WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications 1981-1987 workload

  1. The Visual Brightness Behavior of p/ Halley during 1981-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. W. E.; Morris, C. S.

    1987-11-01

    The overall behavior of the total visual coma brightness of P/Halley during 1981-1987 is discussed. Observations used in this study include ˜75 published "V" magnitudes obtained with large telescopes (usually with CCDs) prior to July 1985 and ˜3500 total magnitudes (published in the International Comet Quarterly) estimated visually with smaller telescopes during the period July 1985-February 1987. We discuss the observed macroscopic light curve and provide preliminary least- square fits to the traditional power4aw formula. While the heliocentric brightness (H) variation with respect to heliocentric distance (r) did not follow expectations closely, P/Halley's maximum brightness during 1986 Feb.-Apr. fell somewhere between the most pessimistic and the most optimistic forecasts. We also review brightness variations on smaller timescales (hours, days), noting that several definite outbursts in total visual magnitude occurred during Oct. 1985-May 1986 which can be correlated with outbursts observed at other wavelengths.

  2. Identification of the mental workload of public employees in the administrative sector at a public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Andressa Aline; Vilagra, José Mohamud; Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Cruz, Roberto Moraes; Reis, Pedro Ferreira; Galvão, Isabele Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the workplace there are risk factors that can overwhelm the health of the worker causing physical and psychological disorders. Among these disorders, is occupational stress. Thus, this research proposes to measure the mental workload of job stress from the identification of demand, control and social support. It is an observational cross-sectional epidemiological character, performed with the Rectory office workers at the State University of West Paraná (Unioeste). Data collection was due to the application of the "Job Stress Scale" (JSS) and in its reduced version adapted to Portuguese. The survey sample consisted of 44 individuals. Statistical analysis was correlated inversely with medium intensity (r = -0.404) between age and social support. For males was found between control and age (r = 0.603). According to the data obtained, we conclude that most workers are exposed to passive work, leading to loss of skills or disinterest in the job. This study highlights the importance of research in the area and the need for new actions that change the conditions of stress at work.

  3. How public ambulance arrivals impact on Emergency Department workload and resource use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ferri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine patient’s characteristics associated with ED arrival mode, and to determine EMS impact on ED clinical resource use, workload and crowding. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients seen at Sant’Andrea Hospital ED. Comparison focused on visit characteristics, and on resource use. Results: The use of EMS ambulance confirms association to older age, higher rate of hospital admission, longer length of stay, and severity of injury. Moreover our data show that ambulance referred patients are triaged into a higher acuity category and have a greater intensive care unit admission. Conclusion: Ambulance arrivals have a significant impact on ED resource use, workload and crowding.

  4. La pêcherie du lac Ihema (Rwanda : production commerciale et rentabilité socio-économique (1981-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughanda, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ihema fishery (Rwanda. Commercial production and socio-economical profitability (1981-1987. Among the small lakes in the flooded area of the river Akagera, in eastern Rwanda, lake Ihema (area : 90 km2, mean depth : 4 m is the most important. The density of phytoplankton in the water is high but dissolved salts concentration is low. Ichtyofauna of the lake consists of 34 species which were occasionally exploited by tanzanian fishermen. That is why, since 1980, the government of Rwanda with the aid of the Belgian Cooperation Agency for Development have initiated an official fishery. Total yield, fishing effort and financial investments are analysed over a 7 years period (1981 to 1987 in order to precise the socio-economical efficiency of this cooperation project. Total fishery effort and total yield have increased regularly until 1983, reaching 186 tons with a fishing effort of 9.231 outings. Since that year, the production has stabilized at a level of 156-199 t/year with only two taxa exploited : Tilapia spp and Clarias gariepinus. The analysis of book-keeping and annual accountant balance of the Ihema fishery shows that the annual exploitation ratio fluctuates between 81 and 142, 5 % ; this indicates a difficult control of the expenditures at least during some years (1984, 1985 and 1986. The profit ratio shows a positive return (± 10 % since 1981 to 1983, then a depression during 1984 and a continual increase during the next years to become positive again in 1987. Continuous evaluations of these simple parameters allowed to take some actions in order to maintain the efficiency of the fishery. This new activity will be maintained if there is a good fish stock management and rigorous accounts.

  5. Human workload in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.; Casper, Patricia A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis techniques to the evaluation of aircraft-crew workloads is discussed in an introductory overview. Consideration is given to the importance of workload for safety, crew size, automation, and certification; the definition and measurement of workload, physical vs mental workloads, subjective ratings, secondary tasks, biocybernetic measures, and attention and workload. Recent studies of pilot and ATC workloads are reviewed, and typical data are presented in graphs. Future trends are discussed, and it is predicted that increased cockpit automation will eventually require new methods to maintain operator attention rather than reduce workload.

  6. Personality traits moderate the effect of workload sources on perceived workload in flying column police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eChiorri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task. All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed.

  7. Physiological Indicators of Workload in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th Air Base Wing Public Affairs...operations, the current research investigated the feasibility of using physiological measures to assess cognitive workload. Two RPA operators were...collected. One cardiac and several eye measures were sensitive to changes in workload as evidenced by performance and subjective workload data. This

  8. Hopper Workload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, Brian; Butler, Tina; Gerber, Richard; Whitney, Cary; Wright, Nicholas; Yang, Woo-Sun; Zhao, Zhengji

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center is the primary computing facility for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. With over 5,000 users and over 600 different applications utilizing NERSC systems, it is critically important to examine the workload running on NERSCs large supercomputers in order to procure systems that perform well for a broad workload. In this paper we show the breakdown of the NERSC workload by science area, algorithm, memory, thread usage and more. We also describe the methods used to collect data from NERSCs Hopper (Cray XE6) system.

  9. Workload: Measurement and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  10. DDM Workload Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, R.; Schikuta, E.; Garonne, V.; Stewart, G.; Barisits, M.; Beermann, T.; Lassnig, M.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from various sources (e.g. analysing the central file catalogue logs). Finally a description of the implemented emulation framework, used for stress-testing Rucio, is given.

  11. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  12. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Lassnig, M; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2013-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF STAFF NEEDED USING WORKLOAD INDICATOR OF STAFFING NEEDED (WISN METHOD IN LABORATORY UNIT OF PUBLIC HOSPITAL ANUTAPURA PALU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Ryman Napirah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amount of labor in the laboratory unit hospital of Anutapura Palu workforce was 30 people, but there were still problems in terms of inspection of samples that only consisted of some people in a kind of examination while in terms of inspection of the sample was in need of power because the large number of visits from patients who require to carry out an examination of sample. One of manpower planning method is Workload Indicator Of Staffing Needed (WISN that calculated the optimal amount based on workload of employees. Objective: This study aimed at finding out of the optimal number of staff needed in The laboratory unit at RSU Anutapura using WISN method. Methods: This study was a quantitative study with descriptive approach. Data were collected using work sampling method, observation, and document review. Results: It showed that using productive time of the activities time total was 88,51% and using productive time of working hours was 114,240 minutes per year, workload standard is 5817.32 per year and the loose standard is 0,4 per year. Conclusion: Based on the analysis of the optimal number of staff needed using WISN method, it can be concluded that the­ laboratory unit still needs 8 people, and for manpower planning, things that need to consider are qualification and competence to get a good quality of labor.

  14. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  15. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  16. Faculty Workload Issues Connected to Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Rhona; Griffith, Suzanne; Spellman, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This chapter delineates the consortial activities of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC) to explore models of undergraduate research and to address the impact of undergraduate research on faculty workload. The significant progress made on the member campus of the University of Wisconsin-Superior over the last 10 years is…

  17. Rework the workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Linda; Krueger, Janelle; Lusk, Ruth

    2002-03-01

    Kindred Healthcare, Inc., the nation's largest full-service network of long-term acute care hospitals, initiated a 3-year strategic plan to re-evaluate its workload management system. Here, follow the project's most important and difficult phase--designing and implementing the patient classification system.

  18. DIRAC Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Garonne, V; Stokes-Rees, I

    2005-01-01

    The Workload Management System is the core component of the DIRAC distributed MC production and analysis grid environment of the CERN LHCb experiment. This paper discusses the architecture, implementation and performance of this system. The WMS is a community scheduler, realizing a pull paradigm, particulary for the high troughput computing context. It has recently been used for an intensive physics simulation production involving more than 60 sites, 65 TB of data, and over 1000-GHz processor-years.

  19. DIRAC Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S

    2007-01-01

    DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) is the Workload and Data Management system (WMS) for the LHCb experiment. The DIRAC WMS offers a transparent way for LHCb users to submit jobs to the EGEE Grid as well as local clusters and individual PCs. This paper will describe workload management optimizations, which ensure high job efficiency and minimized job start times. The computing requirements of the LHCb experiment can only be fulfilled through the use of many distributed compute resources. DIRAC provides a robust platform to run data productions on all the resources available to LHCb including the EGEE Grid. More recently, user support was added to DIRAC that greatly simplifies the procedure of submitting, monitoring and retrieving output of Grid jobs for the LHCb user community. DIRAC submits Pilot Agents to the EGEE Grid via the gLite WMS as normal jobs. Pilot Agents then request jobs from the DIRAC Workload Management System after the local environment has been checked. Therefore DIR...

  20. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  1. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  2. Workload of primary care midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the actual workload of primary-care midwives in the Netherlands. BACKGROUND: In 2000, a strike and large demonstration before parliament convinced everyone of the shortage of midwives and their excessive workload. The government reacted by increasing the capacity of the midwifer

  3. Workload, Aspiration, and Fun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Pedersen, Michael; Alvesson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary working life highlights the challenge between exploitation and exploration both on a general and a more individual level. Here, we focus on the latter, and connect the critical debate regarding selfmanagement to March’s exploitation/exploration trade-off, as this forms a useful...... study of a large group of management consultants, we explore how they perform and make sense of selfexploitation and self-exploration through three specific discourses: the discourse of workload, the discourse of aspiration, and the discourse of fun. Through these, the consultants try to identify...... optimal amounts of work, play, and ambition, all while handling the trade-off between selfexploitation and self-exploration. We show how this keeps failing, but how it reappears as a necessary condition for avoiding future failures. In all three discourses, the trade-off therefore presents itself...

  4. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  5. The workload book: Assessment of operator workload to engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure and initial work performed toward the creation of a handbook for workload analysis directed at the operational community of engineers and human factors psychologists are described. The goal, when complete, will be to make accessible to such individuals the results of theoretically-based research that are of practical interest and utility in the analysis and prediction of operator workload in advanced and existing systems. In addition, the results of laboratory study focused on the development of a subjective rating technique for workload that is based on psychophysical scaling techniques are described.

  6. PhoenixCloud: Provisioning Resources for Heterogeneous Workloads in Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Shi, Weisong; Gong, Shimin; Zang, Xiutao

    2010-01-01

    As more and more service providers choose Cloud platforms, which is provided by third party resource providers, resource providers needs to provision resources for heterogeneous workloads in different Cloud scenarios. Taking into account the dramatic differences of heterogeneous workloads, can we coordinately provision resources for heterogeneous workloads in Cloud computing? In this paper we focus on this important issue, which is investigated by few previous work. Our contributions are threefold: (1) we respectively propose a coordinated resource provisioning solution for heterogeneous workloads in two typical Cloud scenarios: first, a large organization operates a private Cloud for two heterogeneous workloads; second, a large organization or two service providers running heterogeneous workloads revert to a public Cloud; (2) we build an agile system PhoenixCloud that enables a resource provider to create coordinated runtime environments on demand for heterogeneous workloads when they are consolidated on a C...

  7. Operator Workload: Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Operator Workload Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    respectively. 29 Table 2-1. Taxonomy of workload assssment tocheiiques. TECHNIQUE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY r xpert Opinion Manual Control Models Math Models...evaluating the subsequent review and discussion. Sw MWy of Tecnoe and Mimsau Sensitivity of workload assessment techniques Is the degree to which the...to some aspect(s) of wokload-related operator performance. The most prominent of these models are based on manual control, information theory, and

  8. [Malaria. Analysis of 149 cases (1981-1987)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, N; Caylà, J A; Batalla, J; Plasencia, J A

    1990-01-01

    The epidemiological features of the 149 cases of malaria reported to the Institut Municipal de la Salut in Barcelona from 1981 to 1987 are reported. The yearly evolution of the number of cases showed a tendency to increase predominating in the summer months. The incidence rate for 1977 was 1.99/100,000. The districts with the highest rate of involvement were districts I (Ciutat Vella), owing to the immigration, and V (Sarrià-Sant Gervasi), probably owing to overseas visitors. There was a remarkable predominance of males (63.8%), patients aged 20-40 years, and cases of African origin (81.81%); 50.42% of these came from Equatorial Guinea. The most commonly isolated plasmodium was P. falciparum (52.53%), with a progressive increase throughout the years. Only 13.43% of patients had followed a correct chemoprophylaxis. Malaria is still the most important protozoan infection in the world. In the present study its possible reintroduction in Spain is discussed. The malarial endemic used to be very important in this country, and its eradication was not achieved until 1964.

  9. Physical workload of ambulance assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doormaal, M T; Driessen, A P; Landeweerd, J A; Drost, M R

    1995-02-01

    The physical workload of ambulance assistants was assessed by means of the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) observation method and a Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ) for measuring perceived workload. In addition, a biomechanical model was applied to several specifically strenuous conditions that were simulated in a laboratory situation. Bad postures were identified for a number of activities: 16% to 29% of a work shift was spent in harmful positions. Strenuous situations occur particularly during rides in emergency situations. The results of observed and perceived workload are generally in agreement. A number of practical recommendations are made. They concern, for example, the equipment in ambulance cars, training of ambulance assistants and adaptations in working procedures.

  10. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  11. Workload control dynamics in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soepenberg, G. D.; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) is a well established production planning and control concept for make-to-order companies. The main insights into WLC are being gained from stationary simulation studies. Knowledge on its functioning in practice is limited, especially in a dynamic setting. The aim of this pape

  12. The CMS workload management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquilli, M.; Evans, D.; Foulkes, S.; Hufnagel, D.; Mascheroni, M.; Norman, M.; Maxa, Z.; Melo, A.; Metson, S.; Riahi, H.; Ryu, S.; Spiga, D.; Vaandering, E.; Wakefield, S.; Wilkinson, R.

    2012-12-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager); a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  13. OEO SRB Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Security Records Branch in Boyers, PA. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  14. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    capital investments, process improvements, and public-private partnerships in enclosure I. To perform our work, we reviewed 10 U.S.C. § 2464 and DOD... capital investments.7 This non-generalizable sample was selected to ensure a mix of military services (at least one per type of site—Army depot, Navy...analyzed data on workload, personnel, and capital investment for each military depot for fiscal years 2012 through 2015. We chose this time frame

  15. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  16. Workload dynamics on clusters and grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a variety of workloads collected on production clusters and Grids. The applications are mostly computational-intensive and each task requires single CPU for processing data, which dominate the workloads on current production Grid systems. T

  17. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    workload theories. Workload Theories The unitary-resource model proposed by Kahneman (1973), suggests a limited amount of attention can be applied to...assessment techniques: Vanilla or resting baseline." Psychophysiology 29, no. 6 (1992): 742-750. Kahneman , Daniel, and Amos Tversky. "On the Psychology

  18. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  19. Timesharing performance as an indicator of pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Patricia A.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Sorkin, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Attentional deficits (workloads) were evaluated in a timesharing task. The results from this and other experiments were incorporated into an expert system designed to provide workload metric selection advice to non-experts in the field interested in operator workload.

  20. Cluster analysis for computer workload evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, K

    1976-01-01

    An introduction to computer workload analysis is given, showing its range of application in computer centre management, system and application programming. Cluster methods are discussed which can be used in conjunction with workload data and cluster algorithms are adapted to the specific set problem. Several samples of CDC 7600- accounting-data-collected at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research-underwent a cluster analysis to determine job groups. The conclusions from resource usage of typical job groups in relation to computer workload analysis are discussed. (17 refs).

  1. Mental workload measurement: Event-related potentials and ratings of workload and fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biferno, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Event-related potentials were elicited when a digitized word representing a pilot's call-sign was presented. This auditory probe was presented during 27 workload conditions in a 3x3x3 design where the following variables were manipulated: short-term load, tracking task difficulty, and time-on-task. Ratings of workload and fatigue were obtained between each trial of a 2.5-hour test. The data of each subject were analyzed individually to determine whether significant correlations existed between subjective ratings and ERP component measures. Results indicated that a significant number of subjects had positive correlations between: (1) ratings of workload and P300 amplitude, (2) ratings of workload and N400 amplitude, and (3) ratings of fatigue and P300 amplitude. These data are the first to show correlations between ratings of workload or fatigue and ERP components thereby reinforcing their validity as measures of mental workload and fatigue.

  2. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  3. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  4. Reducing feedback requirements of workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, Peter; Land, Martin; van der Zee, Durk; Gaalman, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The workload control concept is known as a robust shop floor control concept. It is especially suited for the dynamic environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the make-to-order sector. Before orders are released to the shop floor, they are collected in an ‘order pool’. To mak

  5. Workload Management Strategies for Online Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly; Hemby, K. Virginia; McCannon, Melinda; Wiedmaier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    With increased use of online education, both students and instructors are adapting to the online environment. Online educators must adjust to the change in responsibilities required to teach online, as it is quite intensive during the designing, teaching, and revising stages. The purpose of this study is to examine and update workload management…

  6. Cloud Computing Trace Characterization and Synthetic Workload Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    to design realistic cloud workloads, which drive the evaluation of Hadoop job schedulers and Hadoop shared storage system performance. The trace...synthesizing realistic workload traces for studying the hadoop ecosystem. Presented at Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and

  7. Timesharing performance as an indicator of pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Patricia A.

    1988-01-01

    The research was performed in two simultaneous phases, each intended to identify and manipulate factors related to operator mental workload. The first phase concerned evaluation of attentional deficits (workloads) in a timesharing task. Work in the second phase involved incorporating the results from these and other experiments into an expert system designed to provide workload metric selection advice to nonexperts in the field interested in operator workload. The results of the experiments conducted are summarized.

  8. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  9. Cross-Validation of Indicators of Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    workload ratings. The current study replicated the human performance findings of the previous phase of AMBR and added eye tracking analyses to enhance...estimating different facets of the broad concept of workload. Applicability of eye tracking analyses to understanding cognitive workload and augmenting cognitive models is discussed.

  10. Using Hospital Information System Data to Capture Nurse Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shangping; Chen, Hong; Feng, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Aim Using hospital information system (HIS) data to capture nurse workload. Method Direct and indirect nursing items were included by survey and group discussion, workload of nurses is calculated by the work hour measurement of nursing item. Nursing items were matching with HIS index. An ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) tool, Microsoft SSIS, is to capture all HIS index if it happened in a day. Results The workload of a ward can be calculated automatically the day before. Discussion This study provides a new approach to achieve nursing workload. However, a confirmatory study should be implemented in the future to verify the reliability of workload.

  11. Nursing workload at a gastroenterology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunto, Marcia Raquel; Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges nurses face is the need to justify the quantity and quality of staff for care delivery. For this, management instruments are available which help them to determine the staff needed in the nursing team. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the nursing workload at a specialized clinical and surgical gastroenterology unit. To collect data, the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) was used during 30 consecutive days, with 1080 comments, obtained from the records of 149 patients. The mean NAS score was 34.9% and, considering that each point of NAS corresponds to 0.24 hour, on the average, 8.4 hours of nursing care were required within 24 hours. This means that this profile is of patients who demand intermediate and semi-intensive care, which suggests that the NAS study can be used to evaluate the workload of nurses at that unit.

  12. Workload and operational fatigue in helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, G

    1978-02-01

    In light of the modern aetiopathogenic views, a brief review was made concerning possible causes of operational fatigue to which flying personnel in general are exposed in the exercise of flying activity. The author then describes and analyzes the meaning and importance of the various stressing factors that constitute the physical and psychic workload to which the helicopter pilot is subjected in performing his professional activities. Also analyzed are the influences exercised, both separately and jointly, on the genesis of flight fatigue in helicopter pilots by stressing and fatiguing effects of vibrations, noise, and psycho-emotional and psycho-sensorial factors related to the variety and danger of utilization of this modern aircraft. Such an analytical investigation enables the author to conclude that one must admit that helicopter piloting involves a psycho-physical workload certainly no less than that required by more powerful and faster aircraft.

  13. Defining and measuring pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is sought that is general enough to help the researcher deal with a wide range of situations involving pilot mental stress. A limited capacity theory of attention forms the basis for the theory. Mental workload is then defined as an intervening variable, similar to attention, that modulates or indexes the tuning between the demands of the environment and the capacity of the organism. Two methods for measuring pilot mental workload are endorsed: (1) objective measures based on secondary tasks; and (2) psychophysiological measures, which have not yet been perfected but which will become more useful as theoretical models are refined. Secondary-task research is illustrated by simulator studies in which flying performance has been shown not to be adversely affected by adding a complex choice-reaction secondary task.

  14. An Approach to Quantify Workload in a System of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Richard; Rungta, Neha; Mercer, Eric; Raimondi, Franco; Holbrook, Jon; Cardoza, Colleen; Goodrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The role of humans in aviation and other domains continues to shift from manual control to automation monitoring. Studies have found that humans are often poorly suited for monitoring roles, and workload can easily spike in off-nominal situations. Current workload measurement tools, like NASA TLX, use human operators to assess their own workload after using a prototype system. Such measures are used late in the design process and can result in ex- pensive alterations when problems are discovered. Our goal in this work is to provide a quantitative workload measure for use early in the design process. We leverage research in human cognition to de ne metrics that can measure workload on belief-desire-intentions based multi-agent systems. These measures can alert designers to potential workload issues early in design. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by characterizing quantitative differences in the workload for a single pilot operations model compared to a traditional two pilot model.

  15. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  16. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  17. Workload, flow, and telepresence during teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    There is much speculation about the relations among workload, flow, telepresence, and performance during teleoperation, but few data that provide evidence concerning them. This paper presents results an investigation conducted during completion of a pipe cutting task using a teleoperator at ORNL. Results show support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to expenditure of attentional resources, and some support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to flow. The discussion examines the results from an attentional resources perspective on teleoperation.

  18. Forecasting Wartime Depot-Level Component Workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Baseline Study the NALC assumed that all failures sent to the depot must be repaired, despite the fact that ASO plans to buy war reserve stock to...be bought to fill these demands. Note, however, that the stock buy for the 0 exponential pipeline case is somewhat less than that required for the...daily demands on depot supply to BCN rates Minimum workload 200 - Baseline- 23 month scenario -Low BCM 175 - .. . High BCM7i. -- Hgh BCM half sortie 150

  19. Workload-Aware Indexing of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    The increased deployment of sensors and data communication networks yields data management workloads with update loads that are intense, skewed, and highly bursty. Query loads resulting from location-based services are expected to exhibit similar characteristics. In such environments, index...... structures can easily become performance bottlenecks. We address the need for indexing that is adaptive to the workload characteristics, called workload-aware, in order to cover the space in between maintaining an accurate index, and having no index at all. Our proposal, QU-Trade, extends R-tree type...... indexing and achieves workload-awareness by controlling the underlying index’s filtering quality. QU-Trade safely drops index updates, increasing the overlap in the index when the workload is update-intensive, and it restores the filtering capabilities of the index when the workload becomes query...

  20. An objective comparison test of workload management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiligoi, Igor; Holzman, Burt; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Grid resources are distributed among hundreds of independent Grid sites, requiring a higher level Workload Management System (WMS) to be used efficiently. There are several ways to design and implement a WMS, and indeed in recent years several WMSes have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how some of these different WMSes behave under realistic load conditions. We present benchmark test results for three general-purpose WMSes, namely ReSS, gLite WMS and glideinWMS. The results presented have been measured using the same tools for all the tested WMSes, comparing those results against a baseline obtained by using plain Condor-G submissions.

  1. Improvement of Automotive Article Placement and Workload Distribution in Warehousing

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose is to: Improve the efficiency of warehouses operations as well as reduce its workload imbalances by altering the warehouse layout and work zones at a storage area. This was done by answering the following research questions: What is the current state of the sites efficiency and workload imbalances? How can the warehouse layout be designed to increase the efficiency? How can warehouse work zones be altered to reduce workload imbalances? Method – The purpose was achieved ...

  2. Filter Bank Common Spatial Patterns in Mental Workload Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features ex...

  3. The gLite Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Cecchi; Fabio, Capannini; Alvise, Dorigo; Antonia, Ghiselli; Alessio, Gianelle; Francesco, Giacomini; Alessandro, Maraschini; Elisabetta, Molinari; Salvatore, Monforte; Luca, Petronzio

    2010-04-01

    The gLite Workload Management System represents a key entry point to high-end services available on a Grid. Being designed as part of the european Grid within the six years long EU-funded EGEE project, now at its third phase, the WMS is meant to provide reliable and efficient distribution and management of end-user requests. This service basically translates user requirements and preferences into specific operations and decisions - dictated by the general status of all other Grid services - while taking responsibility to bring requests to successful completion. The WMS has become a reference implementation of the "early binding" approach to meta-scheduling as a neat, Grid-aware solution, able to optimise resource access and to satisfy requests for computation together with data. Several added value features are provided for job submission, different job types are supported from simple batch to a variety of compounds. In this paper we outline what has been achieved to provide adequate workload and management components, suitable to be deployed in a production-quality Grid, while covering the design and development of the gLite WMS and focusing on the most recently achieved results.

  4. The gLite Workload Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Cecchi; Fabio, Capannini; Alvise, Dorigo; Antonia, Ghiselli; Alessio, Gianelle; Francesco, Giacomini; Elisabetta, Molinari; Salvatore, Monforte [INFN-CNAF, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna (Italy); Alessandro, Maraschini; Luca, Petronzio, E-mail: marco.cecchi@cnaf.infn.i [Elsag Datamat Spa, Via Laurentina, Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    The gLite Workload Management System represents a key entry point to high-end services available on a Grid. Being designed as part of the european Grid within the six years long EU-funded EGEE project, now at its third phase, the WMS is meant to provide reliable and efficient distribution and management of end-user requests. This service basically translates user requirements and preferences into specific operations and decisions - dictated by the general status of all other Grid services - while taking responsibility to bring requests to successful completion. The WMS has become a reference implementation of the 'early binding' approach to meta-scheduling as a neat, Grid-aware solution, able to optimise resource access and to satisfy requests for computation together with data. Several added value features are provided for job submission, different job types are supported from simple batch to a variety of compounds. In this paper we outline what has been achieved to provide adequate workload and management components, suitable to be deployed in a production-quality Grid, while covering the design and development of the gLite WMS and focusing on the most recently achieved results.

  5. Single-handed controller reduces the workload of flexible endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozeboom, Esther D.; Ruiter, Jeroen G.; Franken, Michel; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Broeders, Ivo A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of the conventional flexible endoscope is non-ergonomic and non-intuitive. A novel single-handed interface could reduce the experienced workload, without reducing current efficiency or effectiveness of endoscope manipulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the workload, efficiency

  6. Measuring the nursing workload per shift in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debergh, Dieter P.; Myny, Dries; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Van Maele, Georges; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Colardyn, Francis

    In the intensive care unit (ICU) different strategies and workload measurement tools exist to indicate the number of nurses needed. The gathered information is always focused on manpower needed per 24 h. However, a day consists of several shifts, which may be unequal in nursing workload. The aim of

  7. All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

  8. The relationship between driver distraction and mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Driver distraction is caused by a competing activity and leads to unsafe driving. Mental workload changes with task demands and influences performance. Though distraction and mental workload are strongly related, they are not the same. Performance motivation and task engagement influence performance

  9. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; Ribbink, A.; Heneweer, H.; Moolenaar, H.; Wittink, H.

    2009-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and aer

  10. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  11. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  12. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  13. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  14. Dynamic Deferral of Workload for Capacity Provisioning in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Adnan, Muhammad Abdullah; Sugihara, Ryo; Gupta, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Recent increase in energy prices has led researchers to find better ways for capacity provisioning in data centers to reduce energy wastage due to the variation in workload. This paper explores the opportunity for cost saving and proposes a novel approach for capacity provisioning under bounded latency requirements for the workload. We investigate how many servers to be kept active and how much workload to be delayed for energy saving while meeting every deadline. We present an offline LP formulation for capacity provisioning by dynamic deferral and give two online algorithms to determine the capacity of the data center and the assignment of workload to servers dynamically. We prove the feasibility of the online algorithms and show that their worst case performance are bounded by a constant factor with respect to the offline formulation. We validate our algorithms on synthetic workload generated from two real HTTP traces and show that they actually perform much better in practice than the worst case, resultin...

  15. A computerized multidimensional measurement of mental workload via handwriting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Gil; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effect of mental workload on handwriting behavior and to identify characteristics of low versus high mental workload in handwriting. We hypothesized differences between handwriting under three different load conditions and tried to establish a profile that integrated these indicators. Fifty-six participants wrote three numerical progressions of varying difficulty on a digitizer attached to a computer so that we could evaluate their handwriting behavior. Differences were found in temporal, spatial, and angular velocity handwriting measures, but no significant differences were found for pressure measures. Using data reduction, we identified three clusters of handwriting, two of which differentiated well according to the three mental workload conditions. We concluded that handwriting behavior is affected by mental workload and that each measure provides distinct information, so that they present a comprehensive indicator of mental workload.

  16. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (Pdemand (Pdemand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary among professional subgroups

  17. Measuring Pilot Workload in a Moving-base Simulator. Part 2: Building Levels of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.; Bortolussi, M. R.; Shively, R. J.; Kantowitz, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot behavior in flight simulators often use a secondary task as an index of workload. His routine to regard flying as the primary task and some less complex task as the secondary task. While this assumption is quite reasonable for most secondary tasks used to study mental workload in aircraft, the treatment of flying a simulator through some carefully crafted flight scenario as a unitary task is less justified. The present research acknowledges that total mental workload depends upon the specific nature of the sub-tasks that a pilot must complete as a first approximation, flight tasks were divided into three levels of complexity. The simplest level (called the Base Level) requires elementary maneuvers that do not utilize all the degrees of freedom of which an aircraft, or a moving-base simulator; is capable. The second level (called the Paired Level) requires the pilot to simultaneously execute two Base Level tasks. The third level (called the Complex Level) imposes three simultaneous constraints upon the pilot.

  18. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  19. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology.

  20. Workload and workforce planning: taking a national approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Karen; Barkby, Irene; Kellagher, Mairi

    2010-02-01

    In response to an Audit Scotland report, the Scottish Executive, now the Scottish Government, set up the national Nursing and Midwifery Workload and Workforce Planning (NMWWP) programme to define workload and workforce needs, and to analyse the use of bank and agency staff. After extensive research, a systematic, national approach to nursing and midwifery workload and workforce planning was recommended. This article, the first in a series of five on this topic, describes the legislation and policies that underpin the NMWWP programme, and highlights the demographic issues that are pertinent to the nursing and midwifery workforce in Scotland.

  1. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  2. The gLite workload management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreetto, P.; Andreozzi, S.; Avellino, G.; Beco, S.; Cavallini, A.; Cecchi, M.; Ciaschini, V.; Dorise, A.; Giacomini, F.; Gianelle, A.; Grandinetti, U.; Guarise, A.; Krop, A.; Lops, R.; Maraschini, A.; Martelli, V.; Marzolla, M.; Mezzadri, M.; Molinari, E.; Monforte, S.; Pacini, F.; Pappalardo, M.; Parrini, A.; Patania, G.; Petronzio, L.; Piro, R.; Porciani, M.; Prelz, F.; Rebatto, D.; Ronchieri, E.; Sgaravatto, M.; Venturi, V.; Zangrando, L.

    2008-07-01

    The gLite Workload Management System (WMS) is a collection of components that provide the service responsible for distributing and managing tasks across computing and storage resources available on a Grid. The WMS basically receives requests of job execution from a client, finds the required appropriate resources, then dispatches and follows the jobs until completion, handling failure whenever possible. Other than single batch-like jobs, compound job types handled by the WMS are Directed Acyclic Graphs (a set of jobs where the input/output/execution of one of more jobs may depend on one or more other jobs), Parametric Jobs (multiple jobs with one parametrized description), and Collections (multiple jobs with a common description). Jobs are described via a flexible, high-level Job Definition Language (JDL). New functionality was recently added to the system (use of Service Discovery for obtaining new service endpoints to be contacted, automatic sandbox files archival/compression and sharing, support for bulk-submission and bulk-matchmaking). Intensive testing and troubleshooting allowed to dramatically increase both job submission rate and service stability. Future developments of the gLite WMS will be focused on reducing external software dependency, improving portability, robustness and usability.

  3. The gLite workload management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreetto, P; Andreozzi, S; Cecchi, M; Ciaschini, V; Dorise, A; Giacomini, F; Gianelle, A; Guarise, A; Lops, R; Martelli, V; Marzolla, M; Mezzadri, M; Molinari, E; Monforte, S; Avellino, G; Beco, S; Cavallini, A; Grandinetti, U; Krop, A; Maraschini, A (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The gLite Workload Management System (WMS) is a collection of components that provide the service responsible for distributing and managing tasks across computing and storage resources available on a Grid. The WMS basically receives requests of job execution from a client, finds the required appropriate resources, then dispatches and follows the jobs until completion, handling failure whenever possible. Other than single batch-like jobs, compound job types handled by the WMS are Directed Acyclic Graphs (a set of jobs where the input/output/execution of one of more jobs may depend on one or more other jobs), Parametric Jobs (multiple jobs with one parametrized description), and Collections (multiple jobs with a common description). Jobs are described via a flexible, high-level Job Definition Language (JDL). New functionality was recently added to the system (use of Service Discovery for obtaining new service endpoints to be contacted, automatic sandbox files archival/compression and sharing, support for bulk-submission and bulk-matchmaking). Intensive testing and troubleshooting allowed to dramatically increase both job submission rate and service stability. Future developments of the gLite WMS will be focused on reducing external software dependency, improving portability, robustness and usability.

  4. BALANCING AMBULANCE CREW WORKLOADS VIA A TIERED DISPATCH POLICY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xun; Saydam, Cem

    2016-01-01

    ... relocations to ensure high demand zones are covered adequately. In this paper we propose a tiered dispatch policy to balance the ambulance crew workloads while meeting fast response times for priority 1 calls...

  5. Time perception as a workload measure in simulated car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Daniel; Burgard, Esther; Wittmann, Marc

    2009-09-01

    In experimental studies using flight simulations subjects' duration estimates have shown to be an effective indicator of cognitive task demands. In this study we wanted to find out whether subjective time perception could serve as a measure of cognitive workload during simulated car driving. Participants drove on a round course of a driving simulator consisting of three different environments with different levels of task demands. Drivers were required to perform a time-production task while driving the vehicle. Electrodermal activity and subjective ratings of mental workload (SWAT) were recorded simultaneously. The length of produced intervals increased significantly in more complex driving situations, as did electrodermal activity and subjective ratings of mental workload. Thus, time production is a valid indicator of cognitive involvement in simulated driving and could become a valid method to measure the current mental workload of car drivers in various traffic situations.

  6. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  7. Monitoring Workload in Throwing-Dominant Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine

    2016-10-01

    The ability to monitor training load accurately in professional sports is proving vital for athlete preparedness and injury prevention. While numerous monitoring techniques have been developed to assess the running demands of many team sports, these methods are not well suited to throwing-dominant sports that are infrequently linked to high running volumes. Therefore, other techniques are required to monitor the differing demands of these sports to ensure athletes are adequately prepared for competition. To investigate the different methodologies used to quantitatively monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports. A systematic review of the methods used to monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports was conducted using variations of terms that described different load-monitoring techniques and different sports. Studies included in this review were published prior to June 2015 and were identified through a systematic search of four electronic databases including Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and SPORTDiscus. Only full-length peer-reviewed articles investigating workload monitoring in throwing-dominant sports were selected for review. A total of 8098 studies were initially retrieved from the four databases and 7334 results were removed as they were either duplicates, review articles, non-peer-reviewed articles, conference abstracts or articles written in languages other than English. After screening the titles and abstracts of the remaining papers, 28 full-text papers were reviewed, resulting in the identification of 20 articles meeting the inclusion criteria for monitoring workloads in throwing-dominant sports. Reference lists of selected articles were then scanned to identify other potential articles, which yielded one additional article. Ten articles investigated workload monitoring in cricket, while baseball provided eight results, and handball, softball and water polo each contributed one article. Results demonstrated varying techniques

  8. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the signifi­cance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  9. Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload

    CERN Document Server

    Adnan, Muhammad Abdullah; Gupta, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of Cloud computing and Mobile computing, individuals, enterprises and research centers have started outsourcing their IT and computational needs to on-demand cloud services. Recently geographical load balancing techniques have been suggested for data centers hosting cloud computation in order to reduce energy cost by exploiting the electricity price differences across regions. However, these algorithms do not draw distinction among diverse requirements for responsiveness across various workloads. In this paper, we use the flexibility from the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to differentiate among workloads under bounded latency requirements and propose a novel approach for cost savings for geographical load balancing. We investigate how much workload to be executed in each data center and how much workload to be delayed and migrated to other data centers for energy saving while meeting deadlines. We present an offline formulation for geographical load balancing problem with dyna...

  10. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  11. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  12. Automotive automation: Investigating the impact on drivers' mental workload

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M.S.; Stanton, N A

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have meant that an increasing number of vehicle driving tasks are becoming automated. Such automation poses new problems for the ergonomist. Of particular concern in this paper are the twofold effects of automation on mental workload - novel technologies could increase attentional demand and workload, alternatively one could argue that fewer driving tasks will lead to the problem of reduced attentional demand and driver underload. A brief review of...

  13. EEG workload prediction in a closed-loop learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The issues of developing an online EEG-based adaptive learning environment are examined in this thesis. The aim is to adapt instructional learning material in real-time, to support learners in their individual learning process and keep them in their optimal workload capacity range during learning. First, suitable learning material is designed, which does not cause artifacts and induces confounds in the EEG data. Second, the most suitable features for an online workload detection in EEG data a...

  14. Burnout syndrome and weekly workload of on-call physicians: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome (BS is characterized by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal fulfillment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible association between BS and weekly workload, and to describe the prevalence of BS and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of on-call physicians in Maceió. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in intensive care units (ICU at public and private hospitals in Maceió. METHODS: A self-administered form was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI among 67 on-call physicians at ICUs in Maceió. Pearson's R correlation test was used to compare workload and emotional exhaustion. For other dimensions, Spearman's S test was used (P < 0.05. Other variables were represented by simple frequencies. The 95% confidence interval was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: Among the physicians studied, 55.22% were female and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call was 43.85 ± 24.49 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 70.14%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of BS, especially among physicians who did not practice regular physical activity, our data did not indicate any significant correlation between weekly workload and any of the three dimensions of BS in this sample. The high prevalence of BS draws attention to the importance of investigating other possible causes, in order to prevent and adequately treat it.

  15. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab; Zeraati, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    High level of workload has been identified among stressors of nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study investigated nursing workload and identified its influencing perfor-mance obstacles in ICUs. This cross-sectional study was conducted, in 2013, on 81 nurses working in ICUs in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. NASA-TLX was applied for assessment of workload. Moreover, ICUs Performance Obstacles Questionnaire was used to identify performance obstacles associated with ICU nursing. Physical demand (mean=84.17) was perceived as the most important dimensions of workload by nurses. The most critical performance obstacles affecting workload included: difficulty in finding a place to sit down, hectic workplace, disorganized workplace, poor-conditioned equipment, waiting for using a piece of equipment, spending much time seeking for supplies in the central stock, poor quality of medical materials, delay in getting medications, unpredicted problems, disorganized central stock, outpatient surgery, spending much time dealing with family needs, late, inadequate, and useless help from nurse assistants, and ineffective morning rounds (P-value<0.05). Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the significance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  16. Impact of social prescribing on general practice workload and polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, A M; McCauley, F; McCarron, M O

    2017-07-01

    Social prescribing has emerged as a useful tool for helping patients overcome some of the social and behavioural determinants of poor health. There has been little research on the impact of social prescribing on use of primary healthcare resources. This study sought to determine whether social prescribing activities influenced patient-general practitioner (GP) contacts and polypharmacy. Quality-improvement design with social prescribing activity interventions from an urban general practice in Northern Ireland. Patients over 65 years of age with a chronic condition who attended their GP frequently or had multiple medications were offered a social prescribing activity. Participants' contacts with GP and the new repeat prescriptions before and during the social prescribing activity were measured. The total number of repeat prescriptions per patient was compared at the time of referral and 6-12 months later. Indications for referral, primary diagnoses and reasons for declining participation in a social prescribing activity after referral were prospectively recorded. Sixty-eight patients agreed to participate but only 28 (41%) engaged in a prescribed social activity. There was no statistically significant difference in GP contacts (visits to GP, home visits or telephone calls) or number of new repeat prescriptions between referral and completion of 12 weeks of social prescribing activity. Similarly there was no statistically significant difference in the total number of repeat prescriptions between referral and 6-12 months after social prescribing activity in either intention to treat or per protocol analyses. Social prescribing participants had similar demographic factors. Mental health issues (anxiety and/or depression) were more common among participants than those who were referred but declined participation in a social prescribing activity (P = 0.022). While social prescribing may help patients' self-esteem and well-being, it may not decrease GP workload. Further

  17. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Elvira Pires de Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. Method qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. Results the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. Conclusions investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.

  18. EEG-based Workload Estimation Across Affective Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMühl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human-computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood, has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful while the participant solved a task with 2 workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain-computer interfaces in general.

  19. EEG-based workload estimation across affective contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühl, Christian; Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG) offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human-computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood), has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful) while the participant solved a task with two workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain-computer interfaces in general.

  20. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, T; Ribbink, A; Heneweer, H; Moolenaar, H; Wittink, H

    2009-02-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess workload demand in police officers from the Utrecht police department in the Netherlands, during patrol by mountain bike. Maximum oxygen intake, maximum heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT)1 and VT2 were determined with a maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Heart rates were registered throughout three shifts in 20 subjects using a heart rate monitor. Exercise intensity was divided into three phases: phase I (between 40% of HRmax and VT1); phase II (between VT and the respiratory compensation point (RCP)); and phase III (>RCP). The total TRIMP score was obtained by summating the results of the three phases. Average daily workload demands of 355 TRIMPs per day and 1777 TRIMPs per week were measured. Workload demand approached and in some cases exceeded the upper limit of 2000 TRIMPs per week threshold level for physiological stress demands in professional male cyclists.

  1. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  2. NASA TLX: software for assessing subjective mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Alex; Chintamani, Keshav K; Pandya, Abhilash K; Ellis, R Darin

    2009-02-01

    The NASA Task Load Index (TLX) is a popular technique for measuring subjective mental workload. It relies on a multidimensional construct to derive an overall workload score based on a weighted average of ratings on six subscales: mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort, and frustration level. A program for implementing a computerized version of the NASA TLX is described. The software version assists in simplifying collection, postprocessing, and storage of raw data. The program collects raw data from the subject and calculates the weighted (or unweighted) workload score, which is output to a text file. The program can also be tailored to a specific experiment using a simple input text file, if desired. The program was designed in Visual Studio 2005 and is capable of running on a Pocket PC with Windows CE or on a PC with Windows 2000 or higher. The NASA TLX program is available for free download.

  3. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  4. Thermal models of electric machines with dynamic workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pohlandt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric powertrains are increasingly used in off-highway machines because of easy controllability and excellent overall efficiency. The main goals are increasing the energy efficiency of the machine and the optimization of the work process. The thermal behaviour of electric machines with dynamic workloads applied to is a key design factor for electric powertrains in off-highway machines. This article introduces a methodology to model the thermal behaviour of electric machines. Using a noncausal modelling approach, an electric powertrain is analysed for dynamic workloads. Cause-effect relationships and reasons for increasing temperature are considered as well as various cooling techniques. The validation of the overall simulation model of the powertrain with measured field data workloads provides convincing results to evaluate numerous applications of electric machines in off-highway machines.

  5. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  7. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  8. Operating room clinicians' ratings of workload: a vignette simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallston, Kenneth A; Slagle, Jason M; Speroff, Ted; Nwosu, Sam; Crimin, Kimberly; Feurer, Irene D; Boettcher, Brent; Weinger, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    Increased clinician workload is associated with medical errors and patient harm. The Quality and Workload Assessment Tool (QWAT) measures anticipated (pre-case) and perceived (post-case) clinical workload during actual surgical procedures using ratings of individual and team case difficulty from every operating room (OR) team member. The purpose of this study was to examine the QWAT ratings of OR clinicians who were not present in the OR but who read vignettes compiled from actual case documentation to assess interrater reliability and agreement with ratings made by clinicians involved in the actual cases. Thirty-six OR clinicians (13 anesthesia providers, 11 surgeons, and 12 nurses) used the QWAT to rate 6 cases varying from easy to moderately difficult based on actual ratings made by clinicians involved with the cases. Cases were presented and rated in random order. Before rating anticipated individual and team difficulty, the raters read prepared clinical vignettes containing case synopses and much of the same written case information that was available to the actual clinicians before the onset of each case. Then, before rating perceived individual and team difficulty, they read part 2 of the vignette consisting of detailed role-specific intraoperative data regarding the anesthetic and surgical course, unusual events, and other relevant contextual factors. Surgeons had higher interrater reliability on the QWAT than did OR nurses or anesthesia providers. For the anticipated individual and team workload ratings, there were no statistically significant differences between the actual ratings and the ratings obtained from the vignettes. There were differences for the 3 provider types in perceived individual workload for the median difficulty cases and in the perceived team workload for the median and more difficult cases. The case difficulty items on the QWAT seem to be sufficiently reliable and valid to be used in other studies of anticipated and perceived clinical

  9. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  10. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  11. Experimental Evaluation and Workload Characterization for High-Performance Computer Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghazawi, Tarek A.

    1995-01-01

    This research is conducted in the context of the Joint NSF/NASA Initiative on Evaluation (JNNIE). JNNIE is an inter-agency research program that goes beyond typical.bencbking to provide and in-depth evaluations and understanding of the factors that limit the scalability of high-performance computing systems. Many NSF and NASA centers have participated in the effort. Our research effort was an integral part of implementing JNNIE in the NASA ESS grand challenge applications context. Our research work under this program was composed of three distinct, but related activities. They include the evaluation of NASA ESS high- performance computing testbeds using the wavelet decomposition application; evaluation of NASA ESS testbeds using astrophysical simulation applications; and developing an experimental model for workload characterization for understanding workload requirements. In this report, we provide a summary of findings that covers all three parts, a list of the publications that resulted from this effort, and three appendices with the details of each of the studies using a key publication developed under the respective work.

  12. A parallel workload has extreme varibility

    CERN Document Server

    Henwood, R; Chapman, S C; McLay, R

    2016-01-01

    In both high-performance computing (HPC) environments and the public cloud, the duration of time to retrieve or save your results is simultaneously unpredictable and important to your over all resource budget. It is generally accepted ("Google: Taming the Long Latency Tail - When More Machines Equals Worse Results", Todd Hoff, highscalability.com 2012), but without a robust explanation, that identical parallel tasks do take different durations to complete -- a phenomena known as variability. This paper advances understanding of this topic. We carefully choose a model from which system-level complexity emerges that can be studied directly. We find that a generalized extreme value (GEV) model for variability naturally emerges. Using the public cloud, we find real-world observations have excellent agreement with our model. Since the GEV distribution is a limit distribution this suggests a universal property of parallel systems gated by the slowest communication element of some sort. Hence, this model is applicab...

  13. Managing Time, Workload and Costs in Distance Education: Findings from a Literature Review of "Distances et Médiations des Savoirs" (Formerly "Distances et Savoirs")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeglin, Pierre; Vidal, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review, spanning over 12 years of publication of "Distances et Médiations des Savoirs" ("DMS"), formerly "Distance et Savoirs" ("DMS") (2003-2014), is guided by the question why and how French-speaking researchers addressed the issues of time, workload and costs in distance learning, and…

  14. Managing Time, Workload and Costs in Distance Education: Findings from a Literature Review of "Distances et Médiations des Savoirs" (Formerly "Distances et Savoirs")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeglin, Pierre; Vidal, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review, spanning over 12 years of publication of "Distances et Médiations des Savoirs" ("DMS"), formerly "Distance et Savoirs" ("DMS") (2003-2014), is guided by the question why and how French-speaking researchers addressed the issues of time, workload and costs in distance learning, and…

  15. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was combine

  16. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The a

  17. Faculty Acceptance of a Workload Survey in One Major University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Faculty at a state university were asked how they felt about the workload survey administered on campus and whether the NCHEMS' factors were related to their acceptance of the survey. Results upheld one NCHEMS relationship: that a positive attitude toward a survey is related to perceived value of the data for allocating faculty resources and…

  18. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  19. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The

  20. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was

  1. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  2. Faculty Acceptance of a Workload Survey in One Major University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Faculty at a state university were asked how they felt about the workload survey administered on campus and whether the NCHEMS' factors were related to their acceptance of the survey. Results upheld one NCHEMS relationship: that a positive attitude toward a survey is related to perceived value of the data for allocating faculty resources and…

  3. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  4. gLite Workload Management System Performance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Svraka, N; Belic, A; Bogojevic, A R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to the gLite Grid middleware and one of its most important components, Workload Management System (WMS), responsible for management of user jobs is given.Useful performance metrics of gLite WMS are defined from a Grid application point of view, and preliminary results of performance measurements are presented and briefly analyzed.

  5. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  6. Single-Pilot Workload Management in Entry-Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang ELJ level 5 flight training device at CAMI. Eight of the pilots were Mustang owner...Instrument Landing System IFR ............Instrument Flight Rules IMC ...........Instrument Meteorological Conditions ISA...pilots flew an experimental flight with two legs involving high workload management under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang

  7. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  8. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere leng

  9. Workload Impact of Medical Subspecialties in the Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Peenen, Hubert J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper documents, using a single test as a model, the significant increase in clinical laboratory workload which occurred in a university hospital when strong sections of nephrology, hematology-oncology, and immunology-rheumatology were added to the department of medicine. (Author)

  10. Workload control concepts in job shops : A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of production environments with job shop characteristics, much research has been done on partial control such as priority dispatching. The development of comprehensive control concepts lags behind. However, the principles of workload control (WLC) have been elaborated to more comprehensi

  11. Workload control concepts in job shops - A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M; Gaalman, G

    1996-01-01

    In the case of production environments with job shop characteristics, much research has been done on partial control such as priority dispatching. The development of comprehensive control concepts lags behind. However, the principles of workload control (WLC) have been elaborated to more comprehensi

  12. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  13. Survey of Maritime Experiences in Reduced Workload and Staffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    using full-scale mockups , and improve ship’s communications. The result was a design that not only reduced workload, manning, and human error incidence...hurt. - Fixed fire patrol uses - Separate FF party, DC party, and Weps repair when in Condition I readiness "* In battle conditions, CO/XO establish

  14. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  15. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  16. Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Naito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model-based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP-based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking movement. Maurer-Peterka's model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model-based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

  17. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    EEG ), Electrocardiography (ECG) and Electrooculogram (EOG) signals were recorded. All participants completed AF-MATB trials that delivered consistently...to workload transitions. Analysis of the EEG data revealed that temporal gamma oscillations rapidly changed following a transition and settled after...Electroencepholography ( EEG ), NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX), Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ), Hysteresis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  18. Mental Workload Manipulation Using Multiple Homogeneous Tasks: Performance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    interval, as they were in Colle and Reid (2005) and in Calkin (2007). These accomplishment curves also were related to the SWAT ratings. Performance and...4.0. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Calkin , B. (2007). Parameters affecting mental workload and the number of simulated

  19. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  20. A participatory ergonomics approach to reduce mental and physical workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Peeters, M.; Grundemann, R.W.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Dul, J.

    1995-01-01

    A step-by-step approach to better work, aimed at reducing mental and physical workload in office work, is evaluated. This approach is based on a strong commitment of the management in the enterprise, and on as much direct worker participation as possible. After every step the workers proposed how to

  1. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  2. Impact of adding additional providers to resident workload and the resident experience on a medical consultation rotation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Fang; Eric Linson; Manish Suneja; Ethan F Kuperman

    2017-01-01

    .... Recognizing the potential risks associated with high resident workload and being mindful of the costs of reducing resident workload, we sought to reduce residents' workload by adding an advanced practice provider (APP...

  3. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  4. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  5. Unsupervised classification of operator workload from brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Dähne, Sven; Gugler, Manfred; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this study we aimed for the classification of operator workload as it is expected in many real-life workplace environments. We explored brain-signal based workload predictors that differ with respect to the level of label information required for training, including entirely unsupervised approaches. Approach. Subjects executed a task on a touch screen that required continuous effort of visual and motor processing with alternating difficulty. We first employed classical approaches for workload state classification that operate on the sensor space of EEG and compared those to the performance of three state-of-the-art spatial filtering methods: common spatial patterns (CSPs) analysis, which requires binary label information; source power co-modulation (SPoC) analysis, which uses the subjects’ error rate as a target function; and canonical SPoC (cSPoC) analysis, which solely makes use of cross-frequency power correlations induced by different states of workload and thus represents an unsupervised approach. Finally, we investigated the effects of fusing brain signals and peripheral physiological measures (PPMs) and examined the added value for improving classification performance. Main results. Mean classification accuracies of 94%, 92% and 82% were achieved with CSP, SPoC, cSPoC, respectively. These methods outperformed the approaches that did not use spatial filtering and they extracted physiologically plausible components. The performance of the unsupervised cSPoC is significantly increased by augmenting it with PPM features. Significance. Our analyses ensured that the signal sources used for classification were of cortical origin and not contaminated with artifacts. Our findings show that workload states can be successfully differentiated from brain signals, even when less and less information from the experimental paradigm is used, thus paving the way for real-world applications in which label information may be noisy or entirely unavailable.

  6. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  7. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  8. Role of Academic Managers in Workload and Performance Management of Academic Staff: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…

  9. The Use of the Dynamic Solution Space to Assess Air Traffic Controller Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Engelbronner, J.G.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; De Stigter, S.; Huisman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic capacity is mainly bound by air traffic controller workload. In order to effectively find solutions for this problem, off-line pre-experimental workload assessment methods are desirable. In order to better understand the workload associated with air traffic control, previous research int

  10. Cockpit Display of Traffic Information and the Measurement of Pilot Workload: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    34total" workload on the human organism, human behavior, and subjective feeling . Psychophysical workload, induced by an activity, will not only depend...rating was used to record variations in the subjective feeling of workload. Results of subjective ratings have been related to different measures of

  11. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  12. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  13. Integrated Evaluation of Air Traffic Controller Workload Based on Matter-Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; HAN Song-chen

    2008-01-01

    A model for evaluating the controller workload was presented based on matter-element analysis, particularly from a man-machine-environment system engineering perspective. On the basis of a questionnaire survey, 18 kinds of indexes which influence the controller workload were determined. By establishing the classical field and node field of the controller workload, the correlation function of the controller workload grade was obtained; then the correlation degree and estimated grade of controller workload were given. A case study verifies the feasibility of the proposed evaluation method.

  14. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  15. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Signal probability effects on high-workload vigilance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G

    1996-09-01

    Signal probability is an important influence on vigilance. Typically, higher signal probability is associated with higher hit rate, lower response criterion, and lower response:signal ratio. However, signal probability effects on demanding, high-workload vigilance tasks have not been investigated. It is believed that attentional resources become depleted during performance of such tasks, leading to perceptual sensitivity decrements. Forty subjects performed high- (.35) and low- (.10) probability versions of a demanding vigilance task. Results differed in two important respects from those previously obtained with less demanding tasks. First, the decrement in perceptual sensitivity over time was greater for the high-probability task. Second, there were no effects of signal probability on response criterion. Subjective workload was higher for the high-probability task. Implications of the data for resource-depletion and expectancy theories of vigilance are discussed.

  17. A framework for database optimization and workload control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES JR., A. C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, database optimizers take advantage of indexes and materialized views (MVs to produce query execution plans. While indexes and MVs can speed up the execution of queries, there are costs to store and manage them. This paper presents a mathematical model and a greedy implementation to recommend a set of indexes and MVs in order to optimize the database, given a database workload and a disk space constraint. Our approach is generic, so it can be used to any relational database system that takes advantage of MVs in plan selection. While it was developed for frequently updated databases, it also produced interesting results in read only databases and to estimate the behavior of new databases (with predefined workloads.

  18. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  19. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Dokeroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose.

  20. Model-based estimation and prediction of task-imposed mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, A. M.; Lyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mental workload has been an area of intensive research for better than a decade. One specific area of interest in aircrew related workload research is concerned with the development of quantitative indices of workload in aircraft piloting tasks. This paper presents a model-based approach for quantifying mental workload in operational terms. The suggested modeling framework is based on an interpreted Petri net characterization of a task in which 'places' are equated to specific task-related activities and 'transitions' are viewed as internal or external forcing events. It is shown that within this framework quantitative assessments can be made of both cumulative and instantaneous workload associated with the performance of a task and its individual component subtasks. It is suggested that insights gained from analyzing task-specific workload within this modeling paradigm can suggest plausible explanations for reconciling discrepancies between subjectively elicited workload estimates and behavioral/performance measures.

  1. [patient Profile And Nursing Workload At The Nephrology Unit].

    OpenAIRE

    Trepichio,Priscilla Branco; Guirardello,Edinêis de Brito; Duran,Erika Christiane Marocco; de Brito, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney failure (CKF), which is frequently silent, can lead to considerable changes in the lives of patients. Depending on the stage, hospitalization and hours of nursing care are required to ensure medical and surgical treatment. The aim of this descriptive and quantitative study is to measure nursing workload at a nephrology unit based on daily application of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) for 47 consecutive days. Patients were mostly young male adults in the chronic stage of the...

  2. Efficient mental workload estimation using task-independent EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. N.; Charbonnier, S.; Campagne, A.; Bonnet, S.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Mental workload is frequently estimated by EEG-based mental state monitoring systems. Usually, these systems use spectral markers and event-related potentials (ERPs). To our knowledge, no study has directly compared their performance for mental workload assessment, nor evaluated the stability in time of these markers and of the performance of the associated mental workload estimators. This study proposes a comparison of two processing chains, one based on the power in five frequency bands, and one based on ERPs, both including a spatial filtering step (respectively CSP and CCA), an FLDA classification and a 10-fold cross-validation. Approach. To get closer to a real life implementation, spectral markers were extracted from a short window (i.e. towards reactive systems) that did not include any motor activity and the analyzed ERPs were elicited by a task-independent probe that required a reflex-like answer (i.e. close to the ones required by dead man’s vigilance devices). The data were acquired from 20 participants who performed a Sternberg memory task for 90 min (i.e. 2/6 digits to memorize) inside which a simple detection task was inserted. The results were compared both when the testing was performed at the beginning and end of the session. Main results. Both chains performed significantly better than random; however the one based on the spectral markers had a low performance (60%) and was not stable in time. Conversely, the ERP-based chain gave very high results (91%) and was stable in time. Significance. This study demonstrates that an efficient and stable in time workload estimation can be achieved using task-independent spatially filtered ERPs elicited in a minimally intrusive manner.

  3. Medical Resident Workload at a Multidisciplinary Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sadeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical resident workload has been shown to be associated with learning efficiency and patient satisfaction. However, there is limited evidence about it in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the medical resident workload in a multidisciplinary teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran.Methods: All medical residents at Shariati Hospital, a teaching hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Science, who were working between November and December 2011 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A self–reported questionnaire was used to gather information about their duty hours (including daily activities and shifts and financial issues.Results:135 (52.5% out of 257 residents responded to the questionnaire. 72 (53.3% residents were in surgical departments and 63 (46.7% were in non-surgical departments. Mean duty hours per month were significantly higher in surgical (350.8 ±76.7 than non-surgical (300.6±74.2 departments (p=0.001. Three cardiology (a non-surgical group residents (5.7% and 30 residents (41% in surgical groups (p<0.001 declared a number of “on-calls in the hospital” more than the approved number in the curriculum. The majority of residents (97.8% declared that their salary was not sufficient to manage their lives and they needed other financial resources. Conclusion: Medical residents at teaching hospitals in Iran suffer from high workloads and low income. There is a need to reduce medical resident workload and increase salary to improve worklife balance and finances.

  4. Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Tempe, Arizona 95281 TASK Pilots at various levels of experience will fly simulated hostile threat missions in the A-10 or F-16 versions of the ASPT ...value of the tones. DEPENDENT VARIABLES ASPT computes several indices of mission performance. The primary thrust of the present research is to relate...physiological indices of mental workload to ASPT performance variables. The physiological variables of greatest initial interest are heart rate, pulse

  5. [Patient profile and nursing workload at the nephrology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepichio, Priscilla Branco; Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito; Duran, Erika Christiane Marocco; de Brito, Ana Paula

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney failure (CKF), which is frequently silent, can lead to considerable changes in the lives of patients. Depending on the stage, hospitalization and hours of nursing care are required to ensure medical and surgical treatment. The aim of this descriptive and quantitative study is to measure nursing workload at a nephrology unit based on daily application of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) for 47 consecutive days. Patients were mostly young male adults in the chronic stage of the disease or admitted for kidney transplant. A total of 833 observations were obtained from 62 patients. The resulting NAS workload upon admission was 52%, corresponding to 12.5 hours of care per patient for 24 hours, which is similar to the workload found in intensive care units. This profile allows calculation of nursing work hours required for each patient and is a valuable tool for nursing managers when determining the number of staff members required to ensure assistance. Other studies should be conducted for clinical validation.

  6. Implementing Workload Postponing In Cloudsim to Maximize Renewable Energy Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enida Sheme

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green datacenters has become a major research area among researchers in academy and industry. One of the recent approaches getting higher attention is supplying datacenters with renewable sources of energy, leading to cleaner and more sustainable datacenters. However, this path poses new challenges. The main problem with existing renewable energy technologies is high variability, which means high fluctuation of available energy during different time periods on a day, month or year. In our paper, we address the issue of better managing datacenter workload in order to achieve higher utilization of available renewable energy. We implement an algorithm in CloudSim simulator which decides to postpone or urgently run a specific job asking for datacenter resources, based on job’s deadline and available solar energy. The aim of this algorithm is to make workload energy consumption through 24 hours match as much as possible the solar energy availability in 24 hours. Two typical, clear and cloudy days, are taken in consideration for simulation. The results from our experiments show that, for the chosen workload model, jobs are better managed by postponing or urgently running them, in terms of leveraging available solar energy. This yields up to 17% higher utilization of daily solar energy.

  7. Workload-Aware Tree Construction Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayiram Kavitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks play a vital role in applications like disaster management and human relief, habitat monitoring, studying the weather and eco systems, etc. Since the location of deployment of these WSNs is usually remote, the source of energy is restricted to battery. A Significant amount of work has been done by researchers in the past to achieve energy efficiency in WSNs. In this paper we propose a scheme to optimize the power utilization in a WSN. Many of the WSN applications form a tree topology for communication. In a WSN, that adopts tree topology, it is observed that the nodes at higher levels of the tree tend to consume more power when compared to those at lowerlevels. In our proposed workload-aware query/result routing tree construction scheme, we construct thefinal routing tree by keeping in mind the workload of nodes at various levels of the tree. This way, the tree construction takes place with workload at each level being evenly distributed among the nodes at that level. The proposed approach not only increases the lifetime of the network, but also utilizes the battery power optimally. Simulation results show a considerable increase in the lifetime, and effectiveness of the wireless senor network, as a result of applying our proposed tree construction technique.

  8. Driver's workload comparison in waste collection vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza

    2016-10-01

    This paper compares the workload of the drivers for a waste collection benchmark problem. The problem involves ten data sets with different number of customers to be served and different number of disposal facilities available. Previous studies proposed a heuristic algorithm, namely Different Initial Customer (DIC) to solve the problem by constructing initial vehicles routes for the drivers with two main objectives; to minimize the total distance travelled and to minimize the total number of vehicles needed to collect the waste. The results from DIC compared well with other solutions in the literature. However, the balance of the workload among the vehicle drivers is not considered in the solutions. Thus in this paper, we evaluate the quality of the solutions in terms of the total number of customers served by each driver. Then the computational result is compared in terms of the total distance travelled which have been presented in a previous study. Comparison results show that the workload of the drivers are unbalance in terms of these two factors that may cause dissatisfaction among the drivers as well as to the managament.

  9. Intrahospital transfers and the impact on nursing workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Roche, Michael A; Duffield, Christine; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-04-05

    To determine the rate of patient moves and the impact on nurses' time. Bed shortages and strategies designed to increase patient flow have led to a global increase in patient transfers between wards. The impact of transferring patients between wards and between beds within a ward on nurses' workload has not previously been measured. A two-stage sequential study. Retrospective analysis of hospital data and a prospective observational-timing study. Secondary analysis of an administrative data set to inform the rate of ward and bed transfers (n = 34,715) was undertaken followed by an observational-timing study of nurses' activities associated with patient transfers (n = 75). Over 10,000 patients were moved 34,715 times in 1 year which equates to an average of 2.4 transfers per patient. On average, patient transfers took 42 min and bed transfers took 11 min of nurses' time. Based on the frequency of patient moves, 11.3 full-time equivalent nurses are needed to move patients within the site hospital each month. Transferring patients is workload intensive on nurses' time and should be included in nursing workload measurement systems. Nurses at the site hospital spend over 1700 hr each month on activities associated with transferring patients, meaning that less time is available for nursing care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A Procedure for Collecting Mental Workload Data During an Experiment That Is Comparable to IMPRINT Workload Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Resource Theory ( MRT ). According to MRT , human mental resources for handling tasks are limited. When an individual is required to perform multiple...a MRT workload analysis in IMPRINT, analysts begin by building a task-network model to represent the functions and tasks individuals perform as they...feeling in your mind at the time the simulation was paused. 1 2 3 4 5 1 = Nothing to do. Rather boring. 2 = More than enough time for all tasks

  12. A systematic review of time studies to assess the impact of patient transfers on nurse workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Duffield, Christine M; Gallagher, Robyn; Roche, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Patients in hospital are increasingly being moved between clinical units and between bedspaces; however, the impact of patient transfers and bedspace moves on nurses' workload is not known. Time studies are an established observational research method that can be used to determine the duration of time taken to perform an activity or process. This review systematically searched four databases for literature published between 2000 and 2013 for observational time study techniques and patient transfers as a nurse activity. Eleven publications from three countries were included in the review. All studies used timing techniques to explore nurse work associated with the transfer process. The review highlights the duration of time spent by nurses on certain aspects of the transfer process. However, as few studies published results from timings, the impact on nurse time is likely to be higher than indicated. Further research is recommended.

  13. Workload and availability of technology in metropolitan community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrepnek, Grant H; Armstrong, Edward P; Malone, Daniel C; Abarca, Jacob; Murphy, John E; Grizzle, Amy J; Rehfeld, Rick A; Woosley, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    To assess workload characteristics and the presence of prescription processing technologies within metropolitan community pharmacies in the United States. Cross-sectional postal survey. 18 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. 3000 managers located in community pharmacies processing at least 500 third-party claims per month for four major pharmacy benefits managers. 34-item survey instrument designed to collect data about the pharmacy including demographics, workload issues, handling of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and pharmacists' attitudes toward computerized DDI alerts. Workload (hours of operation, prescription volume, staffing hours, prescription processing intensity) and prescription processing technologies (telecommunication systems, automated counting/filling or verification devices, number of computer terminals, and computer software vendors). Overall, 736 usable surveys were returned (response rate, 25.3%). On average, respondents reported a volume of approximately 1340 prescriptions per week processed at a rate of almost 17 prescriptions per hour. Independent pharmacies processed approximately 3 prescriptions per hour more than chain pharmacies even though a statistically equal or slightly lower proportion of those pharmacies had automated technologies. The presence of technology was generally high for all pharmacies, particularly countertop tablet/capsule-counting devices and telefacsimile machines. The most common software vendors differed considerably between chain and independent pharmacies. The number of prescriptions processed per hour and number of technologies available increased with the total weekly volume of prescriptions processed in this national survey. A majority of pharmacies had at least one type of automated prescription processing technology and an automated telecommunication system for accepting new or refill prescriptions. Independent pharmacies processed more prescriptions per hour than did chains but did so

  14. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  15. Psychic workloads and strain processes in nursing workers of Brazilian university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininel, Vivian Aline; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2011-01-01

    To identify the work process, the psychic workloads and the strains generated in nursing workers. The study was developed in five Brazilian university hospitals. The sample was composed by 62 nursing workers and the data collection was done by focal group technique, followed by the application of a collective inquire. The data were quantitatively described and systematized according to a thematic analysis. The study population represented 35,37% of the hospital workforce in national setting. The workers mentioned are exposure to several kinds of psychic workload and link them to with others workloads, highlighting the strain processes resulting from this kind of workload, such stress, fatigue, complaints of gastritis and headaches. Nursing workers are exposed to several workloads in the hospital environment, especially psychic workloads. This exposure starts strain processes that compromise the health and quality of life, signaling the necessity of interventions in this reality.

  16. Evaluating and Optimizing the NERSC Workload on Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Taylor [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Cook, Brandon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Doerfler, Douglas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Friesen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); He, Yun [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Kurth, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Koskela, Tuomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lobet, Mathieu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Malas, Tareq [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ovsyannikov, Andrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vincenti, Henri [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Carrier, Pierre [Cray, Inc.; Wichmann, Nathan [Cray, Inc.; Wagner, Marcus [Cray, Inc.; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Kerr, Christopher [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2016-01-01

    NERSC has partnered with 20 representative application teams to evaluate performance on the Xeon-Phi Knights Landing architecture and develop an application-optimization strategy for the greater NERSC workload on the recently installed Cori system. In this article, we present early case studies and summarized results from a subset of the 20 applications highlighting the impact of important architecture differences between the Xeon-Phi and traditional Xeon processors. We summarize the status of the applications and describe the greater optimization strategy that has formed.

  17. Evaluating and optimizing the NERSC workload on Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Cook, B; Deslippe, J; Doerfler, D; Friesen, B; He, Y; Kurth, T; Koskela, T; Lobet, M; Malas, T; Oliker, L; Ovsyannikov, A; Sarje, A; Vay, JL; Vincenti, H; Williams, S; Carrier, P; Wichmann, N; Wagner, M; Kent, P; Kerr, C; Dennis, J

    2017-01-30

    NERSC has partnered with 20 representative application teams to evaluate performance on the Xeon-Phi Knights Landing architecture and develop an application-optimization strategy for the greater NERSC workload on the recently installed Cori system. In this article, we present early case studies and summarized results from a subset of the 20 applications highlighting the impact of important architecture differences between the Xeon-Phi and traditional Xeon processors. We summarize the status of the applications and describe the greater optimization strategy that has formed.

  18. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  19. A model for developing job rotation schedules that eliminate sequential high workloads and minimize between-worker variability in cumulative daily workloads: Application to automotive assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Young; Ko, Jeonghan; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of study is to suggest a job rotation schedule by developing a mathematical model in order to reduce cumulative workload from the successive use of the same body region. Workload assessment using rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was performed for the model in three automotive assembly lines of chassis, trim, and finishing to identify which body part exposed to relatively high workloads at workstations. The workloads were incorporated to the model to develop a job rotation schedule. The proposed schedules prevent the exposure to high workloads successively on the same body region and minimized between-worker variance in cumulative daily workload. Whereas some of workers were successively assigned to high workload workstation under no job rotation and serial job rotation. This model would help to reduce the potential for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) without additional cost for engineering work, although it may need more computational time and relative complex job rotation sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hong, Ted [STANFORD; Ackaret, Jerry [IBM; Sonny, Rao [IBM; Subhasish, Mitra [STANFORD; Pia, Sanda [IBM

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  1. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  2. Electronic Health Record Alert-Related Workload as a Predictor of Burnout in Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-05

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to increase physician workload. One EHR feature that contributes to increased workload is asynchronous alerts (also known as inbox notifications) related to test results, referral responses, medication refill requests, and messages from physicians and other health care professionals. This alert-related workload results in negative cognitive outcomes, but its effect on affective outcomes, such as burnout, has been understudied. To examine EHR alert-related workload (both objective and subjective) as a predictor of burnout in primary care providers (PCPs), in order to ultimately inform interventions aimed at reducing burnout due to alert workload. A cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group of 16 PCPs at a large medical center in the southern United States. Subjective, but not objective, alert workload was related to two of the three dimensions of burnout, including physical fatigue (p = 0.02) and cognitive weariness (p = 0.04), when controlling for organizational tenure. To reduce alert workload and subsequent burnout, participants indicated a desire to have protected time for alert management, fewer unnecessary alerts, and improvements to the EHR system. Burnout associated with alert workload may be in part due to subjective differences at an individual level, and not solely a function of the objective work environment. This suggests the need for both individual and organizational-level interventions to improve alert workload and subsequent burnout. Additional research should confirm these findings in larger, more representative samples.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Integrally Geared Compressors with Varying Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrally geared compressors are characterized by compact and high efficiency machines, which are widely used in modern processing industries. As an important part of integrally geared compressors, a geared rotor-bearing system exhibits complicated dynamic behaviors. When running at rated speeds, a coupling system likely produces resonance with an adjusted workload, and a critical load phenomenon occurs. The dynamic coefficients of bearings, axial force and torque, and gear meshing stiffness vary with workload because of the interaction between rotors. In this study, a dynamic model of a geared rotor-bearing system influenced by the dynamic coefficients of bearings, axial force and torque, and gear meshing stiffness is developed. The dynamic responses of the coupling system are calculated and analyzed by using a typical five-shaft integrally geared compressor as an example. The effects of different parameters on the dynamic behaviors of the proposed system are also considered in the discussion. The geared rotor-bearing system is further investigated to examine the failure mechanism of the critical load.

  4. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Hamar, V.

    2012-12-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  5. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain th...

  6. Aortic Wave Dynamics and Its Influence on Left Ventricular Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2010-11-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that hypertension plays a key role in development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure mostly due to increased LV workload. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and treat abnormal high LV workload at early stages. The pumping mechanism of the heart is pulsatile, thus it sends pressure and flow wave into the compliant aorta. The wave dynamics in the aorta is dominated by interplay of heart rate (HR), aortic rigidity, and location of reflection sites. We hypothesized that for a fixed cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR), interplay of HR and aortic compliance can create conditions that minimize LV power requirement. We used a computational approach to test our hypothesis. Finite element method with direct coupling method of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was used. Blood was assumed to be incompressible Newtonian fluid and aortic wall was considered elastic isotropic. Simulations were performed for various heart rates and aortic rigidities while inflow wave, CO, and PR were kept constant. For any aortic compliance, LV power requirement becomes minimal at a specific heart rate. The minimum shifts to higher heart rates as aortic rigidity increases.

  7. Generating Shifting Workloads to Benchmark Adaptability in Relational Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Tilmann; Lang, Andreas; Hackl, Thomas; Sick, Bernhard; Kosch, Harald

    A large body of research concerns the adaptability of database systems. Many commercial systems already contain autonomic processes that adapt configurations as well as data structures and data organization. Yet there is virtually no possibility for a just measurement of the quality of such optimizations. While standard benchmarks have been developed that simulate real-world database applications very precisely, none of them considers variations in workloads produced by human factors. Today’s benchmarks test the performance of database systems by measuring peak performance on homogeneous request streams. Nevertheless, in systems with user interaction access patterns are constantly shifting. We present a benchmark that simulates a web information system with interaction of large user groups. It is based on the analysis of a real online eLearning management system with 15,000 users. The benchmark considers the temporal dependency of user interaction. Main focus is to measure the adaptability of a database management system according to shifting workloads. We will give details on our design approach that uses sophisticated pattern analysis and data mining techniques.

  8. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  9. Nurses' workload and its relation with physiological stress reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Marchi Barcellos Dalri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relation between the workload and the physiological stress reactions among nurses working at a hospital service.METHODS: cross-sectional, correlational, quantitative study, involving 95 nurses, in 2011 and 2012. Spearman's bivariate Correlation Test was used.RESULTS: most subjects are female, between 23 and 61 years old and working between 21 and 78 hours per week. The most frequent physiological reactions were back pain, fatigue/exhaustion, stiff neck and stomach acidity, with 46.3% of the subjects presenting low and 42.1% moderate physiological stress responses. No correlation was found between the workload and the physiological stress responses.CONCLUSION: although most of the nurses work more than 36 hours/week, physiologically, they do not present high reaction levels in response to stress. These workers deal with conflicts in the vertical and horizontal relations between professionals, family members and patients. In that sense, taking care of professionals who offer health services can be a fundamental strategy, as good user care mainly depends on healthy teams.

  10. Bio-inspired diversity for increasing attacker workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Much of the traffic in modern computer networks is conducted between clients and servers, rather than client-toclient. As a result, servers represent a high-value target for collection and analysis of network traffic. As they reside at a single network location (i.e. IP/MAC address) for long periods of time. Servers present a static target for surveillance, and a unique opportunity to observe the network traffic. Although servers present a heightened value for attackers, the security community as a whole has shifted more towards protecting clients in recent years leaving a gap in coverage. In addition, servers typically remain active on networks for years, potentially decades. This paper builds on previous work that demonstrated a proof of concept leveraging existing technology for increasing attacker workload. Here we present our clean slate approach to increasing attacker workload through a novel hypervisor and micro-kernel, utilizing next generation virtualization technology to create synthetic diversity of the server's presence including the hardware components.

  11. INTEGRATION OF PANDA WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITH SUPERCOMPUTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Mashinistov, R. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Novikov, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Poyda, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Ryabinkin, E. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Teslyuk, A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Tsulaia, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Velikhov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Wen, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the funda- mental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the dis- covery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data cen- ters are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Com- puting Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single- threaded workloads in parallel on Titan s multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of

  12. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  13. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  15. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  16. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, R. van; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Noordzij, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time, and to further improve

  17. Examining the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Visual and Mental Workload Using Ocular Activity Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    electrodermal activity , topographically recorded electrical brain activity , and subjective measures of workload were recorded. In order to ensure...1994, 369, 742–744. Lowenstein, O.; Loewenfield, I. E. The Sleep -waking Cycle and Pupillary Activity . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1964...Examining the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Visual and Mental Workload Using Ocular Activity Variables by Michael Sage Jessee

  18. Modest associations between self-reported physical workload and neck trouble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jonas Winkel; Hartvigsen, Jan; Lings, Svend

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between self-reported physical workload and neck trouble (NT) in twins. Additionally, to explore whether the relationship between physical workload and NT is influenced by genetic factors. METHODS: A twin control study was performed within a population-...

  19. On-line driver workload estimation : Effects of road situation and age on secondary task measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a driver-car interface that adapts the presentation of messages generated by in-vehicle information systems to driver workload, two experiments investigated potential determinants of driver visual and mental workload as indicated by performance on two secondary tasks. Experiment

  20. PanDA: Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Argonne, ANL; The ATLAS collaboration; Arlington, UTA

    2012-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is the one of the high-performance Workload Management Systems that is aimed to meet production and analysis requirements for data-driven workloads capable of operating at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale.

  1. An Investigation of the Workload and Job Satisfaction of North Carolina's Special Education Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Jennifer Brown

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: special education directors, workload, job satisfaction, special education administration. The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to investigate employee characteristics, workload, and job satisfaction of special education directors employed by local education agencies in North Carolina (N = 115). This study illuminates the…

  2. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  3. The Influence of Nursing Faculty Workloads on Faculty Retention: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty workloads have come to the forefront of discussion in nursing education. The National League of Nursing (NLN) has made nursing faculty workloads a high priority in nursing education. Included in the priorities are areas of creating reform through innovations in nursing education, evaluating reform through evaluation research, and…

  4. Principal Workload: Components, Determinants and Coping Strategies in an Era of Standardization and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In order to fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge about the characteristics of principal workload, the purpose of this paper is to explore the components of principal workload as well as its determinants and the coping strategies commonly used by principals to face this personal state. Design/methodology/approach:…

  5. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  6. Effects of speech versus tactile driver support messages on driving behaviour and workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Winsum, W. van

    2001-01-01

    In a driving simulator experiment, effects were tested of an integrated support system on driving behaviour, user acceptance and workload. An alternative workload measure was used based upon peripheral vision. Two modes of support (tactile and speech messages) were compared to a control condition wi

  7. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  8. Educational workload and its psychophysiological impact on student organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Oleksandr; Tsarik, Oleksandra

    2012-01-01

    It is described the method to study students' stability to perform learning tasks under impact of internal and external factors that includes special tests of performance (cognitive, perceptual, strength and mobility of neural processes, selfassessment, questionnaires) and measurement of physiological parameters in parallel (EEG and/or REG, heart rate, blood pressure). It was confirmed high self-descriptiveness of fluctuation structure of test tasks performance in relation to the physiological "cost" of performance and subjective assessment of mood and capacity. It was revealed a high relationship both rate and accuracy indices of test performance with parameters of speed and density of solar wind that has individual dependence on lag between those parameters with time and had more significant meaning comparing to over-week education workload.

  9. Radiographic workload and use factors for orthopedic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C.; Glaze, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of technique factors at 9 radiographic installations dedicated to orthopedic radiography have been made. Monthly area radiation measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters were made at three of these facilities. The results of these observations and measurements suggest that current NCRP recommended assumptions utilized in protective barrier computations result in considerably more shielding than is necessary. We observed an average workload of 224 mA min/wk and a maximum weekly average of 670 mA min/wk. The use factor for the chest wall averaged 5%. That for all other vertical barriers was less than 1%. The average operating potential was 75 kVp. Room radiation measurements confirm the suggestion that at least two of the walls and the control booth barrier in an orthopedic radiographic facility may be considered secondary barriers.

  10. Workload-aware VM Scheduling on Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoon Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In virtualized environments, performance interference between virtual machines (VMs is a key challenge. In order to mitigate resource contention, an efficient VM scheduling is positively necessary.In this paper, we propose a workload-aware VM scheduler on multi-core systems, which finds a systemwide mapping of VMs to physical cores. Our work aims not only at minimizing the number of used hosts,but at maximizing the system throughput. To achieve the first goal, our scheduler dynamically adjusts a set of used hosts. To achieve the second goal, it maps each VM on a physical core where the physical core and its host most sufficiently meet the resource requirements of the VM. Evaluation demonstrates that our scheduling ensures efficient use of data center resources.

  11. Rheoencephalographic and electroencephalographic measures of cognitive workload: analytical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Montgomery, R. W.; Guisado, R.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation demonstrates the feasibility of mental workload assessment by rheoencephalographic (REG) and multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. During the performance of this research, unique testing, analytical and display procedures were developed for REG and EEG monitoring that extend the current state of the art and provide valuable tools for the study of cerebral circulatory and neural activity during cognition. REG records are analyzed to provide indices of the right and left hemisphere hemodynamic changes that take place during each test sequence. The EEG data are modeled using regression techniques and mathematically transformed to provide energy-density distributions of the scalp electrostatic field. These procedures permit concurrent REG/EEG cognitive testing not possible with current techniques. The introduction of a system for recording and analysis of cognitive REG/EEG test sequences facilitates the study of learning and memory disorders, dementia and other encephalopathies.

  12. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  13. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  14. Patients' characteristics and healthcare providers' perceived workload in French hospital emergency wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Sandrine; Moulin, Pierre; Brangier, Eric; Gilibert, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how patients' characteristics increase healthcare providers' perceived workload. Patients' characteristics and dependency, technical and relational complexities of care seem to increase healthcare providers' workload. As workload is multidimensional, we examine which dimensions are affected by patients' characteristics. Our methodology is based on 121 patients assessed with the NASA task load index (NASA-TLX) and a questionnaire filled in by 57 health providers in 2 emergency wards in French hospital settings, to evaluate their attitudes to different patients' characteristics. Our results show that physical demand is the dimension most affected by patients' behaviour and characteristics. Next, we observe that workload increases more due to patients' behaviour than their social characteristics. We propose that a regulation mechanism be taken into account in further research, using methodology based on observations to identify how healthcare providers might adapt their activities to compensate for workload variations caused by patients.

  15. Impact of computerized information systems on workload in operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, R J

    2009-03-01

    The number of operating rooms and intensive care departments equipped with a clinical information system (CIS) is rapidly expanding. Amongst the putative advantages of such an installation, reduction in workload for the clinician is one of the most appealing. The scarce studies looking at workload variations associated with the implementation of a CIS, only focus on direct workload discarding indirect changes in workload. Descriptions of the various methods to quantify workload are provided. The hypothesis that a third generation CIS can reduce documentation time for ICU nurses and increase time they spend on patient care, is supported by recent literature. Though it seems obvious to extrapolate these advantages of a CIS to the anesthesiology department or physicians in the intensive care, studies examining this assumption are scarce.

  16. Severity and workload related to adverse events in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Clarita Terra Rodrigues; Dell'Acqua, Magda Cristina Queiroz; Castro, Meire Cristina Novelli E; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether an increase in patient severity and nursing workload are correlated to a greater incidence of adverse events (AEs) in critical patients. A prospective single cohort study was performed on a sample of 138 patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 166 AEs, occurred, affecting 50.7% of the patients. Increased patient severity presented a direct relationship to the probability of AEs occurring. However, nursing workload did not present a statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of AEs. The results cast light on the importance of using evaluation tools by the nursing personnel in order to optimize their daily activities and focus on patient safety. Analisar se o aumento da gravidade do paciente e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem está relacionado à maior incidência de Eventos Adversos (EAs) em pacientes críticos. Estudo de coorte única, prospectivo, com amostra de 138 pacientes internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Ao todo, foram evidenciados 166 EAs, que acometeram 50,7% dos pacientes. O aumento da gravidade do paciente apresentou relação direta com a chance de ocorrência de EAs. Entretanto, a carga de trabalho de enfermagem não apresentou relação estatisticamente significativa, na ocorrência de EAs. Os resultados permitem refletir acerca da importância da equipe de enfermagem, em utilizar instrumentos de avaliação, com o objetivo de melhorar e planejar suas ações diárias, com foco na segurança do paciente.

  17. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. Analysis of 197 measures of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revealed a mean score of 43.09% and an association between the performance status of patients undergoing palliative care and the mean NAS scores. The results of the study point to the need to resize the team of the unit. The NAS has proven to be a useful tool in oncologic clinical units for patients undergoing palliative care. Verificar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem requerida por pacientes com câncer sob cuidados paliativos e possíveis associações entre as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, transversal, prospectivo, desenvolvido na clínica de Tecido Ósseo Conectivo (TOC) da Unidade II do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos. A análise de 197 medidas do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revelou um escore médio de 43,09% e uma associação entre a performance status de pacientes em cuidados paliativos com os valores médios do NAS. Os resultados do estudo apontam para a necessidade de redimensionamento da equipe da Unidade. O NAS mostrou-se um instrumento passível de utilização em unidades clínicas oncológicas, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos.

  18. Effects of gestational age at birth on cognitive performance: a function of cognitive workload demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jaekel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA² (quadratic term on low cognitive workload: R²  = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R²  = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R²  = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation and moderately (32-33 weeks gestation preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5% compared with moderate (8.1% and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

  19. Framework for Analyzing Android I/O Stack Behavior: From Generating theWorkload to Analyzing the Trace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sooman Jeong; Kisung Lee; Jungwoo Hwang; Seongjin Lee; Youjip Won

    2013-01-01

    .... The AndroStep consists of Mobibench (workload generator), MOST (Mobile Storage Analyzer), and Mobigen (workload replayer). Mobibench is an Android app that generates a filesystem as well as SQLite database operations...

  20. Framework for Analyzing Android I/O Stack Behavior: From Generating the Workload to Analyzing the Trace[dagger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sooman Jeong; Kisung Lee; Jungwoo Hwang; Seongjin Lee; Youjip Won

    2013-01-01

    .... The AndroStep consists of Mobibench (workload generator), MOST (Mobile Storage Analyzer), and Mobigen (workload replayer). Mobibench is an Android app that generates a filesystem as well as SQLite database operations...

  1. Allocation of Academic Workloads in the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, P. A.; Swanepoel, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a statistical analysis of the weekly working hours of academics in a Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at a South African university. The aim was to quantify, analyse and compare the workload of academic staff. Seventy-five academics self-reported on their workload by completing the workload measuring…

  2. Applying the workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method in Namibia: challenges and implications for human resources for health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As part of ongoing efforts to restructure the health sector and improve health care quality, the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) in Namibia sought to update staffing norms for health facilities. To establish an evidence base for the new norms, the MoHSS supported the first-ever national application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method, a human resource management tool developed by the World Health Organization. Application The WISN method calculates the number of health workers per cadre, based on health facility workload. It provides two indicators to assess staffing: (1) the gap/excess between current and required number of staff, and (2) the WISN ratio, a measure of workload pressure. Namibian WISN calculations focused on four cadres (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants) and all four levels of public facilities (clinics, health centers, district hospitals, intermediate hospitals). WISN steps included establishing a task force; conducting a regional pilot; holding a national validation workshop; field verifying data; collecting, uploading, processing, and analyzing data; and providing feedback to policy-makers. Challenges The task force faced two challenges requiring time and effort to solve: WISN software-related challenges and unavailability of some data at the national level. Findings WISN findings highlighted health worker shortages and inequities in their distribution. Overall, staff shortages are most profound for doctors and pharmacists. Although the country has an appropriate number of nurses, the nurse workforce is skewed towards hospitals, which are adequately or slightly overstaffed relative to nurses’ workloads. Health centers and, in particular, clinics both have gaps between current and required number of nurses. Inequities in nursing staff also exist between and within regions. Finally, the requirement for nurses varies greatly between less and more busy clinics (range = 1 to 7

  3. Applying the workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method in Namibia: challenges and implications for human resources for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuide, Pamela A; Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa; Forster, Norbert

    2013-12-10

    As part of ongoing efforts to restructure the health sector and improve health care quality, the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) in Namibia sought to update staffing norms for health facilities. To establish an evidence base for the new norms, the MoHSS supported the first-ever national application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method, a human resource management tool developed by the World Health Organization. The WISN method calculates the number of health workers per cadre, based on health facility workload. It provides two indicators to assess staffing: (1) the gap/excess between current and required number of staff, and (2) the WISN ratio, a measure of workload pressure. Namibian WISN calculations focused on four cadres (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants) and all four levels of public facilities (clinics, health centers, district hospitals, intermediate hospitals). WISN steps included establishing a task force; conducting a regional pilot; holding a national validation workshop; field verifying data; collecting, uploading, processing, and analyzing data; and providing feedback to policy-makers. The task force faced two challenges requiring time and effort to solve: WISN software-related challenges and unavailability of some data at the national level. WISN findings highlighted health worker shortages and inequities in their distribution. Overall, staff shortages are most profound for doctors and pharmacists. Although the country has an appropriate number of nurses, the nurse workforce is skewed towards hospitals, which are adequately or slightly overstaffed relative to nurses' workloads. Health centers and, in particular, clinics both have gaps between current and required number of nurses. Inequities in nursing staff also exist between and within regions. Finally, the requirement for nurses varies greatly between less and more busy clinics (range = 1 to 7) and health centers (range = 2 to 57). The utility of

  4. Relationship between workload and low back pain in assembly line workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work pressure and excessive workload can jeopardize and impair the people’s health. One of these impairments is musculoskeletal disorders. Among these disorders, low back pain is the most common and most costly problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between workload and prevalence of low back pain in assembly line workers of a car manufacturing factory. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 workers working in the assembly line of a factory. Data collection tools included three questionnaires: demographic questionnaire, NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential (T-test and One-way ANOVA statistics. Results: Of the workers, 72.5% were female. The average total workload was 71.42% and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in low back was 43.37%. The results of the analysis of relationship between workload and the prevalence of low back pain showed a significant relationship between physical/ mental workload and the incidence of low back pain (P<0.05. Conclusion: The more is the workload on the person, the greater is the risk of low back pain. Measures such as increasing the number of workers to distribute the workload, slowing the work pace, having work-rest periods for workers, improving psychological conditions of work, etc. can be useful in this regard.

  5. Hysteresis in Mental Workload and Task Performance: The Influence of Demand Transitions and Task Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Reinier J; Sawyer, Ben D; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib; Hancock, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task. Participants were instructed to prioritize driving or to prioritize both tasks equally. Three experimental conditions with low, high, and low task demands were constructed by manipulating the frequency of lane changing. Multiple measures of subjective mental workload were taken during experimental conditions. Contrary to our prediction, no hysteretic effects were found after the high- to low-demand transition. However, a hysteretic effect in mental workload was found within the high-demand condition, which degraded toward the end of the high condition. Priority instructions were not reflected in performance. Online assessment of both performance and mental workload demonstrates the transient nature of hysteretic effects. An explanation for the observed hysteretic effect in mental workload is offered in terms of effort regulation. An informed arrival at the scene is important in safety operations, but peaks in mental workload should be avoided to prevent buildup of fatigue. Therefore, communication technologies should incorporate the historical profile of task demand. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  7. ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    each staff member is available to work but at zero workload. Task workload demand is the rank order of the mental demand, or VACP value, of each...when a staff member experiences zero VACP workload and is found by adding all of the idle time a worker experiences in one week and dividing that...0.05 0.95 5% Room Prep 0.05 0.70 6% Perform Admission Orders 1.35 6.90 18% Shift Ldr Misc Checks 0.31 4.06 8% Perform Discharge Orders 0.62 1.59 39

  8. Estimating radiological workload in operating robins; Estimacion de carga de trabajo radiologica en quirofanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Espizua, F. J.; Maneru Camara, F.; Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Forner Forner, A.

    2011-07-01

    The study of the shielding necessary in operating rooms which are used in X-ray arcs requires a knowledge of workload that is usually difficult to estimate. The national and international recommendations in this regard reflect conditions of use radiological rooms, which is far from the real-time fluoroscopy in the operating room. A realistic estimate of the workload ja crucial, especially considering that the walls of These units are built with leas and leas aLtenuaLing materials. The work consists of a collection of workload in operating rooms that are carried out interventions.

  9. Workload and cortisol levels in helicopter combat pilots during simulated flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Mas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.

  10. EEG BASED COGNITIVE WORKLOAD CLASSIFICATION DURING NASA MATB-II MULTITASKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the best possible input EEG feature for classification of the workload while designing load balancing logic for an automated operator. The input features compared in this study consisted of spectral features of Electroencephalography, objective scoring and subjective scoring. Method utilizes to identify best EEG feature as an input in Neural Network Classifiers for workload classification, to identify channels which could provide classification with the highest accuracy and for identification of EEG feature which could give discrimination among workload level without adding any classifiers. The result had shown Engagement Index is the best feature for neural network classification.

  11. An investigation of the 'von Restorff' phenomenon in post-test workload ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The von Restorff effect in post-task ratings of task difficulty is examined. Nine subjects performed a hovercraft simulation task which combined elements of skill-based tracking and rule- and knowledge-based process control for five days of one hour sessions. The effects of isolated increases in workload on rating of task performance, and on the number of command errors and river band hits are analyzed. It is observed that the position of the workload increase affects the number of bank hits and command errors. The data reveal that factors not directly related to the task performance influence subjective rating, and post-task ratings of workload are biased.

  12. An investigation of the 'von Restorff' phenomenon in post-test workload ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The von Restorff effect in post-task ratings of task difficulty is examined. Nine subjects performed a hovercraft simulation task which combined elements of skill-based tracking and rule- and knowledge-based process control for five days of one hour sessions. The effects of isolated increases in workload on rating of task performance, and on the number of command errors and river band hits are analyzed. It is observed that the position of the workload increase affects the number of bank hits and command errors. The data reveal that factors not directly related to the task performance influence subjective rating, and post-task ratings of workload are biased.

  13. Preliminary results of mental workload and task engagement assessment using electroencephalogram in a space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Zony, Abongwa N; de Leon, Pablo; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of subject's mental workload and task engagement assessment in an experimental space suit. We have quantified the mental workload and task engagement based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG signals were collected from subjects scalp using a commercial wireless EEG device in two experimental conditions - when subjects did not wear space suit (control condition) and when subjects wore space suit. Brain state changes were estimated and compared with the direct responses for different tasks and different conditions. We found that the spacesuit experiment introduced a greater mental workload where subject's stress levels were higher than control experiment.

  14. Workload Model Based Dynamic Adaptation of Social Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Masudul Alam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Internet of Things (SIoT has gained much interest among different research groups in recent times. As a key member of a smart city, the vehicular domain of SIoT (SIoV is also undergoing steep development. In the SIoV, vehicles work as sensor-hub to capture surrounding information using the in-vehicle and Smartphone sensors and later publish them for the consumers. A cloud centric cyber-physical system better describes the SIoV model where physical sensing-actuation process affects the cloud based service sharing or computation in a feedback loop or vice versa. The cyber based social relationship abstraction enables distributed, easily navigable and scalable peer-to-peer communication among the SIoV subsystems. These cyber-physical interactions involve a huge amount of data and it is difficult to form a real instance of the system to test the feasibility of SIoV applications. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to measure the workloads of various subsystems involved in the SIoV process. We present the basic model which is further extended to incorporate complex scenarios. We provide extensive simulation results for different parameter settings of the SIoV system. The findings of the analyses are further used to design example adaptation strategies for the SIoV subsystems which would foster deployment of intelligent transport systems.

  15. Workload Model Based Dynamic Adaptation of Social Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Masudul; Saini, Mukesh; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2015-09-15

    Social Internet of Things (SIoT) has gained much interest among different research groups in recent times. As a key member of a smart city, the vehicular domain of SIoT (SIoV) is also undergoing steep development. In the SIoV, vehicles work as sensor-hub to capture surrounding information using the in-vehicle and Smartphone sensors and later publish them for the consumers. A cloud centric cyber-physical system better describes the SIoV model where physical sensing-actuation process affects the cloud based service sharing or computation in a feedback loop or vice versa. The cyber based social relationship abstraction enables distributed, easily navigable and scalable peer-to-peer communication among the SIoV subsystems. These cyber-physical interactions involve a huge amount of data and it is difficult to form a real instance of the system to test the feasibility of SIoV applications. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to measure the workloads of various subsystems involved in the SIoV process. We present the basic model which is further extended to incorporate complex scenarios. We provide extensive simulation results for different parameter settings of the SIoV system. The findings of the analyses are further used to design example adaptation strategies for the SIoV subsystems which would foster deployment of intelligent transport systems.

  16. Exploiting Dynamic Workload Variation in Low Energy Preemptive Task Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Lap-Fai; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A novel energy reduction strategy to maximally exploit the dynamic workload variation is proposed for the offline voltage scheduling of preemptive systems. The idea is to construct a fully-preemptive schedule that leads to minimum energy consumption when the tasks take on approximately the average execution cycles yet still guarantees no deadline violation during the worst-case scenario. End-time for each sub-instance of the tasks obtained from the schedule is used for the on-line dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) of the tasks. For the tasks that normally require a small number of cycles but occasionally a large number of cycles to complete, such a schedule provides more opportunities for slack utilization and hence results in larger energy saving. The concept is realized by formulating the problem as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) optimization problem. Experimental results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the total energy consumption at runtime is reduced by as high as 60% for randomly generated task set...

  17. Single-pass memory system evaluation for multiprogramming workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Thomas M.; Hwu, Wen-Mei W.

    1990-01-01

    Modern memory systems are composed of levels of cache memories, a virtual memory system, and a backing store. Varying more than a few design parameters and measuring the performance of such systems has traditionally be constrained by the high cost of simulation. Models of cache performance recently introduced reduce the cost simulation but at the expense of accuracy of performance prediction. Stack-based methods predict performance accurately using one pass over the trace for all cache sizes, but these techniques have been limited to fully-associative organizations. This paper presents a stack-based method of evaluating the performance of cache memories using a recurrence/conflict model for the miss ratio. Unlike previous work, the performance of realistic cache designs, such as direct-mapped caches, are predicted by the method. The method also includes a new approach to the problem of the effects of multiprogramming. This new technique separates the characteristics of the individual program from that of the workload. The recurrence/conflict method is shown to be practical, general, and powerful by comparing its performance to that of a popular traditional cache simulator. The authors expect that the availability of such a tool will have a large impact on future architectural studies of memory systems.

  18. On the psychophysics of workload - Why bother with subjective measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.; Braune, R.

    1984-01-01

    Psychophysical functions describe the relationship between variations in the amplitude of a defined physical quantity and the psychological perception of these changes. Examples are brightness, loudness, and pain. The regularities of these relationships have been formulated into psychophysical laws. The measurement methodology of psychophysical scaling has been refined by the Harvard group led by Stevens (1957 and 1966), who proposed a power function as a general form for such laws. It is argued here that a similar scaling approach can be adapted to the measurement of workload and task demands based upon subjective estimates. The rationale is that these estimates, like other psychophysical judgments, reflect the individual's perception of the amount of processing resources that the subject invests to meet the demand imposed by a task. This approach was successfully applied to the assessment of 21 experimental conditions given to a group of 60 subjects. The paper discusses the main results of this effort and their implications to theory and application in human performance.

  19. Assessing effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Narendra; Manthalkar, Ramchandra; Joshi, Yashwant

    2017-06-01

    Recent research suggests that meditation affects the structure and function of the brain. Cognitive load can be handled in effective way by the meditators. EEG signals are used to quantify cognitive load. The research of investigating effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals in pre and post-meditation is an open problem. The subjects for this study are young healthy 11 engineering students from our institute. The focused attention meditation practice is used for this study. EEG signals are recorded at the beginning of meditation and after four weeks of regular meditation using EMOTIV device. The subjects practiced meditation daily 20 minutes for 4 weeks. The 7 level arithmetic additions of single digit (low level) to three digits with carry (high level) are presented as cognitive load. The cognitive load indices such as arousal index, performance enhancement, neural activity, load index, engagement, and alertness are evaluated in pre and post meditation. The cognitive indices are improved in post meditation data. Power Spectral Density (PSD) feature is compared between pre and post-meditation across all subjects. The result hints that the subjects were handling cognitive load without stress (ease of cognitive functioning increased for the same load) after 4 weeks of meditation.

  20. Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Kaushik [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2017-04-24

    We report on the activities and accomplishments of a four-year project (a three-year grant followed by a one-year no cost extension) to develop a next generation workload management system for Big Data. The new system is based on the highly successful PanDA software developed for High Energy Physics (HEP) in 2005. PanDA is used by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the AMS experiment at the space station. The program of work described here was carried out by two teams of developers working collaboratively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). These teams worked closely with the original PanDA team – for the sake of clarity the work of the next generation team will be referred to as the BigPanDA project. Their work has led to the adoption of BigPanDA by the COMPASS experiment at CERN, and many other experiments and science projects worldwide.

  1. Tracing the missing link between nursing workload and case mix groups: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpine, S; Maloney, S

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the creation of a nursing workload data base of over 40,000 inpatient records by the Hospital Medical Records Institute (HMRI). During the 1989-90 fiscal year, five Ontario hospitals (four teaching, one community) reported total hours of nursing on the HMRI abstract along with standard clinical and demographic information. The accuracy of nursing workload data varied across hospitals and seemed to reflect differences in how data collection was implemented. When the data base was grouped by Case Mix Groups (CMGs), analysis demonstrated that patterns of resource utilization in nursing workload and length of stay were similar across CMGs. Results of this analysis indicate that the nursing workload component of the Resource Intensity Weight may be useful for estimating a hospital's nursing costs by CMG.

  2. High Volume Throughput Computing: Identifying and Characterizing Throughput Oriented Workloads in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Sun, Ninghui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, this paper systematically identifies three categories of throughput oriented workloads in data centers: services, data processing applications, and interactive real-time applications, whose targets are to increase the volume of throughput in terms of processed requests or data, or supported maximum number of simultaneous subscribers, respectively, and we coins a new term high volume throughput computing (in short HVC) to describe those workloads and data center systems designed for them. We characterize and compare HVC with other computing paradigms, e.g., high throughput computing, warehouse-scale computing, and cloud computing, in terms of levels, workloads, metrics, coupling degree, data scales, and number of jobs or service instances. We also preliminarily report our ongoing work on the metrics and benchmarks for HVC systems, which is the foundation of designing innovative data center systems for HVC workloads.

  3. Workload Classification & Software Energy Measurement for Efficient Scheduling on Private Cloud Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James W

    2011-01-01

    At present there are a number of barriers to creating an energy efficient workload scheduler for a Private Cloud based data center. Firstly, the relationship between different workloads and power consumption must be investigated. Secondly, current hardware-based solutions to providing energy usage statistics are unsuitable in warehouse scale data centers where low cost and scalability are desirable properties. In this paper we discuss the effect of different workloads on server power consumption in a Private Cloud platform. We display a noticeable difference in energy consumption when servers are given tasks that dominate various resources (CPU, Memory, Hard Disk and Network). We then use this insight to develop CloudMonitor, a software utility that is capable of >95% accurate power predictions from monitoring resource consumption of workloads, after a "training phase" in which a dynamic power model is developed.

  4. Supporting Real-Time Computer Vision Workloads using OpenVX on Multicore+GPU Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    workloads specified using OpenVX to be supported in a predictable way. I. INTRODUCTION In the automotive industry today, vision-based sensing through cameras...Supporting Real-Time Computer Vision Workloads using OpenVX on Multicore+GPU Platforms Glenn A. Elliott, Kecheng Yang, and James H. Anderson...Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Abstract—In the automotive industry, there is currently great interest in

  5. Uniprocessor Performance Analysis of a Representative Workload of Sandia National Laboratories' Scientific Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Laverty

    2005-10-01

    UNIPROCESSOR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A REPRESENTATIVE WORKLOAD OF SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES' SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS Master of Science in Electrical Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico, 2005 Dr. Jeanine Cook, Chair Throughout the last decade computer performance analysis has become absolutely necessary to maximum performance of some workloads. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) located in Albuquerque, New Mexico is no different in that to achieve maximum performance of large scientific, parallel workloads performance analysis is needed at the uni-processor level. A representative workload has been chosen as the basis of a computer performance study to determine optimal processor characteristics in order to better specify the next generation of supercomputers. Cube3, a finite element test problem developed at SNL is a representative workload of their scientific workloads. This workload has been studied at the uni-processor level to understand characteristics in the microarchitecture that will lead to the overall performance improvement at the multi-processor level. The goal of studying vthis workload at the uni-processor level is to build a performance prediction model that will be integrated into a multi-processor performance model which is currently being developed at SNL. Through the use of performance counters on the Itanium 2 microarchitecture, performance statistics are studied to determine bottlenecks in the microarchitecture and/or changes in the application code that will maximize performance. From source code analysis a performance degrading loop kernel was identified and through the use of compiler optimizations a performance gain of around 20% was achieved.

  6. Operator Alertness/Workload Assessment Using Stochastic Model-Based Analysis of Myoelectric Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    BASED ANALYSIS OF MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS A. Madni C. Conaway S. Otsubo Y. Chu D" O~~r ’: Prepared For: E - AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH...November 1985 Phase II Interim Report For: so OPERATOR ALERTNESS/WORKLOAD ASSESSMENT USING STOCHASTIC MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS OF MYOELECTRIC SIGNALS A...TITLE (Include Security ClasSification) Operator Alterness/Workload Assessment Using Stochastic Model-Based Analysis of Myoelectric Signals 112

  7. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  8. PanDA: Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Panitkin, S; Titov, M; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; Záruba, G

    2012-01-01

    In real world any big science project implies to use a sophisticated Workload Management System (WMS) that deals with a huge amount of highly distributed data, which is often accessed by large collaborations. The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a high-performance WMS that is aimed to meet production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data processing scale.

  9. Mental Workload in Medicine: Foundations, Applications, Open Problems, Challenges and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Mental workload is a design concept borrowed from Ergonomics with a significant adoption in the aviation and automobile industries. Nowadays, the consideration of this construct is also taking place in many modern clinical working environments for designing interacting and complex systems that impose ever greater cognitive demand on operators and less physical load. Measuring mental workload is essential for improving the interaction human-system, enhancing performance, reducing the operator’...

  10. Mental Workload Assessment in the Cockpit: Feasibility of Using Electrophysiological Measurements. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-30

    reported in a preliminary study of speech qualities and workload ( Alpert and Schneider, 1988) did not demonstrate a clear relationship. A major...1987), "Operator effort and measurement of heart-rate variabil- ity," Human Factors, v29, ppl6l-170. Alpert , M. and Schneider, SJ., (1988), "Voice...Skelly I.J., (1984). "The eye blink and workload consideration," Proc. Human Factors Soc., v28, pp942-944. Stem John A., Larry C. Walrath and Robert

  11. Workload and its impact on community pharmacists' job satisfaction and stress: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to identify, review and evaluate published literature on workloads of pharmacists in community pharmacy. It included identification of research involving the measurement of pharmacist workload and its impact on stress levels and job satisfaction. The review focused on literature relating to practice in the UK. Electronic databases were searched from 1995 to May 2011. In addition, manual searches were completed for documents not available electronically. The findings were analysed with specific focus on research methodology, workload and its impact on pharmacist job satisfaction and stress levels. Thirteen relevant studies relating to workload in community pharmacy alone or in conjunction with job satisfaction and stress were identified. One utilised both qualitative and quantitative methods to identify differences in pharmacist workload in retail pharmacy businesses before and after the implementation of the 2005 English and Welsh community pharmacy contractual framework. This indicated that pharmacists spend most of their working day dispensing. The majority of studies suggested community pharmacists generally perceived that workload levels were increasing. Several also stated that increased workload contributed to increasing job-related stress and decreasing job satisfaction. No studies reporting dispensing rates for community pharmacies in the UK were identified and there was limited evidence concerning time devoted to non-dispensing services. One study investigated the differences between self-estimated and actual workload. Whilst there is a clear perception that the type and amount of work output expected from individual community pharmacists has been changing and increasing over the last few decades, pharmacists are viewed as continuing to remain based in the dispensary. The impact of such changes to the practice of community pharmacy in the UK is poorly defined, although links have been made to increasing levels of pharmacist job

  12. Measurements of physical workload with special reference to energy expenditure and work postures

    OpenAIRE

    Bernmark, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a need in preventive ergonomics for accurate and valid methods of quantifying exposure to physical workload. Aims: Two technical instruments were evaluated for quantifying occupational physical workloads: 1) A heart rate (HR) monitor system to measure energy expenditure and 2) An inclinometer system based on triaxial accelerometers to measure work postures. Methods: HR measurements in work with light to moderate energy expenditure were validated against ...

  13. Debriefing decreases mental workload in surgical crisis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Bharat; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Hladkowicz, Emily; Rittenhouse, Neil; Grantcharov, Teodor

    2017-05-01

    Mental workload is the amount of mental effort involved in performing a particular task. Crisis situations may increase mental workload, which can subsequently negatively impact operative performance and patient safety. This study aims to measure the impact of learning through debriefing and a systematic approach to crisis on trainees' mental workload in a simulated surgical crisis. Twenty junior surgical residents participated in a high-fidelity, simulated, postoperative crisis in a surgical ward environment (pretest). Participants were randomized to either an instructor-led debriefing, including performance feedback (intervention; n = 10) or no debriefing (control; n = 10). Subjects then immediately managed a second simulated crisis (post-test). Mental workload was assessed in real time during the scenarios using a previously validated, wireless, vibrotactile device. Mental workload was represented by subject response times to the vibrations, which were recorded and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Participants in the debriefing arm had a significantly reduced median response time in milliseconds (post-test minus pretest -695, quartile range -2,136 to -297) compared to participants in the control arm (42, -1,191 to 763), (between-arm difference P = .049). Debriefing after simulated surgical crisis situations may improve performance by decreasing trainee's mental workload during a subsequent simulated surgical crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A model for discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zongmin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the ergonomic evaluation and optimization in the mental task design of the aircraft cockpit display interface, the experimental measurement and theoretical modeling of mental workload were carried out under flight simulation task conditions using the performance evaluation, subjective evaluation and physiological measurement methods. The experimental results show that with an increased mental workload, the detection accuracy of flight operation significantly reduced and the reaction time was significantly prolonged; the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN significantly decreased, while the mean heart rate exhibited little change; the score of NASA_TLX scale significantly increased. On this basis, the indexes sensitive to mental workload were screened, and an integrated model for the discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface was established based on the Bayesian Fisher discrimination and classification method. The original validation and cross-validation methods were employed to test the accuracy of the results of discrimination and prediction of the integrated model, and the average prediction accuracies determined by these two methods are both higher than 85%. Meanwhile, the integrated model shows a higher accuracy in discrimination and prediction of mental workload compared with single indexes. The model proposed in this paper exhibits a satisfactory coincidence with the measured data and could accurately reflect the variation characteristics of the mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface, thus providing a basis for the ergonomic evaluation and optimization design of the aircraft cockpit display interface in the future.

  15. A model for discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zongmin; Zhuang Damin; Wanyan Xiaoru; Liu Chen; Zhuang Huan

    2014-01-01

    With respect to the ergonomic evaluation and optimization in the mental task design of the aircraft cockpit display interface, the experimental measurement and theoretical modeling of mental workload were carried out under flight simulation task conditions using the performance evaluation, subjective evaluation and physiological measurement methods. The experimental results show that with an increased mental workload, the detection accuracy of flight operation signifi-cantly reduced and the reaction time was significantly prolonged; the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) significantly decreased, while the mean heart rate exhibited little change;the score of NASA_TLX scale significantly increased. On this basis, the indexes sensitive to mental workload were screened, and an integrated model for the discrimination and prediction of mental workload of aircraft cockpit display interface was established based on the Bayesian Fisher discrimination and classification method. The original validation and cross-validation methods were employed to test the accuracy of the results of discrimination and prediction of the integrated model, and the average prediction accuracies determined by these two methods are both higher than 85%. Meanwhile, the integrated model shows a higher accuracy in discrimination and prediction of mental workload compared with single indexes. The model proposed in this paper exhibits a satisfactory coincidence with the measured data and could accurately reflect the variation characteristics of the mental work-load of aircraft cockpit display interface, thus providing a basis for the ergonomic evaluation and optimization design of the aircraft cockpit display interface in the future.

  16. Workload-Aware and CPU Frequency Scaling for Optimal Energy Consumption in VM Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the problem of VMs consolidation for cloud energy saving, different workloads will ask for different resources. Thus, considering workload characteristic, the VM placement solution will be more reasonable. In the real world, different workload works in a varied CPU utilization during its work time according to its task characteristics. That means energy consumption related to both the CPU utilization and CPU frequency. Therefore, only using the model of CPU frequency to evaluate energy consumption is insufficient. This paper theoretically verified that there will be a CPU frequency best suit for a certain CPU utilization in order to obtain the minimum energy consumption. According to this deduction, we put forward a heuristic CPU frequency scaling algorithm VP-FS (virtual machine placement with frequency scaling. In order to carry the experiments, we realized three typical greedy algorithms for VMs placement and simulate three groups of VM tasks. Our efforts show that different workloads will affect VMs allocation results. Each group of workload has its most suitable algorithm when considering the minimum used physical machines. And because of the CPU frequency scaling, VP-FS has the best results on the total energy consumption compared with the other three algorithms under any of the three groups of workloads.

  17. Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

  18. Improving the applicability of workload control (WLC) : the influence of sequence-dependent set-up times on workload controlled job shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurer, M.; Stevenson, M.; Silva, C.; Land, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation has demonstrated that the workload control (WLC) concept can improve performance in job shops, but positive empirical results are scarce. A key reason for this is that the concept has not been developed to handle a number of practical considerations, including sequence-dependent set-up ti

  19. Proceedings of the DoD Workload Assessment Workshop on Workload Assessment Techniques and Tools Held in Dayton Ohio on 27-28 September 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-15

    subjective feeling experi- enced by an operator under a high load condition. Johannsen et al. assume that such feelings represent the products of muscular...entire job. The workload imposed on you at any one time consists of a combination of various dimensions which contribute to the subjective feeling of

  20. Log files analysis to assess the use and workload of a dynamic web server dedicated to end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Le Mignot, Loic; Richard, Jean Baptiste; Le Bihan, Christine; Toubiana, Laurent; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Source Information System (MSIS), has been designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). MSIS aims at providing reliable follow-up data for ESRD patients. It is based on an n-tier architecture, made out of a universal client, a dynamic Web server connected to a production database and to a data warehouse. MSIS is operational since 2002 and progressively deployed in 9 regions in France. It includes 16,677 patients. We show that the analysis of MSIS web log files allows evaluating the use of the system and the workload in a public-health perspective.

  1. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  2. Perceived vs. measured effects of advanced cockpit systems on pilot workload and error: are pilots' beliefs misaligned with reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M

    2009-05-01

    Four types of advanced cockpit systems were tested in an in-flight experiment for their effect on pilot workload and error. Twelve experienced pilots flew conventional cockpit and advanced cockpit versions of the same make and model airplane. In both airplanes, the experimenter dictated selected combinations of cockpit systems for each pilot to use while soliciting subjective workload measures and recording any errors that pilots made. The results indicate that the use of a GPS navigation computer helped reduce workload and errors during some phases of flight but raised them in others. Autopilots helped reduce some aspects of workload in the advanced cockpit airplane but did not appear to reduce workload in the conventional cockpit. Electronic flight and navigation instruments appeared to have no effect on workload or error. Despite this modest showing for advanced cockpit systems, pilots stated an overwhelming preference for using them during all phases of flight.

  3. The Effects of Workload Presented via Visual and Auditory Displays on Soldier Shooting and Secondary Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY The Effects of Workload Presented via Visual and Auditory Displays on Soldier Shooting and Secondary Task Performance by...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-4224 August 2007 The Effects of Workload Presented via Visual and Auditory Displays on Soldier Shooting and...YYYY) August 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Workload Presented via Visual and Auditory

  4. Three-dimensional kinematics of competitive and recreational cyclists across different workloads during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Dagnese, Frederico; Rocha, Emmanuel; Silveira, Mateus C; Carpes, Felipe P; Mota, Carlos B

    2016-08-01

    Although the link between sagittal plane motion and exercise intensity has been highlighted, no study assessed if different workloads lead to changes in three-dimensional cycling kinematics. This study compared three-dimensional joint and segment kinematics between competitive and recreational road cyclists across different workloads. Twenty-four road male cyclists (12 competitive and 12 recreational) underwent an incremental workload test to determine aerobic peak power output. In a following session, cyclists performed four trials at sub-maximal workloads (65, 75, 85 and 95% of their aerobic peak power output) at 90 rpm of pedalling cadence. Mean hip adduction, thigh rotation, shank rotation, pelvis inclination (latero-lateral and anterior-posterior), spine inclination and rotation were computed at the power section of the crank cycle (12 o'clock to 6 o'clock crank positions) using three-dimensional kinematics. Greater lateral spine inclination (p road to recreational cyclists. When conducting assessment of joint and segment motions, workload between 65 and 95% of individual cyclists' peak power output could be used.

  5. THE REAL NEED OF NURSES BASED ON WORKLOAD INDICATOR STAFF NEED (WISN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ade Kusuma Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are health workers in hospitals that provide nursing care to patients for 24 hours. Workload of nurses was high due to insufficient numbers of nurses. It will have an impact on the decrease in work productivity that may affect nurses care for patients. To get the human resources necessary to suit the needs of nursing manpower planning to increase the competitiveness of hospitals in the era of globalization. The research objective was to analyze the real needs of nurses on staff workload indicators need (WISN. Method: The study design was observational analytic. Analysis of workload using the method of approach to time and motion study. Sample were 24 nurses who met the inclusion criteria. Analysis of the needs of staff nurses using the workload indicators need (WISN. Result: The results obtained based on the calculation of nurses with WISN method needs of nurses in the medical-surgical nurses as many as 54 people. Objective workload of nurses in the room medical surgery general state hospital of Bali is the average 82.61%, including height. The total time required to complete the productive activities of more than 80%. Discussion: Conclusion of this study show the number of nurses in the medical-surgical general hospital bali is still lacking as many as 30 people. It is suggest to the hospital management to increase gradually the number of nurses in the medical room.

  6. Decreasing workload among community health workers using interactive, structured, rich-media guidelines on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, M Sriram; Florez-Arango, Jose F

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in developing countries, there is considerable interest in using mobile phones as job-aids for community health workers (CHWs) to improve the care they provide. However, acceptance of new technologies can be inhibited if the workload imposed is perceived as excessive compared to existing methods. To compare perceived workload of CHWs using clinical care guidelines presented on mobile phones versus using conventional paper-based guidelines. Validated clinical practice guidelines were developed as Interactive Structured Rich-Medical guidelines (ISRMGs) on Windows Mobile 6.5 mobile phones. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed in Colombia in which 50 CHWs used the ISRMGs, and paper-based materials with the same information, in a cross-over design to diagnose and treat 15 matched pairs of medical cases presented on Human Patient simulators. The NASA Task Load Index, a validated measure of perceived workload, was administered and results compared by means of a mixed model analysis. When using the ISRMGs on mobile phones the health workers reported statistically significant decreases in mental demand, frustration, and overall workload as compared to using paper-based job-aids. Use of ISRMGs on mobile phones by community health workers in developing countries has the potential to decrease their perceived workload, fatigue, and enhance their ability to provide better care for more patients.

  7. Nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units. Correlation between NAS and NEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Martínez Lareo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The high costs of intensive care and the importance of patient safety and quality of care highlight the need to develop instrument to measure, as precisely as possible, nursing workload and staffing levels in intensive care. To assess the ideal staff number, we need instruments to measure the real nursing workload. The aim of this research is to compare two nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units, the Nursing Activities Score (NAS and Nine Equivalents of Nurse Manpower Use Score (NEMS. We also want to assess the staffing needs of our ICU. A descriptive correlational study will be performed in a mixed medical ICU. The sample will be composed of of a minimum of 70 patients. Data regarding individual patients and unit global workload will be recorded, measured both with the NEMS and NAS scales. The required nursing staff will be calculated according to the measured workload. Nursing staffing needs using both scales will be calculated and compared to the actual staff. A descriptive analysis of the variables will be performed, and the existing correlation between both scales will be assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A Student-t test will be performed to determine the differences between the calculated staffing requirements and the actual nursing staff. All data analyses will be done using a statistical software.

  8. Measuring educational workload: a pilot study of paper-based and PDA tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallett, Susan; Lingard, Lorelei; Leslie, Karen; Pirie, Jonathan; Jefferies, Ann; Spero, Lawrence; Schneider, Rayfel; Hilliard, Robert; Rosenfield, Jay; Hellmann, Jonathan; Mian, Marcellina; Hurley, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Teaching is an important professional role for most faculty members in academic health sciences centres. Careful delineation of educational workload is needed to foster and reward teaching efforts, and to facilitate equitable allocation of resources. To promote recognition in teaching and facilitate equitable resource allocation, we developed, piloted, and qualitatively assessed a tool for delineating the educational workload of pediatric faculty in an academic health sciences centre. A prototype educational workload measurement tool was developed. Between 2002 and 2004, three successive phases of pilot implementation were conducted to (1) assess the face validity of the tool, (2) assess its feasibility, and (3) develop and assess the feasibility of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) version. Participants were interviewed regarding strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to completion. Data were analyzed for recurrent themes. Faculty found that the tool was usable and represented a broad range of educational activities. The PDA format was easier to use and better received. Technical support would be imperative for long-term implementation. The greatest barriers to implementation were skepticism about the purpose of the tool and concerns that it would promote quantity over quality of teaching. We developed a usable tool to capture data on the diverse educational workload of pediatric faculty. PDA technology can be used to facilitate collection of workload data. Faculty skepticism is an important barrier that should be addressed in future work.

  9. Fault and Error Latency Under Real Workload: an Experimental Study. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillarege, Ram

    1986-01-01

    A practical methodology for the study of fault and error latency is demonstrated under a real workload. This is the first study that measures and quantifies the latency under real workload and fills a major gap in the current understanding of workload-failure relationships. The methodology is based on low level data gathered on a VAX 11/780 during the normal workload conditions of the installation. Fault occurrence is simulated on the data, and the error generation and discovery process is reconstructed to determine latency. The analysis proceeds to combine the low level activity data with high level machine performance data to yield a better understanding of the phenomena. A strong relationship exists between latency and workload and that relationship is quantified. The sampling and reconstruction techniques used are also validated. Error latency in the memory where the operating system resides was studied using data on the physical memory access. Fault latency in the paged section of memory was determined using data from physical memory scans. Error latency in the microcontrol store was studied using data on the microcode access and usage.

  10. Comparing capacity coefficient and dual task assessment of visual multitasking workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    Capacity coefficient analysis could offer a theoretically grounded alternative approach to subjective measures and dual task assessment of cognitive workload. Workload capacity or workload efficiency is a human information processing modeling construct defined as the amount of information that can be processed by the visual cognitive system given a specified of amount of time. In this paper, I explore the relationship between capacity coefficient analysis of workload efficiency and dual task response time measures. To capture multitasking performance, I examine how the relatively simple assumptions underlying the capacity construct generalize beyond the single visual decision making tasks. The fundamental tools for measuring workload efficiency are the integrated hazard and reverse hazard functions of response times, which are defined by log transforms of the response time distribution. These functions are used in the capacity coefficient analysis to provide a functional assessment of the amount of work completed by the cognitive system over the entire range of response times. For the study of visual multitasking, capacity coefficient analysis enables a comparison of visual information throughput as the number of tasks increases from one to two to any number of simultaneous tasks. I illustrate the use of capacity coefficients for visual multitasking on sample data from dynamic multitasking in the modified Multi-attribute Task Battery.

  11. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males' mental workloads were significantly higher than females'. For males, high-value products' mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio-visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio-visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference.

  12. Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.

  13. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers.

  14. Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Ikuma, Laura H; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Punniaraj, Karthy; Ishak, Sherif

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of changing work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload. Data regarding travel time, average speed, maximum percent braking force and location of lane changes were collected by using a full size driving simulator. The NASA-TLX was used to measure self-reported workload ratings during the driving task. Conventional lane merge (CLM) and joint lane merge (JLM) were modeled in a driving simulator, and thirty participants (seven female and 23 male), navigated through the two configurations with two levels of traffic density. The mean maximum braking forces was 34% lower in the JLM configuration, and drivers going through the JLM configuration remained in the closed lane longer. However, no significant differences in speed were found between the two merge configurations. The analysis of self-reported workload ratings show that participants reported 15.3% lower total workload when driving through the JLM. In conclusion, the implemented changes in the JLM make it a more favorable merge configuration in both high and low traffic densities in terms of optimizing traffic flow by increasing the time and distance cars use both lanes, and in terms of improving safety due to lower braking forces and lower reported workload.

  15. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  16. Power Optimization of Multimode Mobile Embedded Systems with Workload-Delay Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeseok Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to take the relationship between delay and workload into account in the power optimization of microprocessors in mobile embedded systems. Since the components outside a device continuously change their values or properties, the workload to be handled by the systems becomes dynamic and variable. This variable workload is formulated as a staircase function of the delay taken at the previous iteration in this paper and applied to the power optimization of DVFS (dynamic voltage-frequency scaling. In doing so, a graph representation of all possible workload/mode changes during the lifetime of a device, Workload Transition Graph (WTG, is proposed. Then, the power optimization problem is transformed into finding a cycle (closed walk in WTG which minimizes the average power consumption over it. Out of the obtained optimal cycle of WTG, one can derive the optimal power management policy of the target device. It is shown that the proposed policy is valid for both continuous and discrete DVFS models. The effectiveness of the proposed power optimization policy is demonstrated with the simulation results of synthetic and real-life examples.

  17. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males’ mental workloads were significantly higher than females’. For males, high-value products’ mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio–visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio–visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference. PMID:28184207

  18. Pilot and Controller Workload and Situation Awareness with Three Traffic Management Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Kraut, Joshua; Bacon, Paige; Minakata, Katsumi; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on workload and situation awareness of pilots and controllers participating in a human-in-the-loop simulation using three different distributed air-ground traffic management concepts. Eight experimental pilots started the scenario in an en-route phase of flight and were asked to avoid convective weather while performing spacing and merging tasks along with a continuous descent approach (CDA) into Louisville Standiford Airport (SDF). Two controllers managed the sectors through which the pilots flew, with one managing a sector that included the Top of Descent, and the other managing a sector that included the merge point for arrival into SDF. At 3-minute intervals in the scenario, pilots and controllers were probed on their workload or situation awareness. We employed one of three concepts of operation that distributed separation responsibility across human controllers, pilots, and automation to measure changes in operator situation awareness and workload. We found that when pilots were responsible for separation, they had higher levels of awareness, but not necessarily higher levels of workload. When controllers are responsible and actively engaged, they showed higher workload levels compared to pilots and changes in awareness that were dependent on sector characteristics.

  19. Effects of a labor gym program in mental workload of workers from rectory of UNIOESTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Isabele Maia; Vilagra, José Mohamud; Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Cruz, Roberto Moraes; Reis, Pedro Ferreira; Moreira, Mauricio Bertolossi

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a quality-quantitative study of cause-effect type. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a Labor Gym (LG) program in mental workload of workers from rectory of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste) Cascavel. The sample consisted of 35 employees. For data collection, it was used the NASA-TLX questionnaire to evaluate the mental workload of employees. Then, the participants performed sessions of LG, totaling 20 classes. After this period the employess were re-evaluated. To characterize the sample, data were tabulated and a descriptive analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0. The interpretation of the NASA-TLX questionnaire was based on its own methodology. Before the LG sessions, the total average dimensions analyzed was 79 (sd: 11,05), representing a high rate of mental workload. After the period of LG, the total average of final mental workload decreased, but it remained with a high rate (x:75, sd: 13.42). In relation to the comparative analysis of the initial and final averages of mental workload, by t test (bipolar), there was no significant difference (p = 0.071668).

  20. The sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response for assessing mental workload in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyanti, Ari; Muslim, Khoirul; Sutalaksana, Iftikar Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Objective measures have been shown to be equally sensitive in different cultures. However, these measures need special devices that are relatively expensive and need expertise to analyze the result. In Indonesia, there is a need for a sensitive and affordable mental workload measure. To evaluate the sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) in assessing mental workload in Indonesia. A total of 72 Indonesian students with normal visual capability. Participants were asked to work on visual memory search task with a secondary task of counting with three different levels of difficulty. GSR, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and the NASA-TLX were administered prior to, during, and after the tasks. GSR measure was compared to NASA-TLX and HRV measures. Like the HRV, GSR showed to be sensitive in distinguishing rest and task condition significantly but not sensitive in distinguishing different levels of mental workload. In contrast, both the NASA-TLX and performance measure were sensitive in differentiating different levels of mental workload. GSR has potential as a simple, cost-effective tool for measuring mental workload in Indonesia.

  1. Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.

  2. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  3. Application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method to predict nursing human resources at a Family Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Bonfim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective verify the application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method in the prediction of nursing human resources at a Family Health service. Method descriptive and quantitative study, undertaken at a Family Health service in the city of São Paulo. The set of sequential operations recommended in the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method was used: definition of the professional category, type of health service and calculation of Available Work Time; definition of workload components; identification of mean time for workload components; dimensioning of staff needs based on the method, application and interpretation of the data. Result the workload proposed in the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method to nursing technicians/auxiliary nurses was balanced with the number of professionals available at the Family Health service. The Workload Indicators of Staffing Need index amounted to 0.6 for nurses and 1.0 for nursing technicians/auxiliary nurses. Conclusion the application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method was relevant to identify the components of the nursing professionals' workload. Therefore, it is recommendable as a nursing staffing tool at Family Health services, contributing to the access and universal health coverage.

  4. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies the level of social influence across HPC users. We show the existence of a social graph that is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. This pattern also follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. Given its potential impact on HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, we propose a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups. Extensive evaluation shows that our online algorithm can (1) quickly identify the social relationships by using a small portion of incoming jobs and (2) can efficiently track group evolution over time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  6. Measuring pilot workload in a motion base trainer - A comparison of four techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, M. R.; Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Various techniques have been developed to predict and measure pilot workload. This simulation was conducted in order to compare four widely used methods: A visual two- and four-choice reaction time task, time production, retrospective multi-dimensional subjective ratings and in-flight verbal workload estimates. Two scenarios with different levels of difficulty determined by preliminary research were designed to test these techniques. The insertion of the secondary tasks did not significantly affect flight performance. All four techniques were able to distinguish among levels of scenario complexity. In addition, the three secondary tasks and workload ratings obtained in-flight were generally able to distinguish among levels of difficulty for different segments within the scenarios.

  7. Measuring pilot workload in a motion base trainer. A comparison of four techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, M R; Kantowitz, B H; Hart, S G

    1986-12-01

    Various techniques have been developed to predict and measure pilot workload. This simulation was conducted in order to compare four widely used methods: a visual two-and four-choice reaction time task, time production, retrospective multi-dimensional subjective ratings and in-flight verbal workload estimates. Two scenarios with different levels of difficulty determined by preliminary research were designed to test these techniques. The insertion of the secondary tasks did not significantly affect flight performance. All four techniques were able to distinguish between the overall levels of scenario complexity. In addition, the three secondary tasks and workload ratings obtained in-flight were generally able to distinguish among levels of difficulty for different segments within the scenarios.

  8. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer A; Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students' ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses.

  9. Parallel main-memory indexing for moving-object query and update workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    as combinations of deletions and insertions; thus, the query semantics guarantee that no objects are missed in query results. Empirical studies demonstrate that PGrid scales near-linearly with the number of hardware threads on four modern multi-core processors. Since both updates and queries are processed...... of supporting the location-related query and update workloads generated by very large populations of such moving objects. This paper presents a main-memory indexing technique that aims to support such workloads. The technique, called PGrid, uses a grid structure that is capable of exploiting the parallelism......, it avoids the stop-the-world problem that occurs when workload processing is interrupted to perform such snapshotting. Its concurrency control mechanism relies instead on hardware-assisted atomic updates as well as object-level copying, and it treats updates as non-divisible operations rather than...

  10. Measurement and analysis of workload effects on fault latency in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Michael H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the need to address fault latency in highly reliable real-time control computer systems. It is noted that the effectiveness of all known recovery mechanisms is greatly reduced in the presence of multiple latent faults. The presence of multiple latent faults increases the possibility of multiple errors, which could result in coverage failure. The authors present experimental evidence indicating that the duration of fault latency is dependent on workload. A synthetic workload generator is used to vary the workload, and a hardware fault injector is applied to inject transient faults of varying durations. This method makes it possible to derive the distribution of fault latency duration. Experimental results obtained from the fault-tolerant multiprocessor at the NASA Airlab are presented and discussed.

  11. ICU nurses' evaluations of integrated information displays on user satisfaction and perceived mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Westenskow, Dwayne; Weir, Charlene; Agutter, Jim; Haar, Maral; Görges, Matthias; Liu, David; Staggers, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Consolidated information from multiple sources (patient monitors, electronic medical records, infusion pumps, ventilators, medication references) may improve nurses' work and patient safety. Objective. Two hypotheses were tested, that integrated information displays (a) improve nurses' satisfaction and (b) lower perceived mental workload. Methods. In a counter-balanced, repeated measures design (integrated vs. traditional display) 12 ICU nurses performed realistic tasks using both display types. Results. Nurses' user interaction satisfaction was higher with the integrated display and it received more positive comments. Nurses' mean perceived mental workload scores were also lower, having significant differences in effort and frustration dimensions. A lower mental workload may reduce errors and improve treatment times. Integrated information displays have great promise, but technological factors such as bidirectional device communication must be addressed if these displays are to achieve their potential for improving patient safety.

  12. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  13. Council tax valuation band as marker of deprivation and of general practice workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, N; Baker, N; Straker-Cook, D

    2000-07-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Council Tax Valuation Banding (CTVB) is a measure both of UK socioeconomic status and of general practice workload. It is a retrospective cohort study based in a UK semi-rural general practice, North Wiltshire. The study group is a randomised selection of UK general practice patients. The outcome measures are socio-demographic and primary care workload parameters versus CTVBs by logistic regression analyses in a sample of 378 patients (90% participation rate). People who pay little or no council tax are significantly less likely to live in owner-occupied homes or to have access to a car than their counterparts. There is also a significant inverse association between CTVB and demand for general practitioner services. CTVB could be an accessible, universal, non-census marker of UK socioeconomic status and of general practice workload that would have validity in the context of primary care resource allocation and is a concept worthy of further investigation.

  14. Efficient Workload Classification based on Ignored Auditory Probes: A Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Raphaëlle N.; Bonnet, Stéphane; Charbonnier, Sylvie; Campagne, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Mental workload is a mental state that is currently one of the main research focuses in neuroergonomics. It can notably be estimated using measurements in electroencephalography (EEG), a method that allows for direct mental state assessment. Auditory probes can be used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs) that are modulated by workload. Although, some papers do report ERP modulations due to workload using attended or ignored probes, to our knowledge there is no literature regarding effective workload classification based on ignored auditory probes. In this paper, in order to efficiently estimate workload, we advocate for the use of such ignored auditory probes in a single-stimulus paradigm and a signal processing chain that includes a spatial filtering step. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on data acquired from participants that performed the Multi-Attribute Task Battery – II. They carried out this task during two 10-min blocks. Each block corresponded to a workload condition that was pseudorandomly assigned. The easy condition consisted of two monitoring tasks performed in parallel, and the difficult one consisted of those two tasks with an additional plane driving task. Infrequent auditory probes were presented during the tasks and the participants were asked to ignore them. The EEG data were denoised and the probes’ ERPs were extracted and spatially filtered using a canonical correlation analysis. Next, binary classification was performed using a Fisher LDA and a fivefold cross-validation procedure. Our method allowed for a very high estimation performance with a classification accuracy above 80% for every participant, and minimal intrusiveness thanks to the use of a single-stimulus paradigm. Therefore, this study paves the way to the efficient use of ERPs for mental state monitoring in close to real-life settings and contributes toward the development of adaptive user interfaces. PMID:27790109

  15. ESTIMATION OF AN X-RAY MACHINE’S WORKLOAD DURING ROUTINE RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Golikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray machine workload (W is defined as the integral of the anode current of the tube for a certain period of time. Information about the workload of an X-ray machine is needed in calculations ofthe structural shielding in the X-ray rooms and in comparing the results of radiation monitoring, conducted in the X-ray rooms, with the permissible levels of doses to different categories of exposed persons. In the Russian Federation, the calculations of the structural shielding in the X-ray rooms are currently based on the conservative approach developed in the 1970s. This approach assumes that a very high value of workload, Wsum = 1000 mA×min×week-1, is used in the calculatons. Additionally to this conservative assumption, the maximum value of 100kV for the anode voltage is used. The aim of this study was to collect and analyze the information concerning real workload values of the X-ray machines placed in the routine rooms. The total values of the weekly workload and its distribution as a function of the tube voltage were registered. The average and maximum values of workload among surveyed X-ray units were about 2–4 times lower than the value of 1000 mA×min×week-1 specified in the National sanitary norms SanPin2.6.1.1192-03. Demo calculations show that if one uses the actual distribution of medical procedures depending on the tube voltage instead of the single value of 100kV specified in the SanPiN2.6.1.1192-03, then the required thickness of the shielding construction in the X-ray rooms can be reduced with a factor of two.

  16. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.

  17. Efficient workload classification based on ignored auditory probes: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle N. Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental workload is a mental state that is currently one of the main research focuses in neuroergonomics. It can notably be estimated using measurements in electroencephalography (EEG, a method that allows for direct mental state assessment. Auditory probes can be used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs that are modulated by workload. Although some papers do report ERP modulations due to workload using attended or ignored probes, to our knowledge there is no literature regarding effective workload classification based on ignored auditory probes. In this paper, in order to efficiently estimate workload, we advocate for the use of such ignored auditory probes in a single-stimulus paradigm and a signal processing chain that includes a spatial filtering step. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on data acquired from participants that performed the Multi-Attribute Task Battery – II. They carried out this task during two ten-minute blocks. Each block corresponded to a workload condition that was pseudorandomly assigned. The easy condition consisted of two monitoring tasks performed in parallel, and the difficult one consisted of those two tasks with an additional plane driving task. Infrequent auditory probes were presented during the tasks and the participants were asked to ignore them. The EEG data were denoised and the probes’ ERPs were extracted and spatially filtered using a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. Next, binary classification was performed using a Fisher LDA and a 5-fold cross-validation procedure. Our method allowed for a very high estimation performance with a classification accuracy above 80% for every participant, and minimal intrusiveness thanks to the use of a single-stimulus paradigm. Therefore, this study paves the way to the efficient use of ERPs for mental state monitoring in close to real-life settings and contributes towards the development of adaptive user interfaces.

  18. Workload transition: implications for individual and team performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huey, Beverly Messick; Wickens, Christopher D

    1993-01-01

    ... Transition Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1993 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML f...

  19. Pandemic influenza and excess intensive-care workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Raoul E.; Andriessen, Maarten P. H. M.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Miranda, Dinis dos Reis; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands a major part of preparedness planning for an epidemic or pandemic consists of maintaining essential public services, e.g., by the police, fire departments, army personnel, and healthcare workers. We provide estimates for peak demand for healthcare workers, factoring in healthcare

  20. Investigating workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Train driving is a high responsibility job in railway industry. Train drivers need different cognitive functions such as vigilance, object detection, memory, planning, decision-making. High level of fatigue is one of the caused factor of accidents among train drivers. Numerous factors can impact train drivers’ fatigue but high level of workload is a key factor. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company. .Material and Method: This descriptive analytical study was done among 100 train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway industry. They were selected by simple random sampling. The NASA-TLX workload scale and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were respectively used to investigate workload and fatigue. Data were analyzed by Paired t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient. . Result: According to the NASA-TLX results, effort and mental workload with the mean score of 74/22 and 73/31 were respectively the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. No significant relationship was observed between workload and level of fatigue before departure and half an hour before reaching the destination station (P>0.05. However, the relationship between of workload and level of fatigue half an hour before the end of shift (on the way back to the origin station was statistically significant (P=0.048 among the sample population. . Conclusion: Effort and mental workload were the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. By focusing on these two variables and adopting fatigue management programs, fatigue and workload can be controlled and the efficiency of the whole system can be enhanced accordingly.

  1. Optimum airspace design with air traffic controller workload-based partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Arash

    This dissertation proposes an Air Traffic Controller (ATC) workload based methodology for optimum airspace partitioning. Initially, we define a set of airspace metrics for analytical modeling of the ATC cognitive workload and airspace complexity. We use a large-scale, fast-time simulation to model the current sectors in five Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) and compute the airspace metrics for each sector. These metrics are then used to calculate ATC workload and traffic complexity during various time intervals. Sectors are then ranked based on their traffic complexity and we show that the defined metrics are able to identify the complex sectors. Having a reasonable ATC workload modeling technique, we decompose the U.S. national airspace into three layers using altitude ranges based on operational levels of low, high, and ultra-high airspace. Each layer is further tiled into 2,566 hexagonal cells (hex-cells) with 24 nautical mile sides. These hex-cells are assumed to be finite elements of airspace and ATC workload is modeled for each hex-cell using various airspace metrics. We apply visualization techniques to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the controller workload and to identify congested periods of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). Having the workload values for each hex-cell during the congested periods, we develop clustering algorithms using optimization theory to cluster hex-cells and partition the airspace to ARTCCs and sectors. We first partition the airspace to ARTCCs and define the optimum boundaries for different number of ARTCCs. Then the partitioning is continued within each ARTCC to construct optimum sector boundaries. This dissertation concentrates on simulation as a means to evaluate cognitive workload for the elements of airspace regardless of current sector and ARTCC boundaries. The only apriori inputs are the location of current ARTCC facilities and airports, the demand profiles for each city pair, and the filed

  2. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  3. Status and Evolution of ATLAS Workload Management System PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067365; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a sophisticated workload management system, PanDA, to provide access for thousands of physicists to distributed computing resources of unprecedented scale. This system has proved to be robust and scalable during three years of LHC operations. We describe the design and performance of PanDA in ATLAS. The features which make PanDA successful in ATLAS could be applicable to other exabyte scale scientific projects. We describe plans to evolve PanDA towards a general workload management system for the new BigData initiative announced by the US government. Other planned future improvements to PanDA will also be described

  4. [Influence of physical workload patterns and breaks on heart rate recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Manabu; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Makoto; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to try to achieve quick recovery from work strain by setting adequate breaks and shortening continuous working hours to prevent the accumulation of fatigue. However, there has been no research investigating the influence of the timing and lengths of breaks on individual aerobic capacities in recovery from work strain. In this study, we set three load patterns based on the length and timing of breaks: "no breaks", "one break" and "regular small breaks". We examined the differences of the heart rate variation in the recovery time after working considering the individual aerobic capacities (VO(2)max) of ten male subjects (mean age 22.3 +/- 1.7 yr) in the case of 50 W or 100 W workloads on a bicycle ergometer. When individual aerobic capacity was not considered, the "regular small breaks" condition led to the quickest recovery to the level of the resting heart rate at 50 W workload. Not all conditions showed heart rate recovery within 30 min at 100 W workload. On the other hand, when individual aerobic capacity was considered, the "regular small breaks" condition showed the quickest recovery to the level of the resting heart rate at 50 W workload in the low aerobic capacity group (VO(2)max mean 42.2 +/- 3.7 ml/kg/min). However, in the high aerobic capacity group (VO(2)max mean 54.5 +/- 4.1 ml/kg/min), the "regular small breaks" condition resulted in the quickest recovery of the level to the resting heart rate at 100W workload. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed for the recovery time with respect to the rate of increase from resting heart rate to examine the influence on heart rate recovery of physical activity loads, workload patterns and individual fitness. Physical activity loads were strongly related to the increase from resting heart rate in recovery time, and workload patterns showed that the regular small breaks condition was related to the heart rate recovery in the high fitness subjects in the case of the exercise intensity of 100 W

  5. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes

  6. Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko, Yuliya Y; Scerbo, Mark W; Prabhu, Ajita S; Acker, Christina E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Increased workload during task performance may increase fatigue and facilitate errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a previously validated tool for workload self-assessment. We assessed the relationship of workload and performance during simulator training on a complex laparoscopic task. NASA-TLX workload data from three separate trials were analyzed. All participants were novices (n = 28), followed the same curriculum on the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery suturing model, and were tested in the animal operating room (OR) on a Nissen fundoplication model after training. Performance and workload scores were recorded at baseline, after proficiency achievement, and during the test. Performance, NASA-TLX scores, and inadvertent injuries during the test were analyzed and compared. Workload scores declined during training and mirrored performance changes. NASA-TLX scores correlated significantly with performance scores (r = -0.5, P NASA-TLX questionnaire accurately reflects workload changes during simulator training and may identify individuals more likely to experience high workload and more prone to errors during skill transfer to the clinical environment.

  7. Effects of Grading Leniency and Low Workload on Students' Evaluations of Teaching: Popular Myth, Bias, Validity, or Innocent Bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Roche, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two studies that debunk the popular myths that student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are substantially biased by low workload and grading leniency. Results imply teaching effects were related to SETs. Contrary to predictions workload, expected grades, and their relations to SETs were stable over 12 years. (Author/MKA)

  8. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated

  9. Panel workload assessment in US primary care: accounting for non-face-to-face panel management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Brian; Tuan, Wen-Jan; White, Jennifer; Schumacher, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of primary care provider (PCP) workload is an important consideration in establishing optimal PCP panel size. However, no widely acceptable measure of PCP workload exists that incorporates the effort involved with both non-face-to-face patient care activities and face-to-face encounters. Accounting for this gap is critical given the increase in non-face-to-face PCP activities that has accompanied electronic health records (EHRs) (eg, electronic messaging). Our goal was to provide a comprehensive assessment of perceived PCP workload, accounting for aspects of both face-to-face and non-face-to-face encounters. Internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatric PCPs completed a self-administered survey about the perceived workload involved with face-to-face and non-face-to-face panel management activities as well as the perceived challenge associated with caring for patients with particular biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial characteristics (n = 185). Survey results were combined with EHR data at the individual patient and PCP service levels to assess PCP panel workload, accounting for face-to-face and non-face-to-face utilization. Of the multiple face-to-face and non-face-to-face activities associated with routine primary care, PCPs considered hospital admissions, obstetric care, hospital discharges, and new patient preventive health visits to be greater workload than non-face-to-face activities such as telephone calls, electronic communication, generating letters, and medication refills. Total workload within PCP panels at the individual patient level varied by overall health status, and the total workload of non-face-to-face panel management activities associated with routine primary care was greater than the total workload associated with face-to-face encounters regardless of health status. We used PCP survey results coupled with EHR data to assess PCP workload associated with both face-to-face as well as non-face-to-face panel management

  10. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the physi

  11. Workload and time management in central cancer registries: baseline data and implication for registry staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Susan A; Mulvihill, Linda; Herrera, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Workload and Time Management Survey of Central Cancer Registries was conducted in 2011 to assess the amount of time spent on work activities usually performed by cancer registrars. A survey including 39 multi-item questions,together with a work activities data collection log, was sent by email to the central cancer registry (CCR) manager in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Twenty-four central cancer registries (47%) responded to the survey.Results indicate that registries faced reductions in budgeted staffing from 2008-2009. The number of source records and total cases were important indicators of workload. Four core activities, including abstracting at the registry, visual editing,case consolidation, and resolving edit reports, accounted for about half of registry workload. We estimate an average of 12.4 full-time equivalents (FTEs) are required to perform all cancer registration activities tracked by the survey; however,estimates vary widely by registry size. These findings may be useful for registries as a benchmark for their own registry workload and time-management data and to develop staffing guidelines.

  12. Understanding I/O workload characteristics of a Peta-scale storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the I/O workloads of scientific applications of one of the world s fastest high performance computing (HPC) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). OLCF flagship petascale simulation platform, Titan, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, storage space utilization, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the Peta-scale Storage Systems. From this study, we develop synthesized workloads, and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution. We also study the I/O load imbalance problems using I/O performance data collected from the Spider storage system.

  13. Sustained mental workload in chronic patients with very severe concussions : A psychophysiological study of menial fatiguability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W; Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Mulder, B; Veldman, H; Withaar, F

    After severe concussion, return to work is often problematic. Our study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, namely mental fatiguableness. To study mental fatiguableness the effect of sustained work load is assessed in a continuous divided attention task at two levels of workload, 50

  14. A reliability-based maintenance technicians' workloads optimisation model with stochastic consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighravwe, D. E.; Oke, S. A.; Adebiyi, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    The growing interest in technicians' workloads research is probably associated with the recent surge in competition. This was prompted by unprecedented technological development that triggers changes in customer tastes and preferences for industrial goods. In a quest for business improvement, this worldwide intense competition in industries has stimulated theories and practical frameworks that seek to optimise performance in workplaces. In line with this drive, the present paper proposes an optimisation model which considers technicians' reliability that complements factory information obtained. The information used emerged from technicians' productivity and earned-values using the concept of multi-objective modelling approach. Since technicians are expected to carry out routine and stochastic maintenance work, we consider these workloads as constraints. The influence of training, fatigue and experiential knowledge of technicians on workload management was considered. These workloads were combined with maintenance policy in optimising reliability, productivity and earned-values using the goal programming approach. Practical datasets were utilised in studying the applicability of the proposed model in practice. It was observed that our model was able to generate information that practicing maintenance engineers can apply in making more informed decisions on technicians' management.

  15. Sustained mental workload in chronic patients with very severe concussions : A psychophysiological study of menial fatiguability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W; Riese, H; Hoedemaeker, M; Mulder, B; Veldman, H; Withaar, F

    1996-01-01

    After severe concussion, return to work is often problematic. Our study focuses on a persistent complaint of these patients, namely mental fatiguableness. To study mental fatiguableness the effect of sustained work load is assessed in a continuous divided attention task at two levels of workload, 50

  16. The theory and practice of workload control : A research agenda and implementation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Mark; Huang, Yuan; Hendry, Linda C.; Soepenberg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Workload Control (WLC) concept is one of few Production Planning and Control (PPC) solutions appropriate for Make-To-Order (MTO) companies yet its successful implementation is an enduring challenge. Most implementations reported are in large organisations yet it has been argued that WLC is parti

  17. Academic Workload and Working Time: Retrospective Perceptions versus Time-Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the validity of perceptions by academic staff about their past and present workload and working hours. Retrospective assessments are compared with time-series data. The data are drawn from four mail surveys among academic staff in Norwegian universities undertaken in the period 1982-2008. The findings show…

  18. Behavioural implications of alarm mistrust as a function of task workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J P; Dunn, M C

    2000-09-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing primary task and alarm workload on alarm mistrust as reflected by alarm and primary task performances. A total of 126 undergraduate students performed a complex psychomotor task battery three times, with the number of concurrent tasks increasing each time. During their performance, the students were required to react to an alarm system (including visual and auditory components) of questionable reliability. Depending on the group to which participants were assigned, the alarm presentation rate constituted a low-, medium- or high-workload condition. Alarm response data (times, frequencies, accuracies) and primary task data (tracking error) were analyzed to assess performance differences as a function of primary and secondary task workload levels. Results generally supported the hypotheses: increasing primary task and alarm task workload degraded alarm response performance. Also, response frequencies supported earlier research suggesting that participants 'probability match' their response rates to alarm system reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the cry-wolf effect, attention theory and alarm system design.

  19. The effects of workload on respiratory variables in simulated flight: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated respiratory activity and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)) during exposure to varying levels of work load in a simulated flight environment. Seven pilots (age: 34-60) participated in a one-session test on the Boeing 737-800 simulator. Physiological data were collected while pilots wore an ambulatory multi-channel recording device. Respiratory variables, including inductance plethysmography (respiratory pattern) and pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)), were collected demonstrating change in CO(2) levels proportional to changes in flight task workload. Pilots performed a set of simulation flight tasks. Pilot performance was rated for each task by a test pilot; and self-report of workload was taken using the NASA-TLX scale. Mixed model analysis revealed that respiration rate and minute ventilation are significantly associated with workload levels and evaluator scores controlling for "vanilla baseline" condition. Hypocapnia exclusively occurred in tasks where pilots performed more poorly. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation in order to develop a psychophysiological assessment methodology, rather than to offer conclusive findings. The results show that the respiratory system is very reactive to high workload conditions in aviation and suggest that hypocapnia may pose a flight safety risk under some circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expertise on Cognitive Workloads and Performance During Navigation and Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Measuring workload via performance is done using a scoring system. This can range anywhere from an exam in school, a time in a race, or simply staying...such things as fatigue level, caffeine intake, alcohol, drugs, etc. that would affect the individual on the physiological level. Pupil size is not

  1. Regulated Autonomy or Autonomous Regulation? Collective Bargaining and Academic Workloads in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael; Ingersoll, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The recommendations of the "Bradley Review" of higher education in Australia identified a clear need for examination of the academic labour market and the limited attractiveness of academia as a profession. Reasons for the lack of attractiveness include increased academic workloads, as evidenced by larger class sizes and staff-student…

  2. Speech-language caseloads in the schools: a workload analysis approach to setting caseload standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrin, Frank; Bird, Ann; Biehl, Larry; Disney, Sally; Estomin, Ellen; Rudebusch, Judy; Schraeder, Trici; Whitmire, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    This article highlights key concepts of the recently revised policy documents of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association on workload and caseload size for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools. A major premise is that the total workload activities required and performed by school-based SLPs must be taken into account to set appropriate and reasonable caseload standards. Current policies and practices used to define caseloads appear to be inadequate to ensure caseloads that allow enough time for the provision of quality services. In this article we describe school-based SLPs' workload, including the expanded roles and responsibilities that are mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and other legislation. We consider the available research on the effects of large caseloads on the service options chosen by SLPs, treatment outcomes for students, and SLP attrition and burnout. Finally, we present an approach for analyzing a SLP's total workload activities, along with a discussion of how that analysis can be used to help determine caseload standards consistent with meeting the intent of IDEA and the needs of students with disabilities.

  3. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  4. Association of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, M; Møller, A; Nilsson, C

    2014-01-01

    in climbing stairs and running among initially well-functioning workers (n=3202 and n=2821, respectively) was assessed during follow-up. RESULTS: Higher workload increased whereas active leisure time decreased the risk of developing mobility limitations. The incidence of limitations increased progressively...

  5. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  6. Exploring workload and attention measurements with uLog mouse data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, Annemiek; van den Broek, Egon; Spink, Adrew J.; Heffelaar, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    User–system interactions (e.g., mouse clicks and movements) can be logged with the uLog computer program. A Web-based study with 20 participants was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using uLog data as an indicator of workload and attention. Eye fixation, heart rate variability (HRV), and

  7. Collaborative Technologies and their Effect on Operator Workload in BMC2 Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    concept of multiple resources is easily adept to account for new data simply by adding another dimension ( Kantowitz , 1987). 11 Manual Vocal R eponses...D. (1973). Attention and effort. New Jersey; Prentice Hall. Kantowitz , B. H. (1987). Mental workload. In P. A. Hancock (Ed.), Human Factors

  8. Psychological Detachment Mediating the Daily Relationship between Workload and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Lynn; De Gieter, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Scholars already demonstrated that psychologically detaching from work after workhours can diminish or avoid the negative effects of job demands on employees' well-being. In this study, we examined a curvilinear relationship between workload and psychological detachment. Moreover, we investigated the moderating influence of an employee's work-home segmentation preference on the relation between detachment and marital satisfaction. In addition, we applied and extended the stressor-detachment model by examining detachment as a mediator of the relation between workload and marital satisfaction. A total of 136 employees participated in our daily diary survey study during 10 consecutive working days. The results of the Bayesian 2-level path analyses revealed a negative linear and curvilinear relationship between workload and psychological detachment on a daily basis. Daily detachment positively related to marital satisfaction, with one's preference to segment work from home reinforcing this relationship. Moreover, psychological detachment fully mediated the daily relationship between workload and marital satisfaction. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:28101076

  9. Predicting the Consequences of Workload Management Strategies with Human Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane Kuhl; Samma, Charneta

    2011-01-01

    Human performance modelers at the US Army Research Laboratory have developed an approach for establishing Soldier high workload that can be used for analyses of proposed system designs. Their technique includes three key components. To implement the approach in an experiment, the researcher would create two experimental conditions: a baseline and a design alternative. Next they would identify a scenario in which the test participants perform all their representative concurrent interactions with the system. This scenario should include any events that would trigger a different set of goals for the human operators. They would collect workload values during both the control and alternative design condition to see if the alternative increased workload and decreased performance. They have successfully implemented this approach for military vehicle. designs using the human performance modeling tool, IMPRINT. Although ARL researches use IMPRINT to implement their approach, it can be applied to any workload analysis. Researchers using other modeling and simulations tools or conducting experiments or field tests can use the same approach.

  10. Investigating implementation issues for workload control (WLC) : A comparative case study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendry, L.C.; Land, M.J.; Stevenson, M.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    Workload control (WLC) is a method of production planning and control, which when commenced at the customer enquiry stage, has particular relevance to producers of highly customised products. Although previous research has suggested that WLC has great potential to improve performance, only a few

  11. General practitioners' workload associated to practice size rather than chronic care organisation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.; Hombergh, P. van den; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the associations between chronic care organisation and physician workload in primary care. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of observational data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and forty general practices from 10 European countries. MEAN OUTCOME MEASURES: The

  12. Effects of Automation on Aircrew Workload and Situation Awareness in Tactical Airlift Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    but complex tactical scenarios, this method and existing workload measurement techniques can facilitate a direct comparison between a reduced-crew...of Situation Awareness ................................................................................. 48 Attention , Capacity, and Situation...ix Scenario 1: Station Keeping Equipment (SKE) Formation Personnel Airdrop ..........169 Scenario 2: Maximum Effort Airland

  13. Concerning Workload Control and Order Release : The Pre-Shop Pool Sequencing Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thürer, Matthias; Land, Martin J.; Stevenson, Mark; Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Godinho Filho, Moacir

    2015-01-01

    Every production planning concept that incorporates controlled order release will initially withhold jobs from the shop floor and create a pre-shop pool. Order release is a key component of the Workload Control concept that aims to maintain work-in-process within limits while ensuring due dates are

  14. Processing of Extreme Moving-Object Update and Query Workloads in Main Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    The efficient processing of workloads that interleave moving-object updates and queries is challenging. In addition to the conflicting needs for update-efficient versus query-efficient data structures, the increasing parallel capabilities of multi-core processors yield challenges. To prevent...

  15. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  16. Annotation and prediction of stress and workload from physiological and inertial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Continuous daily stress and high workload can have negative effects on individuals' physical and mental well-being. It has been shown that physiological signals may support the prediction of stress and workload. However, previous research is limited by the low diversity of signals concurring to such predictive tasks and controlled experimental design. In this paper we present 1) a pipeline for continuous and real-life acquisition of physiological and inertial signals 2) a mobile agent application for on-the-go event annotation and 3) an end-to-end signal processing and classification system for stress and workload from diverse signal streams. We study physiological signals such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Skin Temperature (ST), Inter Beat Interval (IBI) and Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) collected using a non-invasive wearable device; and inertial signals collected from accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. We combine them with subjects' inputs (e.g. event tagging) acquired using the agent application, and their emotion regulation scores. In our experiments we explore signal combination and selection techniques for stress and workload prediction from subjects whose signals have been recorded continuously during their daily life. The end-to-end classification system is described for feature extraction, signal artifact removal, and classification. We show that a combination of physiological, inertial and user event signals provides accurate prediction of stress for real-life users and signals.

  17. Effects of jet engine noise and performance feedback on perceived workload in a monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A B; Warm, J S; Dember, W N; Hancock, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to intermittent jet aircraft noise (70 dBA or 95 dBA maximum intensity) and knowledge of results concerning signal detections (hit-KR) on performance efficiency and perceived workload in a 40-min visual vigilance task. The noise featured a Doppler-like quality in which planes seemed to approach from the monitor's left and recede to the right. Perceptual sensitivity (d') was poorer in the context of noise than in quiet but only in the presence of hit-KR. The lack of noise-related performance differences in the absence of hit-KR most likely reflected a "floor effect" rather than some special relation between noise and feedback. When compared to subjects performing in quiet, those who operated in noise were less able to profit from hit-KR, a result that may reflect the effects of noise on information processing. In addition to its negative effects on signal detectability, noise elevated the perceived workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX. This effect was robust; it was independent of the presence of hit-KR, even though hit-KR generally lowered the overall level of perceived workload. The results provide the initial experimental demonstration that perceived workload is a sensitive measure of the effects of aircraft noise in monitoring tasks.

  18. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the

  19. Magnetically anchored cautery dissector improves triangulation, depth perception, and workload during single-site laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Nabeel A; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Hogg, Deborah C; Bergs, Richard; Fernandez, Raul; Scott, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated operative outcomes and workload during single-site laparoscopy (SSL) using a magnetically anchored cautery dissector (MAGS) compared with a conventional laparoscopic hook cautery (LAP). Each cautery was used to perform six SSL porcine cholecystectomies. For MAGS, the cautery device was inserted through the umbilical incision, magnetically coupled, and deployed; two graspers and a laparoscope were used. For LAP, two percutaneous retraction sutures, one grasper, a hook cautery dissector, and a laparoscope were used. Operative outcomes, surgeon ratings (scale, 1-5; 1 = superior), and workload (scale, 1-10; 1 = superior) were evaluated. No significant differences were detected for operative outcomes and surgeon ratings, however, trends were detected favoring MAGS. Surgeon workload ratings were significantly better for MAGS (2.6 ± 0.2) vs. LAP (5.6 ± 1.1; p triangulation were excellent and the safe handling protocol was followed with no complications. For LAP, the parallelism of instruments and lack of triangulation hindered depth perception, caused instrument conflicts, and resulted in two minor complications (one superficial liver laceration and one inadvertent burn to the diaphragm). These data suggest that using the MAGS device for SSL cholecystectomy results in equivalent (or better) operative outcomes and less workload compared with LAP.

  20. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  1. Comparing presence, workload and situational awareness in a collaborative real world and augmented reality scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares presence, workload and situational awareness in a real world and augmented reality scenario when collaboratively solving a complex problem. A game of jointly building a tower of colored blocks is used as an approximation of a shared task. Individual expertise is modeled as the po

  2. Adaptive in-car user interfaces based on personalized workload estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.; Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Gier, E. de

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent research on workload scheduling and personalization, we developed a personal electronic driver assistant that mediates the interactions between the driver and in-car services in order to prevent overload. Whereas other approaches for overload prevention often focus on specific

  3. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  4. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  5. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  6. On estimating workload in branch-and-bound global optimization algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenguel, J.L.; Casado, L.G.; Garcia, I.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    In general, solving Global Optimization (GO) problems by Branch-and-Bound (B&B) requires a huge computational capacity. Parallel execution is used to speed up the computing time. As in this type of algorithms, the foreseen computational workload (number of nodes in the B&B tree) changes

  7. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were specific to train drivers: high emotional and mental demands, small amount of autonomy and skill discretion. No evidence of a high emotional workload, a high mental workload or short-term stress reactivity was found. In general, the drivers' fatigue complaints and recovery needs after work were comparable to that of other workers. However, severe sleepiness and high need for recovery did affect a substantial proportion of train drivers. The ability to stay aware, to anticipate, to remain attentive and to cope with fatigue are psychological and cognitive skills that are required to adequately and safely perform the train drivers' job. Including these requirements in periodic assessments of train drivers is recommended. A systematic literature search was performed, aimed at assessing the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers. Based on this information and interviews with experts, a list of psychological and cognitive requirements that needed to perform the train drivers’ job adequately and safely was proposed.

  8. Nursing workload in specialized Semi-intensive Therapy unit: workforce size criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando dos Santos Trettene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess the nursing workload (NW in Semi-intensive Therapy Unit, specialized in the care of children with Craniofacial anomalies and associated syndromes; to compare the amount of workforce required according to the Nursing Activities Score (NAS and the COFEN Resolution 293/04. METHOD Cross-sectional study, whose sample was composed of 72 patients. Nursing workload was assessed through retrospective application of the NAS. RESULTS the NAS mean was 49.5%. Nursing workload for the last day of hospitalization was lower in patients being discharged to home (p<0.001 and higher on the first compared to last day of hospitalization (p< 0.001. The number of professionals required according to NAS was superior to the COFEN Resolution 293/04, being 17 and 14, respectively. CONCLUSION the nursing workload corresponded to approximately 50% of the working time of nursing professional and was influenced by day and outcome of hospitalization. The amount of professionals was greater than that determined by the existing legislation.

  9. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  10. Investigating implementation issues for workload control (WLC) : A comparative case study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendry, L.C.; Land, M.J.; Stevenson, M.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) is a method of production planning and control, which when commenced at the customer enquiry stage, has particular relevance to producers of highly customised products. Although previous research has suggested that WLC has great potential to improve performance, only a few suc

  11. Labour intensity of guidelines may have a greater effect on adherence than GPs' workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians' heavy workload is often thought to jeopardise the quality of care and to be a barrier to improving quality. The relationship between these has, however, rarely been investigated. In this study quality of care is defined as care 'in accordance with professional guidelines'. In this study we investigated whether GPs with a higher workload adhere less to guidelines than those with a lower workload and whether guideline recommendations that require a greater time investment are less adhered to than those that can save time. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2. This nationwide study was carried out between April 2000 and January 2002. A multilevel logistic-regression analysis was conducted of 170,677 decisions made by GPs, referring to 41 Guideline Adherence Indicators (GAIs, which were derived from 32 different guidelines. Data were used from 130 GPs, working in 83 practices with 98,577 patients. GP-characteristics as well as guideline characteristics were used as independent variables. Measures include workload (number of contacts, hours spent on continuing medical education, satisfaction with available time, practice characteristics and patient characteristics. Outcome measure is an indicator score, which is 1 when a decision is in accordance with professional guidelines or 0 when the decision deviates from guidelines. Results On average, 66% of the decisions GPs made were in accordance with guidelines. No relationship was found between the objective workload of GPs and their adherence to guidelines. Subjective workload (measured on a five point scale was negatively related to guideline adherence (OR = 0.95. After controlling for all other variables, the variation between GPs in adherence to guideline recommendations showed a range of less than 10%. 84% of the variation in guideline adherence was located at the GAI-level. Which means that the differences in

  12. Nursing workload as a risk factor for healthcare associated infections in ICU: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata M Daud-Gallotti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nurse understaffing is frequently hypothesized as a potential risk factor for healthcare-associated infections (HAI. This study aimed to evaluate the role of nursing workload in the occurrence of HAI, using Nursing Activities Score (NAS. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled all patients admitted to 3 Medical ICUs and one step-down unit during 3 months (2009. Patients were followed-up until HAI, discharge or death. Information was obtained from direct daily observation of medical and nursing rounds, chart review and monitoring of laboratory system. Nursing workload was determined using NAS. Non-compliance to the nurses' patient care plans (NPC was identified. Demographic data, clinical severity, invasive procedures, hospital interventions, and the occurrence of other adverse events were also recorded. Patients who developed HAI were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: 195 patients were included and 43 (22% developed HAI: 16 pneumonia, 12 urinary-tract, 8 bloodstream, 2 surgical site, 2 other respiratory infections and 3 other. Average NAS and average proportion of non compliance with NPC were significantly higher in HAI patients. They were also more likely to suffer other adverse events. Only excessive nursing workload (OR: 11.41; p: 0.019 and severity of patient's clinical condition (OR: 1.13; p: 0.015 remained as risk factors to HAI. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive nursing workload was the main risk factor for HAI, when evaluated together with other invasive devices except mechanical ventilation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate prospectively the nursing workload as a potential risk factor for HAI, using NAS.

  13. EEG-based Affect and Workload Recognition in a Virtual Driving Environment for ASD Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Wade, Joshua W; Key, Alexandra P; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2017-04-12

    To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload. Five feature generation approaches including statistical features, fractal dimension features, higher order crossings (HOC)-based features, power features from frequency bands, and power features from bins ( f  2 Hz ) were applied to extract relevant features. Individual differences were removed with a two-step feature calibration method. Finally, binary classification results based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and univariate feature selection method were evaluated by leave-one-subject-out nested cross-validation to compare feature types and identify discriminative features. The best classification results were achieved using power features from bins for engagement (0.95) and boredom (0.78), and HOC-based features for enjoyment (0.90), frustration (0.88), and workload (0.86). Offline EEG-based group-level classification models are feasible for recognizing binary low and high intensity of affect and workload of individuals with ASD in the context of driving. However, while promising the applicability of the models in an online adaptive driving task requires further development. The developed models provide a basis for an EEG-based passive brain computer interface system that has the potential to benefit individuals with ASD with an affect- and workload-based individualized driving skill training intervention.

  14. HWM: a hybrid workload migration mechanism of metadata server cluster in data center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIU; Huanqing DONG; Junwei ZHANG; Zhenjun LIU; Lu XU

    2017-01-01

    In data center,applications of big data analytics pose a big challenge to massive storage systems.It is significant to achieve high availability,high performance and high scalability for PB-scale or EB-scale storage systems.Metadata server (MDS) cluster architecture is one of the most effective solutions to meet the requirements of applications in data center.Workload migration can achieve load balance and energy saving of cluster systems.In this paper,a hybrid workload migration mechanism of MDS cluster is proposed and named as HWM.In HWM,workload of MDS is classified into two categories:metadata service and state service,and they can be migrated rapidly from a source MDS to a target MDS in different ways.Firstly,in metadata service migration,all the dirty metadata of one sub file system is flushed to a shared storage pool by the source MDS,and then is loaded by the target MDS.Secondly,in state service migration,all the states of that sub file system are migrated from source MDS to target MDS through network at file granularity,and then all of the related structures of these states are reconstructed in target MDS.Thirdly,in the process of workload migration,instead of blocking client requests,the source MDS can decide which MDS will respond to each request according to the operation type and the migration stage.The proposed mechanism is implemented in the Blue Whale MDS cluster.The performance measurements show that the HWM mechanism is efficient to migrate the workload of a MDS cluster system and provides low-latency access to metadata and states.

  15. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  16. Impact of adding additional providers to resident workload and the resident experience on a medical consultation rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Michele; Linson, Eric; Suneja, Manish; Kuperman, Ethan F

    2017-02-22

    Excellence in Graduate Medical Education requires the right clinical environment with an appropriate workload where residents have enough patients to gain proficiency in medicine with optimal time for reflection. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has focused more on work hours rather than workload; however, high resident workload has been associated with lower resident participation in education and fatigue-related errors. Recognizing the potential risks associated with high resident workload and being mindful of the costs of reducing resident workload, we sought to reduce residents' workload by adding an advanced practice provider (APP) to the surgical comanagement service (SCM) and study its effect on resident satisfaction and perceived educational value of the rotation. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 and 2015, an additional faculty member was added to the SCM rotation. In FY 2014, the faculty member was a staff physician, and in FY 2015, the faculty member was an APP.. Resident workload was assessed using billing data. We measured residents' perceptions of the rotation using an anonymous electronic survey tool. We compared FY2014-2015 data to the baseline FY2013. The number of patients seen per resident per day decreased from 8.0(SD 3.3) in FY2013 to 5.0(SD 1.9) in FY2014 (p rotation (40.0%, 72.2%, 72.6% in FY2013, 2014, 2015 respectively, p rotation.

  17. Workload and the trajectory of marital satisfaction in newlyweds: job satisfaction, gender, and parental status as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2011-06-01

    Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact.

  18. Clarifying the distinction between case series and cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies: potential impact on body of evidence and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Pieper, Dawid

    2017-07-17

    Distinguishing cohort studies from case series is difficult.We propose a conceptualization of cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies. The main aim of this conceptualization is to clarify the distinction between cohort studies and case series. We discuss the potential impact of the proposed conceptualization on the body of evidence and workload.All studies with exposure-based sampling gather multiple exposures (with at least two different exposures or levels of exposure) and enable calculation of relative risks that should be considered cohort studies in systematic reviews, including non-randomized studies. The term "enables/can" means that a predefined analytic comparison is not a prerequisite (i.e., the absolute risks per group and/or a risk ratio are provided). Instead, all studies for which sufficient data are available for reanalysis to compare different exposures (e.g., sufficient data in the publication) are classified as cohort studies.There are possibly large numbers of studies without a comparison for the exposure of interest but that do provide the necessary data to calculate effect measures for a comparison. Consequently, more studies could be included in a systematic review. Therefore, on the one hand, the outlined approach can increase the confidence in effect estimates and the strengths of conclusions. On the other hand, the workload would increase (e.g., additional data extraction and risk of bias assessment, as well as reanalyses).

  19. The smartphone and the driver's cognitive workload: A comparison of Apple, Google, and Microsoft's intelligent personal assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M; Turrill, Jonna; Coleman, James R; Hopman, Rachel J

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the impact of voice-based interactions using 3 different intelligent personal assistants (Apple's Siri, Google's Google Now for Android phones, and Microsoft's Cortana) on the cognitive workload of the driver. In 2 experiments using an instrumented vehicle on suburban roadways, we measured the cognitive workload of drivers when they used the voice-based features of each smartphone to place a call, select music, or send text messages. Cognitive workload was derived from primary task performance through video analysis, secondary-task performance using the Detection Response Task (DRT), and subjective mental workload. We found that workload was significantly higher than that measured in the single-task drive. There were also systematic differences between the smartphones: The Google system placed lower cognitive demands on the driver than the Apple and Microsoft systems, which did not differ. Video analysis revealed that the difference in mental workload between the smartphones was associated with the number of system errors, the time to complete an action, and the complexity and intuitiveness of the devices. Finally, surprisingly high levels of cognitive workload were observed when drivers were interacting with the devices: "on-task" workload measures did not systematically differ from that associated with a mentally demanding Operation Span (OSPAN) task. The analysis also found residual costs associated using each of the smartphones that took a significant time to dissipate. The data suggest that caution is warranted in the use of smartphone voice-based technology in the vehicle because of the high levels of cognitive workload associated with these interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  1. An assessment of the effects of navigation maps on drivers' mental workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-Jung; Lin, Chia-Hsyang; Hsu, Shang-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the mental workloads and subjective feelings of drivers navigating different road patterns using different formats of electronic and paper maps. The results show drivers experience lower mental workloads when using 2D electronic maps compared to 3D electronic maps. Significant differences in galvanic skin responses were observed for navigation map formats with different road intersection patterns. The low- and high-frequency components of heart rate variability showed significant differences between map formats for regular road intersections, but no significant differences between map formats for irregular road intersections. Statistically significant effects on subjective feelings were found between different map formats and road intersection patterns. The wider implications of the study results for the design and use of navigation map interfaces are discussed.

  2. Characteristics of workload on ASCI blue-pacific at lawrence livermore national laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, A B; Jette, M A

    2000-08-14

    Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) clusters have become the prevalent computing platforms for large-scale scientific computation in recent years mainly due to their good scalability. In fact, many parallel machines being used at supercomputing centers and national laboratories are of this type. It is critical and often very difficult on such large-scale parallel computers to efficiently manage a stream of jobs, whose requirement for resources and computing time greatly varies. Understanding the characteristics of workload imposed on a target environment plays a crucial role in managing system resources and developing an efficient resource management scheme. A parallel workload is analyzed typically by studying the traces from actual production parallel machines. The study of the workload traces not only provides the system designers with insight on how to design good processor allocation and job scheduling policies for efficient resource management, but also helps system administrators monitor and fine-tune the resource management strategies and algorithms. Furthermore, the workload traces are a valuable resource for those who conduct performance studies through either simulation or analytical modeling. The workload traces can be directly fed to a trace-driven simulator in a more realistic and specific simulation experiments. Alternatively, one can obtain certain parameters that characterize the workload by analyzing the traces, and then use them to construct a workload model or to drive a simulation in which a large number of runs are required. Considering these benefits, they collected and analyzed the job traces from ASCI Blue-Pacific, a 336-node IBM SP2 machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The job traces used span a period of about six months, from October 1999 till the first week of May 2000. The IBM SP2 machine at the LLNL uses gang scheduling LoadLever (GangLL) to manage parallel jobs. User jobs are submitted to the GangLL via a locally

  3. Workload Characterization an Essential Step in Computer Systems Performance Analysis - Methodology and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEVERESAN, R.T.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer system performance is a very complex process in which the hardware and software manufacturers invest important human and financial resources. Workload characterization represents an essential component of performance analysis. This paper presents a trace based methodology for software applications evaluation. It introduces a new analysis concept designed to significantly ease this process and it presents a set of experimental data collected using the new analysis structure on a representative set of scientific and commercial applications. Several important conclusions are drawn regarding workload characteristics, classifications and runtime behavior. This type of data is used by the computer architects in their efforts to maximize the performance of the hardware platforms these applications are going to execute on.

  4. Nurses' leadership styles in the ICU: association with personal and professional profile and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the association between nurses' leadership styles and personal and professional nursing profile and workload. The sample consisted of seven nurses and seven nursing technicians who were grouped into pairs. At the end of three months, nurses were queried regarding what leadership style would be adopted when the nursing technician under their evaluation delivered care to patients admitted to the ICU. Relevant data was analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, Tukey's multiple comparison test and Student's t-test (pleadership styles chosen by nurses (p>0.05). The determine, persuade, and share leadership styles prevailed. However, whenever the nursing workload peaked, the determine and persuade styles were used (p<0.05).

  5. Effect of system workload on operating system reliability - A study on IBM 3081

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R. K.; Rossetti, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of operating system failures on an IBM 3081 running VM/SP. Three broad categories of software failures are found: error handling, program control or logic, and hardware related; it is found that more than 25 percent of software failures occur in the hardware/software interface. Measurements show that results on software reliability cannot be considered representative unless the system workload is taken into account. The overall CPU execution rate, although measured to be close to 100 percent most of the time, is not found to correlate strongly with the occurrence of failures. Possible reasons for the observed workload failure dependency, based on detailed investigations of the failure data, are discussed.

  6. On the workload and distribution of grades in the Keller individualized teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Danilo T; Filho, Sílvio C F Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Courses based on the Keller method (also named Personalized System of Instruction - PSI) present several interesting features and results, such as final grade distributions which are upside down (the majority of students achieving the highest grades) and a workload for the elaboration and implementation considerably greater than that involved in traditional courses. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to describe the scheme of a course implemented according to the Keller plan. This model predicts the time evolution of the distribution of students per unit of content, predicts the upside down effect in the final grades and establishes conditions under which this effect can be observed. The model also provides a quantification of the workload spent in implementing assessments, so it can be an useful tool for those planning or interested in further investigations on Keller courses.

  7. Effect of system workload on operating system reliability - A study on IBM 3081

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R. K.; Rossetti, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of operating system failures on an IBM 3081 running VM/SP. Three broad categories of software failures are found: error handling, program control or logic, and hardware related; it is found that more than 25 percent of software failures occur in the hardware/software interface. Measurements show that results on software reliability cannot be considered representative unless the system workload is taken into account. The overall CPU execution rate, although measured to be close to 100 percent most of the time, is not found to correlate strongly with the occurrence of failures. Possible reasons for the observed workload failure dependency, based on detailed investigations of the failure data, are discussed.

  8. W-MAC: a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance.

  9. The Effects of Transient Emotional State and Workload on Size Scaling in Perspective Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz

    2006-10-01

    Previous research has been devoted to the study of perceptual (e.g., number of depth cues) and cognitive (e.g., instructional set) factors that influence veridical size perception in perspective displays. However, considering that perspective displays have utility in high workload environments that often induce high arousal (e.g., aircraft cockpits), the present study sought to examine the effect of observers’ emotional state on the ability to perceive and judge veridical size. Within a dual-task paradigm, observers’ ability to make accurate size judgments was examined under conditions of induced emotional state (positive, negative, neutral) and high and low workload. Results showed that participants in both positive and negative induced emotional states were slower to make accurate size judgments than those not under induced emotional arousal. Results suggest that emotional state is an important factor that influences visual performance on perspective displays and is worthy of further study.

  10. Haptic Feedback in Motor Hand Virtual Therapy Increases Precision and Generates Less Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that haptic feedback in upper limb motor therapy improves performance and generates a lower mental workload. To demonstrate this, two groups of participants (healthy adults and elders with hand motor problems used a low-cost haptic device (Novint Falcon and a non-robotic device (Leap Motion Controller. Participants conducted the same rehabilitation task by using a non-immersive virtual environment. Results show significant differences for all participants regarding precision on the use of the haptic feedback device. Additionally, participants in the older adult group demonstrated a lower mental workload while using the haptic device (Novint Falcon. Finally, qualitative results show that participants preferred to conduct their therapy exercises by using the haptic device, as they found it more useful, easier to use and easier to learn

  11. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the physiological and behavioural responses of horses in field work. Chapter III describes a study on the fitness and responses to training of young Friesian horses. The fitness of horses appeared to improv...

  12. Evaluation of Automotive Control-Display System by means of MentalWorkload

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Atsuo; Moriwaka, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age, task difficulty on performance and mental workload were discussed in order to provide design guideline of automobile display that is friendly to older adults from the viewpoints of mental attention, speed and accuracy. A dual-task experiment was conducted in which the primary task was first order tracking. The secondary tasks included selection of function (easy condition), and control of an air conditioner, the operation of a radio, and the operation of a CD/MD (difficult...

  13. Workload Characterization an Essential Step in Computer Systems Performance Analysis - Methodology and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    CHEVERESAN, R.T.; HOLBAN, S.

    2009-01-01

    Computer system performance is a very complex process in which the hardware and software manufacturers invest important human and financial resources. Workload characterization represents an essential component of performance analysis. This paper presents a trace based methodology for software applications evaluation. It introduces a new analysis concept designed to significantly ease this process and it presents a set of experimental data collected using the new analysis structure on a repre...

  14. Physiological Synchronization in Emergency Response Teams: Subjective Workload, Drivers and Empaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Marra, David E; Perna, Claire; Castro, Julian; Gomez, Maribeth; Peressini, Anthony F

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral and physiological synchronization have important implications for work teams with regard to workload management, coordinated behavior and overall functioning. This study extended previous work on the nonlinear statistical structure of GSR series in dyads to larger teams and included subjective ratings of workload and contributions to problem solving. Eleven teams of 3 or 4 people played a series of six emergency response (ER) games against a single opponent. Seven of the groups worked under a time pressure instruction at the beginning of the first game. The other four groups were not given that instruction until the beginning of the fourth game. The optimal lag length for the teams, which appeared to be phase-locked, was substantially shorter than that obtained previously for loosely-coupled dyads. There was a complex nonlinear effect from the time pressure manipulation on the autocorrelation over time that reflected workload and fatigue dynamics that were operating. The R2 values for linear and nonlinear statistical models differed by less than .01. The average amount of influence from one ER team member to another was 4.5-4.7% of the variance in GSR readings. ER team members were classified as drivers and empaths, based on the autocorrelations and transfer influences to and from other players in the GSR time series. Empaths were rated by their peers as making more types of positive contributions to the problem solving discussions than others, and drivers received the lowest ratings. Larger Lyapunov exponents that were calculated from the GSR time series were positively correlated with individuals' ratings of subjective workload and were negatively correlated with leadership indicators. Several directions for further research are outlined.

  15. The influence of anaesthetists' experience on workload, performance and visual attention during simulated critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian M; Schneider, Erich; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Heuser, Fabian; Wagner, Klaus J; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Development of accurate Situation Awareness (SA) depends on experience and may be impaired during excessive workload. In order to gain adequate SA for decision making and performance, anaesthetists need to distribute visual attention effectively. Therefore, we hypothesized that in more experienced anaesthetists performance is better and increase of physiological workload is less during critical incidents. Additionally, we investigated the relation between physiological workload indicators and distribution of visual attention. In fifteen anaesthetists, the increase of pupil size and heart rate was assessed in course of a simulated critical incident. Simulator log files were used for performance assessment. An eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) provided data about the anaesthetists' distribution of visual attention. Performance was assessed as time until definitive treatment. T tests and multivariate generalized linear models (MANOVA) were used for retrospective statistical analysis. Mean pupil diameter increase was 8.1% (SD ± 4.3) in the less experienced and 15.8% (±10.4) in the more experienced subjects (p = 0.191). Mean heart rate increase was 10.2% (±6.7) and 10.5% (±8.3, p = 0.956), respectively. Performance did not depend on experience. Pupil diameter and heart rate increases were associated with a shift of visual attention from monitoring towards manual tasks (not significant). For the first time, the following four variables were assessed simultaneously: physiological workload indicators, performance, experience, and distribution of visual attention between "monitoring" and "manual" tasks. However, we were unable to detect significant interactions between these variables. This experimental model could prove valuable in the investigation of gaining and maintaining SA in the operation theatre.

  16. Does doctors’ workload impact supervision and ward activities of final-year students? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Nora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital doctors face constantly increasing workloads. Besides caring for patients, their duties also comprise the education of future colleagues. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate whether the workload arising from increased patient care interferes with student supervision and is associated with more non-medical activities of final-year medical students. Methods A total of 54 final-year students were asked to keep a diary of their daily activities over a three-week period at the beginning of their internship in Internal Medicine. Students categorized their activities – both medical and non-medical - according to whether they had: (1 only watched, (2 assisted the ward resident, (3 performed the activity themselves under supervision of the ward resident, or (4 performed the activity without supervision. The activities reported on a particular day were matched with a ward specific workload-index derived from the hospital information system, including the number of patients treated on the corresponding ward on that day, a correction factor according to the patient comorbidity complexity level (PCCL, and the number of admissions and discharges. Both students and ward residents were blinded to the study question. Results A total of 32 diaries (59 %, 442 recorded working days were handed back. Overall, the students reported 1.2 ± 1.3 supervised, 1.8 ±1.6 medical and 3.6 ± 1.7 non-medical activities per day. The more supervised activities were reported, the more the number of reported medical activities increased (p  Conclusions There was a significant association between ward doctors’ supervision of students and the number of medical activities performed by medical students. The workload had no significant effect on supervision or the number of medical or non-medical activities of final-year students.

  17. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Work-related neck/shoulder pain is a common complaint among military helicopter pilots and crew members. The flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) place a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck/shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force part...

  18. Adaptive Planning: Understanding Organizational Workload to Capability/ Capacity through Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In August 2003, the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) established the Adaptive Planning (AP) initiative [1] with an objective of reducing the time necessary to develop and revise Combatant Commander (COCOM) contingency plans and increase SECDEF plan visibility. In addition to reducing the traditional plan development timeline from twenty-four months to less than twelve months (with a goal of six months)[2], AP increased plan visibility to Department of Defense (DoD) leadership through In-Progress Reviews (IPRs). The IPR process, as well as the increased number of campaign and contingency plans COCOMs had to develop, increased the workload while the number of planners remained fixed. Several efforts from collaborative planning tools to streamlined processes were initiated to compensate for the increased workload enabling COCOMS to better meet shorter planning timelines. This paper examines the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) directed contingency planning and staffing requirements assigned to a combatant commander staff through the lens of modeling and simulation. The dynamics of developing a COCOM plan are captured with an ExtendSim [3] simulation. The resulting analysis provides a quantifiable means by which to measure a combatant commander staffs workload associated with development and staffing JSCP [4] directed contingency plans with COCOM capability/capacity. Modeling and simulation bring significant opportunities in measuring the sensitivity of key variables in the assessment of workload to capability/capacity analysis. Gaining an understanding of the relationship between plan complexity, number of plans, planning processes, and number of planners with time required for plan development provides valuable information to DoD leadership. Through modeling and simulation AP leadership can gain greater insight in making key decisions on knowing where to best allocate scarce resources in an effort to meet DoD planning objectives.

  19. Frowning and jaw clenching muscle activity reflects the perception of effort during incremental workload cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Hau; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yi-Lang; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether facial electromyography (EMG) recordings reflect the perception of effort and primary active lower limb muscle activity during incremental workload cycling. The effects of exercise intensity on EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS), masseter and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated, and the correlations among these parameters were determined. Eighteen males and 15 females performed continuous incremental workload cycling exercise until exhaustion. CS, masseter and VL muscle activities were continuously recorded using EMG during exercise. HR was also continuously monitored during the test. During the final 30 s of each stage of cycle ergometer exercise, participants were asked to report their feeling of exertion on the adult OMNI-Cycle RPE. HR and EMG activity of the facial muscles and the primary active lower limb muscle were strongly correlated with RPE; they increased with power output. Furthermore, facial muscle activity increased significantly during high-intensity exercise. Masseter muscle activity was strongly and positively correlated with HR, RPE and VL activity. The present investigation supports the view that facial EMG activity reflects the perception of effort. The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for improving the reporting of perceived effort during high-intensity exercise in males and females. Key pointsFrowning and jaw clenching muscle activity reflects the perception of effort during incremental workload cycling.EMG activity of the masseter muscle was strongly and positively correlated with RPE, HR and lower limb EMG activity during incremental workload cycling.The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for estimating the intensity of effort.

  20. Muscular workload of veterinary students during simulated open and laparoscopic surgery: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Larson, Dennis J; MacCormick, Mathew; Brown, Stephen H M; Singh, Ameet

    2017-08-01

    To compare upper extremity muscle activity and workload between simulated open surgery, multiple port laparoscopic surgery (MLS), and single incision laparoscopic surgery (SLS) techniques in veterinary students. Pilot study. Veterinary students (n = 10) from years 1 to 4. Bipolar skin surface electrodes were fixed bilaterally to the forearm flexor, forearm extensor, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and upper trapezius muscles. Electromyography data were recorded during one repetition of 2 simulated surgical exercises via open surgery, MLS, and SLS. Participants completed a validated workload survey after each simulated surgical technique. Muscle activity and perceived workload were compared between surgical techniques with 1-way ANOVAs and Fisher's LSD post hoc tests. Muscle activity during peg transfer was higher with MLS and SLS compared to simulated open surgery in the right and left forearm extensors (both P < .0001), right (P < .0001) and left biceps (P = .0005), right triceps (P = .0004), and right upper trapezius muscles (P = .0211). Similar results were found for the right and left forearm extensors (both P < .0001), right (P = .0381) and left (P = .0147) forearm flexors, right biceps (P < .0001), and right triceps (P = .0004) during a simulated suture task. Participants found laparoscopic techniques more mentally demanding, physically demanding, complex, and stressful compared to a simulated open surgical technique. In veterinary students, average muscle activity and perceived workload were highest using MLS and SLS compared to an open surgical technique when performing simulated surgical exercises in a laparoscopic box trainer. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Impact of 3D vision on mental workload and laparoscopic performance in inexperienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, E; Carrasco-Valiente, J; Valero-Rosa, J; Campos-Hernández, J P; Anglada-Curado, F J; Carazo-Carazo, J L; Font-Ugalde, P; Requena-Tapia, M J

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of vision in three dimensions (3D) versus two dimensions (2D) on mental workload and laparoscopic performance during simulation-based training. A prospective, randomized crossover study on inexperienced students in operative laparoscopy was conducted. Forty-six candidates executed five standardized exercises on a pelvitrainer with both vision systems (3D and 2D). Laparoscopy performance was assessed using the total time (in seconds) and the number of failed attempts. For workload assessment, the validated NASA-TLX questionnaire was administered. 3D vision improves the performance reducing the time (3D = 1006.08 ± 315.94 vs. 2D = 1309.17 ± 300.28; P < .001) and the total number of failed attempts (3D = .84 ± 1.26 vs. 2D = 1.86 ± 1.60; P < .001). For each exercise, 3D vision also shows better performance times: "transfer objects" (P = .001), "single knot" (P < .001), "clip and cut" (P < .05), and "needle guidance" (P < .001). Besides, according to the NASA-TLX results, less mental workload is experienced with the use of 3D (P < .001). However, 3D vision was associated with greater visual impairment (P < .01) and headaches (P < .05). The incorporation of 3D systems in laparoscopic training programs would facilitate the acquisition of laparoscopic skills, because they reduce mental workload and improve the performance on inexperienced surgeons. However, some undesirable effects such as visual discomfort or headache are identified initially. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. AH-64D Apache Longbow Aircrew Workload Assessment for Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    through the UAS PVI menu pages (below) to accomplish a task? Very Quickly Somewhat Quickly Borderline Somewhat Slowly Very Slowly UAS Flight...VIDEO 80% 20% P2. How often did you forget the steps required for navigating through the UAS PVI menu pages to accomplish a task...design of the UAS PVI contribute to high workload when controlling the UASs? (Circle one) 1 2 3

  3. Emotional Exhaustion and Workload Predict Clinician-Rated and Objective Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalena eWelp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. (Multilevel regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety were associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios.Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables or and support the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety.

  4. Effects of Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Navigation Cues on Navigation Performance, Situation Awareness, and Mental Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    MRT ) (Wickens & Hollands, 2000), which was also the basis for the IMPRINT workload analysis. Multiple resource theory proposes that people have...are supported by MRT , several display modalities for presenting navigation waypoint information were designed, including visual, monaural and spatial...all other experimental conditions. A Cyber Acoustics AC-200 supra-aural stereo headset was connected to the PC via the Creative Labs Sound Blaster

  5. Cloudweaver: Adaptive and Data-Driven Workload Manager for Generic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Syan

    Cloud computing denotes the latest trend in application development for parallel computing on massive data volumes. It relies on clouds of servers to handle tasks that used to be managed by an individual server. With cloud computing, software vendors can provide business intelligence and data analytic services for internet scale data sets. Many open source projects, such as Hadoop, offer various software components that are essential for building a cloud infrastructure. Current Hadoop (and many others) requires users to configure cloud infrastructures via programs and APIs and such configuration is fixed during the runtime. In this chapter, we propose a workload manager (WLM), called CloudWeaver, which provides automated configuration of a cloud infrastructure for runtime execution. The workload management is data-driven and can adapt to dynamic nature of operator throughput during different execution phases. CloudWeaver works for a single job and a workload consisting of multiple jobs running concurrently, which aims at maximum throughput using a minimum set of processors.

  6. Effect of Thermal Stress and Workload on Oxygen Debt in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Dimri

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal load on oxygen debt has been investigated. The experimental data were collected on six young healthy male subjects who were naturally acclimatized to heat. They were Studied under three environmental conditions which may be classified for convenience sake as comfortable (C,hot humid (HH, and every hot humid (VHH, The subjects were given exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 6 min at 6rpm, and their oxygen consumption was measured during rest, throughout exercise period (6min and for 30 min post-exercise period. The oxygen debt was determined at three different   submaximal  Workloads of 400,500 and 600 Kgm/min (equivalent 65, 82 and 98 W under each environmental condition. The results indicate a significant increase in oxygen debt with increase in thermal stress (p <.001 as well as workload (p <.001. Liner regression equations have been constructed as suggestive alternative method for the prediction of oxygen debt from thermal load or/and workload

  7. Determining resource intensity weights in ambulatory chemotherapy related to nursing workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Esther; Preyra, Colin; Stewart, Janice; McLennan, Cindy; Bland, Rosemary; Dus, Tamara; Langhorn, Marcia; Beattie, Kathy; Cheung, Annie; Hertz, Sherrie; Sechter, Haim; Burns, Judy; Angus, Helen; Sawka, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Ontario cancer programs aim to deliver high-quality nursing care and treatment that is safe for patients and staff. The reality of health care is that financial constraints, inherent in the delivery of care, require that funding mechanisms count not only the cost of drugs, but factors such as pharmacy and nursing human resource costs. While some organizations have developed patient classification systems to measure nursing intensity and workload, these systems apply primarily to inpatient populations, and are fraught with numerous challenges, such as the need for nurses to document to justify the workload required for care. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methodology and engagement of nurses to develop regimen-based resource intensity weights that can be applied to ambulatory chemotherapy suites. The methodology included determination of workload related to nursing time to prepare, teach, counsel and assess patients, as well as time to gather supplies, access lines, monitor, manage adverse reactions, manage symptoms and document care. Resource intensity weights provide better measures of the complexity of care required by cancer patients in ambulatory settings.

  8. Neural Correlates of Fast Pupil Dilation in Nonhuman Primates: Relation to Behavioral Performance and Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, R.E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively-related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed match to sample (DMS) task. An additional unique finding shows that electrophysiological recordings in the same animals revealed correlated firing of neurons in frontal cortex with different components of pupil dilation during task performance. It is further demonstrated that the frequency of fast pupil dilations (but not rate of eye movements) correlated with cognitive workload during task performance. Such correlations suggest that frontal neuron encoding of pupil dilation provides critical feedback to other brain areas involved in the processing of complex visual information. PMID:20226215

  9. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  10. Subjective responses of mental workload during real time driving: A pilot field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. I. A.; Dawal, S. Z. M.; Yusoff, N.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated drivers’ mental workload in real time driving to identify the driving situation’s complexity influences in an attempt to further design on a complete experimental study. Three driving settings were prepared: Session A (simple situation); Session B (moderately complex situation); Session C (very complex situation). To determine the mental workload, the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered to four drivers after each experimental driving session. The results showed that the Own Performance (OP) was the highest for session A (highway), while Physical Demand (PD) recorded the highest mean workload score across the session B (rural road) and C (city road). Based on the overall results of the study, it can be concluded that the highway is less demanding compared to rural and city road. It can be highlighted in this study that in the rural and city road driving situation, the timing must be set correctly to assure the relevant traffic density. Thus, the sensitivity of the timing must be considered in the future experiment. A larger number of experience drivers must be used in evaluating the driving situations to provide results that can be used to draw more realistic experiments and conclusions.

  11. Nursing workload in an intensive care unit and its relation with nosocomial infection incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Alameda Varela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is one of the most common causes of adverse events and complications related to health care. Development of nosocomial infection is associated with an increase in hospital stay and mortality and an overall increase in health care costs. Knowing the incidence of nosocomial infection is an effective way of controlling and preventing it. Identifying the relationship between nursing workload and nosocomial infections in critical care may be helpful to adjust the staff to the real requirements of the intensive care unit and may help reducing costs. The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of nursing workload in the development of nosocomial infections in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A longitudinal correlational research will be performed. The sample will be comprised of the patients admitted in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón.Data regarding sociodemographical variables, ventilador-associated pneumonia, intravascular catheter location and duration, urinary catheter type and duration, and all pertinent cultures will be obtained from the medical records. Nursing Activities Score scale will be used to assess daily nursing workload in the unit. The number of patients admitted daily, as well as the number of nursing professionals working in each shift will also be taken into account.

  12. The Sternberg Task as a Workload Metric in Flight Handling Qualities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether the Sternberg item-recognition task, employed as a secondary task measure of spare mental capacity for flight handling qualities (FHQ) simulation research, could help to differentiate between different flight-control conditions. FHQ evaluations were conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center to investigate different primary flight-control configurations, and selected stability and control augmentation levels for helicopers engaged in low-level flight regimes. The Sternberg task was superimposed upon the primary flight-control task in a balanced experimental design. The results of parametric statistical analysis of Sternberg secondary task data failed to support the continued use of this task as a measure of pilot workload. In addition to the secondary task, subjects provided Cooper-Harper pilot ratings (CHPR) and responded to a workload questionnaire. The CHPR data also failed to provide reliable statistical discrimination between FHQ treatment conditions; some insight into the behavior of the secondary task was gained from the workload questionnaire data.

  13. Workload Known VMM Scheduler for Server Consolidation for Enterprise Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel adaptive meta-heuristics based scheduling policies for provisioning the VCPU resources among competing VM service domains in a cloud. Such provisioning guarantees to Service Level Agreement for each domain, with respect to the diverse workloads on-the-fly. The framework is built on CSIM models and tools, making it easy to understand and configure various virtualization setups. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the framework by evaluating proactive, reactive and adaptive VCPU scheduling algorithms. The paper evaluates how periodic/aperiodic execution of control actions can affect policy performance and speed of convergence. The periodic reactive resource allocation is used as the baseline for analysis and the average response time is the performance metric. Simulation based experiments using variety of real-world arrival traces and synthetic workloads results that the proposed provisioning technique detects changes in arrival pattern and resource demands and allocates resources accordingly to achieve application SLA targets. The proposed model improves CPU utilization and makes the best tradeoff between resource utilization and performance from 2 to 6% comparing with the default VMM scheduler configurations for diverse workloads. In addition, the results of the experiments show that the proposed Weighed Moving Average algorithm combined with the aperiodic policy significantly outperforms other dynamic VM consolidation algorithms in all cases, in regard to the SLA metric due to a substantially reduced level of response time violations and the frequency of algorithm invocation.

  14. A virtual instrument ergonomics workstation for measuring the mental workload of performing video-endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D; Chung, Y H; Berguer, R

    2000-01-01

    The visual and physical interface imposed on the surgeon by video-endoscopic surgery (VES) increases the surgeon's mental workload. Ergonomic studies are needed to develop ways to reduce this workload. We used virtual instrumentation to devise a portable ergonomic workstation to compare the surgeon's mental workloads during simulated open surgery and VES. The system measures palmar tonic skin conductance level (SCL) and electrooculogram (EOG) and frontalis electrical activity to monitor mental stress and concentration levels. We used the system at a national surgery conference on volunteer subjects during a rest period and as they performed simulated surgery, consisting of typing knots using open and VES techniques. The subjects were asked to self-rate their levels of mental concentration and stress during these activities and reported that both progressively increased from rest to the open surgery task to the VES task. The subjects tied fewer knots during the VES than the open task, consistent with the increased demands of the VES task. The SCL progressively increased from rest to the open task to the VES task, correlating with the subjects' reported increase in mental stress level. Eye blinks and low frequency EOG activity decreased from rest to the open task, consistent with the subjects' reported increase in mental concentration level. From the open to the VES task, eye blinks and EOG activity increased, as expected given the greater demands of the VES task. High frequency frontalis activity merits further study as another indicator of the subjects' levels of mental concentration and stress.

  15. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity.

  16. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels modulate skeletal muscle function under low-intensity workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Burnett, Colin M-L; Chen, Biyi; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna; Gao, Zhan; Wu, Yuejin; Anderson, Mark E; Song, Long-Sheng; Goldhamer, David J; Coetzee, William A; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Zingman, Leonid V

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels have the unique ability to adjust membrane excitability and functions in accordance with the metabolic status of the cell. Skeletal muscles are primary sites of activity-related energy consumption and have KATP channels expressed in very high density. Previously, we demonstrated that transgenic mice with skeletal muscle-specific disruption of KATP channel function consume more energy than wild-type littermates. However, how KATP channel activation modulates skeletal muscle resting and action potentials under physiological conditions, particularly low-intensity workloads, and how this can be translated to muscle energy expenditure are yet to be determined. Here, we developed a technique that allows evaluation of skeletal muscle excitability in situ, with minimal disruption of the physiological environment. Isometric twitching of the tibialis anterior muscle at 1 Hz was used as a model of low-intensity physical activity in mice with normal and genetically disrupted KATP channel function. This workload was sufficient to induce KATP channel opening, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization as well as reduction in action potential overshoot and duration. Loss of KATP channel function resulted in increased calcium release and aggravated activity-induced heat production. Thus, this study identifies low-intensity workload as a trigger for opening skeletal muscle KATP channels and establishes that this coupling is important for regulation of myocyte function and thermogenesis. These mechanisms may provide a foundation for novel strategies to combat metabolic derangements when energy conservation or dissipation is required.

  17. Organizational impact of nurse supply and workload on nurses continuing professional development opportunities: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Tracey H; Maslin-Prothero, Sian E; Smith, Gilly

    2015-12-01

    To identify the best evidence on the impact of healthcare organizations' supply of nurses and nursing workload on the continuing professional development opportunities of Registered Nurses in the acute care hospital. To maintain registration and professional competence nurses are expected to participate in continuing professional development. One challenge of recruitment and retention is the Registered Nurse's ability to participate in continuing professional development opportunities. The integrative review method was used to present Registered Nurses perspectives on this area of professional concern. The review was conducted for the period of 2001-February 2015. Keywords were: nurs*, continuing professional development, continuing education, professional development, supply, shortage, staffing, workload, nurse: patient ratio, barrier and deterrent. The integrative review used a structured approach for literature search and data evaluation, analysis and presentation. Eleven international studies met the inclusion criteria. Nurses are reluctant or prevented from leaving clinical settings to attend continuing professional development due to lack of relief cover, obtaining paid or unpaid study leave, use of personal time to undertake mandatory training and organizational culture and leadership issues constraining the implementation of learning to benefit patients. Culture, leadership and workload issues impact nurses' ability to attend continuing professional development. The consequences affect competence to practice, the provision of safe, quality patient care, maintenance of professional registration, job satisfaction, recruitment and retention. Organizational leadership plays an important role in supporting attendance at continuing professional development as an investment for the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measuring professional satisfaction and nursing workload among nursing staff at a Greek Coronary Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gouzou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To explore potential associations between nursing workload and professional satisfaction among nursing personnel (NP in Greek Coronary Care Units (CCUs. Method A cross-sectional study was performed involving 66 members of the NP employed in 6 randomly selected Greek CCUs. Job satisfaction was assessed by the IWS and nursing workload by NAS, CNIS and TISS-28. Results The response rate was 77.6%. The reliability of the IWS was α=0.78 and the mean score 10.7 (±2.1, scale range: 0.5-39.7. The most highly valued component of satisfaction was “Pay”, followed by “Task requirements”, “Interaction”, “Professional status”, “Organizational policies” and “Autonomy”. NAS, CNIS and TISS-28 were negatively correlated (p≤0.04 with the following work components: “Autonomy”, “Professional status”, “Interaction” and “Task requirements”. Night shift work independently predicted the score of IWS. Conclusion The findings show low levels of job satisfaction, which are related with nursing workload and influenced by rotating shifts.

  19. Work stress and workload of full-time anesthesiologists in acute care hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Sekimoto, Miho; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    The number of anesthesiologists per population in Japan is small compared with that in Europe and North America. While there is a growing concern that hard work causes anesthesiologists' fatigue and may compromise patient safety, the workload and physical stress, as well as the impact of staff support on physicians' stress have not been assessed in detail. The goal of this study was to evaluate the working environment, anesthesia workload, and occupational stress of anesthesiologists in Japan. A questionnaire survey was performed targeting 1010 members of the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists working as anesthesiologists affiliated with acute care hospitals in Japan. Data on background information, working environment, operation anesthesia duties, and stress were collected, and the relationship of work stress with background, environment, and anesthesia duties was evaluated by linear regression analysis. Responses were obtained from 383 full-time anesthesiologists (response rate, 43.9%). The total anesthesia time per week was 23.6 h on average. The work stress score was 114.3 +/- 30.2 (mean +/- SD) when the average workers' work stress score in Japan was 100. The work stress score was significantly associated with "years of experience" (with experience or = 20 years: beta = -0.15, P = 0.04), "hospital with > or = 500 beds" (with a hospital with stress" (beta = 0.21, P stress among anesthesiologists is related to workload and other factors.

  20. Classifying visuomotor workload in a driving simulator using subject specific spatial brain patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eDijksterhuis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A passive Brain Computer Interface (BCI is a system that responds to the spontaneously produced brain activity of its user and could be used to develop interactive task support. A human-machine system that could benefit from brain-based task support is the driver-car interaction system. To investigate the feasibility of such a system to detect changes in visuomotor workload, 34 drivers were exposed to several levels of driving demand in a driving simulator. Driving demand was manipulated by varying driving speed and by asking the drivers to comply to individually set lane keeping performance targets. Differences in the individual driver’s workload levels were classified by applying the Common Spatial Pattern (CSP and Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis to frequency filtered electroencephalogram (EEG data during an off line classification study. Several frequency ranges, EEG cap configurations, and condition pairs were explored. It was found that classifications were most accurate when based on high frequencies, larger electrode sets, and the frontal electrodes. Depending on these factors, classification accuracies across participants reached about 95% on average. The association between high accuracies and high frequencies suggests that part of the underlying information did not originate directly from neuronal activity. Nonetheless, average classification accuracies up to 75%-80% were obtained from the lower EEG ranges that are likely to reflect neuronal activity. For a system designer, this implies that a passive BCI system may use several frequency ranges for workload classifications.

  1. The 4-H Youth Development Professionals Workload Relationship to Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Stark

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine what job responsibilities Extension 4-H youth development professionals (n=241 chose to spend their work time doing and how the workload related to their job satisfaction and burnout is discussed in this paper. Workload was determined using the 4-H Professional, Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (4-H PRKC. Professionals identified their level of job satisfaction and burnout. Based on the previous research on workload, burnout, and job satisfaction, 4-H youth development professionals are prime candidates for experiencing low job satisfaction and increased burnout, which may lead to professionals leaving the organization early. 4-H youth development professionals reported being satisfied with their job and felt very little burnout. Even with the positive job satisfaction and low burnout, there are strategies shared for each of the 4-H PRKC domains to help 4-H professionals continue to have a high level of job satisfaction and low burnout. Many of the strategies that are shared in this paper are applicable to not only 4-H youth development professionals but to any professional who works in the field of youth development.

  2. Peer review for biomedical publications: we can improve the system

    OpenAIRE

    Stahel, Philip F; Moore, Ernest E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of formal training programs for peer reviewers places the scientific quality of biomedical publications at risk, as the introduction of ‘hidden’ bias may not be easily recognized by the reader. The exponential increase in the number of manuscripts submitted for publication worldwide, estimated in the millions annually, overburdens the capability of available qualified referees. Indeed, the workload imposed on individual reviewers appears to be reaching a ‘breaking point’ that may no ...

  3. A Simple ERP Method for Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Workload in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control and Human-Machine Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Deeny; Caitlin Chicoine; Levi Hargrove; Todd Parrish; Arun Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of contro...

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  5. A comparison of heart rate, eye activity, EEG and subjective measures of pilot mental workload during flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, T C; Wilson, G F

    1998-04-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration in the design and operation of modern aircraft systems. Objective measures of mental workload that are sensitive and diagnostic are required to meet the needs of both pilots and designers. Due to the multifaceted nature of these complex mental demands multiple measures are required. Psychophysiological and subjective measures provide unique information about mental workload during flight. Cardiac, eye, brain and subjective data were collected during an actual flight scenario designed to provide tasks which required different piloting skills at several levels of mental workload. Heart rate was sensitive to the demands of flight but not diagnostic with regard to determining the cause of the workload. Heart rates increased during take offs and landings and to an intermediate level during instrument flight rules (IFR) segments. By showing sensitivity to only the visual demands of the various segments of flight eye activity was more diagnostic. The theta band of the EEG demonstrated increased power during those flight segments which required inflight mental calculations. The subjective measures showed trends suggesting different levels of mental demand but demonstrated few statistically significant differences. Multiple measures, especially psychophysiological measures, provide a comprehensive picture of the mental demands of flight. The measures used in this study were shown to provide unique, non-overlapping information. Because of the continuous nature of the psychophysiological data it may be possible to develop systems which provide on-line monitoring of mental workload that can provide feedback to the pilot and aircraft systems.

  6. Estimating mental workload through event-related fluctuations of pupil area during a task in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Miriam; Gelfeld, Tatiana M

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring mental load for optimal performance has become increasingly central with the recently evolving need to cope with exponentially increasing amounts of data. This paper describes a non-intrusive, objective method to estimate mental workload in an immersive virtual reality system, through analysis of frequencies of pupil fluctuations. We tested changes in mental workload with a number of task-repetitions, level of predictability of the task and the effect of prior experience in predictable task performance, on mental workload of unpredictable task performance. Two measures were used to calculate mental workload: the ratio of Low Frequency to High Frequency components of pupil fluctuations, and the High Frequency alone, all extracted from the Power Spectrum Density of pupil fluctuations. Results show that mental workload decreases with a number of repetitions, creating a mode in which the brain acts as an automatic controller. Automaticity during training occurs only after a minimal number of repetitions, which once achieved, resulted in further improvements in the performance of unpredictable motor tasks, following training in a predictable task. These results indicate that automaticity is a central component in the transfer of skills from highly predictable to low predictable motor tasks. Our results suggest a potentially applicable method to brain-computer-interface systems that adapt to human mental workload, and provide intelligent automated support for enhanced performance.

  7. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  8. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  9. Partitioning based Approach for Load Balancing Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V V S S C Divya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Load Balancing Model Based on Cloud Partitioning for the Public Cloud environment has an important impact on the performance of network load. A cloud computing system which does not use load balancing has numerous drawbacks. Now-a-days the usage of internet and related resources has increased widely. Due to this there is tremendous increase in workload. So there is uneven distribution of this workload which results in server overloading and may crash. In such systems the resources are not optimally used. Due to this the performance degrades and efficiency reduces. Cloud computing efficient and improves user satisfaction. This project is a better load balance model for public cloud based on the cloud partitioning concept with a switch mechanism to choose different strategies for different situations. The algorithm applies the game theory for load balancing strategy to improve the efficiency in the public cloud environment

  10. The impact on the workload of the Ward Manager with the introduction of administrative assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rachel; Leach, Camilla; Kitsell, Fleur; Griffith, Jacki

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the impact on the workload of the Ward Manager (WM) with the introduction of administrative assistants into eight trusts in the South of England in a year-long pilot. Ward Managers are nurse leaders who are responsible for ward management and delivering expert clinical care to patients. They have traditionally been expected to achieve this role without administrative assistance. Meeting the workload demands of multiple roles and overload has meant the leadership and clinical role has suffered, presenting issues of low morale among existing WMs and issues of recruiting the next generation of WMs. Sixty qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 WMs, 12 Ward Manager Assistants (WMAs), and six senior nurse executives about the impact of the introduction of the WMA post. Quantitative data to measure change in WM workload and ward activity was supplied by 24 wards. Ward Managers reported spending reduced time on administrative tasks and having increased time available to spend on the ward with patients and leading staff. With the introduction of WMAs, there was also improvement in key performance measures (the maintenance of quality under service pressures) and increased staff motivation. There was overwhelming support for the introduction of administrative assistants from participating WMs. The WMAs enabled WMs to spend more time with patients and, more widely, to provide greater support to ward teams. The success of the pilot is reflected in wards working hard to be able to extend contracts of WMAs. The extent of the success is reflected in wards that were not participants in the pilot, observing the benefits of the post, having worked to secure funding to recruit their own WMAs. The widespread introduction of administrative assistance could increase ward productivity and provide support for clinical leaders. Continuing professional development for WMs needs to incorporate training about management responsibilities and how to best use administrative

  11. Analysis and Modeling of Social In uence in High Performance Computing Workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-06-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a common tool in many research areas. Social influence (e.g., project collaboration) among increasing users of HPC systems creates bursty behavior in underlying workloads. This bursty behavior is increasingly common with the advent of grid computing and cloud computing. Mining the user bursty behavior is important for HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, which has direct impact on overall HPC computing performance. A representative work in this area is the Mixed User Group Model (MUGM), which clusters users according to the resource demand features of their submissions, such as duration time and parallelism. However, MUGM has some difficulties when implemented in real-world system. First, representing user behaviors by the features of their resource demand is usually difficult. Second, these features are not always available. Third, measuring the similarities among users is not a well-defined problem. In this work, we propose a Social Influence Model (SIM) to identify, analyze, and quantify the level of social influence across HPC users. The advantage of the SIM model is that it finds HPC communities by analyzing user job submission time, thereby avoiding the difficulties of MUGM. An offline algorithm and a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups are proposed. Both offline and online algorithms are applied on several HPC and grid workloads, including Grid 5000, EGEE 2005 and 2007, and KAUST Supercomputing Lab (KSL) BGP data. From the experimental results, we show the existence of a social graph, which is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of identified user groups, we show the pattern discovered by the offline algorithm follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. We finally conclude the thesis and discuss future directions of our work.

  12. Neurophysiologic monitoring of mental workload and fatigue during operation of a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    In one experiment, EEG recordings were made during a daytime session while 16 well-rested participants performed versions of a PC flight simulator task that were either low, moderate, or high in difficulty. In another experiment, the same subjects repeatedly performed high difficulty versions of the same task during an all night session with total sleep deprivation. Multivariate EEG metrics of cortical activation were derived for frontal brain regions essential for working memory and executive control processes that are presumably important for maintaining situational awareness, central brain regions essential for sensorimotor control, and posterior parietal and occipital regions essential for visuoperceptual processing. During the daytime session each of these regional measures displayed greater activation during the high difficulty task than during the low difficulty task, and degree of cortical activation was positively correlated with subjective workload ratings in these well-rested subjects. During the overnight session, cortical activation declined with time-on-task, and the degree of this decline over frontal regions was negatively correlated with subjective workload ratings. Since participants were already highly skilled in the task, such changes likely reflect fatigue-related diminishment of frontal executive capability rather than practice effects. These findings suggest that the success of efforts to gauge mental workload via proxy cortical activation measures in the context of adaptive automation systems will likely depend on use of user models that take both task demands and the operator"s state of alertness into account. Further methodological development of the measurement approach outlined here would be required to achieve a practical, effective objective means for monitoring transient changes in cognitive brain function during performance of complex real-world tasks.

  13. Effects of mental workload and fatigue on the P300, alpha and theta band power during operation of an ERP (P300) brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käthner, Ivo; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed at revealing electrophysiological indicators of mental workload and fatigue during prolonged usage of a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI). Mental workload was experimentally manipulated with dichotic listening tasks. Medium and high workload conditions alternated. Behavioral measures confirmed that the manipulation of mental workload was successful. Reduced P300 amplitude was found for the high workload condition. Along with lower performance and an increase in the subjective level of fatigue, an increase of power in the alpha band was found for the last as compared to the first run of both conditions. The study confirms that a combination of signals derived from the time and frequency domain of the electroencephalogram is promising for the online detection of workload and fatigue. It also demonstrates that satisfactory accuracies can be achieved by healthy participants with the P300 speller, despite constant distraction and when pursuing the task for a long time.

  14. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    Introduction Work-related neck/shoulder pain is a common complaint among military helicopter pilots and crew members. The flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) place a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck....../shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force participated in a standardized representative flight sortie encompassing: Patient transportation (A-B flight...

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    pressure. Primary outcome are cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands...... opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity.Trial registrationThe study is registered as ISRCTN86682076.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...

  16. Occupational and leisure-time physical activity and workload among construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Westgate, Kate; Karstad, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of quantification of occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To describe physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), physical workload, and the effect of a PA-intervention among construction...... workers. METHODS: Sixty-seven Construction workers self-reported their physical activity (PA), had PA assessed directly (PAEE), and observed OPA using the tool "Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling." The PA-intervention (Intervention; n = 29, Controls; n = 24) included 3x20-min training/week for 12 weeks...

  17. Dynamic workload balancing of parallel applications with user-level scheduling on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Korkhov, Vladimir V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests a hybrid resource management approach for efficient parallel distributed computing on the Grid. It operates on both application and system levels, combining user-level job scheduling with dynamic workload balancing algorithm that automatically adapts a parallel application to the heterogeneous resources, based on the actual resource parameters and estimated requirements of the application. The hybrid environment and the algorithm for automated load balancing are described, the influence of resource heterogeneity level is measured, and the speedup achieved with this technique is demonstrated for different types of applications and resources.

  18. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nengchao; Xie, Lian; Wu, Chaozhong; Fu, Qiang; Deng, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs; Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway environments, while

  19. Driver's Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nengchao; Xie, Lian; Wu, Chaozhong; Fu, Qiang; Deng, Chao

    2017-02-17

    Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers' behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway environments, while

  20. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R(2)). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R(2)=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R(2)=0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. How Do Clinical Information Systems Affect the Cognitive Demands of General Practitioners?: Usability Study with a Focus on Cognitive Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ariza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical information systems in the National Health Service do not need to conform to any explicit usability requirements. Poor usability can increase the mental workload experienced by clinicians and cause fatigue, increase error rates and impact the overall patient safety. Mental workload can be used as a measure of usability.Objective To assess the subjective cognitive workload experienced by general practitioners (GPs with their systems. To raise awareness of the importance of usability in system design among users, designers, developers and policymakers.Methods We used a modified version of the NASA Task Load Index, adapted for web. We developed a set of common clinical scenarios and computer tasks on an online survey. We emailed the study link to 199 clinical commissioning groups and 1,646 GP practices in England. Results Sixty-seven responders completed the survey. The respondents had spent an average of 17 years in general practice, had experience of using a mean of 1.5 GP computer systems and had used their current system for a mean time of 6.7 years. The mental workload score was not different among systems. There were significant differences among the task scores, but these differences were not specific to particular systems. The overall score and task scores were related to the length of experience with their present system. Conclusion Four tasks imposed a higher mental workload on GPs: ‘repeat prescribing’, ‘find episode’, ‘drug management’ and ‘overview records’. Further usability studies on GP systems should focus on these tasks. Users, policymakers, designers and developers should remain aware of the importance of usability in system design.What does this study add?• Current GP systems in England do not need to conform to explicit usability requirements. Poor usability can increase the mental workload of clinicians and lead to errors.• Some clinical computer tasks incur more cognitive workload

  2. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Andreas Hogervorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90% (SD 4%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 minute segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% (SD 5% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

  3. Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

  4. Integration of part selection, machine loading and machining optimisation decisions for balanced workload in flexible manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa I. Mgwatu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating and solving the machining optimisation problem jointly with part selection and machine loading problems in order to avoid unbalanced workload in the FMS. Unbalanced workload renders to ineffective FMS such that some machines on the manufacturing shop floor become more occupied than others. Since CNC machine tools employed in the FMS are rather expensive, it is mostly important to balance the workload so that all machines can be effectively utilised. Therefore, in this study, two mathematical models are presented and solved in efforts to balance the workload and improve the performance of the FMS. A two-stage sequential approach is adopted whereby the first stage deals with the maximum throughput objective while the second stage deals with the minimum production cost objective. The results show that when part selection, machine loading and machining optimisation problems are jointly solved, more practical decisions can be made and a wide range of balanced workload in the FMS can be realised with minimum production cost objective. The results also show that the available machine time and tooling budget have enormous effects on throughput and production cost.

  5. A simple ERP method for quantitative analysis of cognitive workload in myoelectric prosthesis control and human-machine interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Deeny

    Full Text Available Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC and pattern recognition control (PRC, while electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP, supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.

  6. A simple ERP method for quantitative analysis of cognitive workload in myoelectric prosthesis control and human-machine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeny, Sean; Chicoine, Caitlin; Hargrove, Levi; Parrish, Todd; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.

  7. A human factors framework and study of the effect of nursing workload on patient safety and employee quality of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Scanlon, Matthew C; Patel, Neal R; Kaushal, Rainu; Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Brown, Roger L; Alper, Samuel J; Arnold, Judi M; Shalaby, Theresa M; Murkowski, Kathleen; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-01-01

    Nursing workload is increasingly thought to contribute to both nurses' quality of working life and quality/safety of care. Prior studies lack a coherent model for conceptualising and measuring the effects of workload in healthcare. In contrast, we conceptualised a human factors model for workload specifying workload at three distinct levels of analysis and having multiple nurse and patient outcomes. To test this model, we analysed results from a cross-sectional survey of a volunteer sample of nurses in six units of two academic tertiary care paediatric hospitals. Workload measures were generally correlated with outcomes of interest. A multivariate structural model revealed that: the unit-level measure of staffing adequacy was significantly related to job dissatisfaction (path loading=0.31) and burnout (path loading=0.45); the task-level measure of mental workload related to interruptions, divided attention, and being rushed was associated with burnout (path loading=0.25) and medication error likelihood (path loading=1.04). Job-level workload was not uniquely and significantly associated with any outcomes. The human factors engineering model of nursing workload was supported by data from two paediatric hospitals. The findings provided a novel insight into specific ways that different types of workload could affect nurse and patient outcomes. These findings suggest further research and yield a number of human factors design suggestions.

  8. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  9. Blood glucose control using an artificial pancreas reduces the workload of ICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibu, Kiyo; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    Blood glucose management is one of the important therapies in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, blood glucose management using the sliding-scale method increases the workload of ICU nurses. An artificial pancreas, STG-22, has been developed to continuously monitor blood glucose levels and to maintain them at appropriate levels. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that compared to conventional methods, blood glucose management using the STG-22 reduces the workload of ICU nurses and has a positive impact on awareness regarding the management of blood glucose. This study included 45 patients who underwent elective surgery and were treated at the ICU postoperatively. The patients were separated into the following two groups: (1) blood glucose was maintained using the STG-22 (AP group) and (2) blood glucose was maintained using the sliding-scale method (SS group). In addition, a questionnaire was developed for an awareness survey of ICU nurses (N = 20). The frequency of blood sampling and number of double checks were significantly lower in the AP group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.9 ± 8.1 times/admission, P blood glucose.

  10. An fMRI analysis of object priming and workload in the precuneus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Maria Stylianou; Wright, Anthony A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2008-04-01

    Drawings depicting familiar objects and unreal structures were presented twice, and participants (N=16) determined whether line drawings were real (familiar) or unreal (unfamiliar). The second presentation (repetition) of a drawing was typically responded to faster and more accurately than the first presentation and was accompanied by reduced activation in occipitotemporal (fusiform) and lateral precuneus regions, and increased activation in medial precuneus regions. The behavioral effects and reduced activations (e.g., lateral precuneus) on the second presentation were less pronounced for unreal objects than for real objects. Activation changes in the medial precuneus - increased activation on repetition and reduced activation for novel unreal objects - was further supported by the increased activation in this area during rest and reduced activation when workload was increased (i.e., processing novel unreal objects). The results from the present study in conjunction with those from several previous studies converge on the conclusion that the occipitotemporal and lateral regions of the precuneus are primarily involved in object priming, whereas the medial portion of precuneus primarily activates and deactivates as a function of workload.

  11. Effects of mental workload and caffeine on catecholamines and blood pressure compared to performance variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Vlachogiannis, Emmanouil; Skepastianos, Petros; Bamidis, Panayiotis; Maglaveras, Nikos; Pappas, Kostantinos

    2003-02-01

    Caffeine is characterised as a central nervous system stimulant, also affecting metabolic and cardiovascular functions. A number of studies have demonstrated an effect of caffeine on the excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine have been shown to increase after caffeine administration. Similar trends were observed in our study in adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NORADR) levels and additionally a dose dependent effect of caffeine. The effect of caffeine on cognitive performance, blood pressure, and catecholamines was tested under resting conditions and under mental workload. Each subject performed the test after oral administration of 1 cup and then 3 cups of coffee. Root mean square error (RMSE) for the tracking task was continuously monitored. Blood pressure was also recorded before and after each stage of the experiment. Catecholamines were collected and measured for three different conditions as: at rest, after mental stress alone, after one dose of caffeine under stress, and after triple dose of caffeine under stress. Comparison of the performance of each stage with the resting conditions revealed statistically significant differences between group of smokers/coffee drinkers compared with the other two groups of non-coffee drinkers/non-smokers and non-smokers/coffee drinkers. There was no statistically significant difference between the last two groups. There was an increase of urine adrenaline with 1 cup of coffee and statistically significant increase of urine noradrenaline. Both catecholamines were significantly increased with triple dose of caffeine. Mental workload increased catecholamines. There was a dose dependent effect of caffeine on catecholamines.

  12. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real tim...

  13. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    De, Kaushik; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre; Schovancova, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modi ed PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused...

  14. Workload-aware request routing in cloud data center using software-defined networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Yuan; Jing Bi; Bohu Li

    2015-01-01

    Large latency of applications wil bring revenue loss to cloud infrastructure providers in the cloud data center. The existing control ers of software-defined networking architecture can fetch and process traffic information in the network. Therefore, the con-trol ers can only optimize the network latency of applications. How-ever, the serving latency of applications is also an important factor in delivered user-experience for arrival requests. Unintel igent re-quest routing wil cause large serving latency if arrival requests are al ocated to overloaded virtual machines. To deal with the re-quest routing problem, this paper proposes the workload-aware software-defined networking control er architecture. Then, request routing algorithms are proposed to minimize the total round trip time for every type of request by considering the congestion in the network and the workload in virtual machines (VMs). This paper final y provides the evaluation of the proposed algorithms in a sim-ulated prototype. The simulation results show that the proposed methodology is efficient compared with the existing approaches.

  15. SHAPA: An interactive software tool for protocol analysis applied to aircrew communications and workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey M.; Sanderson, Penelope M.; Seidler, Karen S.

    1990-01-01

    As modern transport environments become increasingly complex, issues such as crew communication, interaction with automation, and workload management have become crucial. Much research is being focused on holistic aspects of social and cognitive behavior, such as the strategies used to handle workload, the flow of information, the scheduling of tasks, the verbal and non-verbal interactions between crew members. Traditional laboratory performance measures no longer sufficiently meet the needs of researchers addressing these issues. However observational techniques are better equipped to capture the type of data needed and to build models of the requisite level of sophistication. Presented here is SHAPA, an interactive software tool for performing both verbal and non-verbal protocol analysis. It has been developed with the idea of affording the researchers the closest possible degree of engagement with protocol data. The researcher can configure SHAPA to encode protocols using any theoretical framework or encoding vocabulary that is desired. SHAPA allows protocol analysis to be performed at any level of analysis, and it supplies a wide variety of tools for data aggregation, manipulation. The output generated by SHAPA can be used alone or in combination with other performance variables to get a rich picture of the influences on sequences of verbal or nonverbal behavior.

  16. Bioinstrumentation for evaluation of workload in payload specialists: results of ASSESS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Hans M.; Herrmann, Reinhold; Winget, Charles M.

    1980-11-01

    ASSESS II‡Acronym for Airborne Science/Spacelab Experiments System Simulation. was a cooperative NASA-ESA project which consisted of a detailed simulation of Spacelab operations using the NASA Ames Research Center CV-990 aircraft laboratory. The Medical Experiment reported on in this paper was part of the complex payload consisting of 11 different experiments. Its general purpose was to develop a technology, possibly flown on board of Spacelab, and enabling the assessment of workload through evaluating changes of circadian rhythmicity, sleep disturbances and episodical or cumulative stress. As parameters the following variables were measured: Rectal temperature, ECG, sleep-EEG and -EOG, the urinary excretion of hormones and electrolytes. The results revealed evidence that a Spacelab environment, as simulated in ASSESS II, will lead to internal dissociation of circadian rhythms, to sleep disturbances and to highly stressful working conditions. Altogether these effects will impose considerable workload upon Payload Specialists. It is suggested that an intensive pre-mission system simulation will reduce these impairments to a reasonable degree. The bioinstrumentation applied in this experiment proved to be a practical and reliable tool in assessing the objectives of the study.

  17. Relationship of nursing workload with the severity and outcome of the patients in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Stoufis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of monitoring and measurement of nursing workload is constant and necessary not only to document the quality of health services but also to increase job satisfaction of nurses in order to reduce stress and burnout. PURPOSE: The purpose of? This review is to illustrate the complex role that nurses play in today's environment of care through the promotion of associations of nursing workload on the severity and outcome of patients in the ICU. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It became an international literature review through an internationally recognized search engine (pubmed, scopus, Mdconsult to highlight science-based views. RESULTS: The literature review highlights the efforts being made internationally in developing methods for assessing the quality of nursing care that is commonly accepted by both the nurse and the rest of the scientific community. CONCLUSION: Modern theories approaching nursing job considering all levels identify a health care system that both matters of organization and management structure of a service and issues related to clinical severity of hospitalized patients and the needs arising from it.

  18. Methodological integrative review of the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Duffield, Christine M; Gallagher, Robyn; Roche, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To critically review the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research. Work sampling is a technique frequently used by researchers and managers to explore and measure nursing activities. However, work sampling methods used are diverse making comparisons of results between studies difficult. Methodological integrative review. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 2002-2012. Manual scanning of reference lists and Rich Site Summary feeds from contemporary nursing journals were other sources of data. Articles published in the English language between 2002-2012 reporting on research which used work sampling to examine nursing workload. Eighteen articles were reviewed. The review identified that the work sampling technique lacks a standardized approach, which may have an impact on the sharing or comparison of results. Specific areas needing a shared understanding included the training of observers and subjects who self-report, standardization of the techniques used to assess observer inter-rater reliability, sampling methods and reporting of outcomes. Work sampling is a technique that can be used to explore the many facets of nursing work. Standardized reporting measures would enable greater comparison between studies and contribute to knowledge more effectively. Author suggestions for the reporting of results may act as guidelines for researchers considering work sampling as a research method. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Measuring pilot workload in a moving-base simulator. I Asynchronous secondary choice-reaction task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.; Bortolussi, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The de facto method for measuring airplane pilot workload is based upon subjective ratings. While researchers agree that such subjective data should be bolstered by using objective behavioral measures, results to date have been mixed. No clear objective technique has surfaced as the metric of choice. It is believed that this difficulty is in part due to neglect of theoretical work in psychology that predicts some of the difficulties that are inherent in a futile search for 'the one and only' best secondary task to measure workload. An initial study that used both subjective ratings and an asynchronous choice-reaction secondary task was conducted to determine if such a secondary task could indeed meet the methodological constraints imposed by current theories of attention. Two variants of a flight scenario were combined with two levels of the secondary task. Appropriate single-task control conditions were also included. Results give grounds for cautious optimism but indicate that future research should use synchronous secondary tasks where possible.

  20. Association of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery. Nurses/nursing assistants (n = 95) were recruited from wards that belonged to either the top (high-strain group, HJS) or the bottom (low-strain group, LJS) job strain quartiles of a Job Content Questionnaire survey of employees in five health care districts and four cities in Finland. Three-week field measurements during naturally occurring shift schedules and a subset of pre-selected shift arrangements consisted of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, perceived workload and recovery. The HJS group (n = 42) had more single days off and quick returns than the LJS group (n = 53, p HJS group only in quick returns (p = 0.04) and the HJS group recovered on average more poorly from work after all shifts (p = 0.01) and morning shifts (p = 0.02). During pre-selected shift arrangements, the differences between the groups were only minor. In conclusion, job strain-related differences in sleepiness and recovery were mostly attributable to differences in shift arrangements.

  1. An Efficient Adaptive Load Balancing Algorithm for Cloud Computing Under Bursty Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Issawi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent, emerging technology in the IT industry. It is an evolution of previous models such as grid computing. It enables a wide range of users to access a large sharing pool of resources over the internet. In such complex system, there is a tremendous need for an efficient load balancing scheme in order to satisfy peak user demands and provide high quality of services. One of the challenging problems that degrade the performance of a load balancing process is bursty workloads. Although there are a lot of researches proposing different load balancing algorithms, most of them neglect the problem of bursty workloads. Motivated by this problem, this paper proposes a new burstness-aware load balancing algorithm which can adapt to the variation in the request rate by adopting two load balancing algorithms: RR in burst and Random in non-burst state. Fuzzy logic is used in order to assign the received request to a balanced VM. The algorithm has been evaluated and compared with other algorithms using Cloud Analyst simulator. Results show that the proposed algorithm improves the average response time and average processing time in comparison with other algorithms.

  2. Heavier workload, less personal control: Impact of delivery on obstetrician/gynecologists' career satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettes, Barbara A; Chalas, Eva; Coleman, Victoria H; Schulkin, Jay

    2004-03-01

    Obstetrician/gynecologists' career satisfaction with certain work-related activities was examined among clinicians who perform deliveries and clinicians who do not. A questionnaire was sent to 1500 member-fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 842 members (56%) responded. The questionnaire was designed to distinguish between obstetrician/gynecologists who perform deliveries and clinicians who do not in the areas of satisfaction with specific aspects of career and work-related activities. Data were examined initially by multivariate analysis of variance and subsequently by univariate analysis of variance if the multivariate test was found to be significant. Workload and personal control were the primary factors for which there was a significant difference in satisfaction between clinicians who perform deliveries and clinicians who do not (Psatisfaction with their work activities than the delivery group overall. Despite lowered satisfaction with certain career aspects among the delivery Group, the highest positive disposition ratings that was given by respondents were for surgery, vaginal delivery, and planned cesarean delivery, with gender differences observed in the level of disposition for these particular activities. The most negative rating was reported for on-call/in-hospital time. Although positive disposition is associated with the activity of vaginal and cesarean delivery overall, 2 primary contributing factors of dissatisfaction that were identified among obstetrician/gynecologists who perform deliveries were increased workload and decreased personal control.

  3. Individualized medicine and demographic change as determining workload factors in pathology: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Schlake, Werner; Kempny, Gisela; Schirmacher, Peter; Weichert, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    The advent of individualized medicine with novel guidelines, extended quality assessment as well as intensified conventional, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization of diseases has led to a substantial increase of pathologists' workload. Furthermore, in industrialized countries, we are facing the challenges of demographic change with an aging population. This raises the question of how pathology will be affected by these developments in the future. We extracted German population data and data on the number of board-certified physicians and pathologists from official sources. These data were reviewed in the light of data on caseload, case complexity, auxiliary diagnostic procedures, and matching patient data from a large German pathology department serving as a sector independent regional service provider. The refinement of diagnostic procedures over the last decade has resulted in a 60 % increase in slide numbers per case, doubling of immunohistochemistry procedures, and more than tripling of molecular analyses. Correlation of this development to demographics suggests that an aging population will further increase the caseload and case complexity in the coming decades since patient age is tightly linked to both parameters. This development is currently not accompanied by a sufficient increase in the number of pathologists. Our data point toward an imbalance between the increase in pathology workload and the number of pathologists. Extrapolations suggest a further aggravation of this development in the future. Thus, healthcare systems need to address this problem urgently in order to cope with these challenges.

  4. Evaluation of team lifting on work demands, workload and workers' evaluation: an observational field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in work demands, energetic workload and workers' discomfort and physical effort in two regularly observable workdays in ironwork; one where loads up to 50kg were handled with two persons manually (T50) and one where loads up to 100kg were handled manually with four persons (T100). Differences between these typical workdays were assessed with an observational within-subject field study of 10 ironworkers. No significant differences were found for work demands, energetic workload or discomfort between T50 and T100 workdays. During team lifts, load mass exceeded 25kg per person in 57% (T50 workday) and 68% (T100 workday) of the lifts. Seven ironworkers rated team lifting with two persons as less physically demanding compared with lifting with four persons. When loads heavier than 25kg are lifted manually with a team, regulations of the maximum mass weight are frequently violated. Loads heavier than 25kg are frequently lifted during concrete reinforcement work and should be lifted by a team of persons. However, the field study showed that loads above 25kg are most of the time not lifted with the appropriate number of workers. Therefore, loads heavier than 25kg should be lifted mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. FY17 CSSE L2 Milestone Report: Analyzing Power Usage Characteristics of Workloads Running on Trinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a FY17 CSSE L2 milestone to in- vestigate the power usage behavior of ASC workloads running on the ATS-1 Trinity plat- form. Techniques were developed to instrument application code regions of interest using the Power API together with the Kokkos profiling interface and Caliper annotation library. Experiments were performed to understand the power usage behavior of mini-applications and the SNL/ATDM SPARC application running on ATS-1 Trinity Haswell and Knights Landing compute nodes. A taxonomy of power measurement approaches was identified and presented, providing a guide for application developers to follow. Controlled scaling study experiments were performed on up to 2048 nodes of Trinity along with smaller scale ex- periments on Trinity testbed systems. Additionally, power and energy system monitoring information from Trinity was collected and archived for post analysis of "in-the-wild" work- loads. Results were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the workloads to ATS-1 compute node type (Haswell vs. Knights Landing), CPU frequency control, node-level power capping control, OpenMP configuration, Knights Landing on-package memory configuration, and algorithm/solver configuration. Overall, this milestone lays groundwork for addressing the long-term goal of determining how to best use and operate future ASC platforms to achieve the greatest benefit subject to a constrained power budget.

  6. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  7. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  8. Classification of a Driver's cognitive workload levels using artificial neural network on ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjolleng, Amir; Jung, Kihyo; Hong, Wongi; Lee, Wonsup; Lee, Baekhee; You, Heecheon; Son, Joonwoo; Park, Seikwon

    2017-03-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated. To compensate for individual differences in heart response during the driving tasks, a three-step data processing procedure was performed to ECG signals of each participant: (1) selection of two most sensitive ECG measures, (2) definition of three (low, medium, and high) cognitive workload levels, and (3) normalization of the selected ECG measures. An ANN model was constructed using a feed-forward network and scaled conjugate gradient as a back-propagation learning rule. The accuracy of the ANN classification model was found satisfactory for learning data (95%) and testing data (82%).

  9. [Creation and validation of an instrument to identify nursing activities in pediatric wards: information for determining workload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for identifying nursing activities performed in a pediatric ward and to provide a basis for defining the workload of these units. The instrument was developed by selecting the activities relevant to pediatric nursing from the Nursing Intervention Classification and then submitting them to a panel of judges for validation. The panel considered the selected activities relevant and representative of pediatric nursing practice. Now that representative activities for the nursing workload have been identified, we envision new studies to verify their usefulness in practice. Determining the amount of time each activity takes to perform will help to develop a system for measuring the workloads of nursing teams in pediatric wards.

  10. Creation and validation of an instrument to identify nursing activities in pediatric wards: information for determining workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci Cristiano Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for identifying nursing activities performed in a pediatric ward and to provide a basis for defining the workload of these units. The instrument was developed by selecting the activities relevant to pediatric nursing from the Nursing Intervention Classification and then submitting them to a panel of judges for validation. The panel considered the selected activities relevant and representative of pediatric nursing practice. Now that representative activities for the nursing workload have been identified, we envision new studies to verify their usefulness in practice. Determining the amount of time each activity takes to perform will help to develop a system for measuring the workloads of nursing teams in pediatric wards.

  11. Evaluation of the workload and drowsiness during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, A; Borghini, G; Aricò, P; Borgia, F; Graziani, I; Colosimo, A; Kong, W; Vecchiato, G; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and/or a high workload situation can adversely affect driving performance, decreasing a driver's capacity to respond effectively in dangerous situations. In this context, to provide useful feedback and alert signals in real time to the drivers physiological and brain activities have been increasingly investigated in literature. In this study, we analyze the increase of cerebral workload and the insurgence of drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution electroencephalographic techniques (EEG) as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). The simulated drive tasks were modulated with five levels of increasing difficulty. A workload index was then generated by using the EEG signals and the related HR and EBR signals. Results suggest that the derived workload index is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during the different drive tasks performed. Such workload index was based on the estimation the variation of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal cortical areas and the variation of the EEG power spectra over the parietal cortical areas in alpha band. In addition, results suggested as HR increases during the execution of the difficult driving tasks while instead it decreases at the insurgence of the drowsiness. Finally, the results obtained showed as the EBR variable increases of its values when the insurgence of drowsiness in the driver occurs. The proposed workload index could be then used in a near future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during a drive task.

  12. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: Investigation in the field of aerospace activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine eMélan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual’s perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual’s overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty and extraneous load (time pressure in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e. work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators’ alertness and job-performance.

  13. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  14. Comparison between artificial neural network and multilinear regression models in an evaluation of cognitive workload in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Manne; Huttunen, Kerttu; Koskelo, Jukka; Laitinen, Tomi; Leino, Tuomo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the performances of artificial neural network (ANN) analysis and multilinear regression (MLR) model-based estimation of heart rate were compared in an evaluation of individual cognitive workload. The data comprised electrocardiography (ECG) measurements and an evaluation of cognitive load that induces psychophysiological stress (PPS), collected from 14 interceptor fighter pilots during complex simulated F/A-18 Hornet air battles. In our data, the mean absolute error of the ANN estimate was 11.4 as a visual analog scale score, being 13-23% better than the mean absolute error of the MLR model in the estimation of cognitive workload.

  15. Influence of obesity and physical workload on disability benefits among construction workers followed up for 37 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Järvholm, Bengt; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I; Wahlström, Jens; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relation between obesity and labour force exit via diagnosis-specific disability benefits, and whether physical workload modifies this association. A longitudinal analysis was performed among 3 28 743 Swedish construction workers in the age of 15-65 years. Body weight and height were measured at a health examination and enriched with register information on disability benefits up to 37 years later. Diagnoses of disability benefits were categorised into cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs), mental disorders and others. A job exposure matrix, based on self-reported lifting of heavy loads and working in bent forward or twisted position, was applied as a measure of physical workload. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) between obesity and physical workload was calculated. Obese construction workers were at increased risk of receiving disability benefits (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.76), mainly through CVD (HR 2.30) and MSD (HR 1.71). Construction workers with a high physical workload were also more likely to receive a disability benefit (HR 2.28, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.34), particularly via MSD (HR 3.02). Obesity in combination with a higher physical workload increased the risk of disability benefits (RERI 0.28) more than the sum of the risks of obesity and higher physical workload, particularly for MSD (RERI 0.44). Obesity and a high physical workload are risk factors for disability benefit. Furthermore, these factors are synergistic risk factors for labour force exit via disability benefit through MSD. Comprehensive programmes that target health promotion to prevent obesity and ergonomic interventions to reduce physical workload are important to facilitate sustained employment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  16. Measuring Workload Differences Between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory Scenarios in a Simulated Flight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four highly experienced Air Force pilots each flew four simulated flight scenarios. Two scenarios required a great deal of aircraft maneuvering. The other two scenarios involved less maneuvering, but required remembering a number of items. All scenarios were designed to be equaly challenging. Pilot's Subjective Ratings for Activity-level, Complexity, Difficulty, Stress, and Workload were higher for the manuevering scenarios than the memory scenarios. At a moderate workload level, keeping the pilots active resulted in better aircraft control. When required to monitor and remember items, aircraft control tended to decrease. Pilots tended to weigh information about the spatial positioning and performance of their aircraft more heavily than other items.

  17. Coping during public service delivery: A conceptualization and systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; Vink, E.; Musheno, M.

    2015-01-01

    Frontline workers, such as teachers and social workers, often experience stress when delivering public services to clients, for instance because of high workloads. They adapt by coping, using such practices as breaking or bending rules for clients, or rationing services. Although coping is recognize

  18. Nursing workload and occurrence of adverse events in intensive care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andrea Carvalho de; Garcia, Paulo Carlos; Nogueira, Lilia de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identifyevidences of the influence of nursing workload on the occurrence of adverse events (AE) in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic literature review was conducted in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF, and Cochrane from studies in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, published by 2015. The analyzed AE were infection, pressure ulcer (PU), patient falls, and medication errors. Of 594 potential studies, eight comprised the final sample of the review. TheNursing Activities Score (NAS; 37.5%) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System(TISS; 37.5%) were the instruments most frequently used for assessing nursing workload. Six studies (75.0%) identified the influence of work overload in events of infection, PU, and medicationerrors. An investigation found that the NAS was a protective factor for PU. The nursing workload required by patients in the ICU influenced the occurrence of AE, and nurses must monitor this variable daily to ensure proper sizing of staff and safety of care. Identificar evidências sobre a influência da carga de trabalho de enfermagem na ocorrência de eventos adversos (EA) em pacientes adultos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e Cochrane deestudosem inglês, português ou espanhol, publicados até 2015. Os EA analisados foram infecção, úlcera por pressão (UPP), quedas e erros associados a medicamentos. Das 594 pesquisas potenciais identificadas, oito compuseram a amostra final da revisão. O NursingActivities Score -NAS (37,5%) e o TherapeuticInterventionScoring System -TISS (37,5%) foram os instrumentos mais utilizados para avaliação da carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Seis pesquisas (75,0%) identificaram influência da sobrecarga de trabalho na ocorrência de infecção, UPP e uso de medicamentos. Uma investigação identificou que o NAS foi fator de prote

  19. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Klimentov, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), MIRA supercomputer at Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities (ALCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava and others). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation

  20. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  1. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-10-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  2. Emergency nursing workload and patient dependency in the ambulance bay: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varndell, Wayne; Ryan, Elizabeth; Jeffers, Alison; Marquez-Hunt, Nadya

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to characterise patients occupying the ambulance bay and to determine the ensuing nursing workload. The number of patients presenting to ED by ambulance is increasing. During periods of peak demand and access block in the ED, patients with ongoing care needs, requiring continual assessment and symptom management by emergency nurses can remain in the ambulance bay for extended periods of time. The profile of these patients and on the related nursing workload is not well known. A prospective observational study design based upon a convenience sample of patients was conducted over a randomly selected four-week period. Nursing workload was assessing using the Jones Dependency Tool. A modified Work Observation Method By Activity Timing technique was used to estimate direct nursing care time. Of 4068 presentations to ED, 640 (16%) occupied the ambulance bay following triage, of which the majority (n=408; 64%) had arrived by ambulance. Of those occupying the ambulance bay 205 (32%) were evaluated using the JDT. The majority of patients had potentially life-threatening symptoms (ATS 3, n=424; 66%), were moderately dependent (n=134; 65%), and consumed approximately 152.1h of direct nursing care time. A large proportion of direct nursing care time was spent on patient reassessment (60.4h) and pain management (29.6h). Patients occupying the ambulance bay had an average ED length of stay of 5.6h (4.6h), of which 1.8h (SD 1.8h) was spent delayed in the ambulance bay. Early detailed assessment and symptom management of patients occupying the ambulance bay is extensively undertaken by emergency nurses. The frequency and number of patients off-loaded into non-clinical areas is not currently monitored or reported upon. This study has demonstrated that patients managed in the ambulance bay consume large amounts of nursing resources, commonly require acute level care and hospital admission. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency

  3. Investigating the relationship between cognitive failures and workload among nurses of Imam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Yousef Zade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High level of workload and its consequent cognitive failures are among factors which impact nurses’ behavior, performance, and efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nurses’ cognitive failures and perceived workload. Material and Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was carried out among 150 male and female nurses, working in different units of Emam Khomeini and Vali-e-Asr hospitals in Tehran in 2013. NASA task load index (NASA-TlX and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ were used to assess workload and cognitive failures, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation, Independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA statistical tests with SPSS software version 20. Result: Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients test results showed a significant relationship between nurses’ mental workload and their memory for names (P-value<0.001. Moreover, there was significant association between physical workload and memory, attention and total cognitive failures (CFQ total (P-value<0.05. Perceived frustration mong nurses was significantly correlated with memory, attention, motor functions and total cognitive failures (P-value<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed a high level of workload among study nurses. Furthermore, the relationships between some dimensions of mental workload and cognitive failures were confirmed, so that an increase in workload dimension can lead to more cognitive failures while doing task.

  4. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hombergh, P. van den; Kunzi, B.; Elwyn, G.; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Akkermans, R.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data fr

  5. Finding Time for Quality Teaching: An Ethnographic Study of Academic Workloads in the Social Sciences and Their Impact on Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemer, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    University workloads, their impact on staff and how they can be managed, are the subject of considerable research and discussion. This paper addresses strategies to deal with the impact of workloads on teaching practices in higher education. In particular, it aims to discover the implicit theories and tacit assumptions that underlie perceptions of…

  6. A Summary of Crew Workload and Situational Awareness Ratings for U.S. Army Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Operational Test ( IOT ) ARH BHIVE 2 Common Aviation Architecture System (CAAS) Assessment LUT CH-47F BHIVE 2 CAAS Assessment Horizontal...Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor was difficult to control. In the case of the 3-D conformal tests for CH-47F and UH-60L/M, higher workload...64D – Integrated (UAS) 2.60 2.90 AH-64E IOT 2.50 2.50 AH-64E LUT 4.22 3.22 ARH – CAAS 3.71 3.94 ARH LUT 7.39 4.11 CH-47F – CAAS 2.66 2.70 CH-47F

  7. An NoC Traffic Compiler for Efficient FPGA Implementation of Sparse Graph-Oriented Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket Kapre

    2011-01-01

    synchronization to optimize our workloads for large networks up to 2025 parallel elements for BSP model and 25 parallel elements for Token Dataflow. This allows us to demonstrate speedups between 1.2× and 22× (3.5× mean, area reductions (number of Processing Elements between 3× and 15× (9× mean and dynamic energy savings between 2× and 3.5× (2.7× mean over a range of real-world graph applications in the BSP compute model. We deliver speedups of 0.5–13× (geomean 3.6× for Sparse Direct Matrix Solve (Token Dataflow compute model applied to a range of sparse matrices when using a high-quality placement algorithm. We expect such traffic optimization tools and techniques to become an essential part of the NoC application-mapping flow.

  8. glideinWMS - A generic pilot-based Workload Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid resources are distributed among hundreds of independent Grid sites, requiring a higher level Workload Management System (WMS) to be used efficiently. Pilot jobs have been used for this purpose by many communities, bringing increased reliability, global fair share and just in time resource matching. GlideinWMS is a WMS based on the Condor glidein concept, i.e. a regular Condor pool, with the Condor daemons (startds) being started by pilot jobs, and real jobs being vanilla, standard or MPI universe jobs. The glideinWMS is composed of a set of Glidein Factories, handling the submission of pilot jobs to a set of Grid sites, and a set of VO Frontends, requesting pilot submission based on the status of user jobs. This paper contains the structural overview of glideinWMS as well as a detailed description of the current implementation and the current scalability limits.

  9. A bio-inspired approach for the reduction of left ventricular workload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niema M Pahlevan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of optimization criteria in the design and development of mammalians cardiovascular systems. Similarities in mammalian arterial wave reflection suggest there are certain design criteria for the optimization of arterial wave dynamics. Inspired by these natural optimization criteria, we investigated the feasibility of optimizing the aortic waves by modifying wave reflection sites. A hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to a human aorta and left ventricle was used for a series of in-vitro experiments. The results indicate that placing an artificial reflection site (a ring at a specific location along the aorta may create a constructive wave dynamic that could reduce LV pulsatile workload. This simple bio-inspired approach may have important implications for the future of treatment strategies for diseased aorta.

  10. How to best manage time interaction with patients? Community pharmacist workload and service provision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Lapão, Luís Velez

    Primary health care disease management models are rooted in multidisciplinary participation; however, implementation of services is lagging behind desires and predictions. Barriers like workload and lack of demand have been described. The aim of this research is to observe the workload and work patterns of Portuguese community pharmacists, and relate it with the demand of pharmaceutical services. A time-and-motion observational study was performed to describe community pharmacists' workload in a sample of four pharmacies in the metropolitan Lisbon area. A reference list of activities to be observed was developed by reviewing other studies of community pharmacy work. This study took place during a weekday's 8-h shift, focusing on pharmacists' activities. Data to be collected included the type and duration of the activity, who performed it and where. To estimate the demand of pharmaceutical care services, "thematic-patient scenarios" were developed. These scenarios were based on the defined daily dose and package size of the most consumed medicines in Portugal, combined with data obtained from the four pharmacies' information systems on the day the observational study took place. Between 67.0% and 81.8% of the registered activities were pharmacist-patient interactions. These interactions summed 158.44 min, with a mean duration of 3.98 min per interaction. On average, participant pharmacies' professionals handled 4.2 prescriptions and 0.9 over-the-counter (OTC) consultations per hour. About one third of the day was spent performing administrative and non-differentiated tasks. About 54.92 min were registered as free time, 50% of which were "micro pauses" with 1 min or less. The most dispensed therapeutic subgroup was antihypertensive drugs, while the dispensation of antidiabetics was characterized by a high number of packages sold per interaction. From the developed scenarios, one can estimate that a chronic patient may visit the pharmacy 4-9 times per year

  11. Performance of Artificial Intelligence Workloads on the Intel Core 2 Duo Series Desktop Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the processor architecture becomes more advanced, Intel introduced its Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Performance impact on Intel Core 2 Duo processors are analyzed using SPEC CPU INT 2006 performance numbers. This paper studied the behavior of Artificial Intelligence (AI benchmarks on Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Moreover, we estimated the task completion time (TCT @1 GHz, @2 GHz and @3 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo series processors frequency. Our results show the performance scalability in Intel Core 2 Duo series processors. Even though AI benchmarks have similar execution time, they have dissimilar characteristics which are identified using principal component analysis and dendogram. As the processor frequency increased from 1.8 GHz to 3.167 GHz the execution time is decreased by ~370 sec for AI workloads. In the case of Physics/Quantum Computing programs it was ~940 sec.

  12. Workload-Adaptive Management of Energy-Smart Disk Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow; Rotem, Doron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang

    2009-06-19

    Recent studies have identified disk storage systems as one of the major consumers of power in data centers. Many disk power management (DPM) schemes were suggested where the power consumed by disks is reduced by spinning them down during long idle periods. Spinning the disks down and up results in additional energy and response time costs. For that reason, DPM schemes are effective only if the disks experience relatively long idle periods and the scheme does not introduce a severe response time penalty. In this paper we introduce a dynamic block exchange algorithm which switches data between disks based on the observed workload such that frequently accessed blocks end up residing on a few"hot" disks thus allowing the majority of disks to experience longer idle periods. We validate the effectiveness of the algorithm with trace-driven simulations showing power savings of up to 60percent with very small response time penalties.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase...... the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine...... and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work...

  14. [Description of workloads and fatigue experienced among health workers in a teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Leni de Lima; Miranda, Fernanda Moura D'Almeida; Karino, Márcia Eiko; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano

    2013-03-01

    This is an exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study, based on the following categories: work process, workloads and fatigue in a teaching hospital in Curitiba in the southern region of Brazil. The article characterizes the load and stress experienced in a university hospital, based on a previous study entitled "System for monitoring the health of nursing workers" (SIMOSTE). The results show that females were the most affected (85.9%) and the most affected professionals were nursing assistants (53.1%). The highest number of sick leaves was due to diseases of the osteoarticular system (25.2%) and the most significant loads were mechanical and physiological with 33.06% each. These results may support intervention strategies in the policies directed toward the workers' health to ensure a better quality of life and consequently improve the quality of care provided to the user.

  15. Dynamic scheduling of virtual machines running hpc workloads in scientific grids

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Omer; Anthony, Richard; Petridis, Miltos; Parrot, Kevin; Schulz, Markus; 10.1145/1330555.1330556

    2010-01-01

    The primary motivation for uptake of virtualization has been resource isolation, capacity management and resource customization allowing resource providers to consolidate their resources in virtual machines. Various approaches have been taken to integrate virtualization in to scientific Grids especially in the arena of High Performance Computing (HPC) to run grid jobs in virtual machines, thus enabling better provisioning of the underlying resources and customization of the execution environment on runtime. Despite the gains, virtualization layer also incur a performance penalty and its not very well understood that how such an overhead will impact the performance of systems where jobs are scheduled with tight deadlines. Since this overhead varies the types of workload whether they are memory intensive, CPU intensive or network I/O bound, and could lead to unpredictable deadline estimation for the running jobs in the system. In our study, we have attempted to tackle this problem by developing an intelligent s...

  16. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Oleynik, Danila; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Wenaus, Torre; Maeno, Tadashi; Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; Nilsson, Paul; Guan, Wen; Panitkin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis system) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more t...

  17. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992 inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%. No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (% of maximal heart rate reserve and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise

  18. Implementation of 2011 Duty Hours Regulations through a Workload Reduction Strategy and Impact on Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Jonathon; Dattalo, Melissa; Ghanem, Khalil G; Christmas, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    Training programs have implemented the 2011 ACGME duty hour regulations (DHR) using "workload compression" (WLC) strategies, attempting to fit similar clinical responsibilities into fewer working hours, or workload reduction (WLR) approaches, reducing the number of patient encounters per trainee. Many have expressed concern that these strategies could negatively impact patient care and learner outcomes. This study evaluates the medical knowledge and clinical impact of a WLR intervention in a single institution. Nonrandomized intervention study with comparison to a historical control study among 58 PGY-1 internal medicine trainees in the 2 years after duty hour implementation [exposure cohort (EC), 7/1/2011-6/30/2013], compared to 2 years before implementation [comparison cohort (CC), 7/1/2009-6/30/2011]. Process outcomes were average inpatient encounters, average new inpatient admissions, and average scheduled outpatient encounters per PGY-1 year. Performance outcomes included trainee inpatient and outpatient days on service, In-Training Examination (ITE) scores as an objective surrogate of medical knowledge, Case-Mix Index (CMI), and quality of care measures (30-day readmission rate, 30-day mortality rate, and average length of stay). Baseline characteristics and average numbers of inpatient encounters per PGY-1 class were similar between the EC and CC. However, the EC experienced fewer new inpatient admissions (157.47 ± 40.47 vs. 181.72 ± 25.45; p theoretical concern that reducing PGY-1 inpatient admissions volumes may negatively impact education and clinical care measures, this study found no evidence of such a trade-off.

  19. Unplanned extubation in the ICU: Impact on outcome and nursing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krayem Ayman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and factors associated with unplanned extubation (UE in the intensive care unit (ICU and its relationship with nursing workload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was carried out within a cohort of ventilated patients in two teaching hospital medical-surgical ICUs. A total of 50 adult patients with UE were studied. Controls were subjects without UE who were matched to the cases on the following Five factors: age, gender, admission diagnostic category, admission date (within 3 months and duration of mechanical ventilation. Other data including patient demographics, comorbid conditions, APACHE III score, ventilation parameters, use of sedation, re-intubation, mortality rate and ICU/hospital length of stay were collected. Nine equivalents of nursing manpower use score (NEMS and multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS were calculated in both, cases and controls, 24 h before and after the event. RESULTS: Sixty-eight episodes of UE occurred in 66 patients during the 24-month study period (1.1%. Patients with UE were more agitated ( P P =0.023 than their controls. UE was associated with a higher rate of re-intubation compared to the control group ( P P >0.05. The mean NEMS were not significantly different between the two groups 24 h before ( P =0.69 and after ( P =0.99 the extubation event. Also, the mean MODS were similar between both groups 24 h before ( P =0.69 and after ( P =0.74 extubation. CONCLUSION: In this study, agitation and greater use of benzodiazepines were frequently associated with UE and potentially can be used as risk factors for UE. We have found no significant impact of UE on increasing mortality and, in a manner not shown before, nursing workload.

  20. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  1. Towards an Integrated Workload Control (WLC) Concept : The Performance of Due Date Setting Rules in Job Shops with Contingent Orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuerer, Matthias; Stevenson, Mark; Silva, Cristovao; Land, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept developed for make-to-order companies. Its customer enquiry management methodology supports due date setting, while its order release mechanism determines when to start production. For make-to-order companies, due date setting is a

  2. Workload and the trajectory of marital satisfaction in newlyweds: Job satisfaction, gender, and parental status as moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, E.F. van; Kluwer, E.S.; Karney, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate par

  3. Use of the Semantic Web to solve some basic problems in Education: Increase flexible, distributed lifelong learning, decrease teacher's workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please refer to: Koper, R. (2004). Use of the Semantic Web to Solve Some Basic Problems in Education: Increase Flexible, Distributed Lifelong Learning, Decrease Teacher's Workload. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2004 (6). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. ISSN:1365-893X [

  4. Workload-Adaptive Human Interface to Aid Robust Decision Making in Human-System Interface. Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    and neutral signals were shown to each participant. The task involved a random presentation on a computer screen of three concentric circles with...The effects of signal salience and caffeine on performance, workload, and stress in an abbreviated vigilance task,” Human Factors: The Journal of the

  5. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M.J. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects menta

  6. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Clausen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical worklo...

  7. Psychological elements in car-following models: Mental workload in case of incidents in the other driving lane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, R.G.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Daamen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimations of parameter values of car-following models show considerable differences between individuals and experiments. These differences may be caused by a different effect of external circumstances on mental workload of drivers. This effect may especially play a considerable role in case of

  8. When Are Workload and Workplace Learning Opportunities Related in a Curvilinear Manner? The Moderating Role of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dijke, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Building on theoretical frameworks like the Job Demands Control model and Action Theory we tested whether the relationship between workload and employees' experiences of opportunities for workplace learning is of an inverted u-shaped nature and whether autonomy moderates this relationship. We predicted that--at moderate levels of…

  9. The consequences of an increase in heavy goods vehicles for passenger car drivers' mental workload and behaviour : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, D.; Kruizinga, A; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an increase in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) on merging behaviour and on mental workload of motorists during filtering in and out of traffic were studied. Participants drove in a driving simulator in a total of 12 conditions; twice in each of two weather conditions and in three traffic

  10. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Visser, B.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dieën, J.H. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomi

  11. An Analysis of Selected Quantitative Methods to Air Force Communications Command Electronics Installation Workload Assignment and Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    schedule workload assigned to the Air Force Comunications omand Engineering and Installations Activities. Each model applies mission nd unit unique...Anderson, David R., Dennis J. Sweeney, and Thomas A. Williams. An Introduction to Management Science, Quantitative Approaches to Decision Making. St Paul MN

  12. Effects of measurement strategy and statistical analysis on dose-response relations between physical workload and low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Jansen (Justin); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In epidemiological studies on physical workloads and back complaints, among the important features in modelling dose-response relations are the measurement strategy of the exposure and the nature of the dose-response relation that is assumed. AIM: To evaluat

  13. Impact of Performance Obstacles on Intensive Care Nurses‘ Workload, Perceived Quality and Safety of Care, and Quality of Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses‘ workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses‘ capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling. Principal Findings Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL. Conclusions Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses‘ work. PMID:19207589

  14. Use of the Semantic Web to solve some basic problems in Education: Increase flexible, distributed lifelong learning, decrease teacher's workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please refer to: Koper, R. (2004). Use of the Semantic Web to Solve Some Basic Problems in Education: Increase Flexible, Distributed Lifelong Learning, Decrease Teacher's Workload. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2004 (6). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. ISSN:1365-893X [

  15. When are workload and workplace learning opportunities related in a curvilinear manner? The moderating role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ruysseveldt (Joris); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBuilding on theoretical frameworks like the Job Demands Control model and Action Theory we tested whether the relationship between workload and employees’ experiences of opportunities for workplace learning is of an inverted u-shaped nature and whether autonomy moderates this relationshi

  16. Measuring neurophysiological signals in aircraft pilots and car drivers for the assessment of mental workload, fatigue and drowsiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, Gianluca; Astolfi, Laura; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews published papers related to neurophysiological measurements (electroencephalography: EEG, electrooculography EOG; heart rate: HR) in pilots/drivers during their driving tasks. The aim is to summarise the main neurophysiological findings related to the measurements of pilot/driver's brain activity during drive performance and how particular aspects of this brain activity could be connected with the important concepts of "mental workload", "mental fatigue" or "situational awareness". Review of the literature suggests that exists a coherent sequence of changes for EEG, EOG and HR variables during the transition from normal drive, high mental workload and eventually mental fatigue and drowsiness. In particular, increased EEG power in theta band and a decrease in alpha band occurred in high mental workload. Successively, increased EEG power in theta as well as delta and alpha bands characterise the transition between mental workload and mental fatigue. Drowsiness is also characterised by increased blink rate and decreased HR values. The detection of such mental states is actually performed "offline" with accuracy around 90% but not online. A discussion on the possible future applications of findings provided by these neurophysiological measurements in order to improve the safety of the vehicles will be also presented.

  17. A systematic review of Registered Nurses; experiences of the influence of workplace culture and climatic factors on nursing workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Walker, Cheryl; Rogers-Clark, Cath; Pearce, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nursing workload is an issue that effects both the recruitment and retention of nurses, and patient safety. Historically, measurement has focussed on the delivery of direct patient care and excluded workload of facilitating hands-on care and supporting the organisation via duties that reflect organisation cultural and climate needs. Qualitative research is appropriate to understand this complexity. To determine the best available evidence in relation to registered nurses experiences of workplace cultural and climatic factors that influence nursing workloads, in an acute health care setting. This review sought high quality studies which explored registered nurses' experiences of the influence of cultural and climatic factors on their workloads. Qualitative research studies and opinion-based text were considered. An extensive search of the literature was conducted to identify published and unpublished studies between January 1990 and June 2011 in English, and indexed in the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, Medline-In Process, PsychINFO, Emerald, Current Contents, TRIP, JSTOR Nursing Consult Psychology & Behavioural Sciences collections, Emerald Management Reviews, Emerald Full Text Journals, Embase, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Proquest and MedNar, EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Wiley Interscience. Two independent reviewers (CRW and CRC), using appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), assessed fifteen articles; one was excluded. Data were extracted from included papers using standardised tools developed by the JBI. Data from qualitative studies and textual/opinion papers were meta-synthesised separately using standardised instruments. Data synthesis involved the pooling of findings, then grouped into categories on the basis of similarity of meaning. The categories were further aggregated into synthesised findings. 14 papers were identified as high quality and meeting the inclusion criteria. 81 findings were identified from the 10 qualitative research

  18. Resilience as a moderator of the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Julie Jean; Bruk-Lee, Valentina

    2017-07-16

    To examine the relative effects of interpersonal conflict and workload on job outcomes (turnover intentions, burnout, injuries) and examine if resilience moderates the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes via job-related negative effect. There is interest in understanding resilience in the nursing profession. Placing resilience in the context of the Emotion-Centred Model of Occupational Stress (Spector, ) is a novel approach to understanding how resilience ameliorates the negative effects of workplace stressors. This study used a two-wave survey design to collect data from 97 nurses across medical units. Nurses working in the US were recruited in June 2014 using Qualtrics Panels, an online survey platform service that secures participants for research. Nurses were contacted via email at two time points, two weeks apart and provided a link to an online survey. SPSS v. 23 and PROCESS v2.15 were used to analyse regressions and moderated mediation. Interpersonal conflict predicted turnover intentions and burnout; workload predicted injuries. Job-related negative affect mediated the relationships between stressors and job outcomes except for the direct effect of workload on injuries. Low resilience increased the magnitude of the indirect effects of conflict on job outcomes. Job characteristics like workload predicted unique variability in self-reported physical injuries. Conflict at work, a social stressor, predicted well-being and job attitudes. Highly resilient nurses bounced back after experiencing conflict in the workplace. Resilience should be explored for its potential as a method to reduce the negative effects of social stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Linear and non-linear heart rate metrics for the assessment of anaesthetists' workload during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Schneider, F; Kowalewskij, A; Jordan, D; Hapfelmeier, A; Kochs, E F; Wagner, K J; Schulz, C M

    2016-12-01

    Excessive workload may impact the anaesthetists' ability to adequately process information during clinical practice in the operation room and may result in inaccurate situational awareness and performance. This exploratory study investigated heart rate (HR), linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics and subjective ratings scales for the assessment of workload associated with the anaesthesia stages induction, maintenance and emergence. HR and HRV metrics were calculated based on five min segments from each of the three anaesthesia stages. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the investigated metrics was calculated to assess their ability to discriminate between the stages of anaesthesia. Additionally, a multiparametric approach based on logistic regression models was performed to further evaluate whether linear or non-linear heart rate metrics are suitable for the assessment of workload. Mean HR and several linear and non-linear HRV metrics including subjective workload ratings differed significantly between stages of anaesthesia. Permutation Entropy (PeEn, AUC=0.828) and mean HR (AUC=0.826) discriminated best between the anaesthesia stages induction and maintenance. In the multiparametric approach using logistic regression models, the model based on non-linear heart rate metrics provided a higher AUC compared with the models based on linear metrics. In this exploratory study based on short ECG segment analysis, PeEn and HR seem to be promising to separate workload levels between different stages of anaesthesia. The multiparametric analysis of the regression models favours non-linear heart rate metrics over linear metrics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Porter, R. J.; Read, K. F.; Vaniachine, A.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled ‘Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data’ (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system. We