WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication dates ranging

  1. Assessment of the lower ESR dating range in Greek speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiakos, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Pilot ESR dating studies on geologically young calcitic sinters were carried out, aiming at assessment of the lower ESR dating range in characteristic Greek speleoenvironments. Five stalactites were dated, coming from an ancient mining gallery, idle for the last 2,500 years, found on Siphnos island (Aegean). The calculated ages range between 1,7-2,0 ka. Medium to low measured external dose rates (aprox. 900 μGy/a) and very low measured radioelement concentration in samples are very usual in the Mediterranean environments. The study concludes that ESR dating of speleothems younger than two millenia is practically unattainable. Some geoarchaeological implications of the obtained ages are discussed. (author)

  2. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  3. A Public Presentations of Gendered Bodies: A Look at Gay and Lesbian Online Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Latinsky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.

  4. Reducing the age range of tsunami deposits by 14C dating of rip-up clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sawada, Chikako; Takada, Keita

    2018-02-01

    Erosion by tsunami waves represents an important issue when determining the age of a tsunami deposit, because the age is usually estimated using dating of sediments above and below the deposit. Dating of material within the tsunami deposit, if suitable material is obtainable, can be used to further constrain its age. Eroded sediments are sometimes incorporated within the tsunami deposits as rip-up clasts, which might therefore be used as minimum age dating material. However, the single calibrated 14C age often shows a wide age range because of fluctuations in the calibration curve. Therefore, it remains uncertain whether rip-up clast measurements are useful to constrain the depositional age of tsunami deposits, or not. In this study, we carried out high-resolution 14C dating of tsunami deposits, including rip-up clasts of peat, in Rikuzentakata, northeastern Japan, where numerous rip-up clasts were observed within a tsunami deposit. Sediments above and below the tsunami deposit and a 5 cm large rip-up clast were dated sequentially. Comparison of these dating results with the calibration curve revealed that the clast was inverted. Its age was better constrained based on the stratigraphic order, and we infer that the clast corresponds to approximately 100 years of sedimentation. The oldest age of the clast was consistent with the age of the peat immediately below the tsunami deposit, suggesting that surface sediments probably formed the rip-up clast at the time of the tsunami. Thus, the dating of the rip-up clast was useful to further constrain the depositional age of the tsunami deposit, as we narrowed the tsunami deposit age range by approximately 100 years. Results show that ignoring tsunami-related erosion might lead to overestimation of the tsunami deposit age. For this reason, an appropriate dating site, which is less affected by minor tsunami-related erosion with regards to the paleo-topography, should be explored. We therefore propose a more effective

  5. Determining timing of Alaska Range exhumation and glaciation through cosmogenic nuclide burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Goehring, B. M.; Bemis, S. P.; Ruleman, C.; Nichols, K. A.; Ward, D. J.; Frothingham, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Range is a transpressional orogen with modern exhumation initiating 6 Ma. The stratigraphic record of unroofing and uplift of the foreland basin is largely preserved along the northern flank of the Alaska Range in the Pliocene-Pleistocene aged Nenana Gravel, an extensive alluvial fan and braidplain deposit. Chronometric control on the Nenana Gravel is largely lacking, with the limited available age control based on a single Ar-Ar tephra date in an underlying unit and via stratigraphic inferences for the upper portions. Higher-resolution dating of the Nenana Gravel unit is imperative in order to quantify deposition rates and the timing of uplift and deformation of the foreland basin. Furthermore, a glacial unit has been found to lie unconformably on top of the unit at Suntrana Creek and may represent the initiation of glacial advances in the Alaska Range. We present a suite of 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide burial ages collected from the lower, middle, and upper sections of the Nenana Gravel at Suntrana Creek, as well as the overlying glacial unit. Three samples from the lower Nenana Gravel yield an isochron burial age of 4.42+0.67/-0.13 Ma, which represents initiation of Nenana Gravel deposition and may equate to early unroofing of the Alaska Range. Two samples collected from the middle of the Nenana Gravel unit produced an average simple burial age of 2.25+/-0.45 Ma, with a single sample stratigraphically above dating to 0.99 +/-1.60. Two samples from the upper-most portion of the Nenana Gravel yielded an average simple burial age of 1.27+/-0.22 Ma, and one sample from the glacial unit overlying the Nenana Gravel was dated to 0.97+/-0.06 Ma, representing one of the earliest glacial advances in the region. In addition, the age of the glacial unit provides a minimum age for inception of foreland basin uplift and abandonment of the Nenana Gravel in this region.

  6. Costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants as reported to the public to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasma, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper attempts to determine what information has been available to the public, in the United States, concerning the cost of decommissioning nuclear power plants. The search was conducted in the Television News Index and Abstracts, in the annual indexes to The Reader's Digest, and in two computer-based bibliographic retrieval systems, Lockheed's DIALOG Magazine Index and the New York Times Information Bank. Fewer than ten articles appeared in widely read places, with none at all in the Reader's Digest and none on the evening TV news, from 1974 to date. The cost of decommissioning nuclear power plants was reported in various ways, with a wide range of estimates and relatively little actual experience. Costs were given in dollars of different years, in percentages of construction costs, in cost per KWH as per month to the consumer, etc., making the range of reported costs seem even wider than it really was. It is not surprising that the public fears that decommissioning costs will be alarmingly high. The public debate on energy policy might be more rational with better information on decommissioning costs. 16 references

  7. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  8. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. The Colorado Front Range Ecosystem Management Research Project: Accomplishments to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kent; Wayne D. Shepperd; Deborah J. Shields

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly describes the goals and objectives for the Colorado Front Range Ecosystem Management Project (FREM). Research under this project has addressed both biophysical and human dimensions problems relating to ecosystem management in the Colorado Front Range. Results of completed work are described, and the status of the ongoing demonstration project at...

  10. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations

  11. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed

    2016-06-15

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  12. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Grenz, Daryl M.; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  13. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsui, Akira [National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Nijyo-cho, Nara 630-8577 (Japan); Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru [Saga-City Board of Education, Sakae-machi, Saga 840-8501 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish {sup 14}C chronology of the middens. We have conducted {sup 14}C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision {sup 14}C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of {sup 14}C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  14. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. 5.2005 Section 5.2005 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for...

  15. 75 FR 17955 - Public Land Order No. 7736; Partial Revocation of the Bureau of Reclamation Order Dated February...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCA930000; CACA 7817] Public Land Order No. 7736; Partial Revocation of the Bureau of Reclamation Order Dated February 19, 1952; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management published a...

  16. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values). Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: August 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002); IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  18. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  19. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Friebe

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12, the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12, and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2. The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  20. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  5. First Pb-Pb dating results from carbonado diamonds from Chapada Diamantina (BA) and Jequitinhonha River (MG), Espinhaco Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Sano, Yuji; Chambel, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Most carbonados found in Brazil occur along the Espinhaco Range, associated to conglomeratic rocks of the Espinhaco Supergroup. This paper presents Pb-Pb radiometric ages on mineral inclusions (quartz, rutile and clay) and matrix of carbonados from the Andarai and Jequitinhonha River areas. Even with a large experimental error, the results obtained of 3,8±1,8Ga and 3,3±0,7 Ga respectively, are of regional geologic interest. The minimum carbonado formation age (ca.2,5 Ga) is older than the Espinhaco Supergroup deposition age (≅ 1,7 Ga). Other evidences suggest that this minimum age corresponds to the seed aggregation phase; the crustal inclusions being aggregated in an environment rich in high-energy radioactive particles. (author)

  6. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  7. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  8. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  9. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  10. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Zn-Pb-Ag Mineralization in the Northern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Layer, Paul W.; Newberry, Rainer J.

    2004-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating method potentially can be used to provide absolute ages for a number of formerly undatable, low-temperature ore deposits. This study demonstrates the use of this method by determining absolute ages for Zn-Pb-Ag sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits and vein-breccia occurrences found throughout a 300-km-long, east-west-trending belt in the northern Brooks Range, Alaska. Massive sulfide deposits are hosted by Mississippian to Pennsylvanian(?) black carbonaceous shale, siliceous mudstone, and lesser chert and carbonate turbidites of the Kuna Formation (e.g., Red Dog, Anarraaq, Lik (Su), and Drenchwater). The vein-breccia occurrences (e.g., Husky, Story Creek, West Kivliktort Mountain, Vidlee, and Kady) are hosted by a deformed but only weakly metamorphosed package of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian mixed continental and marine clastic rocks (the Endicott Group) that stratigraphically underlie the Kuna Formation. The vein-breccias are mineralogically similar to, but not spatially associated with, known massive sulfide deposits. The region's largest shale-hosted massive sulfide deposit is Red Dog; it has reserves of 148 Mt grading 16.6 percent zinc, 4.5 percent lead, and 77 g of silver per tonne. Hydrothermally produced white mica in a whole-rock sample from a sulfide-bearing igneous sill within the Red Dog deposit yielded a plateau age of 314.5 Ma. The plateau age of this whole-rock sample records the time at which temperatures cooled below the argon closure temperature of the white mica and is interpreted to represent the minimum age limit for massive sulfide-related hydrothermal activity in the Red Dog deposit. Sulfide-bearing quartz veins at Drenchwater crosscut a hypabyssal intrusion with a maximum biotite age of 337.0 Ma. Despite relatively low sulfide deposition temperatures in the vein-breccia occurrences (162°-251°C), detrital white mica in sandstone immediately adjacent to large vein-breccia zones was partially to

  11. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  12. A short biography of Hubert Ludwig and a note on the publication dates of his monograph Die Seewalzen (1889-1892).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Mike

    2015-12-03

    The dates of publication of Hubert Ludwig's (1852-1913) comprehensive monograph Die Seewalzen [= Sea cucumbers] are reviewed. The precise publication dates of his volume, originally published in 16 fascicles and 8 parts/issues, delivered between 1889 and 1892, has been re-examined. Additionally, a short biographical note on Hubert Ludwig's life and a discussion of all new taxa introduced by him in his monograph is given.

  13. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  14. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers.

  15. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  16. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for 14 C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV 14 C at 10 -2 counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10 -4 counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the 13 CH background peak, to the frequency for 14 C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10 -4 counts/sec. For each 14 C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al 2 O 3 conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive 12 C, 23 Na, 39 K, 41 K, 85 Rb, 87 Rb, and 133 Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative 12 C and 13 CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10 -7 Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode

  17. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  19. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  20. Dates of publication of the Zoology parts of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    The dates of publication and exact titles of the 83 parts of the Zoology of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 are presented. Exact dates of publication for 71 of these parts have been determined using notices of their publication in contemporary publications. The dates of publication of the two Narrative volumes of the voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger (which contain available indications of new names) are also determined.

  1. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  2. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  3. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Barry M. Goldwater Range, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... and BMGR East, respectively. Both meetings will be an open house format with presentation boards and... cultural resources of the BMGR, and for sustainable use by the public of such resources to the extent... conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources on military installations; (b) the sustainable...

  4. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  5. Considerations in Emergency Preparedness and Response for a State Embarking on a Nuclear Power Programme. Publication Date: August 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical tool for emergency planning for States embarking on a nuclear power programme and to fulfil, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency ('Assistance Convention'). Under Article 5.a (ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to State Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. As established in the publication Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2), the practical goal of emergency response is 'to ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene, and at the local, regional, national and international level, to any nuclear or radiological emergency'. In 2011 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9, encouraged States 'embarking on new nuclear power programmes to take timely and proactive steps, based upon gradual and systematic application of IAEA safety standards, to establish and sustain a strong safety culture'. It also 'emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the IAEA's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other actions'. This publication, issued in the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, is intended to assist on steps to be taken by States embarking on a nuclear power programme to establish effective national capabilities and arrangements of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency (hereinafter referred to as

  6. Considerations in Emergency Preparedness and Response for a State Embarking on a Nuclear Power Programme. Publication Date: August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical tool for emergency planning for States embarking on a nuclear power programme and to fulfil, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency ('Assistance Convention'). Under Article 5.a (ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to State Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. As established in the publication Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2), the practical goal of emergency response is 'to ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene, and at the local, regional, national and international level, to any nuclear or radiological emergency'. In 2011 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9, encouraged States 'embarking on new nuclear power programmes to take timely and proactive steps, based upon gradual and systematic application of IAEA safety standards, to establish and sustain a strong safety culture'. It also 'emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the IAEA's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other actions'. This publication, issued in the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, is intended to assist on steps to be taken by States embarking on a nuclear power programme to establish effective national capabilities and arrangements of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency (hereinafter referred to as

  7. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ( 241 Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of 241 Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results

  8. Building a middle-range theory of free public healthcare seeking in sub-Saharan Africa: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Samb, Oumar Mallé; Marchal, Bruno; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-09-01

    Realist reviews are a new form of knowledge synthesis aimed at providing middle-range theories (MRTs) that specify how interventions work, for which populations, and under what circumstances. This approach opens the 'black box' of an intervention by showing how it triggers mechanisms in specific contexts to produce outcomes. We conducted a realist review of health user fee exemption policies (UFEPs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article presents how we developed both the intervention theory (IT) of UFEPs and a MRT of free public healthcare seeking in SSA, building on Sen's capability approach. Over the course of this iterative process, we explored theoretical writings on healthcare access, services use, and healthcare seeking behaviour. We also analysed empirical studies on UFEPs and healthcare access in free care contexts. According to the IT, free care at the point of delivery is a resource allowing users to make choices about their use of public healthcare services, choices previously not generally available to them. Users' ability to choose to seek free care is influenced by structural, local, and individual conversion factors. We tested this IT on 69 empirical studies selected on the basis of their scientific rigor and relevance to the theory. From that analysis, we formulated a MRT on seeking free public healthcare in SSA. It highlights three key mechanisms in users' choice to seek free public healthcare: trust, risk awareness and acceptability. Contextual elements that influence both users' ability and choice to seek free care include: availability of and control over resources at the individual level; characteristics of users' and providers' communities at the local level; and health system organization, governance and policies at the structural level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  9. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the Washington. Date of survey: July 1982 Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project and surrounding area, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 20 July 1982 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project located near Richland, Washington. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaed 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total external exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 5 to 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) with the average background ranging from 9 to 12μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement the aerial data

  11. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  12. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Goyes, Ricardo; Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-06-30

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks.

  13. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  14. Method for developing arrangements for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    Response (EPR) series is an update to IAEA-TECDOC-953. It aims to: fulfil in part the IAEA's function under article 5.a(ii) of the Assistance Convention, and to provide a compendium of best practice for planners aiming both to comply with the Requirements and to improve their own capabilities for responding to radiation emergencies, while the Secretariat facilitates consensus on formal guidance for meeting the Safety Requirements. The publication incorporates material from existing IAEA emergency preparedness Safety Guides updating it to be consistent with the Requirements, to incorporate best practice, the results of research and the latest lessons identified in past emergencies, and to reflect relevant issues of international law. It provides a practical source of information relevant to the development of an integrated national, local and operator capability for emergency response based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply the method described in this publication, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic principles for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. They should review the relevant international guidance beforehand. This publication provides information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. It also provides a practical, step-by-step method for developing integrated operator, local and national capabilities for emergency response. It does not provide IAEA endorsed guidance or recommendations because this material has not undergone the process of peer reviews needed to become part of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. This publication concerns preparations for radiation emergencies. The range of potential radiation emergencies of concern is enormous, extending from a major reactor emergency to emergencies involving lost or stolen radioactive material. This method covers planning for the entire range. The

  15. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  16. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  17. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  18. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Publication Date: July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  19. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  20. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  1. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  2. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  3. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for

  4. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other

  5. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other

  6. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  7. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  8. Considerations in Emergency Preparedness and Response for a State Embarking on a Nuclear Power Programme. Publication Date: June 2013 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical tool for emergency planning for States embarking on a nuclear power programme and to fulfil, in part, functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency ('Assistance Convention'). Under Article 5.a (ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to State Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. As established in the publication Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2), the practical goal of emergency response is 'to ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene, and at the local, regional, national and international level, to any nuclear or radiological emergency'. In 2011 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9, encouraged States 'embarking on new nuclear power programmes to take timely and proactive steps, based upon gradual and systematic application of IAEA safety standards, to establish and sustain a strong safety culture'. It also 'emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the IAEA's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other actions'. This publication, issued in the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, is intended to assist on steps to be taken by States embarking on a nuclear power programme to establish effective national capabilities and arrangements of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency (hereinafter referred to as

  9. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  10. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  11. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2004-01-01

    Brief explanation of the use of 32 Si in the dating of sediments. 32 Si , with a half-life of c.140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years. An appropriate dating tool for that time range is essential because it includes three very important epochs: the impact of human colonisation and industrialisation during the last 150 years, the Little Ice Age between about 1650 AD and 1850 AD, and the last part of the Medieval Climatic Optimum. 23 refs

  12. Direct dating of human fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Proposal from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from September 26, 2002 relative to the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003; Proposition de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite en date du 26 septembre 2002 relative au montant previsionnel des charges du service public de la production d'electricite pour 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the estimated amount of the charges of the power production public utility for 2003. This estimation is based on the detailed data supplied by the operators, like Electricite de France (EdF), who bear the charges and by the managers of the public networks. The calculation method used for the estimation is detailed in the appendix: production cost overruns in non-interconnected areas, cost overruns due to the obligation of electricity purchase and to the contracts of purchase anterior to the law from February 10, 2000, estimated amount of the charges to be compensated and of the treasury management costs, estimated number of kWh submitted to contribution in 2003 and unit estimated contribution. (J.S.)

  14. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  15. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  16. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  17. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  18. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  19. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  20. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  1. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  2. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  3. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  4. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  5. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  6. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  7. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  8. Recent advances in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Initially the application of thermoluminescent dating was to ancient pottery and other baked clay, the detection of forgeries in art ceramics having a particularly powerful impact. In recent years there has been a growing extension of TL into non-pottery materials. Heated flints from paleolithic fire-places is one application. Another is in the dating of igneous rocks from recent volcanic events; formerly this had been impossible on account of the malign phenomenon of non-thermal ('anomalous') fading exhibited by volcanic minerals but this is now being circumvented by utilising TL in the 600 0 C region of the glow curve. TL dating has also been extended to unburnt calcite, one application being stalagmitic floors in paleolithic caves. Another recent development is the use of TL for dating aeolian sediment and some types of waterborne sediment. These developments give prospect of establishing a TL-based chronology, both for archaeology and quaternary research, extending back well beyond the range of radiocarbon, perhaps reaching a million years ago. (author)

  9. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  10. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  11. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  12. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  13. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  14. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  15. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  16. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  17. eff-date-range.png | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  18. 17 CFR 232.13 - Date of filing; adjustment of filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall not affect the date of filing. (2) If the conditions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are... and consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors. (c) Payment of fees. Fees...

  19. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  20. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  1. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  2. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  3. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  4. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  5. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  6. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  10. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  12. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  13. Urban teens and young adults describe drama, disrespect, dating violence and help-seeking preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R

    2012-07-01

    Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols

  14. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  15. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  16. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  17. Updating dating down under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  18. Potassium-argon dating in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method can provide precise and accurate numerical ages on suitable rocks, especially igneous rocks, over a wide range of age from less than 100,000 years old, with no older limit. Together with its variants, the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar technique, the K-Ar method is very useful for the numerical age calibration of stratigraphic sequences, including those containing archaeological or fossil material, in cases where appropriate rocks for dating are present. This brief review of the basis of the K-Ar dating method and the underlying assumptions, concludes with an example of its application to the Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in the Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. By dating alkali feldspars separated from pumice blocks in tuffaceous beds, excellent age control has been obtained for the wealth of vertebrate fossils, including hominids, as well as archaeological materials that has been found in the sequence. (author).

  19. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  20. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  1. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  2. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  3. 41 CFR 50-203.22 - Effective date of determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 203-RULES OF PRACTICE Minimum Wage Determinations Under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.22 Effective date of determinations. Any minimum wage determination issued as a result of hearings held under this subpart shall take effect not less...

  4. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Additional dates of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-05-14

    We update the collation of the dates of publication of Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa provided by Waterhouse (1880) and Barnard (1950, 1952). In the case of nine parts, we are able to provide more accurate dates of publication (including day-dates for seven of these parts). For workers of invertebrate taxonomy, we provide an accurate date of publication for W. S. Macleay's volume on Annulosa. 

  6. Dating, sexual activity, and well-being in Italian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated

  7. Dating Violence and Self-Efficacy for Delayed Sex among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going ...

  8. Dating Violence and Substance Use among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Freeman, Daniel H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health concern with numerous and long-lasting consequences. Although alcohol and drug use have been associated with dating violence, little is known about the role of specific substances, especially the use of club drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Thus, the authors examined the…

  9. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10 5 yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels). (author)

  10. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, A V; Nambi, K S.V.; Sunta, C M

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels).

  11. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  12. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  13. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  14. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  15. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  16. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  17. The isotopic dating of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  19. Violence in dating: An update for adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia Peralta, Maruzzella Paola; González Bravo, Luis Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This literature review updates evidence about intimate partner violence in dating relationships, revealing a particular phenomenon, emphasizing issues such as the prevalence for both sexes, which according to various reviewed studies may range from 0.8% for sexual violence to 98% for psychological aggression. Factors associated with abuse or early sexual initiation, temporal extent of the relationship, role of parents and peers, among others; and the consequences as dropouts: teenage pregnanc...

  20. 服务购买型公私合作(PPP)项目财政补偿的有效区间研究%The Study on the Effective Range of Fiscal Compensation of Public Private Partnerships Project Regarding Services Sold to the Public Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振; 王秀婧; 刘华

    2013-01-01

    Through the comparison of investment and operating costs occurred under traditional development and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) regarding services sold to the public sector, this paper studies the fundamental model regarding the effective range of fiscal compensation, as well as its evolution in the context of the existence of advanced supply of public service. The model shows that due to the advantages in finance, technology and management, the private entities could produce the "win-win range" of PPP projects, and both public and private stakeholders can gain benefit by fiscal compensation on the range.%通过对比传统开发与公私合作(PPP)两种模式下的投资和经营成本,研究服务购买型PPP项目财政补偿有效区间的基础模型;考虑公共服务提前供应条件下基础模型的演变,表明由于民间实体利用其资金、技术以及管理优势,能够创造出PPP项目的“双赢区间”,在该区间内进行财政补偿,公私双方都能获益.

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Dating Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah; Calkins, Carrie A; Xia, Yan; Dalla, Rochelle L

    2017-08-01

    Scholars have identified dating violence as a public health issue among adolescents. Yet, minimal research has detailed adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, specifically gender differences in perceptions. Research suggests that in order for dating violence prevention and intervention to be effective, services need to be delivered in a manner that is understood by adolescents. Therefore, this study used a qualitative phenomenology study to investigate adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, including gender differences in adolescents' perceptions. Thirty adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19 from a Midwest public high school participated in focus groups. Focus group participants were asked semistructured interview questions regarding the definition of dating violence, risk and protective factors for dating violence, support for victims and perpetrators, and prevention efforts. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods, and common themes were identified. Adolescents' language revealed gender differences in perceptions toward dating violence. Males perceive dating violence through action, perpetration, and physical consequences. Females discuss dating violence by relating to the victim and the victim's emotions. Although gender differences existed in participants' perceptions, both males and females explained that dating violence is more often perpetrated by females, despite the view from society that males are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. Findings suggest that schools, practitioners, and policy makers are not meeting the needs of adolescents in regard to dating violence prevention and intervention. Prevention and intervention efforts could be improved by delivering education and services using language that adolescents find relevant. Findings also suggest that adolescents may benefit from prevention and intervention with gender specific components.

  2. 41 CFR 101-4.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.100 Purpose and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose and effective date. 101-4.100 Section 101-4.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  3. 42 CFR 435.965 - Delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay of effective date. 435.965 Section 435.965 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... describing a good faith effort to come into compliance with the requirements of section 1137 of the Act and...

  4. AHP 47: A NIGHT DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.

  5. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  6. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  7. Dating the humans by radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon has become a very powerful tool used for dating. This paper deals with a specific application of 1 4C i.e. dating of humans. Attention is focused on those aspects that, if neglected, might lead to a misinterpretation of the results or to an unsatisfying accuracy of the measurement. After a brief description of the main principles on which the radiocarbon method is based and of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, examples taken from the research activity of INFN-LABEC (Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per I Beni Culturali) in Florence are presented. The case of the relic of St. Francis represents an example of dating not directly human remains but other objects that can be associated to them. The case of two burials from the archaeological area of Baratti-Populonia, in Tuscany, gives the possibility to show the importance of estimating the human palaeodiet when dating bone samples.

  8. Teen Dating Violence Prevention: Cluster-Randomized Trial of Teen Choices, an Online, Stage-Based Program for Healthy, Nonviolent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L

    2016-07-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices , a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition ( n =2,000) or a Comparison condition ( n =1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n =2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.

  9. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  11. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1997-12-31

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points. Paper no. 41; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.

    1997-01-01

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points

  13. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  14. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  15. 78 FR 77659 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Technical Advisory Committee (GEMTAC) will hold a work session, which is open to the public. DATES: The... will hold a work session January 22 and 23 in Portland to discuss development of an impact analysis for... further analysis a range of alternatives for electronic monitoring (EM) of the West Coast groundfish trawl...

  16. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  17. EIA publications directory, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information. Publication began with the 1979 edition

  18. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  19. The Associations between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…

  20. Beyond Correlates: A Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Rothman, Emily F.; Latzman, Natasha E.; Tharp, Andra Teten; Hall, Diane M.; Breiding, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health problem. In recent years, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other entities have made funding available to community based agencies for dating violence prevention. Practitioners who are tasked with developing dating violence prevention strategies should pay particular attention to…

  1. Sexual Intimacy in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)

  2. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  3. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  4. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Sanchez, Ruth.

    1986-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  5. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  6. 75 FR 13259 - Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: New Closing Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... infrastructure of an analog station, the cost of activating additional programming services on digital radio are much less than the cost of constructing a new station. Further, stations can add additional programming... alternative music on its HD-3 channel. WJCT-FM, Jacksonville, FL, provides primarily news and information on...

  7. Publication status of contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Lv, Jia-Wei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Ma, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of selective publication in contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the rates of publication and timely publication (within 24 months) for contemporary oncology RCTs from all over the world. We also investigated the trial characteristics associated with publication and timely publication. We identified all phase III oncology RCTs registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between January 2008 and December 2012. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify publications. The final search date was 31 December 2015. Our primary outcome measure was the time to publication from the primary completion date to the date of primary publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified 598 completed oncology RCTs; overall, 398 (66.6%) had been published. For published trials, the median time to publication was 25 months (interquartile range, 16-37 months). Only 192 trials (32.1%) were published within 24 months. Timely publication was independently associated with trials completed late in 2012. Trials conducted in Asia and other regions were less likely to have timely publication, but trials conducted in different locations were all equally likely to be published. Industry- and NIH-funded trials were equally likely to be published timely or at any time after trial completion. Among 391 published trials with clear primary outcomes, there was a trend for timely publication of positive trials compared with negative trials. Despite the ethical obligations and societal expectations of disclosing findings promptly, oncology RCTs performed poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preference Versus Choice in Online Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Stephen; Torgler, Benno

    2017-03-01

    This study explores factors that influence matches of online dating participants' stated preference for particular characteristics in a potential partner and compares these with the characteristics of the online daters actually contacted. The nature of online dating facilitates exploration of the differences between stated preference and actual choice by participants, as online daters willingly provide a range of demographics on their ideal partner. Using data from the Australian dating website RSVP, we analyze 219,013 contact decisions. We conduct a multivariate analysis using the number of matched variables between the participants' stated preference and the characteristics of the individuals contacted. We find that factors such as a person's age, their education level, and a more social personality all increase the number of factors they choose in a potential partner that match their original stated preference. Males (relative to females) appear to match fewer characteristics when contacting potential love interests. Conversely, age interaction effects demonstrate that males in their late 60's are increasingly more selective (than females) regarding who they contact. An understanding of how technology (the Internet) is impacting human mating patterns and the psychology behind the participants informs the wider social science of human behavior in large-scale decision settings.

  9. Estimating the Creation and Removal Date of Fracking Ponds Using Trend Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rutherford V.; Manthos, David; Amos, John

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a process of introducing liquid at high pressure to create fractures in shale rock formations, thus releasing natural gas. Flowback and produced water from fracking operations is typically stored in temporary open-air earthen impoundments, or frack ponds. Unfortunately, in the United States there is no public record of the location of impoundments, or the dates that impoundments are created or removed. In this study we use a dataset of drilling-related impoundments in Pennsylvania identified through the FrackFinder project led by SkyTruth, an environmental non-profit. For each impoundment location, we compiled all low cloud Landsat imagery from 2000 to 2016 and created a monthly time series for three bands: red, near-infrared (NIR), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We identified the approximate date of creation and removal of impoundments from sudden breaks in the time series. To verify our method, we compared the results to date ranges derived from photointerpretation of all available historical imagery on Google Earth for a subset of impoundments. Based on our analysis, we found that the number of impoundments built annually increased rapidly from 2006 to 2010, and then slowed from 2010 to 2013. Since newer impoundments tend to be larger, however, the total impoundment area has continued to increase. The methods described in this study would be appropriate for finding the creation and removal date of a variety of industrial land use changes at known locations.

  10. ESR Dating Research of Glacial Tills in Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, W.; Yi, C.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Quaternary Glacial-chronology has been made remarkable progress in the Tibetan Platean(TP) with the development of several numeric dating techniques, such as cosmogenic nuclides(NC), optically stimulated luminescence(OSL) and 14C. In constrast, the dating of Quaternary glacial tills in 100,000 years even more than million-year has been a challenge, just because the techniques has defects themselves and the sediments were stransformed during the geological and geomorphology progress later. Electron Spin Resonance(ESR) has been becoming one of the key methods of Quaternary Glacial-chronology with wide range of dating, expecially for the sample older than 100,000 years up to million-year scale. The accurate measurement of equivalent dose significantly impacts on accuracy and reliability of ESR dating method. Therefore, the study of the mechanisms of resetting processes is fundamental for accurate and reliable ESR dating. To understand the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signal resetting of different samples, a series of laboratory simulation and field observation studies were carried out, which made lots of important breakthrough. But the research in quartz ESR signal of moraines is less and the test of ESR dating method is still in the qualitative investigation. Therefor, we use ESR dating and study on the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signals in tills in the Tibetan Platean. In the adjust method of Modern, the quartz ESR signals in Modern glacial tills represent residual values which can be adjusted signals in the older glacial tills. As a consequence, ESR dating of the quartz in moraines needs to be explored in deep with building models to adjust ages which are measured by ESR dating. Therefore, ESR dating will become the trusted one of the cross dating methods in Quaternary Glacial-chronology with the adjust mothod improving the accuracy of ESR dating ages.

  11. 43 CFR 30.148 - Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... date of death be paid? Interest or penalties charged against claims after the date of death will not be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid? 30.148 Section 30.148 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the...

  12. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  13. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M.; Jang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14 C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  14. AGAR PENULISAN RESEP TETAP UP TO DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatini Rahmatini

    2009-09-01

    in dosage form and give it to the patient. Prescription is the final embodiment of competence, knowledge and expertise of physicians in applying his knowledge in the field of pharmacology and therapy. Writing prescriptions should be written clearly, so that it can be read by officials at the pharmacy. Not-clearly-written recipe will cause the error when compounding / preparation of drugs and the usage of prescription drugs.TINJAUAN PUSTAKA102The science of medicine is always changing, new drugs,always appeared in public. Generally, a physician must follow developments in drug therapy. When the side-effect from medication appear that should be known and can be prevented by a physician, the physician will deal with the law. To make prescribing up to date, a doctor should collect a variety of available information information source that can be used are: a reference book, Compendium of drugs, the National Essential Medicines List and guide therapy, medication Bulletin, Journal of Medicine, Center for drug information, information via computer, sources of information from the pharmaceutical industry, and verbal information. Compare to the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of information. Duty of a doctor is doing the best way to keep up to date by signing up resources that can be utilized. Find at least one of the following: (1 medical journal: (2 drug bulletin, (3 reference books or reference to clinical pharmacology, (4 commission and consultant therapy, or a magister pharmacology graduated. With their knowledge and ability to critically assess any form of information, it is expected physician keep up to date in writing prescriptions Key words: Prescribing – up to date

  15. 26 CFR 1.1271-0 - Original issue discount; effective date; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code. (g) Basis adjustment. (h) Debt instruments denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar... instruments issued for money. (1) Issue price. (2) Issue date. (b) Publicly traded debt instruments issued for property. (1) Issue price. (2) Issue date. (c) Debt instruments issued for publicly traded property. (1...

  16. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  17. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  18. Fission tracks dating for obsidian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Obsidian from South America are dated by fission tracks methods. Samples are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 . Results, corrected by 'Plateau' methods, are the following: obsidian from Bolivia: 4.14 x 10 6 yr., Ecuador: 8.79 x 10 5 yr., Colombia: 3.52 x 10 6 yr., Peru: 6.55 x 10 6 yr., Chile: 1.13 x 10 6 yr. (MMZ). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Radiokrypton dating coming of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Tian Lu

    2016-01-01

    The dream of radiokrypton dating began in 1969 when Heinz Hugo Loosli and Hans Oeschger of the University of Bern first detected the decay of81Rr(half-life=230 000 yr)in krypton gas extracted from air[1].This isotope is produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray-induced spallation and neutron-activation of stable krypton.Due to its long residence time(105 yr)in the atmosphere,81Rr is uniformly

  20. Current topics in ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    After over 25 years, the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) is well-established in dating sites of geological, paleontological and archaeological interest. Like any scientific technique, there have been changes in understanding and in methodology. Improvements have not, however, changed the observation that external dose calculations are still a significant source of uncertainty in ages. Examples from Europe, Africa and the Americans illustrate this point. For Pradayrol Cave (France), the occupation age, 330 ka, is unchallenged, making this the oldest known Neanderthal site in France. For Roc de Marsal, also in France, on the other hand, discrepancies between TL and sedimentary dose rates imply substantial differences in interpretation. In the Western Egyptian Desert, where artifacts and datable material are not well-correlated, the dating results show consistency with expectations based on global climate change, even in deflated sites. Climate change is also the question in geological studies in the Bahamas where, despite concerns about cosmic dose history, ESR dates confirm other evidence for sea level changes. We show that an uncertain age is not the same as an impossible one.

  1. Production and Quality Evaluation of Candies from Date Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin composition of the candies ranged from 4.34 –12.11 mg/100 g for vitamin A which reduced as groundnut paste substitution increased, with 100% date nut having the highest value. However, 100% date nut candy had least values in vitamin B1 (0.08 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.10 mg/100 g) and vitamin B3 (0.99 ...

  2. Archaeomagnetic Dating in Europe Using a Global Geomagnetic Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    Using up-to-date archaeomagnetic data from Europe and CALS7K.2 as an apriori model, we produce a global geomagnetic field model to be used for archaeomagnetic dating in Europe. More details on the modelling process will be presented elsewhere (in session GP12, abstract: Geophysical insights from archaeomagnetic dating). Here we apply the global geomagnetic field model to a series of test cases from both recently published data and unpublished data to demonstrate its application to archaeomagnetic dating. We compare the results produced using our model with those from the spherical cap harmonic model, SCHA.DIF.3K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2009), the global geomagnetic field model, ARCH3K.1 (Korte et al., 2009) and those produced using the palaeosecular variation curves generated using Bayesian statistics (Lanos, 2004). We include examples which emphasise the importance of using three component data (declination, inclination and intensity) to produce an improved archaeomagnetic date. In addition to the careful selection of an appropriate model for archaeomagnetic dating, the choice of errors on the model curves is vital for providing archaeologists with an age range of possible dates. We discuss how best to constrain the errors on the model curves and alternative ways to the mathematical method of Lanos (2004) for producing an archaeomagnetic date for archaeologists.

  3. NRCN publications in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznietz, M.; Makeveth, D.; Israeli, O.

    1978-09-01

    The front-pages of 24 works, written by employees of the Nuclear Research Center - Negev, and published in 1977 by the Publishing Department of its Scientific and Technical Information Service, as publications in the NRCN series or in the NRCN(ER), NRCN(GP), and NRCN(TN) sub-series, are presented. The front-pages include the respective NRCN serial or sub-serial number, title, authors, date of publication, and abstract (and date of receipt, if substantially preceding the date of publication) in the original language (Hebrew or English). The front-page translations (into English or Hebrew, respectively) are also included. Various data, concerning the NRCN publications in 1977, are given, as well as a list of all publications and alphabetical lists of authors (in Hebrew and Latin transliteration)

  4. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  5. 20 CFR 410.687a - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....686a, 410.686b, 410.686c, 410.686d, and 410.686e, shall be effective upon publication in the Federal... rendered in connection with those claims for which a fee has not been fully paid before this effective date, notwithstanding the fact that fee contracts for such services may have been entered into, or services rendered...

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  7. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  8. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  9. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  10. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  11. Potassium-argon dating: an access to the dynamics and the history of the Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, P.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Today, scientists, concerned by the history and the evolution of our planet, have a wide range of dating methods. Among these, potassium-argon dating with a field of application that now largely covers that of dating by thermoluminescence or by carbon 14

  12. EIA Publications Directory 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications released in the above time period. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information

  13. Potassium-argon dating of polyhalite in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.; Register, J.K. Jr.; Krueger, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Polyhalite, K 2 Ca 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 .2H 2 O, is an important mineral in many evaporites. Although its use for K-Ar dating has never been investigated, present results indicate that it is a very useful mineral for dating events ranging from the time of potash mineralization to any younger events which may have affected the evaporite. Five K-Ar dates on pure polyhalite, including two from included material and from beds distorted by the formation of a rubble chimney, yield dates between 198 and 216 Myp, in good agreement with Rb-Sr dates and the diagenetic age of the potash deposits from the same rocks. Two polyhalites mixed with sylvite gave lower dates, which is to be expected because of radiogenic 40 Ar loss from the sylvite phase. One polyhalite, formed after the intrusion of a 31 Myr lamprophyre dike, yielded 21 Myr. Collectively, the results indicate that pure polyhalite is satisfactory for K-Ar dating and may provide critical age information in studies of the geologic history of the evaporite sequences. (author)

  14. Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Alsenaien; R.A. Alamer; Zhen-Xing Tang; S.A. Albahrani; M.A. Al-Ghannam; S.M. Aleid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dates powder and dates syrup as a sugar substitution, on the physical properties and sensory attributes of cookies were studied. An increase in firmness and moisture content of cookies supplemented with dates was obtained. The diameter and spread ratio of cookies showed a decrease with increasing levels of date powder or date syrup. Partial replacement of sugar with date powder or date syrup produced cookies with more dark and red color. Sensory evaluation result...

  15. NRCN publications in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznietz, M.; Wiener, U.; Israeli, O.

    1977-04-01

    The front-pages of 35 works, written by employees of the Nuclear Research Center - Negev, and published in 1976 by the Publishing Department of its Scientific and Technical Information Service, as publications in the NRCN series or in the NRCN(ER), NRCN(ML), and NRCN(TN) sub-series, are presented. The front-pages include the respective NRCN serial or sub-serial number, title, authors, date of publication, and abstract (and date of receipt, if substantially preceding the date of publication) in the original language (Hebrew or English). The front-page translations (into English or Hebrew), if published, are also included. Various data, concerning the NRCN publications in 1976, are given as well as alphabetical lists of authors (in Hebrew and Latin transliteration)

  16. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  17. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  18. Making a date with radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of 14 C dating techniques for samples of organic materials up to 50,000 years old is discussed with especial reference to adjustment necessary to take account of both the most recent figure for the 14 C half-life and also the natural fluctuations in the production of 14 C over 50,000 years. Methods of detection and the accuracy of the measurements are considered. It is hoped that future developments including both the possibility of counting 14 C ions directly using an accelerator as a mass spectrometer, and also the use of laser enrichment techniques will not only push back the radiocarbon calendar to 100,000 years but will also allow the use of much smaller samples than before. (U.K.)

  19. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  20. Make a date with a tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, M.; Pilcher, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the use of dendrochronology to check the accuracy of radiocarbon dating. The Belfast chronology is described - this involves wood samples precisely dated by tree ring analysis and analysed by high-precision radiocarbon analysis. The analysis resulted in the first continuous high-precision calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale, and confirmed the relationship between radiocarbon dates and tree-ring dates. The use of radiocarbon dating to reveal the age of wood samples that have too few rings to produce an accurate date, is also outlined. (U.K.)

  1. Cyber dating abuse in affective and sexual relationships: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Roberta Matassoli Duran; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2017-07-27

    Cyber culture with its related e-commerce, expanded since the 2000s through the advent of social network platforms, incites participants to engage in hyper-exposure and spectacularization of their private lives, with inherent consequences for personal image and privacy, publicizing private matters (especially those pertaining to sexuality and corporality) in the digital media. This raises the need to understand how the phenomenon of cyber dating abuse in affective and sexual relationships is conceptualized and characterized in scientific studies, which health problems are associated with it, and which social technologies are suggested for intervention. This form of abuse is a new expression of intimate partner violence that involves, among other practices, posting embarrassing photos and videos and intimate messages without prior consent, with the purpose of humiliating and defaming the person. The current study is an integrative systematic review, including 35 articles, with a predominance of studies in the United States (22). Types of cyber dating abuse range from direct aggression to stalking. Despite the high prevalence, especially among adolescents and youth, the literature highlights that this type of cyber abuse is often taken for granted. The suggested interventions are mostly for prevention and awareness-raising concerning relationship abuse, action by school counselors, and family orientation. The high reciprocity of cyber dating abuse between males and females indicates that future studies should attempt to elucidate how the dynamics of gender violence are reproduced or subverted by it.

  2. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  3. 17 CFR 248.128 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 248.128 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a) Effective date. This subpart is effective September 10, 2009. (b) Mandatory compliance date. Compliance with this... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date, compliance...

  4. Radiocarbon dates for Rangitoto and Motutapu, a consideration of dating accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The carbon dates for the eruptions of Rangitoto and the occupation of Maori sites on Motutapu contain inconsistencies which are explicable only after the dates have been corrected to allow for the nature of the dating method. The only date which is reasonably established is a 14th or 15th century dating for the ash shower covering Motutapu. (auth.)

  5. Geophysical Insights from Archaeomagnetic Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, R.; Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report on work which has been undertaken towards developing an improved methodology for archaeomagnetic dating of archaeological samples through the use of a dedicated field model. In this talk, we focus on the more general (non-archaeological) implications of our results. Our work has focused on Europe, taking advantage of the better spatial and temporal coverage of available samples. Nevertheless, we model the field globally, using an a priori model (such as, for example, CALS7K) to constrain the field away from the regions of available data. This is advantageous over the use of a local field modelling methodology, as it allows us to examine the physical consequences of structure in our model (for example, in terms of the spectra of the field and secular variation at the core-mantle boundary), and to control possible edge effects in the model, which in a local model might produce an unphysical solution. By focusing on one particular region, we produce models that may not be optimal in terms of global structure, but allow us to investigate the data content in the region where it may provide the most information on core-field evolution. In parallel, we have been expanding the archaeointensity record for Great Britain, towards producing an archaeointensity curve for the UK which could ultimately be used for dating of unoriented samples (such as pot sherds). This new record, combined with other recently acquired high-quality intensity data, allows us to consider the evolution of global geomagnetic field strength in parallel with a good model of directional measurements; from 1590, the GUFM model is appropriate. Recent attempts to determine global intensity variation have used all available data (some of uncertain quality) to quantify variations in field strength. By instead focusing on a more limited dataset of known quality, we are able to examine intensity trends in greater detail. We present evidence that the intensity of the field was higher prior to 1840 than

  6. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  7. Archaeomagnetic dating of seven archaeological fireplaces in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, A.A.M. van; Langereis, C.G.; Joosten, I.; Thijssen, J.R.A.M.; Nijhof, E.; Groenendijk, H.A.; Eynde, G.R.M. van den

    1997-01-01

    The palaeomagnetic directions of seven Dutch fireplaces are compared with the archaeological age estimates which range from the first to the 17th century AD. A comparison with the British master curve of secular variation for archaeomagnetic dating results in a refinement of the archaeological age

  8. Dates and Times Made Easy with lubridate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Grolemund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lubridate package for R, which facilitates working with dates and times. Date-times create various technical problems for the data analyst. The paper highlights these problems and oers practical advice on how to solve them using lubridate. The paper also introduces a conceptual framework for arithmetic with date-times in R.

  9. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2008 and 1-2/2009) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 12 December and will cover events at CERN from 15 December 2008 to 12 January 2009. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate by noon, on Tuesday 9 December. Bulletin publication 2009 The table below lists the 2009 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Publication date 3-4 Tuesday 6 January Monday 12 January 5-6 Tuesday 20 January Monday 26 January 7-8 Tuesday 3 February Monday 9 February 9-10 Tuesday 17 Februar...

  10. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  11. 76 FR 9636 - Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Public Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee March 1, 2011, Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title... (CCAC) public meeting scheduled for March 1, 2011. Date: March 1, 2011. Time: 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Location...

  12. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Conditions and Provisions § 223.47 Date of completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction obligations as set forth in the Notice of Sale shall be...

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.102-2 - Effective date of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.102-2 Effective date of determination. Unless a longer time is... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date of...

  14. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...

  15. Bullying and HIV Risk among High School Teenagers: The Mediating Role of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Moses; Mengo, Cecilia; Ombayo, Bernadette; Small, Eusebius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Teen dating violence (TDV), bullying, and HIV risk behaviors are public health concerns that impact adolescents in the United States. National estimates reveal high rates of these risk behaviors among high school students. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that experiencing teen dating violence (sexual and…

  16. 42 CFR 488.440 - Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration... Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration of penalty. (a)(1) The per day civil money penalty... by CMS or the State. (2) A civil money penalty for each instance of noncompliance is imposed in a...

  17. An Explanatory Model of Dating Violence Risk Factors in Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-12-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health issue that needs further understanding in terms of risk factors that may be involved in it. The main goal of this study was to test a mediational model of dating violence risk factors. The sample was composed of 477 secondary and college students from Spain (59% females). A dynamic developmental explanatory model considering aggressiveness, insecure attachment, interparental conflict, and peer dating violence was tested using a multigroup structural equation model. Aggressiveness partially mediated the relation between anxious attachment and dating violence and fully mediated the association between interparental conflict resolution and dating violence. Furthermore, perceived peer dating violence was a direct predictor of dating violence. Implications for prevention and intervention plans are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Dating pleistocene fossil coastal sand dunes by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Soliani Junior, E.; Loss, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    It was shown recently that sunlight exposure is able to bleach most of the geological thermoluminescence (TL) of wind transported sediments. This property has been used in an attempt to date dunes from the well developed recent quaternary coastal dunes system of Rio Grande do Sul. Preliminary results presented here, show that TL dating on fossil sand dunes from Rio Grande do Sul should be possible in a time range from present to at least 50.000 yr and possibly more than 100.000 yr. (Author) [pt

  19. Progress in TL Dating at Risø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1972-01-01

    This article outlines the thermoluminescent dating technique employed at Risö. The intensity of beta and gamma radiation is determined by means of the TL phosphors CaSO4:Mn and CaSO4:Dy, and the determination of accumulated exposure is based on quartz and feldspar inclusions with a size of 0.......3–0.5 mm. Results are presented of a dating programme comprising sherds, bricks, burned stones and burned clay (from kilns) from seventeen excavation sites. The age of the sites ranged from a.d. 1600 to 4000 b.c....

  20. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2006-01-01

    Useful tools for determining absolute ages of sediments deposited within the last c. 100 years include 210 Pb, 137 Cs, and bomb radiocarbon. Cosmogenic 32 Si, with a half life of c. 140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years and is ideally suited for this time period. Detection of 32 Si is, however, very difficult due to its extremely low natural specific activity, and the vast excess of stable silicon (i.e. low 32 Si/Si ratio). 23 refs

  1. Assessing Date Palm Genetic Diversity Using Different Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Mohamed A M; Sakr, Mahmoud M; Adawy, Sami S

    2017-01-01

    Molecular marker technologies which rely on DNA analysis provide powerful tools to assess biodiversity at different levels, i.e., among and within species. A range of different molecular marker techniques have been developed and extensively applied for detecting variability in date palm at the DNA level. Recently, the employment of gene-targeting molecular marker approaches to study biodiversity and genetic variations in many plant species has increased the attention of researchers interested in date palm to carry out phylogenetic studies using these novel marker systems. Molecular markers are good indicators of genetic distances among accessions, because DNA-based markers are neutral in the face of selection. Here we describe the employment of multidisciplinary molecular marker approaches: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism, conserved DNA-derived polymorphism (CDDP), intron-targeted amplified polymorphism (ITAP), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to assess genetic diversity in date palm.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of soils, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Schiffmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating techniques for pedological purposes is reviewed in chronological sequence of its phases of introduction. Initially dating of charcoal and buried paleosols was dominating and accompanied by few soil dating attempts of recent soil formations on the basis of extracted humic acid-C. The following controversy regarding the potentialities and limitations of recent soil dating, still being involved in the intact turnover processes of modern biodynamics, led to intensive search for the relatively oldest, most favorable C-fraction, particularly a biologically inert C-fraction of the organic C-pool. Inclusion of C-14 dating in pedogenetic working concepts required soil profile date-scanning in order to reveal the age versus depth interdependence. (orig./HK) [de

  3. Sample processing procedures and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, Ivo; Tomaskova, Lenka; Dreslerova, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    The article outlines radiocarbon dating routines and highlights the potential and limitations of this method. The author's institutions have been jointly running a conventional radiocarbon dating laboratory using the international CRL code. A procedure based on the synthesis of benzene is used. Small samples are sent abroad for dating because no AMS instrumentation is available in the Czech Republic so far. Our laboratory plans to introduce routines for the processing of milligram samples and preparation of graphitized targets for AMS

  4. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, A.K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Agrawal, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  5. Bayesian molecular dating: opening up the black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Duchêne, Sebastián; Hua, Xia; Ritchie, Andrew M; Duchêne, David A; Ho, Simon Y W

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account. But in order to do this, Bayesian dating methods rely on a range of assumptions about the evolutionary process, which vary in their degree of biological realism and empirical support. These assumptions can have substantial impacts on the estimates produced by molecular dating analyses. The aim of this review is to open the 'black box' of Bayesian molecular dating and have a look at the machinery inside. We explain the components of these dating methods, the important decisions that researchers must make in their analyses, and the factors that need to be considered when interpreting results. We illustrate the effects that the choices of different models and priors can have on the outcome of the analysis, and suggest ways to explore these impacts. We describe some major research directions that may improve the reliability of Bayesian dating. The goal of our review is to help researchers to make informed choices when using Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate evolutionary rates and timescales. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  7. Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... It is expected that the research will provide insight into the relationship between public accountability, macroeconomic ... Date de début ... Public accountability institutions of Pakistan & their macro economic impacts.

  8. How AMS dating changed my life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating was developed in the late 1970s. Remembering back to a time before AMS dating was available to archaeologists is a bit like trying to remember how we ever survived without desktop computers, email or automatic teller machines. My own particular interest in AMS dating was an inevitable offshoot from my long-established interest in chronometric hygiene, or 'getting the dates right'. In this paper I attempt to illustrate that accurate dating matters, by discussing some examples of AMS dating projects with which I have been involved over the last six years or so. In relation to these projects, AMS has given us the ability to date sites which we could not before. It has enabled us to provide more detailed stratigraphies when datable materials are rare. It has allowed us to date materials we could not date before, such as rock art pigments. It has been able to provide indications of the degree of site disturbance in the absence of other obvious forms of evidence. And it has allowed us to assess claims for the antiquity of particular material cultural types and faunal introductions. (author). 41 refs

  9. AMS Radiocarbon Dating at Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sean

    2014-09-01

    Current development of a local radiocarbon dating method using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Notre Dame seeks to provide sensitive, reproducible, and accurate measurements for future interdisciplinary projects. While AMS has been the premier radiocarbon dating method for a few decades, repurposing Notre Dame's FN Tandem accelerator for radiocarbon dating has provided many unique challenges. Experiments have shown radiocarbon dating possible and reproducible using the FN Tandem accelerator, found optimal settings for said accelerator, and established sensitivity limits comparable to dedicated radiocarbon dating facilities. In addition, there is ongoing work to create a local chemistry lab to convert organic artifacts into graphite samples to be dated locally. Once the chemistry side has been completed, several artifacts from the IAEA's radiocarbon intercomparison have been procured. Dating these previously studied artifacts will provide an additional measure on the accuracy and repeatability of both the accelerator and chemical treatment. Provided that these IAEA artifacts are dated successfully, exciting projects will ensue, such as the authentication of artwork and dating of anthropological samples.

  10. NERC radiocarbon dating: 1975-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.Q.; Harkness, D.D.

    1986-06-01

    The paper reviews the work of the Natural Environment Research Council Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in connection with Quaternary research, over the last decade. A description is given of the development of the dating service and in-house research. Quaternary research investigations aided by radiocarbon dating are described under the topic headings: The late Devensian glacial maximum, late glacial, middle Devensian, palaeomagnetic secular variation in lake sediments, vegetational history, faunal history, palaeolimnology, ground water, volcanology, periglacial research, palaoeohydrology, geomorphology, quaternary events in low-latitudes, environmental archaeology, archaeology, deep sea sediments, continental shelf, coastal geomorphology, and radiocarbon dating in Antarctica. (U.K.)

  11. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters

  12. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  13. Pre-breeding ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influences conception date in young postpartum range beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in a negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is suggested to be mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of this 3-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, resumption of estrus, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and...

  14. Does ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf ...

  15. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  16. Using microwaves in Disinsection of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouba, Anis

    2008-01-01

    The date palm plays a very significant role in Tunisia in term of culture as well as social, economic and ecological aspects. The production of the dates which is estimated to 120.000 tons/year ensures the principal income for the majority of the oasis population of the South of Tunisia and constitutes the basis for agricultural, industrial, commercial and tourist activities, offering million of working days. The date palm is cultivated mainly for the production of dates which are consumed locally or also exported abroad but for its by-products (food of the cattle, wind breaks, fuel, construction) which are marketed and/ or used in the everyday life thus taking part in the sedentarisation of the populations and the maintenance of a fragile socio-economic balance. The date moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. ( L will epidoptera, Pyralidae) is without question the most significant problem of the Tunisian date palm. The infestation of dates in the field and in the storage and packing houses enormously depreciates the marketable quality of dates and risk to compromise exports in particular those of the variety Deglet Nour. rates of infestations of about 20% are often recorded in Tunisia where as the European standards require rates lower than 5%. In Tunisia the desinsectisation of dates is done until now by the use of methyl bromide, its high toxicity substantially reduces the duration of date treatment, and consequently the treated volumes. The replacement of this product becomes an urgent need its use will not be authorized by 2015. Within the framework of a agreement between the Regional Research Center in Oasis Agriculture (CRRAO), The Interprofessional Grouping of Fruits (GIF), and the Italian Company IMETEC, the use one of micro-waves as a desinsectisation method of dates was evaluated. The results of this present work showed that total desinsectisation of dates by microwaves can be obtained only with homogeneous dates in term of water content. Total

  17. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  18. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  19. 47 CFR 61.14 - Method of filing publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of filing publications. 61.14 Section 61...) TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61.14 Method of filing publications. (a) Publications filed... date of a publication received by the Electronic Tariff Filing System will be determined by the date...

  20. 75 FR 57252 - Designated Transfer Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ..., as the date for the transfer of functions to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (``CFPB... other laws. After consulting with the heads of the agencies whose functions will transfer to the CFPB... July 21, 2011, as the transfer date will advance the mission of the CFPB and promote an orderly and...

  1. 12 CFR 563g.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 563g.6 Section 563g.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.6 Effective date. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (d) of this section, an offering circular filed by a...

  2. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates...

  3. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  4. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... § 211.137 Expiration dating. (a) To assure that a drug product meets applicable standards of identity...

  5. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, U.; Mangini, A.; Gruen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed. (author)

  6. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U; Mangini, A; Gruen, R

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed.

  7. 16 CFR 314.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 314.5 Section 314.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.5 Effective date. (a) Each financial institution subject to the...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  9. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  10. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  11. 46 CFR 308.552 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 308.552 Section 308.552 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.552 Effective date. This subpart shall be effective as and when the... commerce of the United States cannot be obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from companies...

  12. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...

  13. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Record date in Serbian company law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of the shareholder to participate in and vote at the general meeting is determined based on the shares he holds on a certain date prior to the general meeting (record date. However, the rules regulating the record date deviate from the principle of indivisibility of shares. In extreme cases it is possible to have persons, none of which are shareholders at a given time, to participate in and vote at the general meeting. Hence, it is possible to have persons with no investment interest in the company to decide, for example, on adoption of financial reports, or on disposal of high-value assets. This issue, by its virtue, is not put forward in cases where there was no transfer of shares in the period between the record date and the date of the general meeting.

  15. The utilisation of thermal analysis to optimise radiocarbon dating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandova, D.; Keller, W.A.; Maciejewski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry was applied to radiocarbon dating procedures (age determination of carbon-containing samples). Experiments carried out under an oxygen atmosphere were used to determine carbon content and combustion range of soil and wood samples. Composition of the shell sample and its decomposition were investigated. The quantification of CO 2 formed by the oxidation of carbon was done by the application of pulse thermal analysis. Experiments carried out under an inert atmosphere determined the combustion range of coal with CuO as an oxygen source. To eliminate a possible source of contamination in the radiocarbon dating procedures the adsorption of CO 2 by CuO was investigated. (author)

  16. Long Range Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    shown that when controlled growth conditions are achieved, grain selection occurs after crystallites have nucleated . When electrodeposition begins...stable exciton configuration at RT. Details about this proposed hypo- thesis will be reported at a later date . Work is presently underway to...only after previous exfoliacion with water. DMSO dispersions were also easily precipitated. In his doctoral thesis , Ruthardt reported that TaS

  17. 12 CFR 41.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective... an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if the bank receives such information prior to...

  18. 16 CFR 680.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a... part shall not prohibit you from using eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to...

  19. 12 CFR 571.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.28 Effective date, compliance date, and... receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive such information prior to...

  20. 45 CFR 99.33 - Effective date of Assistant Secretary's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date of Assistant Secretary's decision. 99.33 Section 99.33 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Posthearing Procedures, Decisions § 99.33...

  1. 41 CFR 302-2.4 - What is my effective transfer or appointment date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my effective transfer or appointment date? 302-2.4 Section 302-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General...

  2. Direct fault dating trials at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddock, R.H.; Hailwood, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    Over seventy rock samples were collected from fault and fracture zones in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel for a study of direct fault dating techniques. Following microstructural and mineralogical analysis, isotopic, palaeomagnetic and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods were employed in an attempt to determine the age of the most recent movements on the sampled faults. The larger fracture zones contain faultrock assemblages and microstructures which are consistent with a prolonged and polyphase movement history, although the cumulative displacements involved formation of fault gouge cemented by authigenic 'illite'. Dating studies were targeted particularly at the gouge but also at older fault rock and vein phases. ESR dating of quartz graines, separated from gouge from fracture zones NE-4 and NE-3, strongly indicates that the ESR signals have not been reset by fault movements for a minimum time period of several hundred thousand to one million years. Palaeomagnetic dating of gouge from fracture zone NE-4 shows that a stable component of magnetisation overlaps both Precambrian and Permo-Triassic parts of the apparent polar wander curve. The younger age of magnetisation is preferred on geological grounds and by comparison with the isotopic dating results. The magnetisation may correspond to a diagenetic event following fault movement. Palaeomagnetic ages determined on countryrock and epidote vein samples are largely consistent with independent age constraints. K-Ar dating of clay fractions (<2 to <0.05μm) separated from gouge from four faults, including fracture zones NE-4 and NE-3, gave model ages in the range 706-301Ma. Accounting for the effects of contamination by potassium-bearing porphyroclasts, it is likely that authigenic 'illite' was formed at least 250 million years ago, after the most recent significant fault movements. 100 refs., 60 figs., 26 tabs

  3. Results of lichenometric dating of masonry in the outskirts of Kandalaksha city (Russia, Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekhin Alexey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lichenometric dating of masonry in the area of Kandalaksha city was carried out. For more accurate dating, the reference sites with known age (70 years were laid in Pechenga district (Murmansk region. According to our calculations, the age of masonry was in the range of 60 to 80 years, that is consistent with dendrochronology data (75 years.

  4. Using accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon dating of textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jull, A.J.T.

    1997-12-01

    Since 1981 we have operated an NSF Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Facility at the University of Arizona. The AMS method allows us to use very small samples of carbon, <1 mg for radiocarbon dating in contrast to earlier counting techniques. This has opened a vast array of applications of radiocarbon dating that was difficult to do before AMS because of sample size limitations of decay counting. Some of the many applications of AMS include paleoclimatic studies, archaeological research and the age of first settlement of North America by man, dating of art works and artifacts, fall times and terrestrial residence ages of meteorites, production of {sup 14}C in lunar samples by galactic and solar cosmic rays, studies of in situ {sup 14}C produced by cosmic ray spallation in rocks and ice, and studies of {sup 14}C in groundwater dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. At our laboratory, we have also successfully applied AMS {sup 14}C to dating of many types of textiles, including silks and linens, art works, documents and artifacts fabricated from wood, parchment, ivory, and bone. The results for many of these samples are often important in questions of the authenticity of these works of art and artifacts. Our studies have encompassed a wide range of art works ranging from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Shroud of Turin, and the Chinese silk trade to the works of Raphael, Rembrandt, and Picasso. Recently, we also dated the Vinland Map, a controversial document that shows the eastern coast of North America apparently using information from Viking voyages.

  5. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  6. Dating of fossil hominid: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Danon, J.; Baksi, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The hominid dating anterior to the Homo Erectus has been based up to now on the rocks and minerals geochronology of vulcanic origem in stratigraphic relation with the fossils. Two methods are widely used, potassium-argon and uranium fission track dating. The vulcanic material dating; lava, lephra, associated with the hominid leavings show big difficults essentially connected to several types of contamination and modification. Two available examples inside the east-african rift show the probelms linked to these dating. The current progresses in the dating methods can contribute by one hand to a better utilization of the K-Ar and fisson track methods for the vulcanic materials. By other hand, with the introduction of new dating methods (thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance) will be possible to date directly whether the fossil bone itself or the associated sedimentar material. This open new perspectives in particular for every sites which are not inter-stratified with the vulcanic material. (L.C.) [pt

  7. A Phenomenological Investigation of Adolescent Dating Relationships and Dating Violence Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Cole, Rebekah F.; Emelianchik, Kelly; Forman, Julia; Lorelle, Sonya; McBride, Rebecca; Sikes, April

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dating violence, incidences often go unreported due to a lack of awareness among students as to appropriate dating behaviors. This phenomenology investigated how adolescents conceptualize and experience dating relationships. We explored adolescent females' definitions of healthy and abusive relationships, experiences with…

  8. 20 CFR 404.630 - Use of date of written statement as filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data on the Internet Social Security Benefit Application to us, we will use the date of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of date of written statement as filing date. 404.630 Section 404.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  9. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  10. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tiemei; Yang quan; Wu En

    1993-01-01

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  11. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...... for determining the time of deposition of water-lain sediments from the coastal zone, and aeolian deposits from both coastal and inland environments. Our conclusion is supported by the growing popularity of OSL dating in geomorphology and geology...

  13. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  14. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou

    1988-01-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned

  15. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhou, Li [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Archaeology

    1988-11-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned.

  16. 650 nm Laser stimulated dating from Side Antique Theatre, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doğan, M.; Meriç, N.

    2014-01-01

    Samples were taken from the archeological excavation site, which was at the backs of the Side Antique Theatre. Samples were taken from under the base rock in this area. Polymineral fine grains were examined to determine the ages of the sediments. Samples gathered from the Side Antique Theatre were investigated through using the SAR method. Firstly, one part of the samples were evaluated by using conventional IRSL reading head model of (ELSEC-9010) which is infrared (880±80 nm) stimulation source with Schott BG39 filter. The IRSL age dating with feldspar minerals, gives a number of overestimated or underestimated age values as a result. A new reading head was proposed with the following configuration attachments for overestimation of equivalent dose rates. Measurements were done with this newly designed red laser stimulating reading head which works with Elsec 9010 OSL age dating system. SAR measurements were performed by (650±10 nm) red laser light source with two Schott BG3 filters. With usage of the new designed reading head; closer results were obtained in comparision with the Antique Theatre′s expected age range. Fading rates were taken into consideration and these corrections were also handled for true age results. - Highlights: • Polymineral fine grain feldspar minerals were used for dating. • Two different reading heads were used to determine equivalent doses. • IR stimulated (880 nm) and laser stimulated (650 nm) dating results were compared

  17. Amtrak's strategic business plan : progress to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-24

    To address its financial crisis and make its operations more efficient, in 1995 : Amtrak undertook a major corporate restructuring, along with developing its : Strategic Business Plan. This report (1) reviews Amtrak's success to date in : achieving f...

  18. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  19. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  20. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not leading to a standard college degree is not timely received, payments will be terminated date of... withdraws from correspondence, flight, farm cooperative, cooperative or job training, benefits will be...

  1. A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. | Martin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. ... the up-to-date techniques of satellite remote sensing and the interpretation of new colour aerial photography. Data were collected to provided a basic understanding of plant community ...

  2. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  3. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  4. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  5. REPORT ON THE DATING THE ODYSSEY

    OpenAIRE

    r.e. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    STUDY SUPPORTS ACCURACY OF GREEK POET HOMER, SETS DATE FOR ODYSSEUS’ RETURN FROM TROJAN WAR

    Using clues from star and sun positions mentioned by the ancient Greek poet Homer, scholars think they have determined the date when King Odysseus returned from the Trojan War and slaughtered a group of suitors who had been pressing his wife to marry one of them.

  6. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  7. Correction procedures for C-14 dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    There are two quite separate criteria to satisfy before accepting as valid the corrections to C-14 dates which have been indicated for some years now by the bristlecone pine calibration. Firstly the correction figures have to be based upon all the available tree-ring data and derived in a manner that is mathematically sound, and secondly the correction figures have to produce accurate results on C-14 dates from archaeological test samples of known historical date, these covering as wide a period as possible. Neither of these basic prerequisites has yet been fully met. Thus the two-fold purpose of this paper is to bring together, and to compare with an independently based procedure, the various correction curves or tables that have been published up to Spring 1974, as well as to detail the correction results on reliable, historically dated Egyptian, Helladic and Minoan test samples from 3100 B.C. The nomenclature followed is strictly that adopted by the primary dating journal Radiocarbon, all C-14 dates quoted thus relate to the 5568 year half-life and the standard AD/BC system. (author)

  8. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  9. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  10. DNA fingerprinting of some pakistani date palm (phoenix dactylifera L.) cultive ARS using issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbahar, A.; Khan, S.; Markhand, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest cultivated and economically important fruit trees. First time Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers were used with twenty five economically important date palm cultivars of Pakistan for DNA fingerprinting analysis. Samples were collected from four provinces of Pakistan i.e., Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Balochistan. The study was carried out using seven ISSR markers. The twenty five date palm cultivars showed variation at the DNA level. The ISSR primers showed high polymorphism (84%) in the studied date palm cultivars. Dice similarity index was in range from 0.608 to 0.980 and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) divided twenty five date palm cultivars into two main clusters and sub-clusters. However ISSR markers efficiently discriminated for assessing genetic diversity among commercial Pakistani date palm cultivars. (author)

  11. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  14. A bibliography of AECL publications on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1978-12-01

    Publications in the open literature on environmental research performed by AECL personnel are listed chronologically with the first entry dated 1951. It is intended that the bibliography should be brought up to date yearly. (author)

  15. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  17. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  18. Development of BASIC program for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Kunio

    1982-01-01

    The continuous improvement of the system and the needs have produced the successful radiocarbon dating system of today to detect very low energy β-radioactivity. However, it still takes longer than 1,000 minutes for a sample counting. In a gas counting system, it is very difficult to keep the drift of impressed high voltage for a proportional counter less than 5 volts throughout the counting time. The temperature and the characteristics of gas itself also change during experiment. The accumulation of the above drift and errors are closely concerned with the accuracy and reliability of the radiocarbon date. The detection and reduction of the errors are only possible by using a ''fully automatic radiocarbon dating system'' linked to a personal computer system. In this paper, the author presents the BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) program for a fully automatic radiocarbon dating system. In this paper, the outline of the system and software development are described. The details of the program include the description for gas-collection, gas-enclosing, plateau counting, β-ray counting, age calculation and data file maintenance. The author wrote numerous remark statements into the program so that it can be understood by users without detailed knowledge of the operation of a personal computer system or of the radiocarbon dating. Using this system, the author found that the radiocarbon dating has greatly progressed in speed and labour-saving, and that the accuracy and reliability of the date itself has also improved much than former manual systems. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Glycemic indices, glycemic load and glycemic response for seventeen varieties of dates grown in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGeffari, Metab Ali; Almogbel, Ebtehal Solaiman; Alhomaidan, Homaidan Turki; El-Mergawi, Ragab; Barrimah, Issam Alsaed

    2016-01-01

    Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. The available carbohydrate content of Tamer stage dates was determined using standard laboratory methods. Healthy subjects (ten males and nine females) received 50 g of glucose (on three separate occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the seventeen varieties of date (each once). The GI and GL were then calculated. GI, GL, and glycemic response. The mean (SEM) GI of the date samples was 55.2 (7.7) (range, 42.8-74.6). Sellaj and Maktoomi exhibited the highest GI (74.6 [10.1] and 71.0 [11.1]), respectively, whereas Shaqra, Sukkary, and Sag'ai had the lowest GI (42.8 [5.5], 43.4 [4.7] and 44.6 [6]), respectively. The GL of the date samples ranged from 8.5 to 24. Sellaj had a high GL (24), whereas Ajwah and Shaqra had a low GL (8.5 and 9.2). The analyses suggested no significant difference in GI between the date varieties. However, the GL values differed significantly between the 17 date varieties (P Saudi Arabia. The identification of date varieties with lower glycemic responses may help lower the GI of the diet of both healthy and diabetic Saudi individuals. We used dates at the Tamer stage, which may not be translatable to all types of dates.

  20. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Dating Last Interglacial Coastal Systems Using New Feldspar Luminescence Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, M.

    2017-12-01

    The recent explosion in new luminescence dating technologies offers new opportunities to explore Quaternary marine coastal facies and landforms. However, tectonic and climatic processes controlling the development of Pleistocene coastal lithosomes are commonly obscured by their poorly constrained geological age. Luminescence dating of feldspar probes one order of magnitude deeper into geological time than radiocarbon and more than 5 times the current age range of quartz optically-stimulated luminescence, routinely used in luminescence dating. However, feldspar luminescence stimulated by infrared photons (eg IRSL) is hampered by anomalous fading. Successful correction methods developed by us over the last 15 years did produce sound chronologies but the fading-corrected ages carried large uncertainties. New approaches initiated by other laboratories, mainly in Europe, have isolated high temperature post-IRSL luminescence as this signal seems to be only slightly affected by fading. However, the gain in stability seems to be lessened due to bleachibility issues, generating age overestimations. We developed a novel protocol known as post-isothermal IRSL dating (Pit-IR) that focuses on a dual system of luminescence signals, probing low (50C) and medium (225C) temperature IRSL signals following isothermal treatments of various intensities. These protocols have been tested on Last interglacial coastal sediments in strikingly different GIA contexts along the Atlantic coastal areas of SE USA as well as from Morocco, Brazil and LIG sites in the Mediterranean basin. A systematic analysis of these results would suggest that a) falling-stages sequences are more commonly preserved as the OSL/IRSL ages are preferentially dating from the end of the MIS5e high stand and b) MIS5a marine sediments may be detectable away from areas generally thought to be affected by peripheral bulge collapse.

  2. The radiocarbon dating project at Aboriginal Affairs, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to publish a complete list of the age estimates relating to the archaeological sites in the State of Victoria from 1951 to 1995, and to assess the value and the limitations of this information for interpreting the prehistory of this region. This project has recorded 476 dates coming from 14 laboratories, and ranging in age from the time of European settlement to the limit of the technique at around 40,000 years BP. However, the available evidence indicates that large discrepancies may exist in these results, and this has lead to the recommendation that this data should not be used in research projects requiring dating accuracies of less than a few hundred years

  3. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, A. van der.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes the analytical and technical procedures that are required for routine application of both the 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium dating method for peat and the 210 Pb dating method for lake sediments. Its principal aim is to test, refine and discuss the reliability and validity of these methods. On the other hand, the analytical procedures that were introduced open a wide range of other interesting fields of research that are not necessarily restricted to geological problems only. Chapter 5 reports an obviously not foreseen application: detection of alpha emitting nuclides released in the first weeks of May, 1986 during the accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR. 128 refs.; 43 figs.; 15 tabs

  4. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  5. Groundwater dating by means of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Barbro

    1980-08-01

    A short review is given of method for dating old groundwater by isotopetechniques. The carbon-14 method is then treated in detail; Carbon dioxide, released by root respiration of plants, and by decomposition of organic matter in the soil, is dissolved in soil water. The production of carbon dioxide in the root zone is high and the 14 C/ 12 C ratio is therefore assumed to be the same as in the plants. The residence time of water in the groundwater zone may then be computed, according to the laws of radioactive decay. No attempts have been made to compute the changes in the carbon-14 content of the soil air due to weathering. To do this, one would need to consider diffusion of gaseous carbon dioxide into and out of the soil. The amount of carbon entering the water through weathering in the groundwater zone may be compute if certain assumptions are made. To know if these assumptions are valid for the water of a special area, detailed knowledge about the area is required. In this report, an attempt is made to follow the changes in the composition of the water as the water moves through the ground. The differentiated equilibrium equations of the carbon dioxide system and the ionic balance are used for the calculations. It is assumed that when calcite is present in the ground, weathering of other minerals may be neglected. In order to test its usefulness, the method has been tried on groundwater from a borehole in Kraakemaala, Sweden. The results are very much dependent on the values of some of the parameters used in the calculations. The σ 13 C values especially have a great influence on the calculated age. As long as additional information on conditions at different depth remains unavailable, it seems impossible to determine the age of water with any accuracy. Only a range, which sometimes embraces several thousand years, can be given. A good aid to a better estimate of the age would be obtained if samples of water along a flow path were available. One way to get such

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, H.

    2001-01-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  7. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cash (e-cash is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  8. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  10. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  11. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  13. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  14. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  15. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  16. Dating Violence in Mexico College Students: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rojas-Solís

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dating violence in Mexico is a serious problem because 76% of young Mexicans have suffered psychological violence, 15% have suffered physical violence and 16.5% have suffered sexual violence (Mexican Youth Institute, 2008. Therefore it has been given increasing attention to the study of this phenomenon in numerous researches. Knowing the characteristics of this production would allow to consolidate or to open up new research lines, so this narrative review discusses the main methodological characteristics of research on dating violence in Mexican university students. It was included twenty scientific researches published by Mexicans and foreigners researchers between 2002 and 2012 in scientific journals or presented at scientific conferences, with samples consisting of Mexican university students aged between 18 and 25 years. The search was conducted in specialized databases such as Dialnet, Google Scholar, Psicodoc, Psycinfo, Redalyc and Scirus. The results show that 75% of the studies were quantitative designs, 100% was cross-sectional design and 85% had nonrandom sample. 95% of the samples were formed by students from public universities and 15% used an internationally validated questionnaire and controlled social desirability of responses. It concludes the need for more studies with mixed, dyadic or longitudinal designs, but with samples randomly selected from public and private universities. The need of control of social desirability of responses and the implementation of validated questionnaires to allow comparisons between results.

  17. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, R.; McCuaig, S.

    1991-01-01

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs

  18. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeely, R; McCuaig, S

    1992-12-31

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs.

  19. Radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has two great advantages over conventional dating: 1) much smaller samples can be handled and 2) counting time is significantly shorter. Three examples are given for Holocene-age material from east-central Ellesmere Island. The results demonstrate the potential use of this technique as a powerful research tool in studies of Quaternary chronology. Individual fragments of marine shells as small as 0.1 g have been dated successfully at the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. In the case of an aquatic moss from a lake sediment core, an increment 0.5 cm thick could be used instead of a 5 cm-thick slice, thus allowing a much more precise estimate of the onset of organic sedimentation

  20. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  1. An assessment of variability in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; Baxter, M.S.; Aitchison, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of replicate experiments, involving analysis of homogenized wood and identical tree-ring sections, suggests that the 14 C counting error in radiocarbon dating quantifies only part of the total variability of measurement. Statistical modelling implies that a more realistic assessment of error is provided by a value approximately three times the counting error. The incorporation of this more realistic measure of variability into an appropriate procedure for calibrating a single date and for matching a floating chronology to a master chronology is described. (author)

  2. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  3. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  4. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when...

  6. Using OSL dating to quantify rates of Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    In Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), the dating signal is reset when mineral grains are exposed to light or heat, and gradually rebuilds during subsequent burial by interaction with ionising radiation. Quartz and feldspar provide useful OSL signals demonstrating rapid signal reduction in only seconds of light exposure. Age estimates ranging from under 1 year to around 200,000 years can be determined for a wide range of sedimentary contexts, including dunes, marine deposits, fluvial and glacial environments, and recent developments provide the framework for low temperature thermochronometric applications on timescales comparable with rapid climate fluctuations. In this presentation, we explore the range of applications for determining rates of Earth surface processes using OSL. We examine technical limitations, and provide a framework for overcoming current difficulties experienced in several specific regions and contexts. We will focus on OSL dating applications to glacigenic and fluvial records, along with use of the technique in tectonic and paleoseismic contexts. In many ways, these represent the most challenging environments for OSL; rapid high energy deposition is associated with incomplete signal zeroing, and the characteristics of quartz in many of these environments make it difficult to derive precise age estimates using this mineral. We will introduce innovative methods to overcome these limitations, both existing and those under development.

  7. bulletin Publication 2009

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The table below lists the 2009 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Publication date 3-4 Tuesday 6 January Monday 12 January 5-6 Tuesday 20 January Monday 26 January 7-8 Tuesday 3 February Monday 9 February 9-10 Tuesday 17 February Monday 23 February 11-12 Tuesday 3 March Monday 9 March 13-14 Tuesday 17 March Monday 23 March 15-16-17 (Easter issue) Tuesday 31 March Monday 6 April 18-19 Tuesday 21 April Monday 27 April 20-21 Tuesday 5 May Monday 11 May 22-23 Tuesday 19 May Monday 25 May 24-25 ...

  8. Public Health Leadership in a Crisis: Themes from the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zin M. Htway

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent catastrophic events and subsequent effects of leadership on afflicted populations demonstrates a need for improvement and increased managerial skill. The problem is catastrophic events create situations unfamiliar to many public health leaders. This manuscript was crafted from a review of 28 articles for the publication date range 1992-2012. Public health leadership in a crisis theorizes the application of four leadership skills: technical skills, interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and emotional skills. A leader of a public health crisis will have to use these four skills for coordinating, managing, and direction of staff and resources. In addition to leading and managing public health resources, a leader in this role will also have to effectively communicate to the public and the media. This leadership theory connects lines of leadership skill to various stakeholders and collaborators. The importance of this leadership theory is for future public health crisis leaders to gain better understanding of the role of public health leadership in a crisis.

  9. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  10. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  11. Use of radiocarbon technique for archaelogic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear technique based on the beta radiation measurements emitted by the radiocarbon is applied an the geochronologycal dating of organic samples of prehistoric fires and sambaqui shells. This paper describes the origin of the method, the technique used and its applications, the analysis method, the equipments and the experiences performed. (Author) [pt

  12. 77 FR 30928 - Target Date Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB38 Target Date Disclosure AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor's Employee Benefits Security Administration is...

  13. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due date determined? • What is postterm pregnancy? • What causes a postterm pregnancy? • What are the risks associated with postterm pregnancy? • ... longer than 42 weeks is called “postterm.” What causes a postterm pregnancy? The causes of postterm pregnancy are unknown, but ...

  14. Radiocarbon dating of interlaboratory check samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W.

    1983-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of interlaboratory age determinations in which the Geological Survey of Canada's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory has been involved. There is good agreement between laboratories, although there may be other problems related to the interpretation of individual samples

  15. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  16. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  17. 50 CFR 216.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.212 Effective dates...

  18. Date change and safeguards at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Gregory, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the arrangements in Dounreay for tackling the Millennium problem and for managing the accountancy of fissile material. The impact of the date change upon safeguards at Dounreauy has been assessed and the paper shows the problems which have been identified and are being tackled with

  19. Historical Analysis of College Campus Interracial Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Interracial dating on American campuses has had a relatively stormy past. Until the past three decades or so, it was outlawed in some states. Southern institutions, in particular, such as the infamous Bob Jones University have made this issue divisive even among their own constituencies. Age and generation seem to be cogent factors with younger…

  20. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  1. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Pub. L. 98-525) (c) Divorce. If the veteran becomes divorced, the effective date of reduction of his or her educational assistance is the last day of the month in which the divorce occurs. (Authority...) If the veteran or servicemember, for reasons other than being called or ordered to active duty...

  2. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  3. Up-date of the BCG code library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Procedures for generating an up-date material library for the BCG code were established. A new library was generated by processing ENDF/B-IV data with the 89-1 version of the LINEAR, RECENT and SIGMA1 programs. The effect of library change in the neutron spectrum and effective multiplication factor of a fast reactor cell was analized. During the course of this study, an error was detected in the BCG code. Although localized in a narrow energy range, the discrepancies in neutron spectrum caused by the error were large enough to yield a difference of about 1% in the effective multiplication factor of the test cell. (author)

  4. Obsidian ages from Ecuador by the fission track dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, A.M.; Hadler, J.C.; Bigazzi, G.; Norelli, P.; Coltelli, M.; Salazar, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fission track dating was applied in order to study obsidian samples originated from Mullumica and Callejones flows, Oyacachi, Ecuador. Preliminary data show that the ratio between the mean diameter os spontaneous and induced tracks is about 0.9, an indication that the analysed samples were submitted to small fading during their geological histories. Ages were obtained around 0.2 x 10 6 a, in agreement with Miller and Wagners's results. Ages ranging from 0.17 x 10 6 a up to 0.23 x 10 6 a were obtained correcting the apparent ages by means of the plateau method. (author)

  5. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs, which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI, and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT. Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by

  6. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  7. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  8. Mobile technology for expansion of service range medan public library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, A. R.; Dewiyana, H.

    2018-03-01

    The information society, especially library users, expects an easier and faster way to get information and share knowledge. The library also implements the best way to provide the best service and the easiest way to disseminate and share information with its users. One technology that allows libraries more closely with their users is mobile technology. This paper aims to determine the basic conditions of mobile technology services and mobile services most needed library users, as well as constraints faced by libraries and users in the application of mobile technology. This paper will help libraries to develop better M-Library services in expanding the reach of library services. Methods of data collection were conducted through surveys through questionnaires, interviews, and direct observation. The results of the use of mobile technology applications in libraries bring great advantages to provide better library services and to improve accessibility of library resources in the easiest way, but due to lack of funds, lack of skills and lack of staff, many libraries are unable to provide this service with very successful.

  9. The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Lloyd A

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the metrological history of radiocarbon, from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that have brought (14)C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for "molecular dating" at the 10 µg to 100 µg level. The metrological advances led to opportunities and surprises, such as the non-monotonic dendrochronological calibration curve and the "bomb effect," that gave rise to new multidisciplinary areas of application, ranging from archaeology and anthropology to cosmic ray physics to oceanography to apportionment of anthropogenic pollutants to the reconstruction of environmental history. Beyond the specific topic of natural (14)C, it is hoped that this account may serve as a metaphor for young scientists, illustrating that just when a scientific discipline may appear to be approaching maturity, unanticipated metrological advances in their own chosen fields, and unanticipated anthropogenic or natural chemical events in the environment, can spawn new areas of research having exciting theoretical and practical implications.

  10. U-Th-He dating of apatite: A potential thermochronometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, P.K.; Herczeg, A.L.; McDougall, I.; Honda, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found a gem quality crystal of Durango fluorapatite to have a 4 He content consistent with complete retention of radiogenic helium since its formation at about 31 Ma. Isothermal heating and step-heating analysis reveal 4 He loss to occur systematically by volume diffusion at low temperatures. The linear, low-temperature portion of the diffusion data yields an activation energy of 38.5 ± 8.1 kcal/mol and a frequency factor of 1n (D 0 /a 2 ) = 16.4 ± 2.8 sec -1 , corresponding to a closure temperature of 105 degree C ± 30 degree C (cooling rate 10 degree C/m.y.). It appears that U-Th-He dating of apatite might represent a useful new thermochronometer with a range similar to that of fission-track dating of apatite. From these results, they infer that a number of the too-young U-Th-He dates reported in the literature on minerals such as zircon and magnetite may in fact represent valuable records of the low-temperature thermal history of their host rocks

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF DATING VIOLENCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rubio-Garay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article conducts a systematic review on the prevalence of dating violence in adolescents and young people. Primary studies about physical, psychological and sexual dating violence (perpetration and victimization were analyzed. A total of 1,221 references were found and, out of those, 113 met the pre-established quality criteria (studies had to have used assessment tolos with evidence of reliability and validity, in samples over 500 participants or obtained through probabilistic sampling. The results showed a great variability of figures on the prevalence of dating violence. Specifically, the percentages range from 3.8% to 41.9% in perpetrated physical violence; from 0.4% to 57.3% in victimized physical violence; from 4.2% to 97% in perpetrated psychological violence; from 8.5% to 95.5% in victimized psychological violence; from 1.2% to 58.8% in perpetrated sexual violence; and finally, from 0.1% to 64.6% in victimized sexual violence. The results suggest a higher prevalence in the perpetration of psychological aggression by women and sexual violence by men; greater psychological and sexual victimization in women; and slightly higher rates of aggression in adolescents than in young adults. Also, in many of the papers the aggression had a bidirectional nature.

  12. The interpretation of archaeological dates from an AMS perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Sagona, A.; Siegele, R.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Lawson, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    The XVII century saw the establishment of the scientific method and scholars such as Galileo were giving excellent contributions to a variety of fields ranging from the natural sciences to the humanities. At the dawn of the new millenium, after a period of excessive specialization, the scientific climate is once again encouraging broad collaborations across different disciplines. For projects involving AMS measurements in general and radiocarbon dating in particular, the benefits of this new trend are numerous. For example, the full potential of the radiocarbon dating method can be exploited only through the mutual understanding of the problems related to sample selection, chemical preparation, AMS measurement, data analysis and interpretation. This paper is intended to enhance the exchange of information by reporting to our current and potential collaborators about the latest technical developments undertaken at the ANTARES AMS facility at ANSTO. Furthermore, we will present two splendid examples of collaborative research: the radiocarbon dating of a replica of a famous chesspiece and the archaeological investigations at the ancient settlement of Sos Hoyuk (north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey) where the multidisciplinary approach was the key to a better understanding of the social structure, settlement patterns, land use and cultural contact, especially with the lands of Trans-Caucasus. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  13. Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swahn, Monica H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dating violence is a significant health problem among youth that leads to adverse health outcomes, including injuries. Reciprocal violence (perpetrated by both partners is associated with increased injury in adults, but very little is known about the prevalence and context for reciprocal violence, as well as injury rates, among youth. We sought to determine the prevalence and scope of reciprocal dating violence and injury occurrence among urban youth in a high-risk community. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district. The current analyses were restricted to those who reported dating in the past year and who also reported any dating violence (n=1,158. Dating violence was categorized as reciprocal (the participant reported both violence perpetration and victimization and non-reciprocal (the participant report either violence perpetration or victimization, but not both. Results: Dating violence reciprocity varied by sex. Girls who reported any dating violence were more likely to report reciprocal dating violence (50.4% than were boys (38.9%. However, reciprocity did not vary by race/ethnicity or grade level. Reciprocal dating violence was more common among participants who reported more frequent violence experiences. Reciprocal violence was also associated with greater injury occurrences relative to non-reciprocal relationships (10.1% versus 1.2%. Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and leads more often to injury outcomes. In particular, relationships in which boys report reciprocal violence against their partner appear to lead to more frequent injury occurrences. These findings underscore the importance of addressing dating violence and factors that increase risk for reciprocal violence and therefore exacerbate injury occurrence

  14. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  15. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  16. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  17. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  18. Publication of the Bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2009 and 1-2/2010) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 11 December and will cover events at CERN from 14 December 2009 to 8 January 2010. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communications group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 8 December. Bulletin publication 2010 The table below lists the 2010 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Bulletin Web version Bulletin Paper version 2-3 Tuesday 5 January Friday 8 and 15 January Wednesday 13 J...

  19. Internet dating as a project: the commodification and rationalisation of online dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Žakelj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative empirical data from two studies on Internet dating in Slovenia, this paper discusses the social contexts of the Internet dating of heterosexual men and women and homosexual men. Special attention is given to different aspects of the commodification and rationalisation of dating in the process of forming potential (romantic partnerships. First, we discuss our respondents’ reasons for using the Internet to get in touch with potential (romantic partners. Second, we focus on the demands and strategies of targeted market- ing in personal profile writing and, finally, on the process of selecting potential partners. Our study shows that the primary understanding of Internet dating among people who engage in it is its economic nature. Together with targeted marketing and the predeter- mined criteria for choosing interesting others, Internet dating can thus be understood as a market that encourages rationalisation and commodification in the process of forming intimate relationships.

  20. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Up-Dating: Ratings of Perceived Dating Success Are Better Online than Offline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, Chris; Attrill-Smith, Alison

    2018-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to test whether perceived dating success would differ between offline and online zero-acquaintance dating contexts and to investigate the role that self-esteem might play in these evaluations. Participants were presented with the same photos of targets in either an offline or online dating scenario and rated their chances of dating success along with their perceptions of how attractive they thought the target would consider them. Higher self-esteem individuals believed they would be rated as more attractive. There was an overall perception that, irrespective of self-esteem level, meeting online would lead to better chances of dating success. These findings are considered in relation to an increased ability to more precisely manage impressions and develop an image of the self which would be evaluated more positively online.

  2. VENUS Ranging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que réprésentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 Abstract The underwater acoustic propagation...50 km des capteurs sous-marins situés aux nœuds du réseau VENUS dont les données acoustiques et sismiques sont accessibles au public sur Internet...Southwest British Columbia, Geophysical Journal International , 170(2), 800–812. [15] Hamilton, E. L. (1979), Vp/Vs and Poisson’s ratios in marine

  3. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  4. 75 FR 67145 - Sunshine Act: Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act: Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC. STATUS: Hearing open to the Public at 2 p.m. PURPOSE: Public Hearing in... hearing orally must provide advance notice to OPIC's Corporate Secretary no later than 5 p.m. Thursday...

  5. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  6. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  7. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  8. Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

    2013-07-01

    Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

  9. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwaleed, A K; Nikabdullah, N; Nor, M J M; Tahir, M F M; Zulkifli, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  10. Lichenometry dating of coseismic changes to a New Zealand landslide complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Bull

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichenometry is a surface-exposure-dating procedure that complements traditional trench-and-date stratigraphic studies of earthquakes. Lichens on the surficial blocks of a slump in the Seaward Kaikoura Range, South Island, New Zealand provide precise, accurate (± 2 years dating of 20 post-landslide rockfall events. The coseismic character of these rockfall events is apparent when ages of lichen-size peaks are compared with dates of historical earthquakes. Most local prehistoric lichen-size peaks are synchronous with peaks at other lichenometry sites in a 20 000 km2 region. Lichenometry may be the best paleoseismic tool for describing the extent and intensity of seismic shaking caused by prehistoric earthquakes, and for dating earthquakes generated by concealed thrust faults and subduction fault zones.

  11. Essays on public economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahan Dideh, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies a range of topics in public economics. The first two chapters address the optimal provision of productive public goods in two different settings. Using a theoretical model, the first study examines the impact of trade liberalization on the optimal provision of productive

  12. Initial Public Offering – Finance Source of Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Claudiu Radu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital market offers a wide range of options for financing companies, which can be tailored to meet their exact needs. Thus, they have the opportunity of primary security sale (shares and bonds on the stock exchange, which may take place through a tender, in which case the financial instruments issued by a company are underwritten at the date of issue, or through a secondary offer, in which case they are issued and offered for sale by the issuer. If the public sale offer focuses on shares and aims at transforming the issuing company into a public one, then it bears the name of IPO (Initial Public Offering. The present work aims for the evolution of IPO trends on the European market in the aftermath of the global crisis outbreak. The market of IPO carried out by BSE is also analyzed herewith.

  13. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  14. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  15. Dating Violence among Male and Female Youth seeking Emergency Department Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Walton, Maureen A; Whiteside, Lauren K; Stoddard, Sarah; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Chermack, Stephen T; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine prevalence and correlates of dating violence, dating victimization, and dating aggression among males and females age 14–20 seeking emergency department (ED) care. Methods Systematic sampling of subjects age 14–20 seeking care at a single large academic ED between 9/2010- 3/2013. Participants completed a computerized, self-administered, cross-sectional survey of demographics, dating violence from physical abuse measures of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, associated behaviors, and ED health service use. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females. Results 4389 youth (86.1% participation rate) were screened, and 4089 (mean age 17.5 years, 58% female) were eligible for analysis. Almost 1 in 5 females (n= 215, 18.4%) and 1 in 8 males (n= 212, 12.5%) reported past year dating violence. Of females, 10.6% reported dating victimization, and 14.6% dating aggression, while of males, 11.7% reported dating victimization, and 4.9% reported dating aggression. Multivariate analyses showed variables associated with any male dating violence were African American race (AOR 2.26, CI 1.54–3.32), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.03, CI 1.00–1.06), illicit drug misuse (AOR 2.38, CI 1.68–3.38), and depression (AOR 2.13, CI 1.46–3.10); any female dating violence was associated with African-American race (AOR 1.68, CI 1.25–2.25), public assistance (AOR 1.64, CI 1.28–2.09), grades D and below (AOR 1.62, CI 1.07–2.43), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.04, CI 1.02–1.07), illicit drug misuse (AOR 2.85, CI 2.22–3.66), depression (AOR 1.86, CI 1.42–2.44), and any past year ED visit for intentional injury (AOR 2.64, CI 1.30–5.40). Conclusions Nearly 1 of 6 male and female adolescents seeking ED care report recent dating violence, and health disparities remain among this population. Dating violence was strongly associated with alcohol, illicit drug misuse, and depression, and correlated with prior ED service utilization among female

  16. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  17. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Nalawade-Chavan

    Full Text Available Sungir (Russia is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  18. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  19. Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to 1627-1600 B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, Bernd; Friedrich, Michael; Heinemeier, Jan; Pfeiffer, Tom; Talamo, Sahra

    2006-04-28

    Precise and direct dating of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) in Greece, a global Bronze Age time marker, has been made possible by the unique find of an olive tree, buried alive in life position by the tephra (pumice and ashes) on Santorini. We applied so-called radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments to constrain the eruption date to the range 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.4% probability. Our result is in the range of previous, less precise, and less direct results of several scientific dating methods, but it is a century earlier than the date derived from traditional Egyptian chronologies.

  20. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  2. Dating methods and their relevance in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the most important radiometric clocks. It is pointed out how much the chronological interpretation of isotopic ratios depends on preconceived models about origin and history of investigated minerals. A number of physico-chemical effects are discussed, which give rise to fictitious datings. The possibility is considered that all the radiometric ages used for establishing the geologic time scale might be due to such effects. The history and foundations of the latter are reviewed, and the possibility of a wrong decision is mentioned. Several results from fossil objects indicate very young ages. The usual treatment of anomalous results is criticised. Long-time clocks fails to reproduce documented young ages. It is suggested that in the age interpretation of isotopic ratios much younger than conventional ages be also taken into consideration. The importance of directly dating fossils is stressed. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radiocarbon dating development and practices at MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Alias; Bashillah Baharuddin; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Ahmad Raduan Ujang

    2002-01-01

    The MINT radiocarbon dating technique was introduced and a very well-designed vacuum line was developed to generate benzene from samples containing carbon. A liquid scintillation counter provides a very good prerequisite for precise measurement of the C-14 activity in the benzene. From time to time, assessment on the status of the analytical capabilities of the system and advice on improvement and upgrading required was made. For routine analysis, standard sampling, pretreatment, carbon dioxide conversion and measurement procedures were adopted. Radiocarbon dating is now, one of the most important developments of the twenties century in the comprehension of the history of human development, a quick, easy, reliable and scientifically acceptable method to determine the age of historical artefacts and archaeological samples. (Author)

  4. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000

  5. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000. (orig.)

  6. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  7. Towards Luminescence Dating Of Mosaic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Sibila, E.; Villa, I.

    The possibility of dating archaeological glass by means of luminescent techniques has been investigated in recent years, despite the difficulties of this application, mainly linked to the amorphous structure of the material. We focused in particular on mosaic glass, after the encouraging results obtained on byzantine and medieval samples. Further studies were devoted to the comprehension of the luminescent mechanisms in silica glasses, and to the investigation of the relationships between luminescence, colouring or opacifier ions and crystalline phase of the vitreous matrix. The results of a study on the dosimetric characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of a few medieval blue-green mosaic glasses from the San Lorenzo church (Milan) are presented, and the experimental protocols established to identify their suitability for dating are discussed.

  8. Radiocarbon dating methods using benzene liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Eiji

    1983-01-01

    The radiocarbon dating method using benzene liquid scintillation is reported in detail. The results of measurement of NBS oxalic acid agree with the recommended value, indicating that isotopic fractionation during benzene synthesis can be negligible. Ten samples which have been already measured by gas counter are dated by benzene liquid scintillation. There is no significant difference in age for the same sample between benzene liquid scintillation and gas counters. It is shown that quenching has to be corrected for the young sample. Memory effect in stainless steel reaction vessel can be removed by using an exchangeable inner vessel and by baking it in the air. Using this method, the oldest age that can be measured with 2.3 g carbon is 40,000 years B.P. (author)

  9. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  10. Evaluation of the commercial FBR introduction date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Merrill, E.T.

    1981-09-01

    This report examines one criterion for introducing a commercial FBR: economic competitiveness with a Light Water Reactor (LWR). For this analysis, the commercial FBR is assumed to be the fifth-of-a kind replicate which represents an economically mature plant. This FBR is deemed economically competitive when its life-cycle energy cost is less than or equal to that of an LWR. Results of this analysis are used in a comparative analysis of alternative FBR development stategies. The strategies evaluated in these studies assume both 1000- and 1457-MWe FBRs. Since the capital costs per kilowatt, and therefore the energy costs, for these two FBR sizes are different, they will become economically competitive at different times. The probability density function for the 1457-MW(e) FBR has an expected value date or weighted average date of 2030, compared with 2033 for the probability density function for the 1000-MW(e) FBR

  11. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  12. Radiocarbon dating for the Quaternary scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of many conventional and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates is not adequate for the sort of questions now being asked in Quaternary studies. The need for, and effects of, radiocarbon calibration are discussed and guide-lines offered for the selection of a laboratory. High precision laboratories and the use of wiggle matching will go a long way to answering the critical questions of rates of change and durations of events in the Holocene. (Author)

  13. Progress and problems with automated TL dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1981-01-01

    A number of basic problems connected with the measurement of beta and gamma dose-rates are discussed, and the possibility of using low-temperature peaks in quartz and feldspar for dose-rate measurements is examined. Preliminary results of TL measurements on individual grains of quartz and feldspar are presented. A TL dating method based on the difference in the archaeological dose received by potassium feldspar and quartz grains is proposed. (author)

  14. Dating cremated bone: the scientific background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanting, J. N.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of obtaining absolute chronology dates out of burnt or cremated bone is presented. The authors explain their recent experiments and give promising results.

    Los autores presentan un nuevo método para obtener fechas de datación absoluta a partir de restos de hueso sometidos a diferentes grados de combustión y explican algunas de sus recientes experiencias y los resultados obtenidos.

  15. Date Sensitive Computing Problems: Understanding the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-29

    equipment on Earth.3 It can also interfere with electromagnetic signals from such devices as cell phones, radio, televison , and radar. By itself, the ...spacecraft. Debris from impacted satellites will add to the existing orbital debris problem, and could eventually cause damage to other satellites...Date Sensitive Computing Problems Understanding the Threat Aug. 17, 1998 Revised Aug. 29, 1998 Prepared by: The National Crisis Response

  16. Using accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon dating of textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jull, A.J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1981 we have operated an NSF Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Facility at the University of Arizona. The AMS method allows us to use very small samples of carbon, 14 C in lunar samples by galactic and solar cosmic rays, studies of in situ 14 C produced by cosmic ray spallation in rocks and ice, and studies of 14 C in groundwater dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. At our laboratory, we have also successfully applied AMS 14 C to dating of many types of textiles, including silks and linens, art works, documents and artifacts fabricated from wood, parchment, ivory, and bone. The results for many of these samples are often important in questions of the authenticity of these works of art and artifacts. Our studies have encompassed a wide range of art works ranging from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Shroud of Turin, and the Chinese silk trade to the works of Raphael, Rembrandt, and Picasso. Recently, we also dated the Vinland Map, a controversial document that shows the eastern coast of North America apparently using information from Viking voyages

  17. Progress in ESR dating of fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this review the progress of ESR dating is briefly described together with its historical development. Examples of fossil dating include shells and corals in geological sediments, fossil bones and teeth in anthropology and fossil woods in geology. The total dose of natural radiation (TD) equivalent to the archaeological dose in TL dating was obtained by the additive dose method. Initially, the TDs were plotted against the known ages; using the apparent annual dose-rate thus obtained gives the ESR age within a factor of 2 or 3 for a fossil. Precise assessment of the radiation environment was made later taking the disequilibrium of uranium series disintegration into account. ESR ages of corals agreed well with those obtained by radiocarbon and uranium-thorium methods. The time-independent accumulation rate or a linear accumulation or uranium was adopted as a first sensible model for the opensystem fossil bones: the relation between the TD and the age explains the ages of anthropologically important bones. Lastly, geological assessment of fossil woods was made by ESR based on the organic radicals and electron traps in the silicified part. (author)

  18. Dates as raw material for agricultural distilleries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczynski, B

    1971-01-01

    Pit-containing dates had 88.0 to 89.2% dry matter, 41.7 to 47.5% sucrose, and 2.1 to 2.9% total protein. The mechanical broken charges of raw material were steamed, dispersed to a suspension of 15 to 17/sup 0/ Balling and pH 4.8 to 5.0, enriched with P and N, inoculated with 5 to 7 % of yeast suspension, and acidified to pH > 3.5. Thermophilic yeast cultivated at 27/sup 0/ and fermented below 30/sup 0/ for 2 days gave best results. The fermented liquor had a pH > 3.5, apparent density of 2.0/sup 0/, and contained 7.5 to 9.0 EtOH. From 100 kg dates were obtained 280 t0 340 l of the 15 to 17/sup 0/ dispersion and 320 to 360 l residue containing (per l) 6.0 to 8.5 g protein and 0.04 oat units. EtOH yield (l/quintal) was 914 for potatoes, 28.54 for molasses, 36.29 for cereals, 25.15 for dates, and 18.53 for malt.

  19. Radiocarbon C-14 dating - MINT experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Alias

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of a radiocarbon date is a complex process which involved all the stages from advice given prior to submission of samples right through to reporting of results. The aim of our radiocarbon dating is to determine the residual 14 C content of a sample, the value of which is translated into an age that is an estimate of the time elapsed since the given sample was removed from the environment in which it had formed in equilibrium with respect to 14-C radioactive decay and metabolic assimilation. Carbon is obtained from carbon containing samples in the form of carbon dioxide, which is then reacted with lithium forming lithium carbide. The carbide is then hydrolysed to acetylene before it was polymerised to benzene using a high-efficiency vanadium-alumina-silica catalyst to produce benzene with up to 96% yield. Sample, background and modem standard activities are measured with a coincidence scintillation counter using in glass vials of 21 ml capacity. An improved chemical procedure was used to obtain and purify the benzene from the samples for measurement using a liquid scintillation counter. Radiocarbon dating measurements of samples collected reveal some results. The validity of the data have yet to be confirmed by the results of the measurements on two international control samples. (Author)

  20. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  1. Environmental history and dating of coastal dunefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illenberger, W.K.; Verhagen, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sand pulses can be inferred from the geomorphologic evolution of coastal dunefields over the last 6500 years in the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These pulses correlate with erosion cycles and variation in sea-level, temperature and effective moisture. The concept that sand dunes have a wind memory and represent a record of the wind that blew to produce them can be modified and applied to dunefields: the morphology of dunefields represents an environmental record, going back thousands of years. The carbonate content of eastern Cape coastal sands is biogenic with young coarse carbonate grains constantly being added to the system, resulting in a pronounced negative correlation of radiocarbon age with grain size. It takes thousands of years for an average mollusc shell to be broken to 1-mm-diameter fragments, and a further couple of thousand years to break these sizes down to 0.2-0.3 mm diameter. Eastern Cape coastal dunefields have for the first time been dated definitively via the radiocarbon ages of the carbonate component of the sand. These dunefields have been forming during the past 5000 years or so. Dating wind-blown sand transport is feasible, and correlates with dates inferred from the dunefield morphology. 5 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  2. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  3. Direct dating of archaeological pottery by compound-specific 14C analysis of preserved lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Andrew W; Berstan, Robert; Evershed, Richard P; Bronk-Ramsey, Christopher; Hedges, Robert E M; Humm, Martin J

    2003-10-01

    A methodology is described demonstrating the utility of the compound-specific 14C technique as a direct means of dating archaeological pottery. The method uses automated preparative capillary gas chromatography employing wide-bore capillary columns to isolate individual compounds from lipid extracts of archaeological potsherds in high purity (>95%) and amounts (>200 microg) sufficient for radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A protocol was developed and tested on n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids possessing a broad range of 14C ages. Analytical blanks and controls allowed background 14C measurements to be assessed and potential sources of errors to be detected, i.e., contamination with modern or dead 14C, isotopic fraction effects, etc. A "Russian doll" method was developed to transfer isolated target compounds onto tin powder/capsules prior to combustion and AMS analyses. The major advantage of the compound-specific technique is that 14C dates obtained for individual compounds can be directly linked to the commodities processed in the vessels during their use, e.g., animal fats. The compound-specific 14C dating protocol was validated on a suite of ancient pottery whose predicted ages spanned a 5000-year date range. Initial results indicate that meaningful correlations can be obtained between the predicted date of pottery and that of the preserved lipids. These findings constitute an important step forward to the direct dating of archaeological pottery.

  4. Language evolution and human history: what a difference a date makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D; Greenhill, Simon J

    2011-04-12

    Historical inference is at its most powerful when independent lines of evidence can be integrated into a coherent account. Dating linguistic and cultural lineages can potentially play a vital role in the integration of evidence from linguistics, anthropology, archaeology and genetics. Unfortunately, although the comparative method in historical linguistics can provide a relative chronology, it cannot provide absolute date estimates and an alternative approach, called glottochronology, is fundamentally flawed. In this paper we outline how computational phylogenetic methods can reliably estimate language divergence dates and thus help resolve long-standing debates about human prehistory ranging from the origin of the Indo-European language family to the peopling of the Pacific.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jull, A.J.T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J.M.; MacPhee, R.D.E.; McDonald, H.G.; Martin, P.S.; Moody, J.; Rincon, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small

  6. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  7. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  8. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  9. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  10. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  11. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2007 and 1-2-3/2008) of the last Bulletin of the year will appear on Friday 14 December and will cover events at CERN from 17 December 2007 to 18 January 2008. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 11 December. The table below lists the 2008 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2008 Bulletin N° 4-5 Publication: Monday 21 january Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 15 January Bulletin N° 6-7 Publication: Monday 4 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 29 January Bulletin N° 8-9 Publication: Monday 18 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 12 February Bulletin N° 10-11 P...

  12. Tritium/Helium-3 dating of groundwaters around Chernobyl site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourre, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Dapoigny, A.; Baumier, D. [CEA, CNRS, LSCE, UVSQ, IPSL, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T. [Geosciences Rennes - GR, CNRS UMR 6118, F-35000 Rennes (France); La Salle, C. Le Gal; Lancelot, J. [Nimes Univ, GIS/CEREGE, Nimes (France)

    2010-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Estimates of groundwater age allow geo-hydrologists to calculate recharge rates, assess aquifers contamination risks, and calibrate complex flow models. The {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He dating method offers a direct measure for the time since groundwater had its last gas exchange with the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to bring temporal constraints to the radionuclide transport model in the Chernobyl test site. Samples have been collected in the exclusion zone, close to a trench filled with low-level wastes, both in the upper eolian sand layer and deeper in the alluvial deposit. CFCs and SF6 have been measured as well in order to compare dating methods. The {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He results presented in Figure 1 clearly show increasing ages with depth (below groundwater table). This fully supports the groundwater stratification developed in the hydrogeological model of the area. The infiltration recharge rate is a sensitive key parameter of the model, and our data are consistent with a rate about 200 mm/yr (maximum estimate)

  13. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.

  14. Symbolic violence among adolescents in affective dating relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Borges Bittar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Understanding how adolescents signify their affective relationships and situations of conflict/violence within the dating context. Method A qualitative research with an empirical group comprised of adolescents from a state/public school, using focus group techniques and interviews. The analysis was performed through the interpretation of meanings method based on the hermeneutic-dialectical perspective. Results A total of 19 adolescents participated in the study. Two central theme categories emerged: “Meanings of adolescents’ affective relationships” and “From the (deconstruction of symbolic violence to the expression of other forms of violence”. Conclusion The results show that it is possible to understand situations from affective adolescent relationships in which the legitimation of symbolic violence against women is identified. We believe that acting on the origin of violence at the beginning of adolescents’ relationships is the best way to fight or minimize it, aiming for democratizing gender relations and preventing conjugal violence.

  15. Dating: a relationship of violence between young couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Almeida de Ataíde

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article results from a qualitative research, anchored by the methodology of oral history as investigative support. The study aimed to understand the narratives of two young university students about the phenomenon of violence in dating relationships. In this perspective, it is important to unveil the arguments supported in order to mantain a relationship of violence, requiring the understanding of the meanings they attribute to the type of violence suffered. Thus, this study sought to investigate gender violence, that is, the actions or conduct, based on gender differences, which may cause death, physical, sexual or psychological suffering to women, because these events may occur both in the public and private space. Gender violence expresses the historically unequal power relations between men and women.

  16. Date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Aziz; Azizi, Aslan; Keshtiban, Ata Khodavirdivand; Amini, Amir; Eslami, Ahad

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic growth in date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. Numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. In this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.

  17. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  18. A Moderator Model of Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2018-03-01

    Dating aggression has been identified as a priority public health concern. Although alcohol use is a known robust risk factor for dating aggression involvement, such usage is neither necessary nor sufficient for dating aggression involvement. As such, a growing topic of interest is a better understanding of when, and for whom, alcohol use increases risk. A theoretical moderator model posits that associations between alcohol use and dating aggression involvement vary depending on both background (e.g., psychopathology) and situational (e.g., relationship characteristics) risk factors. Alcohol use is thought to be more strongly associated with dating aggression in the context of these other risk factors. Using an intensive longitudinal design, we collected six waves of data spanning 6 months from 120 participants (60 females; M age W1 = 22.44). Alcohol use and relationship risk were both associated with increases in dating aggression involvement. Consistent with a moderator model, interactions emerged between alcohol use and relationship risk for subsequent dating aggression involvement. The findings underscore the importance of alcohol use and relationship risk for the development of intervention and prevention programs.

  19. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Haynes, Ellen; Strauss, Catherine; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area. It is critical that we conduct methodologically sound research on the association between cannabis and dating violence so that we can understand what role, if any, cannabis exerts on this important problem. [Shorey RC, Haynes E, Strauss C, Temple JR, Stuart GL. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:17-19]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. 78 FR 5816 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...] Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support End Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Public Law 112- 144), requires electronic submission of drug and... comment, will specify the format required for such electronic submissions. The action announced in this...

  1. 45 CFR 164.534 - Compliance dates for initial implementation of the privacy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... privacy standards. 164.534 Section 164.534 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.534 Compliance dates for initial implementation of the privacy standards. (a...

  2. 78 FR 1825 - Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel into the United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the application of one or...

  3. Substance Use as a Longitudinal Predictor of the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula; Stuart, Gregory L.; Le, Vi Donna

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and…

  4. The Longitudinal Association of Adolescent Dating Violence with Psychiatric Disorders and Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrienne; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eoin; Purcell, Rosemary; Buckby, Joe; Yung, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    While the prevalence, correlates and mental health impacts of intimate partner violence are well documented in adolescents and young adults, fewer studies have considered physical dating violence among clinical samples of help-seeking young people. In a sample of 98 young people aged 15-24 years (54% females) referred to a specialist public youth…

  5. Examining the Contemporaneous Occurrence of Bullying and Teen Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Katrina J.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a preventable public health issue that has been linked to other forms of aggression and violence victimization. It is also a growing concern for school psychologists who may be working to prevent TDV and related behavioral problems, like bullying. The current study examined various forms of bullying victimization…

  6. 77 FR 31371 - Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... presentations, including the privacy compliance fundamentals, privacy and data security, and the privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance... Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Privacy Compliance Workshop.'' DATES: The...

  7. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  8. Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Committee on Scientific Values · Project Lifescape · Scientific Data of Public Interest ... Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)proposed for the first Indian lunar ... field by precisely measuring the altitude from a polar orbit around the Moon. ... Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization ...

  9. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  10. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206 Pb and 238 U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.0 +- 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 +- 5.7 and 92.4 +- 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 +- 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.9 +- 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 +- 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 +- 59.6 and 705.5 +- 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. (orig.)

  11. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.811 Date of default. For the purposes of §§ 220.800 et seq., the date of default shall be considered as: (a) The date of the first...

  12. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  14. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  15. 21 CFR 610.50 - Date of manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of manufacture. 610.50 Section 610.50 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Dating Period Limitations § 610.50 Date of manufacture. The date of manufacture shall be determined as follows: (a) For products for which an official standard of potency is...

  16. Understanding the hesitancy to disclose teen dating violence: Correlates of self-efficacy to deal with teen dating violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébert Martine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dating violence (DV is now recognized as an important public health issue. Prevention and intervention programs are being implemented in school contexts. Such initiatives aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders as well as among peer bystanders and offer adequate interventions following disclosure. Yet, a major challenge remains as teenagers may not disclose their victimization or may not feel self-efficient to deal with DV if they witness such violence. As such, teen DV remains largely hidden. A representative sample of 8194 students (age 14-18 in the province of Quebec, Canada was used to explore teenagers’ self-efficacy to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of DV victimization and perpetration. Analyses are conducted to identify possible correlates of self-efficacy in terms of socio-demographic variable (sex, age and a history of child sexual abuse and dating victimization. Implications for preven­tion and support strategies are discussed.

  17. Uses of radiocarbon dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Anila; Bishnoi, Indra; Charan, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dating is one of the mist effective tools in the archaeologist's kit. It has provided illumination where none was once thought possible. The historians of one hundred years ago could only dream of such a wonderful, albeit frightening atomic clock ticking away, helping to mark the passing of the years and the ages of man. It is a vital part in the investigation and preservation of our past and a lovely bit of analysis to compliment digital records of monuments. It places the plants, animals, and people of yore into an understandable and verifiable context

  18. Dating method with /sup 39/Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loosli, H H [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.

    1983-04-01

    The principles of a dating method based on the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotope /sup 39/Ar are given. Technical requirements such as background and standard gas samples and gas proportional counting systems are described. With samples extracted from Greenland ice it can be demonstrated that /sup 39/Ar ages agree with ages obtained by other methods. First results on ocean water samples show that with this isotope valuable information on ocean mixing and circulation can be expected. /sup 39/Ar results on groundwater samples disagree for some aquifers with conventional /sup 14/C ages; possible explanations are discussed, especially underground production of /sup 39/Ar.

  19. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......-depositional contamination with organic carbon, such as humic acids, may also be problematic. We present these data with radiocarbon datings of contemporaneous terrestrial and aquatic samples to find out the true age of the pottery and estimate the reservoir age. Lipid analysis and bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope...

  20. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available deposits cannot be guaranteed. A more direct approach would be to ana- lyze modern ostrich eggs of which the date of laying is known. It is necessary to know exactly when the eggs were laid because the elevated 14C content of the environment caused... sample we also analyzed the organic contents of the egg—a mixture of the egg white and yolk. Also given is the 14C content of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere in the month in which the eggs were laid. This closely reflects the 14C content...

  1. Zechariah and the Dating of Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    The data presented in the article indicate clearly that the ability to write proper EBH did not end with the exile; but when did it end? In the course of the fifth century, or the fourth century, or even later? This is difficult to resolve, on linguistic grounds. On linguistic grounds, can we say...... conclusions of most biblical scholars. Considering only linguistic data, texts in EBH could have been composed after the exile. Other, non-linguistic considerations can make this unlikely, but we can raise no objections from a linguistic viewpoint to such a dating....

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, I.; Bajnoczy, G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... to include the effects of the environmental dose rate. By fitting the model to the dose-depth variation from a single clast, four events (two light exposures of different durations each followed by a burial period) in the history of a single cobble are identified and quantified. However, the use of model...

  4. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P varieties contained significantly varied (P varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  5. 76 FR 43337 - Order of Succession for the Office of Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Office of Public Affairs AGENCY: Office of Public Affairs, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession... Office of Public Affairs. This Order of Succession supersedes all prior orders of succession for the Office of Public Affairs. DATES: Effective Date: June 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Neill...

  6. 75 FR 14150 - Proposed Rate Adjustment, Public Forum, and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southeastern Power Administration Proposed Rate Adjustment, Public Forum, and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System of Projects AGENCY: Southeastern Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice to change date and location of the Public Information...

  7. Luminescence at the end of the tunnelling - Investigating charge transfer mechanisms and luminescence dating methods for feldspar minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises analyses of mineral physics with an application in geology and archeology. The thesis contributes to the development of feldspar luminescence dating methods in order to extend the applicable age range of feldspar luminescence dating in the Quaternary (last 2.6 Ma). The research

  8. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  9. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  10. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  11. Bidirectional Relations Between Dating Violence Victimization and Substance Use in a Diverse Sample of Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N

    2017-09-01

    Substance use and dating violence victimization are common in adolescence and represent significant public health concerns. Although theoretical accounts suggest a bidirectional association between substance use and victimization within dating relationships, this has not been tested during early adolescence. Thus, the current study examined bidirectional associations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents. Sex was also examined as a moderator. Participants included two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships in the last 3 months at Wave 1, in the fall of sixth grade, and 6 months later at Wave 2, in the spring of sixth grade ( n = 2,022; 43% female; 55% Black, 17% Latino/a, 16% White, 9% as multiracial, and 3% as another race/ethnicity). Students reported on the frequency of dating violence in the past 3 months and substance use in the past 30 days. Multilevel models, with students at Level 1 and classes (i.e., clusters of students in the same cohort at the same school; n = 74) at Level 2, tested hypotheses that positive reciprocal relations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use would be found over time, and that relations would be stronger for girls than boys. Sex, race/ethnicity, and family structure variables were included as Level 1 covariates; intervention condition and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage were included as Level 2 covariates. Results showed that higher levels of physical dating violence victimization at Wave 1 predicted increased substance use at Wave 2. Higher levels of substance use at Wave 1 predicted increased physical and psychological dating violence victimization at Wave 2. Findings highlight the importance of prevention efforts for dating violence and substance use early in adolescence.

  12. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  13. Dating Norms and Dating Violence among Ninth Graders in Northeast Georgia: Reports from Student Surveys and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patricia M.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study describes the norms supporting male-to-female and female-to-male dating violence in a diverse sample of ninth graders. The quantitative study, based on student surveys (n = 624), compared norms supporting dating violence by sex, race/ethnicity, and dating status, and it examined the relation between dating violence norms…

  14. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  15. Luminescence (IRSL) dating of Yeni Rabat church in Artvin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Uygun, Selda

    2013-05-01

    Luminescence dating is a chronological method that has been used extensively in terrestrial materials. In this study, we present Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dating results obtained for sediment and pottery samples taken from Yeni Rabat Church, Ardanuç, Artvin, Turkey. For this purpose, equivalent dose (ED) and annual dose rate (AD) of samples were measured. For annual dose rate, concentrations of radioactive isotopes (U, Th, K) were determined by using a high-purity germanium detector. For the equivalent dose, polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used. The optimal preheat temperature was determined for sediment and pottery samples. Ages were calculated by Aitken's luminescence age calculation method, which found 710±190 years for the pottery sample and 1450±370 years, 1390±420 years, 1430±310 years, 2210±520 years and 1640±390 years for different sediment samples, respectively. These estimated age ranges support the theory that Yeni Rabat Church could have been constructed in medieval times.

  16. {sup 36}Cl exposure dating with a 3-MV tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Peter, E-mail: peter.steier@univie.ac.a [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Forstner, Oliver; Golser, Robin; Kutschera, Walter; Martschini, Martin [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Europole Mediterraneen de L' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Orlowski, Tobias; Priller, Alfred [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Vockenhuber, Christof [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wallner, Anton [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); HPK H 31, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstr. 20 CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    {sup 36}Cl AMS measurements at natural isotopic concentrations have yet been performed only at tandem accelerators with 5 MV terminal voltage or beyond. We have developed a method to detect {sup 36}Cl at natural terrestrial isotopic concentrations with a 3-MV system, operated above specifications at 3.5 MV. An effective separation was obtained with an optimized split-anode ionization chamber design (adopted from the ETH/PSI Zurich AMS group), providing a suppression factor of up to 30,000 for the interfering isobar {sup 36}S. Despite the good separation, a relatively high sulfur output from the ion source ({sup 36}S{sup -}/{sup 35}Cl{sup -} approx 4 x 10{sup -10} for samples prepared from chemically pure reagents), and a possibly cross contamination resulted in a background corresponding to {sup 36}Cl/Cl approx 3 x 10{sup -14}. The method was applied to samples containing between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} atoms {sup 36}Cl/g rock from sites in Italy and Iran, which were already investigated by other laboratories for surface exposure dating. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the range from 2 x 10{sup -13} to 5 x 10{sup -12} show a generally good agreement with the previous results. These first measurements demonstrate that also 3-MV tandems, constituting the majority of dedicated AMS facilities, are capable of {sup 36}Cl exposure dating, which is presently the domain of larger facilities.

  17. Genetic characterization of different pakistani date palm varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Rashid, A.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the oldest cultivated fruit tree and it has a great socioeconomic and nutritional value. Breeding programs and conservation rely on genetic characterization and diversity in gene pool. Its genetic diversity has not been focused more in Pakistan yet, therefore the present study aimed at the evaluation of genetic relationship based on chloroplast ribosomal protein gene (rps14). Rps14 gene was amplified and sequenced from selected varieties. Phylogram illustrated over all genetic distance of 0.001 representing close genetic relationship of selected P. dactylifera varieties. Pairwise distance was calculated for rps14 gene and very low genetic diversity values were observed ranging 0.003-0.017. Estimates of average evolutionary divergence of overall sequence pairs and nucleotide diversity were again found very low with 0.008 and 0.007 respectively. Sequences were analyzed by MEGA6, which revealed Pathri, Dhaddy, Makhi and Khudrawi as recent varieties. On the basis of rps14 genetic makeup, it can be suggested that Pakistani date palm varieties show very high degree of similarity. (author)

  18. Luminescence (IRSL) dating of Yeni Rabat church in Artvin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Uygun, Selda

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence dating is a chronological method that has been used extensively in terrestrial materials. In this study, we present Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dating results obtained for sediment and pottery samples taken from Yeni Rabat Church, Ardanuç, Artvin, Turkey. For this purpose, equivalent dose (ED) and annual dose rate (AD) of samples were measured. For annual dose rate, concentrations of radioactive isotopes (U, Th, K) were determined by using a high-purity germanium detector. For the equivalent dose, polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used. The optimal preheat temperature was determined for sediment and pottery samples. Ages were calculated by Aitken's luminescence age calculation method, which found 710±190 years for the pottery sample and 1450±370 years, 1390±420 years, 1430±310 years, 2210±520 years and 1640±390 years for different sediment samples, respectively. These estimated age ranges support the theory that Yeni Rabat Church could have been constructed in medieval times. - Highlights: ► The luminescence (IRSL) ages of the samples, taken from in Yeni Rabat church in Artvin-Turkey were found. ► Equivalent doses and annual doses were determined. ► Polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used

  19. Fluvial terrace dating using in situ cosmogenic {sup 21}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Caffee, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Through the analysis of cosmic-ray produced radio-genic and stable nuclide concentrations, specifically {sup 21}Ne, we hope to date certain geomorphic features located along the tributaries of the Colorado River in the Eastern Grand Canyon and the Rainbow Plateau located in Utah. During the Quaternary, the Colorado River system was fed by glacial melting and run-off from the Wind River and Colorado Mountain Ranges. Past periods of aggradation allowed the emplacement of terrace features from debris flow activity. By dating such features we can further constrain the timing of key events such as river down cutting, terrace genesis/exposure age, and rates of surface erosion. Knowing the age and elevation of each terrace we can determine an average rate of down cutting of this river system. This, in turn, will offer information regarding alpine glaciation which is a sensitive indicator of global climate change. Studying the relative concentrations of these isotopic species in surface rocks can be useful in researching glacial periodicity and the relationship between solar activity and climate.

  20. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  1. New dates reignite human evolution debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolch, G.

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into the Asian fossil record is unearthing controversial evidence with implications for the evolution of humans. Dr Jian-xin Zhao and Prof Ken Collerson from the University of Queensland's Department of Earth Sciences have been studying the fossil record in East Asia for clues to the early migration of hominids out of Africa in collaboration with Chinese archaeologists Dr Kai Hu of Nanjing University and Hankui Xu of Nanjing Institute of Palaeontology, Academia Sinica. Together they have been studying the remains of Nanjing Man, the name given to two Homo erectus skulls and the tooth of a third individual discovered in Tangshan Cave 250 km north-west of Shanghai. Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson have now employed more accurate dating techniques and materials, using a mass spectrometer to analyse the amounts of thorium-230 and uranium-234 in a calcite flowstone above the Nanjing Man fossil bed. Unlike fossil teeth, uranium and thorium became locked into the flowstone's crystal lattice when the calcite became crystallised. Because of this, the U-series decay in the calcite reliably records when the calcite crystallised. Taking into account the half-lives of uranium-234 and thorium-230, Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson determined the age of the calcite flowstone to be 577,000 years old (+44,000/-34,000 years). As the flowstone overlies the fossil bed, this date only defines the minimum age of the Nanjing Man fossil bed. For comparison, the dentine and enamel components of one fossil deer tooth collected from the Nanjing Man fossil bed yielded discordant mass spectrometric U-series ages of 388,000 and 130,100 years, respectively. Dr Zhao says that this 'strongly demonstrates the unreliability of fossil teeth as a chronometer'. Other evidence in the sediments surrounding the fossils has been the presence of flora and fauna that are typical of a glacial period. Dr Zhao therefore believes that the skulls could have been deposited during a glacial period

  2. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  3. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  4. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Judith; Labonte, Ronald N

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  5. Proterozoic biotite Rb-Sr dates in the northwestern part of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, W.G.; De Laeter, J.R.; Armstrong, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rb-Sr dating of biotite in the northwestern corner of the Yilgarn Craton identified four areas with distinctive age ranges. Biotite in the northwestern area, which includes the Narryer Terrane and part of the Murchison Terrane, yields reset Rb-Sr dates of ca 1650 Ma. In the western area, along the margin of the craton, biotite has been reset to 629 Ma. Eastward of these areas, mainly in the Murchison Terrane, the modal biotite date is near 2450 Ma, though because of a skewed distribution the mean date is closer to 2300 Ma. Dates in a transition zone between the western and eastern areas range broadly between 2000 and 1000 Ma, averaging about 1775 Ma. The western area and the transition zone are continuous with analogous areas south of the limits of the present study. The 1650 Ma dates in the northwestern area are probably related to plutonic and tectonic activity of similar age in the Gascoyne Province to the north. They may represent cooling after thermal resetting during tectonic loading by southward thrust-stacking of slices of Narryer Terrane and allochthonous Palaeoproterozoic volcanic arc and back arc rocks during the Capricorn Orogeny. This episode of crustal shortening resulted from the collision of the Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons to form the West Australian Craton. The dates reflect cooling associated with subsequent erosion-induced rebound. The 2450 Ma biotite dates of the eastern area are similar to biotite dates found over most of the Yilgarn Craton and represent a background upon which the later dates have been superimposed. The origin of dates in the western area is unknown but may be related to an associated dolerite dyke swarm or to possible thrusting from the west. There is some evidence of minor later intrusion of felsic hypabyssal rock between 2000 and 2200 Ma and localised shearing in the Narryer area at about 1350 to 1400 Ma. One small area near Yalgoo with biotite Rb-Sr dates near 2200 Ma may be co genetic with the Muggamurra Swarm of dolerite

  6. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  7. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  8. The automated Risoe TL dating reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The features of the new modified Riso TL dating reader system are described. A vacuum chamber that accommodates the entire 24-position sample changer unit has been designed. The vacuum and N 2 -gas functions are software-controlled. A newly designed heater system is capable of repeated heating cycles to 700 0 C. The sample changer system accommodates fine-grain discs as well as planchettes for coarse grains. Two software-controlled beta irradiators can be attached to the reader, e.g. for predose measurement. The software allows a user without programming expertise to create any desired measuring sequence, and to store and recall data and glow curves for making analyses. (author)

  9. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  10. Application of krypton-85 in groundwater dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The method for determination 85 Kr activity in groundwater and its application in isotope hydrology is presented. Various aspects of 85 Kr presence in the earth's ecosphere are discussed in the first part of the paper. The method for 85 Kr activity measurement in groundwater is presented in the second part of the paper. Analytical procedure consists of the following steps: extraction of the gases dissolved in water sample, separation of the Ar+Kr mixture from the gases, 85 Kr activity measurement in miniature proportional counter, mass spectrometry determination of the krypton gas volume in the proportional counter. About 7 days is necessary for complete analysis of one sample - the error of analysis not exceeds 10 per cent. The results of 85 Kr activity measurements (together with tritium and carbon 14 C determinations) in 14 different water samples allowed to verify usefulness of 85 Kr dating of young water. (author)

  11. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  12. Radiocarbon dating of Irish Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been carried out on three cores from areas of muddy sediments in the N. Irish Sea to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. 14C age profiles of the two eastern basin cores revealed a near-constant age from the sediment surface to the base of the core (12 500±1000 years bp). The 14C age profile of the western basin core revealed a zone of apparent mixing to a depth of 55 cm, underlain by a zone of constant sedimentation rate (0·018 cm y -1) to 160 cm. These data are discussed in relation both to previously reported sedimentological studies of the area and to the authorised discharges of low-level radioactive waste from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

  13. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    As part of the development of new laboratory lighting, we present a methodological approach applicable to the characterization of any light source intended for illumination in optical dating laboratories. We derive optical absorption cross-sections for quartz and feldspar from published data......-emitting diodes (LEDs); this comparison demonstrates the significant advantage of the LED sources over the filtered light sources, because essentially all of the reduction of both OSL and IRSL signals by the LEDs occurs at wavelengths to which the human eye is most sensitive. We conclude that exposure of quartz...... and feldspar extracts from various samples to the light from an LED with emission peak at 594 nm results in a 1% OSL or IRSL signal loss for a 48-h exposure at a power density of ~0.2 mW.cm-2....

  15. Radiocarbon dating of American pika fecal pellets provides insights into population extirpations and climate refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Constance I; Heckman, Katherine; Swanston, Christopher; Schmidt, Karena; Westfall, Robert D; Delany, Diane L

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) has become a species of concern for its sensitivity to warm temperatures and potential vulnerability to global warming. We explored the value of radiocarbon dating of fecal pellets to address questions of population persistence and timing of site extirpation. Carbon was extracted from pellets collected at 43 locations in the western Great Basin, USA, including three known occupied sites and 40 sites of uncertain status at range margins or where previous studies indicated the species is vulnerable. We resolved calibrated dates with high precision (within several years), most of which fell in the period of the mid-late 20th century bomb curve. The two-sided nature of the bomb curve renders far- and near-side dates of equal probability, which are separated by one to four decades. We document methods for narrowing resolution to one age range, including stratigraphic analysis of vegetation collected from pika haypiles. No evidence was found for biases in atmospheric 14C levels due to fossil-derived or industrial CO2 contamination. Radiocarbon dating indicated that pellets can persist for >59 years; known occupied sites resolved contemporary dates. Using combined evidence from field observations and radiocarbon dating, and the Bodie Mountains as an example, we propose a historical biogeographic scenario for pikas in minor Great Basin mountain ranges adjacent to major cordillera, wherein historical climate variability led to cycles of extirpation and recolonization during alternating cool and warm centuries. Using this model to inform future dynamics for small ranges in biogeographic settings similar to the Bodie Mountains in California, extirpation of pikas appears highly likely under directional warming trends projected for the next century, even while populations in extensive cordillera (e.g., Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Range) are likely to remain viable due to extensive, diverse habitat and high connectivity.

  16. Public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    An urgent need to rebuild public confidence after an incident attracting widespread adverse publicity led to the development by British Nuclear Fuels plc of a completely new approach to public relations. The Company's experience suggests that impressions count more than sheer information, provided the impressions have a firm base in reality. (author)

  17. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. Antropologia e Etnologia; Cano, Nilo F.; Munita, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. {beta}-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of {beta} rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  18. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigueo

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. β-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of α, β and γ radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of β rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements and Record of Decision for the Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements, Final Environmental Impact Statement Dated November 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    de Altar in Mexico, managed by the Secretaria del Medio Ambiente , Recursos Naturales y Pesca (serving a similar function in Mexico to the USFWS......to result in an exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Mitigation/Management Actions: None required. Biological Resources

  20. Dating Violence and Substance Use as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949

  1. Dating Violence and Substance Use as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.

  2. 45 CFR 671.15 - Publication of preliminary determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of preliminary determination 671.15... Publication of preliminary determination Prior to any designation or redesignation of substances pursuant to... Environmental Protection Agency and other federal agencies, within 30 days after the date of publication of...

  3. 47 CFR 61.32 - Method of filing publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of filing publications. 61.32 Section 61...) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.32 Method of filing publications. (a) Publications sent....” The date on which the publication is received by the Secretary of the Commission (or the Mail Room...

  4. 47 CFR 61.20 - Method of filing publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of filing publications. 61.20 Section 61...) TARIFFS General Rules for Nondominant Carriers § 61.20 Method of filing publications. (a) Publications... 20554.“ The date on which the publication is received by the Secretary of the Commission (or the Mail...

  5. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Harvey

    Full Text Available Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N. Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands, chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six (14C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae, recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP. All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated (14C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 1(4C analysis.

  6. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia L; Egerton, Victoria M; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Manning, Phillip L; Buckley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N) and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N). Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification) as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands), chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six (14)C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae), recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated (14)C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 1(4)C analysis.

  7. Dating methods enter high-school physics curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2002-01-01

    The new curriculum of physics of the upper forms in French grammar schools includes a part dedicated to ''nuclear transformations''. One of the applications most often considered in manuals is isotopic dating and generally several methods are explained to pupils: carbon 14 dating, potassium-argon dating (used for dating ancient lava layers) and uranium-thorium dating (used for dating corals). The author reviews with a critical eye the content of manuals and laments through concrete examples the lack of exactness and accuracy of some presentations. (A.C.)

  8. From scrolls to Picasso: AMS radiocarbon dating applied to textiles, art works and artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J.; Beck, J.W.; Burr, G.S.; O`Malley, J.; Hewitt, L.; Biddulph, D.; Hatheway, A.L.; Lange, T.E.; Toolin, J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). NSF Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for radiocarbon dating allows us to use very small samples of carbon, <1 mg. This has opened a vast array of applications of radiocarbon dating which were difficult to do before AMS, due to sample size limitations of decay counting. We have successfully applied AMS {sup 14}C to dating of many types of textiles, including silks and linens, art works, documents and artifacts fabricated from wood, parchment, ivory and bone. For many of these types of samples, the results are often important in questions of the authenticity of these works of art and artifacts. This has encompassed a wide range of art works ranging from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Shroud of Turin and the Chinese silk trade to the works of Raphael, Rembrandt and Picasso. Most recently, we have also dated the Vinland Map, a controversial document which shows the eastern coast of North America apparently using information from Viking voyages. An important issue in such studies is also the radiocarbon calibration curve. For some periods, most notably 1700-1950 AD we know that several changes in the {sup 14}C composition of the atmosphere make it almost impossible to date a sample during this period more precisely than the entire range. However, before this period, we have successfully dated materials to high precision. We have also studied the use of the period l900-1950 AD for {sup 14}C measurements and will present some examples where the rapid decline in {Delta} {sup 14}C can be used to date art works. The period after 1950AD also allows us to identify works fabricated from recent materials using the `spike` in {sup 14}C due to atmospheric nuclear testing. This bomb {sup 14}C has also been successfully used to identify originals from copies of works purporting to be the originals. We will discuss some artifacts, art works and forgeries, where {sup 14}C can resolve problems of authenticity (authors).

  9. Dating by fission tracks in archaeology. 3. Tephrochronology and Hominid dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Zuleta, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tephras (or volcanic ashes) are excellent stratigraphic tracers. Its utilization in this domain, or tephrochronology, is shortly presented. The main archaeological utilization of the tephrochronology is related with the dating of fossil hominids, there where exist the volcano-fossil sedimentar series, at Ceylon or at East-African Rift. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Dating Saharan dust deposits on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) by luminescence dating techniques and their implication for palaeoclimate reconstruction of NW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Fuchs, M.; ZöLler, L.

    2008-02-01

    Lava flow dammed valleys (Vegas) on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) represent unique sediment traps, filled with autochthonous volcanic material and allochthonous Saharan dust. These sediments and the intercalated palaeosoil sediments document past environmental change of the last glacial-interglacial cycles, both on Lanzarote and in NW Africa. A reliable chronology must be established to use these sediment archives for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Owing to the lack of organic material and the limiting time range of the 14C-dating method, luminescence dating is the most promising method for these sediments. However, the fluvio-eolian character of these sediments is a major problem for luminescence dating, because these sediments are prone to insufficient resetting of the parent luminescence signal (bleaching) prior to sedimentation. To check for the best age estimates, we compare the bleaching behavior of (1) different grain sizes (coarse- versus fine-grain quartz OSL) and (2) different minerals (fine-grain feldspar IRSL versus fine-grain quartz OSL). The results show that owing to its bleaching characteristics, quartz is the preferable mineral for luminescence dating. On the basis of the fine- and coarse-grain quartz OSL age estimates, a chronostratigraphy up to 100 ka could be established. Beyond this age limit for OSL quartz, the chronostratigraphy could be extended up to 180 ka by correlating the vega sediments with dated marine sediment archives.

  11. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  12. 75 FR 53303 - Notice of Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... FINANCIAL CRISIS INQUIRY COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing AGENCY: Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The next public hearing of the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC....gov . DATES: The hearing will be held on: Wednesday, September 1, 2010, 9 a.m. EDT; and Thursday...

  13. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  14. Functional properties and Solubility of date seed proteins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Med ali

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Key words: Phoenix dactylifera L, date palm seed, fibre, protein, functional properties. INTRODUCTION. The date .... was employed to perform dynamic measurements. ... are likely to be composed of high-molecular weight.

  15. 10 CFR 76.43 - Date for decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decision. The Director will render a decision on an application within 6 months of the receipt of the application unless the Director alters the date for decisions and publishes notice of the new date in the...

  16. Combination of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for precision dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.

    Archaeomagnetic dating was applied to two chalk-burning ovens from an early medieval noble-cemetery. Usually this method allows dating by the investigation of the geomagnetic declination and inclination through the thermoremanent magnetisation of baked clay in situ. However, in this case the method resulted in multiple dates since it was not possible to distinguish the brainching of the geomagnetic secular variation curve. Thermoluminescence dating was applied to the same samples to overcome the problem of multiple dates. This first combined application of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for dating yielded A.D. 670±30 for the two ovens, which dates the first stone-church at the site after a wooden predecessor archeologically dated A.D. 620-630.

  17. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... A confirmatory experiment of the optimal medium composition ... product of date industry; it is rich in carbohydrates (75% w/w) and small ... producers at cheap prices. ... date syrup using a combination of statistical strategies.

  18. Dating of archaeological objects using Carbon-14 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Hj Alias; Noraishah Othman; Nasasni Nasrol

    2004-01-01

    Dating is the key to organising all archaeological evidence. Furthermore, the development of dating methods, whether traditional or scientific, illustrates the ingenuity and lateral thinking that make archaeological problem-solving such a fascinating exercise. The development of MINT radiocarbon dating procedures is reviewed. Basic principles and counting techniques are discussed. A sample is converted by chemical methods into a suitable form, such as carbon dioxide followed by the acetylene gas, and the benzene end-product is placed inside a proportional counter to measure the radioactivity of 14 C. Not until some years ago did absolute dates by radiocarbon dating become a reality for prehistoric archaeology in Malaysia where thermoluminescence and fission-track dating had begun to provide a locally applicable dating method some decades earlier. Applications of radiocarbon dating procedures in the fields of archaeology are also discussed. (Author)

  19. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  20. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.10 Range betterment fund. In... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land...