost and fewer transmissions, and thus is suitable for the telecare medicine information systems.

  12. The global assimilation of information for action (GAIA) initiative: understanding the impact of climate change on national security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Shadrian B.; Paxton, Larry J.; Kaushiva, Alpana; Nix, Maegen; Swartz, William H.; Weiss, Michele B.; Schaefer, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Global Assimilation of Information for Action (GAIA) is a new initiative at The Johns Hopkins University connecting decision-makers with the research community. GAIA's focus is on the near- and long-term effects of weather, climate, and climate disruption on society and national security. The GAIA initiative, http://gaia.jhuapl.edu, makes use of collaborative tools to bring together decision makers to address focused problems in settings that range from symposia and workshops to specific socio-political-economic "games" to explore how decisions can be made and risks assessed. GAIA includes a suite of visualization tools, documentation, analyses, and social networking capabilities. Here, we will discuss the GAIA collaboration and recent GAIA projects, in particular the development of climate change national security gaming scenarios and studies in public health, and how the GAIA project can aide in assessing national security and public health concerns.

  13. URGENT DESTABILIZERS OF PUBLIC AND STATE SECURITY, TACTICS OF COUNTERACTION TO IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Marinkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At creation of civil society in any constitutional state there is a crime counteraction problem. In the modern Russian Federation safety problems from the negative social phenomena and processes force scientists, public agents and ordinary citizens to investigate constantly such determinants and the reasons (destabilizers of safety of society and the constitutional state, to eliminate their consequences. Such problems as are urgent now: increase in information on ways and consequences of violence in the mass media (MM, the Internet, computer games, traditional physical abuse. The number of questions and assessment by citizens of consequences of the conducted terrorist attacks and infringement of life of citizens causes. The accounting of the specified problems and versions of decisions in law-enforcement practice, will allow to promote as a result efficiency of prevention of offenses and crimes and will bring closer modern Russia to ideal model of the constitutional state with real civil society. In article the author designates a number of the legal and social destabilizers of safety existing now in the Russian society and the state, proposes the solution of their negative impact on society within tactics of crime control.

  14. 新公共管理理论对公安教育训练机制的借鉴%Reference of New Public Management Theory on the Public Security Education and Training Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳

    2014-01-01

    In the new period, public security education training work should draw lessons from the core concept of new public management theory, sets up the public security education and training in order to improve the management efficiency, improve the quality and level of public security education training, eventually to national and social development or individual development demand as the guidance to improve the public security police education training performance as the goal, to constantly promote innovation of police education training mechanism.%新时期下公安教育训练工作应借鉴新公共管理理论的核心理念,树立以提高公安教育训练管理效率,改善公安教育训练质量和水平,最终以国家、社会发展或民警个人需求发展为导向改善公安教育训练绩效为追求目标,不断推动公安教育训练工作机制的创新。

  15. [Homicide and public security indicator trends in the city of São Paulo between 1996 and 2008: a time-series ecological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Ruotti, Caren; Nery, Marcelo Batista; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the association between homicides and public security indicators in São Paulo between 1996 and 2008, after monitoring the unemployment rate and the proportion of youths in the population. A time-series ecological study for 1996 and 2008 was conducted with São Paulo as the unit of analysis. Dependent variable: number of deaths by homicide per year. Main independent variables: arrest-incarceration rate, access to firearms, police activity. Data analysis was conducted using Stata.IC 10.0 software. Simple and multivariate negative binomial regression models were created. Deaths by homicide and arrest-incarceration, as well as police activity were significantly associated in simple regression analysis. Access to firearms was not significantly associated to the reduction in the number of deaths by homicide (p>0,05). After adjustment, the associations with both the public security indicators were not significant. In São Paulo the role of public security indicators are less important as explanatory factors for a reduction in homicide rates, after adjustment for unemployment rate and a reduction in the proportion of youths. The results reinforce the importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors for a change in the public security scenario in São Paulo .

  16. Treasury Fiscal Service (formerly Bureau of Public Debt (BPD)) Annual Savings Bond/Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This match allows SSA to verify a Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipient's income and other resources are within the eligibility ranges. SSA will use the match...

  17. 77 FR 64533 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... transportation security. On November 24, 2004, TSA published the final rule in the Federal Register (69 FR 68720... subsequently amended the rule on January 25, 2007 (72 FR 3492). In order to conduct the security...

  18. 创建优秀基层公安团队的思考%Thinking of Creating the Outstanding Grass-roots Public Security Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建湘

    2013-01-01

    创建优秀基层公安团队就是公安机关基层所队通过合理利用每名警员的知识和技能协同工作、以解决问题和实现共同组织目标的活动。加强基层公安团队建设是社会分工和社会系统有序发展的必然要求,是组织立于不败之地的必然举措和提高团队工作效能的必然选择,也是加强公安工作的必然路径。永州市公安局在优秀团队创建中取得了显著成就,也还存在认识不足、举措不力、沟通不够、素质不高等诸多问题。加强优秀基层公安团队创建,应当明确基层公安团队组织目标、分析组织岗位、做好人员安排、加强团队管理、培育组织文化、完善规章制度。%Creating the outstanding grass-roots public security team is that the public security organs’grass-roots teams make reasonable use of every officer’s the knowledge and skills to work together, solve problems and achieve common organizational goals. It is inevitable requirement of the orderly development of social division of labor and social system that to strengthen the construction of grass-roots public security teams, necessary for organizations in an impregnable position, and the inevitable choice to improve team working efficiency. Also it is the inevitable path to strengthen the public security work. Yongzhou public security bureau has made significant achievements to create the excellent team, while there are problems for example inadequate understanding, lack of initiative, not enough communication, and not high quality. It is strengthening to create the grass-roots public security team that should clear the organization goals of grass-roots public security team, analyze organizational positions, arrange the personnel, strengthen the team management, cultivate organizational culture, and improve the rules and regulations.

  19. 17 CFR 4.32 - Trading on a Registered Derivatives Transaction Execution Facility for Non-Institutional Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading on a Registered... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Trading Advisors § 4.32 Trading on a Registered Derivatives Transaction...

  20. Trade Tokens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the pursuit of balanced trade with the U.S., China pours it on where it counts A week ahead of Chinese President Hu Jintao's first state visit to the United States, Beijing and Washington reached a series of agreements intended to ease the bilateral trade imbalance, including resuming trade in U.S. beef, increasing Chinese market access to U.S. medical devices, telecom services and express delivery, and cracking down on intellectual property rights infringements.

  1. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  2. Scientific Research and Evaluation in Public Security Colleges Based on Scientific Measurement%基于科学计量学的公安院校与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱营周

    2015-01-01

    Academic research of the public security colleges is still lack of the subject foundation, and has lower social influence. Scientific research foundation of public security colleges is weak, scientific research con?sciousness is not strong and the research level is low. Promoting the development of scientific research in public security colleges needs some evaluation mechanisms. Through scientific research evaluation, the scientific re?search achievements of public security colleges in a certain period of time are analyzed, we can find the close de?gree of the combination between scientific research and public security work and the transfer degree of scientific research achievements, which provide the basis for the supervision, forecast, adjustment and control of scientific research management activities and scientific research decision-making. In particular, it can provide some theo?retical support for the construction of discipline.%公安院校开展学术研究尚缺乏依赖的学科基础,社会影响力较低.通过科研评价,对一定时期内公安院校科研成果采用科学的方法进行分析,能够发现其科学研究与公安工作结合的紧密度及科研成果转化程度,为监督、预测、调控科研管理活动及科研决策提供依据,特别是对于学科建设能为其构建提供一定的理论支撑.

  3. On Career Shaping Education in Public Security Colleges%论公安院校学生的职业形塑教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海涛; 施昶佺

    2014-01-01

    Career shaping education is the core of public security higher education and the fundamental approach to cultivate qualified successors to the cause of public security. Problems such as skin-deep thinking and understanding, lower rates of graduates enrolling police, and the shortage of teachers are multiple difficulties facing public security education. By means of deepening our understanding, strengthening career education concept, and enhancing the comprehensive and professional qualities, we are expected to maintain sustainable development of public security higher education, respond to the new expectations of professional specialization in the construction of public security personnel and adapt to a new era development and social requirements from the pubic.%职业形塑教育是公安高等教育的核心内容,是公安院校培养合格公安事业接班人的基本途径。在面临思想认识不深入、毕业生入警率下降、师资短缺等多重困境的情况下,只有通过深化思想认识、强化职业观教育、加强职业素质和综合素质等途径,不断加强公安院校学生的职业形塑教育,才能完成公安高等教育可持续发展的新任务,才能回应公安人才队伍建设职业化专业化的新期待,才能顺应时代发展和社会公众对公安工作的新要求。

  4. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  5. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  6. Comparison Analysis of Public Security Professional and Non Public Security Professional Students'Physique in Guangxi Police Officer College%广西警官高等专科学校公安专业与非公安专业大学生体质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湛海

    2015-01-01

    Using the mathematical statistics method, this paper makes a comparison analysis of the core element of the public security professional and non public security professional freshmen's physical health in Guangxi police officer college, aimed at providing the reference data for function departments and the school making physical fitness test development plan.Results show that the public security professional students constitution is better than that of the non public security professional students, which reflect the proactive and important significance of interview and physical fitness test of registering for examination for the public security major.%对比广西警官高等专科学校公安专业与非公安专业高考入学大一新生的体质健康的核心因素。对收集的数据进行统计学处理,得到广西警官高等专科学校公安类专业学生体质优于非公安专业学生体质,反映了报考公安类专业通过学校组织的面试、体能测试、体检具有前瞻性和重要意义。

  7. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  9. 17 CFR 155.3 - Trading standards for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for futures commission merchants. 155.3 Section 155.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.3 Trading standards for futures commission merchants. (a) Each...

  10. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and national sovereignty: an appraisal of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa; Patrick C Osode

    2014-01-01

    Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and tr...

  11. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  12. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this instr

  13. 78 FR 76377 - Makism3D Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Makism3D Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 13, 2013. It appears to the Securities and... trading in the securities of Makism3D Corp. (``Makism3D'') because of concerns regarding the accuracy and... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  14. 17 CFR 242.302 - Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative trading systems. 242.302 Section 242.302 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.302 Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems. To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(8) of § 242.301,...

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such...

  16. 77 FR 26796 - HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION HydroGenetics, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and... interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of HydroGenetics. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading...

  17. 78 FR 65744 - Newtech Resources Ltd., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Newtech Resources Ltd., Order of Suspension of Trading October 21, 2013. It appears to the... require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of...

  18. 77 FR 58424 - Enwin Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Enwin Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading September 18, 2012. It appears to the... require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of...

  19. The Imperative Information Security Management System Measures In the Public Sectors of Ghana. A Case Study of the Ghana Audit Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Ing Edward Opoku-Mensah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The essence of information usage in the public sectors of Ghana is very important as these sectors usually keep information about citizens as well as their clients. It is important that measures and tools are put in place to manage such information and ensure its security. The researchers investigated the various security breaches and recommended measures to overcome or manage the breaches. A survey was carried out on Ghana Audit Service using purposive sampling for sampling various stake holders involved in the audit sector. The results were analysed using the statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences and presented in tables and figures and the necessary parameters discussed.

  20. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...... and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...

  1. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  2. A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir:a cause of public health concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swai ES; Schoonman L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ≥3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods: Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results: Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospirahardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

  3. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of this section: (1) Opening price means the price at which a security opened for trading, or a price that fairly reflects the price at which a security opened for trading, during the regular trading..., then opening price shall mean the price at which a security opened for trading, or a price that fairly...

  4. A Study on the Innovation Awareness of Public Security Journal Editors%公安学报编辑意识创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静

    2015-01-01

    Public security journals refer to the journals in public security colleges .In recent ten years , pub-lic security journals develop fast with the development of public security higher education and police colleges .Vice versa, the development of public security journals also accelerates the development of relevant public security dis -ciplines .With the development of the two aspects , journal editors need to have remarkable innovation awareness . The basic awareness of editors includes political awareness , confidential awareness , service awareness , regulation awareness, etc.At the age of big data, journal editors also have to face many challenges and they must have the innovation awareness by reinforcing planning awareness , digital publishing awareness and legal awareness to em-brace the age of big data .%公安学报是全国公安高等院校学报的简称。几十年来,公安学报随着我国公安高等教育、公安院校的发展而在不断地成长壮大,而公安学报的成长也反过来促进了公安学科建设的发展,两者相生相成、相互促进。两相成长的过程中,学报编辑具有出色的编辑意识是不可或缺的条件之一。公安学报的基本意识有政治意识、保密意识、服务意识、规范意识等,在大数据时代,编辑意识也受到多重挑战,必须不断进行创新,强化策划意识,加强数据出版意识,重视法律意识,积极迎接大数据时代的到来。

  5. 试论公安政策绩效评估的价值%Initial Comment on the Value of Public Security Policy Effectiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆锋; 杨鹏

    2012-01-01

    在我国社会转型期,日益复杂的社会公安形势对公安政策绩效提出了越来越高的要求。科学合理的公安政策是公安政策绩效的前提和保障,公安政策绩效取决于其制定与执行绩效。由于其制定与执行无需"市场检验",故只能通过评估获取其绩效信息。本质而言,对公安政策进行评估意味着对公安权力机关内部利益的一种分配,即符合绩效标准的则会获得肯定与奖励;反之则不能获得肯定与奖励。因此,通过分析公安政策的形成过程及相关影响主体或因素,识别出促进或抑制公安政策绩效的诸多因素,并借助评估在客观上迫使公安政策主体追求公安利益的均衡,以及公安政策制定与执行的经济、效率和效益,此为公安政策绩效评估的价值之所在。%In the transitional stage of our society,increasingly complicated social situation has higher demand on public security policy effectiveness.The scientific and rational public security policies are a requisite and guarantee of their effectiveness,which depends much on the making and implementation.Because the making and implementation are not tested by market,related information can be obtained only by assessment.In nature,the assessment of public security policies means the redistribution of the interests of police organs,this is to say,any that conforms to the assessment standards may be praised and awarded,conversely,will not.Therefore,by analyzing the process of the formation,related effects or factors,we can identify the elements that can promote or curb their effectiveness,use the evaluation results to enable the main part of public security policies to balance public security interests and seek for the efficiency and effectiveness in implementation.That is the essence of the value of the public security policies.

  6. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  7. Process Setting of Guiding Public Opinion on Micro-blog Run by Public Security Organs%公安微博舆论引导中的议程设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲青

    2011-01-01

    作为当前政务微博的主流,公安微博已成为信息公开的便捷平台和网络协助办案的重要工具。公安机关借助公安微薄发布星系、提供服务、获取线索、发布案件进展等工作,并针对负面涉警舆情进行舆论引导。%As an essential part of micro-blog run by government administration, microblog of public security organs has become an important tool to convey information and investigate crimes. With a micro-blog, public security organs can public information, offer ser

  8. Research on Income Declaration Management of Public Rental Housing Security Objects%公租房保障对象收入申报管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志朋; 张增国; 崔立志

    2016-01-01

    For the loss of funds for public rental housing,the paper establishes the theoretical analysis framework of income declaration compliance of public rental housing security objects based on three scenarios named fixed rent,mixed rent and ratio rent by drawing lessons from A-S model,discusses the influence of improving sampling rate,increasing penalties,improving the incentives and increasing income on income declaration compliance of public rental housing security objects. Finally,proposes suggestions for improving the income declaration mechanism of public rental housing security objects.%针对公租房租金流失问题,借鉴A-S模型分析思路,构建基于固定租金、比例租金和混合租金三种情景的公租房保障对象收入申报遵从理论分析框架,探讨提高抽查率、加大惩罚力度、提高奖励力度和增加收入等对保障对象的收入申报遵从行为的影响;最后,提出完善公租房保障对象收入申报机制的建议。

  9. 15 CFR 2008.18 - Information Security Oversight Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information Security Oversight Committee. 2008.18 Section 2008.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  10. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  11. 基于熵权-离差聚类法的城市公共安全舆情评估%Public Opinion Assesment about Urban Public Security Based on Entropy Weight-deviation and Clustering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆民; 王海燕; 吴春梅; 吴士亮

    2012-01-01

    Taking Tianya community forum as an example, public opinion about urban public security was evaluated for promoting constructing safe and sound cities and communities. Based on community security index, the security opinion data for five big cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing and Guangzhou were mined from January 2010 to May 2012 by LocoySpider. The weight values of the security opinion were determined by the entropy weight method and maximizing deviations method and a multi-attribute decision model was built. Urban public security opinion was evaluated using a ward system clustering. The results show that the rankings of the five cities by opinion index of the urban public security are: Shanghai, Chongqing, Beijing, Guangzhou,and Tianjin. Obvious differences exist among the urban public security opinion indexes of the five cities.%为了提高我国平安城市和安全社区建设水平,以天涯社区论坛为例,评估我国城市公共安全舆情.基于安全社区指标体系,采用火车头采集器对北京、天津、上海、重庆和广州5个城市2010年1月-2012年5月的公共安全舆情数据进行挖掘,采用熵权法和离差最大化法确定安全舆情指标的权重值,建立城市公共安全舆情评价的多属性决策模型.利用ward系统聚类法对城市公共安全舆情进行分类评价.计算结果表明,城市公共安全舆情指数的排序依次为上海、重庆、北京、广州、天津.这5个城市的公共安全舆情指数存在明显差异.

  12. 78 FR 30319 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... United States; (2) the flight crew list on a flight-by-flight basis; (3) passenger information on a... provide this information via electronic means. Foreign air carriers with limited electronic systems may... Collection of Information: Security Programs for Foreign Air Carriers AGENCY: Transportation Security...

  13. Non-state security governances and the implications for local-level citizenship in Danish semi-public city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Søgaard

    in Denmark I explore how local non-state notions of ´safety´, ´insecurity´, and ´intimidating categories of persons´ are central to and embodied in security guards surveillance and governing practices. In the first part I outline recent empirical changes in the field of security provision - most noteworthy......Security is both in academic and popular discourses often depicted as the opposition to violence, fear of violence and insecurity in general. In this paper I intent to focus on the politics of as well as the social implications of security governance - that is governing and surveillance practices...... originating in the state as they are related to commercial imperatives and local-level demarcation of presumed affluent and flawed consumers. In the last part I discuss how commercial security governance has significant local-level implications for conceptions of citizenship in an urban context, and how...

  14. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  15. On the Mediation of Public Security Organs in Dealing with Civil Disputes%论公安机关对民事纠纷的调处

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凌

    2011-01-01

    公安调解是我国一种重要形式的行政调解,然而,它并非是对民事争议的调解,而是以调解为形式的行政行为。根据我国现行法律,公安机关对民事纠纷并无调解权,其主持下当事人达成的调解协议也无强制执行力,这种状况造成了实践中的诸多难题。公安机关应拥有对民事纠纷的法定调解权,并通过调解协议公证或法院备案的方式将其主持下产生调解协议赋予强制执行效力,并在此基础上确认公安调解的人员、编制、经费、程序等配套措施。%Public security mediation is a major form of administrative mediation.However,it is not a kind of mediation dealing with civil disputes but a kind of administrative behavior in the form of mediation.According to the current law in China,public security organs have no authority to mediate civil disputes.The agreement of the parties reached with the help of public security organs has no enforceability,which leads to many problems in practice.The present writer thinks that public security organs shall be endowed with the authority of mediation in dealing with civil disputes and the relevant measures shall be determined.

  16. An Analysis of Quality Structure of Public Security Intelligence Personnel%公安情报人员素质构成探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕; 陈建琦

    2013-01-01

    公安情报队伍建设是当前“DQB”体系建设的重要课题,研究公安情报人员素质构成具有特殊意义。文章在参考国外情报人员素质构成的基础上认为:首先,根据不同的岗位,公安情报人员可以划分为不同类别;其次,公安情报人员素质主要涵盖复合知识、能力和态度三要素,三者紧密联系,形成一个有机的、互动发展的整体结构;最后,结合实际,对基层情报员、战术情报员和战略情报员应该具备的素质内容进行了探讨。%The public security intelligence team construction is an important subject of the DBQ system construction. It is especially significant to study quality structure of public security intelligence personnel. On the basis of referring to the quality structure of foreign intelligence personnel, this article believes:firstly, according to different positions, the public security intelligence personnel can be divided into different categories; secondly, the quality of public security intelligence personnel mainly covers three elements----compound knowledge, abilities and attitudes---linking closely and forming an organic and interactive development structure;finally, combined with the fact, this article discusses the grassroots intelligencers, tactical intelligencers, and strategic intelligencers should have the quality.

  17. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  18. The Standardization Construction of AIDS Information Management in Public Security Organs%公安机关艾滋病信息管理的制度建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马绍红

    2011-01-01

    From the angle of current legislation and practice, the standardization construction of AIDS information management in public security organs are not regarded seriously, there are few specialized rules. The countermeasures are: 1. realize the significance of AIDS information management participated by public security organs; 2. adopt various ways to improve the standardization level of AIDS information management in public security organs constantly; 3. take effective measures to ensure the individual privacy of AIDS infected people.%从现行立法和实践情况看,公安机关艾滋病信息管理的规范化建设问题没有受到充分重视,专门性的规定不多。对策:1.充分认识到公安机关参与艾滋病信息管理的重要意义;2.采取多种手段不断提高公安机关管理艾滋病信息的规范化水平;3.采取有效措施保障艾滋病病毒感染者和艾滋病人的个人隐私权。

  19. Barriers and Potential Improvements for Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in China: A Qualitative Study from Perspectives of Both Health and Public Security Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Chen, Xi; Chow, Eric P F; Jing, Jun; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acceptability, the barriers to the implementation of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) and the potential improvement strategies in China from the perspectives of governmental health and public security officials. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment of participants who had been involved in NSPs implementation. Semi-Structured individual interviews were conducted in Mandarin to address three aspects of NSPs: (1) participants' attitudes towards NSPs, (2) participants' opinions on the effectiveness and barriers of NSPs, and (3) suggestions for improving the program. Content analysis was used to analyse the translated interview data. A total of 68 participants from 12 Hunan counties were interviewed (34 from each of the Bureau of Health and the Narcotic Division). Both groups recognised the importance and effectiveness of NSPs in HIV prevention, but public security officials regarded NSPs as a temporary intervention in place of punitive measures. Most health officials (32/34) regarded the main barriers to its implementation as administrative and structural, whereas participants from Narcotics Division (n=24) questioned the legitimacy of NSPs and concerned about the poor management of drug users' risk behaviours. Close cooperation between the health and public security sectors, engagement of the drug user community and an enabling policy environment were reportedly to be critical for potential improvements of NSPs in China. Misconceptions about NSPs encourage drug users' addictive behaviour, and an unclear leadership and insufficient support de-motivate the participants from the Bureau of Health and the Narcotics Division to actively support the program implementation.

  20. Nonsynchronous Trading Model and Return Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-mao; LI Chu-lin; ZHANG Jun

    2002-01-01

    Nonsynchronous trading is one of the hot issues in financial high-frequency data processing.This paper extends the nonsynchronous trading model studied in [1] and [2] for the financial security, and considers the moment functions of the observable return series for the extended model. At last, the estimators of parameters are obtained.

  1. 12 CFR 335.241 - Unlisted trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unlisted trading. 335.241 Section 335.241 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.241 Unlisted trading. The provisions of the applicable...

  2. 新媒体视角下高校工会宣传工作的创新探索%Research on the Publicity of Trade Unions in University from the Perspective of New Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公元

    2016-01-01

    The publicity of trade unions in university is facing challenges as well as opportunities with the fast development and popularization of new media that features in fast transmis-sion, high involvement and interactivity, etc. This paper attempts to research the publicity of trade unions in university from the perspective of new media.%新媒体具有传播速度快、参与度高、互动性强等特点,随着其快速发展和广泛普及,给高校工会宣传工作带来挑战的同时,也带来了机遇。本文将从新媒体视角出发,探索高校工会如何利用新媒体创新宣传工作。

  3. New Future for Stock Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ For three years Wang Liangguang,an cxperienced stock investor,waited patiently for the trading of stock index futures.And now,that day has arrived-stock index futures will soon be launched on Chinese financial market.The China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) may officially launch stock index futures as soon as May.

  4. 证券交易复杂事件处理策略管理服务模块的设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURITIES TRADING COMPLEX EVENT PROCESSING STRATEGY MANAGEMENT SERVICE MODULE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋波; 陈智; 苏厚勤

    2015-01-01

    Complex event processing is an important implementation algorithm of quantitative trading of securities,and has been widely applied in financial markets.Aiming at the efficiency problem of complex event processing pattern in traditional securities trading,in this paper we present a new design scheme for strategy management services module.The scheme encapsulates the standard data transmission interface to facilitate the transmission of strategy and control module data,provides system management methods according to three different levels of strategy,customers and examples,and abstracts a part of the functional code of the strategy and the code in regard to periphery programs interaction to strategy management service module,in addition eliminates the coupling between the algorithm strategy module and the control module as well.Experimental results show that the scheme proposed in this paper and its practice can effectively reduce the bandwidth utilisation,improve system resource utilisation,and can effectively improve the concurrent processing speed.%复杂事件处理是证券量化交易的一种重要的实现算法,在金融市场应用广泛。针对传统证券交易中复杂事件处理模式的效率问题,提出一种新的策略管理服务模块的设计方案。该方案封装标准的数据传输接口便于策略与控制模块的数据传输,提供按照策略、客户和实例三个不同层次的系统管理方法,以及将策略的部分功能代码及与外围程序交互的代码抽象到策略管理服务模块中,去除了算法策略模块和控制模块的耦合。实验结果表明,所提出和实践的方案可以有效降低带宽的使用率、提高系统资源利用率,并能有效提高并发处理速度。

  5. T +1 Trading System Reform in China's Securities Market%试析中国证券市场 T +1交易制度改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志伟

    2015-01-01

    中国证券市场曾经实行过 T +0交易制度,由于存在过度投机 T +0被取消,进而推出了 T +1交易制度。2010年之后,股指期货等金融衍生产品的推出标志着中国证券改革正走向纵深,T +1交易制度已经不再适应中国资本市场的重大变化,特别是光大“8·16”乌龙事件中,机构利用股指期货和 ETF 变相 T +0交易规避风险,市场的公平与效率亟待维护和提升。为此,本文提出在沪深300成分股中率先实行 T +0制度的渐次改革原则及其三大理由。%In the early 20th century,China's stock market practiced T +0 trading system once.Due to the presence of excessive speculation,T +0 is canceled and the T +1 trading system has been introduced.After the year of 2010,the launching of stock index futures and other financial derivatives marks a positive trend of China's securities reform in depth. However,T +1 trading system no longer meets the major changes in China's capital market,especially the Everbright “8· 16”amusing incident,in which the agencies use stock index futures and ETF to make disguised T +0 transactions to avoid the risk,so the fairness and efficiency of market urgently need to maintain and upgrade.Therefore,the paper puts forward the gradually advancing principle of first implementation of T +0 system in Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 constituent stocks and three major necessities.

  6. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  7. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  8. 75 FR 52961 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... November 24, 2004, TSA published the final rule in the Federal Register (69 FR 68720), codified at 49 CFR... rule on January 25, 2007 (72 FR 3492). In order to conduct the security threat assessment, States...

  9. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010: (1 the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2 the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3 the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  10. 78 FR 70090 - Request for Public Comments on the UN Committee on World Food Security Principles for Responsible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    .... The United States is a member of the CFS and involved in the negotiation of the principles. The draft... Representative, Office of Global Food Security, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-10-P ...

  11. 公安高职院校治安管理专业实践教学体系研究%The Research of Practical Teaching System of Security Management Major in Public Security Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵培

    2015-01-01

    公安高职院校立足于职位能力需求和职业特点 ,培养政治素质高、实战能力强的应用型人才.实践教学是实现理论教学与实践工作有效结合的重要途径 ,是提高学生职业能力的有效保障 ,是公安高等职业教育的重要环节.因此 ,要通过分析公安高职院校实践教学现状及问题 ,在师资队伍建设、教学内容、教学环境、教学实施、评价机制等方面研究构建实践教学体系的途径.%The public security vocational colleges try to cultivate applied talents of high political quality and practical ability based on the position requirements and professional characteristics , .Prac-tice teaching is to realize the important way to effectively combine the theoretical teaching and practice work ,is to improve the effective guarantee the students' vocational ability ,is an important link in high-er vocational education of public security .Therefore ,by analyzing the current situation and problems of public security practice teaching in higher vocational colleges ,the construction of teachers team ,teach-ing content ,teaching environment ,teaching implementation ,and evaluation mechanism research ways to construct the practice teaching system .

  12. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered system includes multiple users, one decode-and-forward relay, one destination, and an eavesdropper. In the analysis, the RF/FSO channels follow Nakagami-m/Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively, with pointing errors on the FSO link. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio regime to get more insights on the system performance. Moreover, the obtained results are used to find the optimal transmission power in different turbulence conditions. The secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper, where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. The physical layer security performance is enhanced using cooperative jamming models, where new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. Another power allocation optimization problem is formulated to find the optimal transmission and jamming powers. The derived analytical formulas are supported by numerical results to clarify the main contributions of this paper.

  13. Study on public policy formulation model of food security based on public evaluation%公众评价下的食品安全公共政策制定模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 魏江慧

    2012-01-01

    Certain achievements have been made in strengthening food security public policy formulation in China.However,the existence of food security problems in recent years shows that the formulation and implementation of food security policy still have problems like policy without sustainable development,management disordered,and public valuation ignorance.Therefore,the establishment of food security public policy formulating model based on public valuation was proposed,which was a negotiating mechanism highlighted by four main policy formulation bodies,that was the public,pubic policy formulating institutions,governments' decision making institutions and public policy implementing institutions,and composed by four links,evaluative information gathering,evaluative results feedback,evaluative results implementation and evaluative results responding.The implementation of the model should be guaranteed by effectively examining and distinguishing and organizing public evaluation body,improving the scientific establishment of policy formulating institutions,effectively supervising and controlling policy decision making institutions and continually enhancing executive capacity of public policy implementing institutions.%我国在加强食品安全公共政策制定的过程中取得了一定的成绩,但是近年食品安全问题的不断出现,说明我国在食品安全政策的制定和实施上还存在着政策不具有可持续性、多头管理、忽视公众评价的作用等问题。因此,本文提出建立基于公众评价的食品安全公共政策制定模型,该模型由一个沟通机制,公众、公共政策制定机构,政府决策机构,公共政策实施部门四个政策制定主体,以及采集评价信息、反馈评价结果、运用评价结果、回应评价结果四个环节共同构成。该模型的实施需要有效地甄别与组织公众评价主体,提高政策制定机构建设的科学性,有效监管政策决策机构,并不断提升公

  14. 27 CFR 19.966 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 19.966 Section 19.966 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... and Security § 19.966 Security. Proprietors shall provide security adequate to deter the...

  15. C~#实现公安通信信息查询系统%Telecommunication information query system for public security developed with C~#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江韬; 冯慧霞

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and rapidity in providing telecommunication related information demanded by the public security with strengthened information security and simplified query process,the telecommunication information query system for public security is developed,which is based on the study of information query systems being employed currently,using C#language combined with Oracle database technology and aims at the query,saving and sending of messages automatically.This article gives key details about the system.%为了提高公安系统对通话业务相关信息查询的准确性、快速性,减轻技术人员劳动强度,强化查询信息的安全性,简化查询流程,在总结分析目前信息查询现状后,运用C#语言、结合Oracle数据库技术,开发了公安通信信息查询系统,实现了自动查询、保存、发送查询信息。

  16. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements... Agreements. OMB Number: 1651-0117. Form Number: None. Abstract: Free trade agreements are established to... further cooperation to expand and enhance benefits of the agreement. Free trade agreements establish free...

  17. 19 CFR 148.53 - Exemption for tools of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tools of trade. (a) Exemption. Professional books, implements, instruments, or tools of trade... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for tools of trade. 148.53 Section 148.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...

  18. 基金“拥挤交易”对 A 股股价泡沫的影响研究%Study on the Influence of the Crowding Trade of Securities Investment Funds on Stock Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 扈文秀; 章伟果

    2015-01-01

    随着基金数量的不断增加,多家基金重仓一只股票所呈现的“拥挤交易”现象日渐明显。本文运用面板数据模型,对基金“拥挤交易”与A股股价泡沫之间的关系进行考察。结果表明,当公司超过6只基金重仓持股时,基金拥挤交易会对股价泡沫形成促进作用;当小于6只基金重仓持股时,这一关系则不显著。即:基金拥挤交易需要在“拥挤”到一定程度后才会促进股价泡沫膨胀。因此,管理层应高度重视6家以上基金重仓持股的股票,这类股票往往会形成较大的泡沫,同时也存在较大的崩溃风险。另外,管理层还应审慎研究政策出台时可能带来的预期,最大限度的避免基金经理产生一致的信念和一致行动,降低基金拥挤交易现象的发生。%With the number of Securities Investment Funds increasing, the phenomenon of crowding trade that many funds heavily hold the same stocks at the same time is obvious.This paper collects the panel data to ana-lyse the relationship between the crowding trade of funds and stock bubble.The result shows that when more than six funds hold the stock, the crowding trade will promote bubble formation.On the contrary, when the stock hold by less than six funds, the relationships between the above mentioned is not obvious.This means that the rela-tionship needs to meet the certain conditions.Therefore, management should pay great attention to the stock held by more than six funds, for such stocks tend to form larger bubbles, and at the same time there is a greater risk of collapse.In addition, management should also be careful about the market expectations by the policy before it is approved so as to prevent fund managers from having the same belief and actions whenever possible, in order to reduce the fund crowded trade phenomenon.

  19. 36 CFR 13.1504 - Customary trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customary trade. 13.1504 Section 13.1504 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kobuk Valley National Park § 13.1504 Customary trade. In addition to the exchange of furs for...

  20. 公安机关居民安全感调查中存在的问题与对策%Problems and Solutions concerning Residents'Sense of Security Investigation Conducted by the Public Security Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小平

    2014-01-01

    As a polling method , residents'sense of security investigation is a quantitative and qualitative re-search methods for recording fear feeling of crime victimization .Carried out successfully , residents'sense of security investigation is conducive to the police decision-making concerning "police for the people"and has realistic mean-ings in making the police a service-oriented one and following the mass line .But the current residents security in-vestigation still faces many problems such as lack of knowledge and experience , work motivation , professionals and effective supervision, which seriously affected the residents'sense of security.Therefore, the public security should pay attention to talent training and the monitoring mechanism in order to slove those main problems in the residents'sense of security .%在社情民意调查手段中,居民安全感调查是利用定量和定性相结合的方法进行犯罪受害恐惧心理感受的调查研究工作。居民安全感调查有助于公安机关收集民意,使决策资源“从群众中来”,打造服务型公安机关,更好地执行群众路线。目前在居民安全感调查中仍然存在认识不清、重视不够、人才缺乏、经验不足和监控不力等方面的问题,严重影响了居民安全感。针对存在的主要问题,公安机关应从人才培养、健全监控机制等方面采取有效对策加以解决。

  1. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day...

  2. Privatising Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mindova-Docheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.

  3. 提升铁路线路治安工作质量的思考%Reflections on Improving the Quality of the Public Security on Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾群

    2012-01-01

    The public security on railway plays an important role in social economic development. At the "Oct. 17th" conference for all railway police leading cadres, the Party committee of the department puts forward that the activity of creating the green channel of railway security should be one of the "Two Tasks" and "Five Brands" and should be promoted with all efforts. Through the reflections on the problems and reasons about the daily security on the "two railroads" including Huainan and Fuyang - Huainan which are administered by Huainan railway police station of Bengbu railway division of public security, this paper, with the purpose of improving the quality of the public security on railway, expounds from five aspects: to improve patrol and prevention mechanism, to enhance daily supervision, to promote propaganda effect, to manage hidden perils, and to propel comprehensive treatment.%铁路线路治安稳定对社会经济发展起着重要作用。在全路公安领导干部“10·17”会议上,部局党组专门提出要将创建线路治安绿色通道活动作为“两大任务”和“五大品牌”之一,全力打造推进。通过对蚌埠铁路公安处淮南车站派出所管内“二通道”淮南、阜淮等线路在日常治安防控中存在的问题及原因反思剖析,围绕如何进一步提升线路治安防控,从改进巡防机制、加强日常督导、提升宣传实效、狠抓隐患整治、推动综合治理等五个方面进行了阐述。

  4. How to Maintain Our Nation's trade and Investment Security in Africa and the Middle East in Legal Framework%如何在法律框架下维护中国在非洲、中东地区的贸易投资安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁曦月

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, increasingly close economic and trade relations have been built between China and Africa, the countries of the Middle East, and in the past three years, bilateral trade volume is close to or more than one hundred billion U.S. dollars. However, there is unrest in the political situation of Africa and the Middle East, and the legal protection is not perfect, so Chinese trade and investment activities with them have shown some unstable characteristics, facing with high investment risk and not optimistic trade security environ- ment. Therefore, how to maintain the trade and investment security of Chinese enterprises in Africa and the Middle East in legal framework, to expand bilateral trade space, will be the main contents of this paper.%近年来,中国和非洲、中东地区国家的经贸往来日益密切,在过去3年里,中国与非洲、中东地区的经贸总额都接近或超过千亿美元。但由于非洲、中东地区国家政局时有动荡,有关贸易方面的法律保障不健全,所以中国与之进行的贸易投资活动呈现出不稳定特征,且面临较高的投资风险和不容乐观的贸易安全环境。因此,探讨如何在法律框架下维护中国企业在非洲、中东地区的贸易投资安全,以拓展双方的贸易空间,具有重要意义。

  5. 公安机关参与行政诉讼应注意的问题%Attentive Problems on Public Security Organs Participating in Administrative Proceedings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力燕

    2012-01-01

      行政诉讼所确立保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益不受侵犯的目的,与公安机关的根本宗旨是完全一致的。为了确保公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,公安行政行为必须接受人民法院的监督。熟悉和掌握行政诉讼规则对于我们依法办案、文明办案,提高办案效率和质量非常必要。本人认为,公安机关在收到人民法院送达的起诉状副本后,应从程序上充分行使诉讼权,从实体上准确把握规定,做透庭审过程细节三方面做好功课,为诉讼打下良好的基础%  Administrative proceedings are established to protect the legitimate rights of citizens, legal persons and other organizations from infringement, which is entirely in line with the basic aim of the public security organs. In order to ensure their legitimate rights, public security administrative acts must be under the supervision of the People's Court. It’s necessary to grasp and be familiar with the rules of administrative proceedings in handling cases by law and civilization, and improving the efficiency and quality of handling cases. After receiving a copy of the bill of complaint, public security organs should pave the way for litigation from using litigation rights in procedures, exactly grasping regulations in entity and mastering details in the process of court trial.

  6. The integration and sharing of city public security organs data%城市公安机关数据整合与共享技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞华; 郑文

    2014-01-01

    随着金盾工程二期的深入推进,公安信息化进入大集中、高共享阶段。城市公安机关数据整合与共享应用成为亟待解决的问题。目前各项业务数据分散存放,造成信息孤岛,使数据协调困难,影响信息共享。本文针对这一难题,研究提出了城市公安机关数据整合与共享技术,经实战应用检验效果良好。推广这一技术对于促进数据整合与共享应用具有积极意义。%Advancing along with the development of golden shield project phase ii, the public security information entered into the phase of centralization, high share. City public security organs of data integration and sharing problem become a problem to be solved. At present the business data distributed deposition, resulting in information island, make data coordination dififculties, affect the information sharing. Is presented in this paper, aiming at this problem, the city public security organs interface technology, data integration and sharing have examined the practical application effect is good. To promote this technology can play a positive role to promote the application of data integration and sharing.

  7. 76 FR 72967 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... matters affecting civil aviation security. This meeting is open to the public, but participation is...

  8. Energy and the NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plourde, A.

    1993-05-01

    A review is presented of the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for the energy industry. This agreement expands the coverage accorded to energy in the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and is of limited significance with respect to Canada-US relations, but is quite important to these two countries' energy trade with Mexico. With respect to Canada-US trade, the most important departure from the FTA is that NAFTA tends to ensure a greater degree of respect for the terms of negotiated contracts, in particular by requiring the parties to make efforts to secure compliance with the national treatment provisions of the NAFTA by subfederal regulatory entities. Mexico's constitution severely restricts foreign participation in the activities of its energy industries, including basic petrochemicals. While NAFTA accomodates these restrictions, Canadian and US companies will have opportunities to bid on contracts for goods and services and construction in the Mexican energy sector on an equal footing with their Mexican counterparts. NAFTA also provides expanded opportunities for foreign investment and control in electricity generation for own-use, cogeneration and public service purposes. The parties are explicitly allowed to extend activity incentives to their respective oil and gas industries. 9 refs.

  9. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  10. 17 CFR 1.19 - Prohibited trading in certain “puts” and “calls”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited trading in certain âputsâ and âcallsâ. 1.19 Section 1.19 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Prohibited Trading in Commodity Options § 1...

  11. 78 FR 65744 - High End Ventures, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... COMMISSION High End Ventures, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading October 21, 2013. It appears to the... investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the...

  12. 78 FR 33142 - Lanbo Financial Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Lanbo Financial Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 30, 2013. It appears to the... of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  13. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate...

  14. 17 CFR 242.303 - Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.303 Section 242.303 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.303 Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(9)...

  15. 77 FR 10004 - Nikron Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... COMMISSION Nikron Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 16, 2012. It appears to the... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading...

  16. 17 CFR 200.19a - Director of the Division of Trading and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trading and Markets. 200.19a Section 200.19a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... General Organization § 200.19a Director of the Division of Trading and Markets. The Director of the Division of Trading and Markets is responsible to the Commission for the administration and execution...

  17. Data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  18. To Explore Managerial Issues and Their Implications on e-Government Deployment in the Public Sector: Lessons from Taiwan's Bureau of Foreign Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Paul T. Y.; Yen, David C.; Hung, Yu-Chung; Wang, Nana C. F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the experience of reconciling the strategic information system (IS) management with the radical transition of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure in Taiwan's Bureau of Foreign Trade (BOFT) between 1998 and 2003. This investigation will be beneficial for the implementation of IT projects, as…

  19. Public Perspectives of Mobile Phones' Effects on Healthcare Quality and Medical Data Security and Privacy: A 2-Year Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joshua E; Ancker, Jessica S

    2015-01-01

    Given growing interest in mobile phones for health management (mHealth), we surveyed consumer perceptions of mHealth in security, privacy, and healthcare quality using national random-digit-dial telephone surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, 48% thought that using a mobile phone to communicate data with a physician's electronic health record (EHR) would improve the quality of health care. By 2014, the proportion rose to 57% (p mobile phones than they were to endorse similar concerns with EHRs or health information exchange (HIE). Consumers increasingly believe that mHealth improves healthcare quality, but security and privacy concerns need to be addressed for quality improvement to be fully realized.

  20. Cyber Security:A Global Public Product?%网络安全:一种全球公共产品?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琳

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical presumption of global governance for cyber security is that cyber security functions as a kind of global public product. However, this presumption is in face of several crises of political legitimacy in the current structure of cyberspace, affecting the ability of the worldwide governance in cyber security. Nevertheless, from a practical and long-term perspective, the low-cost, virtual, transnational and other features of cyberspace fundamentally ask for a global effort in cyber governance.%网络安全作为全球公共产品的基本属性,是国际社会对网络安全进行全球治理的核心理论预设。然而,在当前的网络空间格局里,这一预设却面临着多种合法性危机,这影响了在全球范围内对网络安全进行治理的能力。不过从现实和长远来看,网络的低成本性、虚拟性、跨国性等特点在根本上决定了网络治理需要全球性的努力。

  1. Study on the Disposal Capacity of Public Crisis of Public Security Organs%公安机关加强公共危机处置能力建设问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明芳

    2014-01-01

    公安机关公共危机处置的效果很大程度上取决于公安队伍整体及其个体成员的能力和水平。应当加强外向沟通能力建设,其中包括加强与新闻媒体的沟通能力、加强与相关部门的沟通能力、加强与有关利益群体的沟通能力建设。除此外还应当进一步加强公安机关信息管控能力建设和危机控制能力建设。%The effect of public security organs in dealing with public crisis largely depends on the ability and level of police team and its individual members. The government should strengthen the outgoing communication ability construction, Including the construction of the capabilities of strengthening of communication with media, the ability of strengthen of communication with relevant departments, the ability of strengthen communicationwith related interest group. In addition, The government should also further strengthen the construction of the information management ability of public security organs and crisis control ability.

  2. Utilizing Current Commercial-off-the-Shelf Facial Recognition and Public Live Video Streaming to Enhance National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    It has full text search capabilities (e.g., bike gang Riverdale Maryland), as well as the ability to conduct more complicated search queries that...information on the terrorist watchlist and populate that information across all federal LE databases. As indicated in Figure 6, this time includes up to 10...Security Policy. Kenyon, H. (2010, August 24). Gates orders increased data sharing to protect military families . Government Computer News. Retrieved

  3. 新媒体时代公安机关构建警务公共关系的思考%Thoughts on the Establishment of the Police Public Relations by the Public Security Organizations in the New Media Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文佳

    2013-01-01

    In the environment of the new media age, the media and the social transformation in China present a spiral upward trend. This requires the public security organizations to learn and master professional skills con-stantly, to establish harmonious police public relations by using all kinds of platforms as a whole. Meanwhile, the public security organizations must understand the influence of the new media correctly and alert to step into mistak-en directions. For instance, we should avoid causing negative results because of inappropriate comments by negli-gence, avoid violation of law enforcement in the pursuit of superficial harmony and avoid depending on the new media extremely. In addition, the security of the exclusive account of the new media platform should be paid more attention to protect.%新媒体时代环境下,媒体与当前中国社会的转型升级呈螺旋上升趋势,这要求公安民警要不断学习掌握专业技能,统筹运用各平台以构建和谐警务公共关系,同时须正确认识新媒体的影响力,提防步入多种误区:如避免因疏忽出现不当言论,造成负面影响;避免为追求表面和谐而违规执法;避免走上过分依赖新媒体的极端。此外,还需注意保护新媒体平台的专属帐号安全。

  4. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  5. Public Security Management in the Big Data Environment%大数据环境下的社会公共安全治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志萍

    2016-01-01

    In order to adapt to the new social environment of big data, the mode of public security management should be transformed from the traditional remedial “treatment management” to “preventive management”. This new mode starts with the big data collection and manages public security by taking advantage of datum function, which ultimately helps put developed big- data-related strategies into action.%为适应大数据的新常态社会环境,社会公共安全治理模式由传统的事后补救的“治疗式管理”转向“预防式治理”。这一新模式的运作以大数据收集为起点,通过对其在公共安全治理过程中作用的挖掘,实现大数据参与治理的功能,并最终制定大数据策略付诸行动。

  6. Research of Public Security Organs' Promoting Social Management Innovation%公安机关推进社会管理创新初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 武晓红

    2012-01-01

    Public security organs,as important functional departments of social management,bear the important responsibility of enhancing the social vitality,maintaining social stability,and creating a favorable social environment for the economic and social development.The purpose of public security organs' promoting social management innovation is to realize fair and honest law enforcement,the source of power is innovation of concept,the outlet is innovation of mechanism,and the protection is team building.%公安机关作为社会管理的重要职能部门,承担着增强社会活力、维护社会稳定、为经济社会发展创造良好社会环境的重要职责。公安机关推动社会管理创新的目的是实现公正廉洁执法,源动力是理念创新,出路是机制创新,保障是队伍建设。

  7. 42 CFR 73.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security. 73.11 Section 73.11 Public Health PUBLIC... AND TOXINS § 73.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security plan. The security plan must be sufficient to safeguard...

  8. 公安机关加强社会管理创新的几点思考%Pondering over Reinforcing Social Management Innovations of Public Security Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗亮

    2012-01-01

    As an important part of the government, public security organs shoulder the responsibility of social management. To advance the innovations in social management is one of the requirements for public security organs to serve the healthy development of the economy and the society. It is essential for the building of a harmonious socialist society and the safeguard of the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of people. Besides, it is also essential for the building up of the Party' s governing capacity, the reinforcing of the Party' s ruling status and effectively performing the duty of social administration. The innovations in social management of public security organs should be based on people - oriented concept to safeguard equity and social justice and rule of law must be adhered to and implement the basic principle of rule of law. The purpose of social management is to promote social harmony by combining service for the community with prevention of crimes. To innovate social management, public security organs should improve social management, promote the participation of the public in social management. The following systems should be established or improved such as the system of dynamic management of migrant population, the quick response system of crises and emergencies, the system of crime prevention and public order management and the system of correct guidance of public opinions.%公安机关作为政府的重要组成部门,担负着重要的社会管理职能,积极推进社会管理创新,是服务经济社会健康发展的必然要求,是构建社会主义和谐社会的必然要求,是维护最广大人民根本利益的必然要求,是提高党的执政能力和巩固党的执政地位,有效履行政治和社会责任的必然要求。公安机关社会管理创新,必须树立以人为本的理念,保障公平正义,坚持依法治理,以服务和预防相结合,以增进社会和谐为目标。公安机

  9. FINANCING POLICIES OF CROATIAN PUBLICLY LISTED FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Grubisic Seba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a typical bank-based transition economy whose capital market has been primarily used for secondary trading purposes since its re-establishment in 1990s. Except for a couple of exceptions, public offers of shares and corporate bonds have been rather rate. Private offerings of shares and short-term debt have been more frequent. However, due to secondary debt market illiquidity, the debt issues are signed up and either held until maturity or renewal, or they are traded exclusively between the institutional investors.This paper provides evidence from the field on financing preferences of Croatian public companies regarding seasoned equity and corporate debt issuance. It questiones why public offerings of corporate securities in non-financial sector after initial, mostly mandatory shares’ listing have been rare and whether making decisions on securities’ offers depend on other financial instruments’ sufficiency, costs of issunace or previous experience of companies in collecting funds in the capital market.

  10. 17 CFR 16.01 - Trading volume, open contracts, prices, and critical dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading volume, open contracts... TRADING COMMISSION REPORTS BY REPORTING MARKETS § 16.01 Trading volume, open contracts, prices, and critical dates. (a) Trading volume and open contracts. Each reporting market shall record for each...

  11. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  12. A GARCH analysis of dark-pool trades

    OpenAIRE

    De Peretti, Philippe; Tapiero, Oren

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trade in dark-pools without publicly announcing trading orders, concerns regulators and market participants alike. This paper analyzes the information contribution of dark trades to the intraday volatility process. The analysis is conducted by performing a GARCH estimation framework where errors follow the generalized error distribution (GED) and two different proxies for dark trading activity are separately included in the volatility equation. Results indicate that dark trades...

  13. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  14. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  15. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  16. Considerations for Cloud Security Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James

    2016-01-01

    Information Security in Cloud Computing environments is explored. Cloud Computing is presented, security needs are discussed, and mitigation approaches are listed. Topics covered include Information Security, Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, Public Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ISO 27001, OWASP, Secure SDLC.

  17. Shared Compromise -- Future US-Mexican Border Security Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    and Canada had better get with it and recognize U.S. security priorities if they wished their burgeoning trade, especially after NAFTA , to continue...improve regional economic performance. Following the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), to eliminate barriers to trade and...investment between the U.S., Canada , and Mexico, the United States and Mexico were on a path to balance trade and security. For example, from 1996

  18. Study of transitional China public security countermeasures%转型期中国社会公共安全问题的对策探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼; 樊继福

    2011-01-01

    我国目前正处于经济社会转型的关键时期,来自国际的不稳定因素也不断增加,社会公共安全正面临着极为严峻的挑战。政府应积极推进信息公开,同时建立和完善相关法律;坚持预防为主,建立安全预警机制,及时对社会公共安全程度进行评价;树立政府权威,增强民众对政府的信心;发挥思想政治教育的引导作用,用道德制约影响社会公共安全行为的发生,来有效地应对社会公共安全问题。%China is currently in a critical period of economic and social transformation,which is a "golden growth period",but also a "prominent contradictions and instability" period.The international instability factors are increasing and public safety surfaces are confronted with very serious challenges.In order to have a more comprehensive understanding of public safety issues of our society,the paper uses the social survey methods and considered analysis,also puts forward some copingstrategies.The government should actively promote information disclosure,establish and improve relevant laws,adhere to the prevention,early warning mechanisms to establish security,timely evaluate public safety,establish government authority,and enhance public confidence in the government,by ideological and political guiding role of education,with the moral constraints of the occurrence of acts of public safety,effectively address public safety issues.

  19. U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND SECURITY OF AN INDEPENDENT STATE (“ROSE REVOLUTION” IN GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P. TELENGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The programs of information, culture and education, used as part of foreign policy, which are known as public diplomacy, experience a new stage of development. First of all, this situation is explained by the states’ understanding the importance of using of public diplomacy elements to achieve foreign policy objectives, consistent with the national interests of states. Due to the rapid development of information technology has developed new methods of influence on society. In the first place, with Internet blogs and social networks. The United States of America uses the most active public diplomacy to achieve foreign policy goals. Over the past few decades due to the fact that the changed political reality in the world of public diplomacy has become a tool of democracy promotion. The most successful public diplomacy projects recently have been those that act on the territory of the former Soviet Union countries. Through training of representatives of government and parliament, the formation of political parties and participate in elections held by the United States, there were the color revolutions that led to the change of the power elite

  20. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.