WorldWideScience

Sample records for public interest organizations

  1. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper......We present a model of political selection in which voters elect a president from a set of candidates. We assume that some of the candidates are benevolent and that all voters prefer a benevolent president, i.e. a president who serves the public interest. Yet, political selection may fail in our...

  2. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level....... The European Union interest system is (partially) shaped by economic factors, relatively independent from public policy or institutions.......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...

  3. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  4. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper...

  5. Public Schools and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2003-01-01

    Essay addresses three questions: What purposes should schools serve and who should determine those purposes? Who should set performance goals for schools? Does school choice comport schooling mission to serve the public interest? Argues for need to be more disciplined and explicit in determining the public interest that schools serve and how that…

  6. Committed to the Public Interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    While politicians are often seen as being motivated by narrow self-interest, this article offers an alternative view. The relationship between two pro-social dimensions – Commitment to the Public Interest (CPI) and User Orientation (UO) – and behavioural outcomes among local councillors is analyzed...

  7. 检察机关介入公益诉讼的法律思考%Legal thinking of Procuratorial organs' involvement in public interest litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍杰

    2009-01-01

    The right of public interest litigation refers to the fight to make public interest litigation. The so-called public interest litigation refers to proceedings that state organs, social organizations and individual citizens, for the violation of national interests or social public interests, request the people's court to correct and crack down. And its purpose is a judicial relief measure taken to correct the public offense and protect public interest.%公益诉权是指进行公益诉讼的权力.所谓公益诉讼是指国家机关、社会团体和公民个人,对侵犯国家利益、社会公共利益的行为,请求人民法院进行纠正和制裁的诉讼活动,其目的是为了纠正公共性违法行为,保护公共利益而采取的一项司法救助措施.

  8. 10 CFR 503.25 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest. 503.25 Section 503.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... Public interest. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(c) of the Act provides for a temporary public interest... exemption would be in accord with the purposes of the Act and would be in the public interest; and (3)...

  9. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends.

  11. 32 CFR 701.34 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public interest. 701.34 Section 701.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.34 Public interest. The interest...

  12. Public interests and corporate obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2016-01-01

    , and corporations) should try to promote the good, seen from an impartial perspective, meaning that everybody’s interest should be taken into account (Kagan 1989). I conclude that stakeholder theorists are unable to meet the challenge presented by consequentialism by traditional means, i.e. by referring to social...

  13. Public Interest Law: Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Sanford

    This report provides an account of public-interest law firm activities supported by the Ford Foundation. Public interest law is a phrase that describes efforts aimed at providing legal representation for underrepresented interests in the legal process. The report is arranged into four major sections. The first section, on the evolution of the…

  14. Higher Education and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    This paper explores the question of whether society needs a more engaged university. "Engaged," in this context, means committed to serve the public interest, to promote the general welfare. The argument is constructed around three main points: (1) the 20th century university has traditionally sought to serve the public interest; (2) in recent…

  15. Cultural Interest Goods as Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vargas-Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the debate regarding the nature of goods of cultural interest as public goods, discussion until now overlooked by the legal doctrine in Administrative Law. Through the exam of judicial decisions, it seeks to question their inalienable character, and their aptitude to be acquired by the State, case in which they shift their nature into public goods.

  16. Study on Public Interest in City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付樯; 周立军

    2014-01-01

    Public interest is the key point of city planning, which has a significant effect on the level of city planning. This paper discussed the public interest in city planning, which is advantageous to improve the level of city planning.%公共利益是城市规划的关键点,对城市规划水平有重要作用。本文探讨了城市规划中的公共利益,有利于城市规划水平的提高。

  17. "Public Purpose or Public Interest" and Third Party Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Virgill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the difference between public purpose and public interest in section 25(2 of the 1996 Constitution is considered. It is generally accepted that public purpose is a narrower category than public interest and that the distinction between public purpose and public interest does not make any practical difference. However, in this contribution it is suggested that the difference between public purpose and public interest makes no practical difference only in cases where expropriated property is used by the state for the realisation of a particular purpose. The difference between public purpose and public interest becomes more important when a particular expropriation also involves a third party transfer, since it indicates the level of scrutiny that the courts should apply in determining the lawfulness of the expropriation. When property is expropriated and transferred to a third party for the realisation of a public purpose, such as building and managing electricity plants, the lawfulness of the expropriation is not easily questioned. As such, the application of a rationality test to determine the legitimacy of the expropriation is generally easy to accept. However, this lenient approach cannot be as easily accepted where an expropriation and third party transfer takes place in the public interest. Examples of third party transfers in the public interest include land reform, slum clearance and economic development. In the examples of land reform and slum clearance the expropriation and third party transfer is usually authorised in legislation or, as is the case with land reform in South Africa, the 1996 Constitution. Because (as in the land reform example the expropriation and third party transfer is authorised by the Constitution and regulated by legislation, the application of a rationality test to determine the legitimacy is acceptable. However, the application of a rationality test where property is expropriated and transferred

  18. Channel One: When Private Interests and the Public Interest Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    If the notion of public and private spheres seems somehow quaint or old-fashioned, the distinction between public and private corporations will be that much more obscure. Yet Channel One broadcasts in a public school classroom are indisputably the result of a contract between a private corporation (Alloy Media + Marketing) and a public corporation…

  19. Research Ethics, Governance, Oversight And Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated public has started to challengethe way decisions are made in medical research activities.Although Institutional and National Guidelines onResearch are in place, there are fears that InstitutionalReview Boards (IRBs and funding agencies are only fairlyactive in scientific and ethical reviews of research proposalsbut not on oversight of projects after their initiation. Theseissues are integral to good research governance andresearchers and custodians of research ethics must ensurethat public interest is not compromised. Medical progress is based on research including humanexperimentation carried out according to guidingprinciples as enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki(2000, but the quality of compliance with theDeclaration is an important issue. Better choice and appropriate training of members of IRBsto improve the quality of decision making and governanceprocesses are urgently needed. Competency in evaluationof proposals requires not only the appropriate scientificknowledge but also access to relevant preclinical andother data. Unfortunately, the completeness and quality ofsuch data may not be adequate. Public interest demands that injury to trial subjects inclinical trials is minimized if not avoided completely.Unfortunately this is not always possible with trialswhere novel biological modes of action are tested.A more robust evaluation mechanism for projectapproval may minimize but not completely avoid injuryto subjects; thus insurance cover to provide care andcompensation to subjects must be compulsory.The decision to approve or reject a project must bebased on the balance of potential risks and benefits,taking into consideration justifiable distributive risks totarget communities and populations. Economicconsiderations should never be the primary focus,especially when there are real concerns that themigration of early phase clinical trials including vaccinetrials to developing countries is based on the perceivedless

  20. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Lowery, D.; Halpin, D.; Gray, V.

    2015-01-01

    European population ecological studies of interest organizations are rare. The concern about the Schattschneiderian upper-class accent motivating such studies in the United States never gained much traction in European ‘organized’ interest systems. There have been, however, several large-n studies t

  1. Related Issues on the Participation of Procuratorial Organs in Civil Public Interest Litigation%检察机关参与民事公益诉讼相关问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓旭

    2012-01-01

    It has been the consensus both in academic and practical circles that we should construct a civil public interest litigation system in China, and the public all appeal that the procuratorial organs should be involved in the civil public interest litigation. The article studies the means and relevant procedural issues of the participation of procuratorial organs in civil public interest litigation, hoping to benefit the construction of our civil public interest litigation system.%我国需要构建民事公益诉讼制度已经成为学术界和实务界的共识,公众对检察机关参与民事公益诉讼的呼声也颇高。文章对检察机关参与民事公益诉讼的方式及相关程序性问题进行探讨,以期对我国民事公益诉讼制度的构建有所裨益。

  2. Public meetings: Thank you for your interest

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Several hundreds of you took part in our recent information meetings1. We very much appreciate these times when we get together and, by listening to your questions and comments, can have a better idea of your concerns. You were particularly interested in the changes to the rules of the health insurance. Indeed, as a complement to the information given by Philippe Charpentier at the meeting organized by HR on Friday 23rd September, we showed you how a well-functioning concertation process has enabled our mutual health insurance system to evolve by modernizing it and making it fairer, while keeping the same excellent benefits. Do not hesitate to contact your departmental delegates if you have further questions concerning the health insurance, they will do all they can to inform you. As far as our merit-based advancement scheme, MARS, is concerned, we are far from convinced that this is the best system, one that truly corresponds to the needs of CERN, an organization of scientific and technical excellence, w...

  3. 7 CFR 97.700 - Public interest in wide usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest in wide usage. 97.700 Section 97.700... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Public Use Declaration § 97.700 Public interest in wide usage. (a) If the... to be taken in the public interest. (b) Upon the expiration of the period for the presentation...

  4. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, scholars in several European countries have initiated system-wide, population ecological studies (e.g. Halpin & Jordan 2011b, Messer, Berkhout & Lowery 2010) or have started data collection on such populations of interest organizations (e.g. Fisker 2013, Klüver 2012, Naurin & Borang 2012).

  5. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  6. 48 CFR 1406.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 1406.302... Public interest. The CO shall prepare the D&F and complete the justification to support use of public interest authority for other than full and open competition and submit it through the HCA to the...

  7. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section...

  8. 48 CFR 6.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 6.302-7... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-7 Public interest. (a) Authority. (1... for when the agency head determines that it is not in the public interest in the...

  9. [Conflict of interests and scientific publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2012-01-01

    The potential relationships of interest between authors, reviewers, editors and financial management of the journals can lead to a conflict of interest in their performances. It analyzes the potential conflicts of interest in the papers, with extreme examples, assessing the need for careful statement of the relations, especially economic. Potential conflicts of interest should be transparent and the knowledge and values should be an objective of the magazines. The declaration of relationships should be required in the communication of research, but their existence should not prejudge misconduct. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  11. Professional Self-Regulation and the Public Interest in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L. Adams

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of professional groups has often been justified as being in the public interest. In recent decades, policymakers in Anglo-American countries have questioned whether self-regulating professions have truly served the public interest, or whether they have merely acted in their own interests. This paper draws on legislative records and policy reports to explore meanings attached to professional self-regulation and the public interest in Canada by state actors over the past 150 years. The findings point to a shift in the definition of the public interest away from service quality and professional interests, towards efficiency, human rights, consumer choice, and in some contexts business interests. Changing views of the public interest contribute to regulatory change.

  12. Liberal Education and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, James O.

    This collection of essays makes the case for a liberal education while providing a guide to higher education administrators facing contemporary challenges such as the threat to affirmative action or debates over tenure. The chapters are: (1) "Mounting the Public Stage"; (2) "Defending Higher Education"; (3) "Preserving Liberal Education"; (4)…

  13. On cloning: advocating history of biology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, J

    2001-01-01

    Cloning - the process of creating a cell, tissue line or even a complete organism from a single cell - or the strands that led to the cloning of a mammal, Dolly, are not new. Yet the media coverage of Dolly's inception raised a range of reactions from fear or moral repulsion, to cautious optimism. The implications for controlling human reproduction were clearly in the forefront, though many issues about animals emerged as well. On topics of public interest such as cloning, historians of biology have the opportunity to make a unique contribution. Such debates are often aired as if they have no precedents, either in biology or in the ethical, moral, and social concerns arising in the public arena. The technology leading to Dolly draws on strands of research going back to the 1890s, and the cycle of the public response has been repeated often in the past century. What can we learn from examining these events historically, and how can we - or should we even try - to inform public opinion? I think we should try and will outline briefly some of the ways that can work.

  14. 22 CFR 171.23 - Declassification in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification in the public interest. 171.23 Section 171.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND... public interest in disclosure of the information, and in these cases the information should...

  15. 48 CFR 206.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 206.302-7 Section 206.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....302-7 Public interest. (c) Limitations. For the defense agencies, the written determination to...

  16. In the Public Interest: Contemplating Seymour, Sin, and a Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author will focus on Seymour's article titled, "And What is the Public Interest?" (Sarason, 1986). To the author, the core of the article is as follows: "And what is the public interest? At its phenomenological root it is a picture of a triad: the individual, the society, and the bases on which they give meaning to each other.…

  17. 48 CFR 606.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 606.302-7 Section 606.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-7 Public interest....

  18. 48 CFR 3006.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 3006.302... Full and Open Competition 3006.302-7 Public interest. (c)(1)(ii) Requests shall be prepared in writing by the contracting officer, using the format found in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704, and submitted...

  19. 48 CFR 2806.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public interest. 2806.302-7 Section 2806.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.302-7 Public interest....

  20. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... written testimony and comments on the public interest factors (see determination of public interest at 43... final decision on the proposed exchange and whether it is in the public interest. The BLM will discuss... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange...

  1. Telecommunications and the Public Interest; Needs and Prospects in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Committee on Telecommunications.

    A summary of 18 months' investigation into the potential uses of telecommunications in the public interest is presented. Areas investigated include public TV and radio, cable TV, television translaters, instructional fixed television service, satellite communications and interconnections. Public hearings were held in eight cities and more than 100…

  2. W. Richard Scott, Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: W. Richard Scott: Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities. 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014. xiii, 345 pp.......Book review of: W. Richard Scott: Institutions and Organizations: Ideas, Interests, and Identities. 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014. xiii, 345 pp....

  3. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, J.; Carroll, B. J.; Braun, C.; Chalmers, A.W.; Destrooper, T.; Lowery, D.; Otjes, S.; Rasmussen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting...

  4. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA A. NAGY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  5. Nanotechnology and Public Interest Dialogue: Some International Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines nanotechnology within the context of the public interest. It notes that though nanotechnology research and development investment totalled US$9.6 billion in 2005, the public presently understands neither the implications nor how it might be best governed. The article maps a range of nanotechnology dialogue activities under…

  6. 48 CFR 306.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 306.302-7 Section 306.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.302-7 Public...

  7. 48 CFR 806.302-7 - Public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest. 806.302-7 Section 806.302-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 806.302-7 Public...

  8. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  9. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  10. Listening Exercise Organization And Learners' Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟英; 陈银芳

    2007-01-01

    The present study presents a detailed report of a project implemented to solve the problem that most of my students do not like doing listening practice. It is hypothesized that learners' listening ability will be greatly increased by a better organization in this respect. This hypothesis is verified by a four-week practice of well-organized listening activities.

  11. Strategy narratives in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2016-01-01

    Strategic concerns have spread into public management and fuelled the growth of strategic practices in public organizations. The purpose of this paper is to examine the discursive structures of strategy narratives in public organizations. It studies the linkages between strategy narratives...... in public organizations and discourses of strategy. Based on focus group interviews and a deconstructive approach, the paper identifies four different strategy narratives: a “rationalist” narrative, a “structuralist” narrative, an “idealist” narrative and a “constructivist” narrative. The narratives...... complement each other, but are not necessarily incompatible in practice. Rather, strategy makers can draw on several or all of the narratives in public organizations as well as the body of literature on strategic management, which are related to them. The paper concludes by suggesting directions for further...

  12. Oral work Organization & Learners’Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HUA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed report of the project implemented to solve the problem that I spend a lot of time correcting my students’errors in their oral work.I assign them to do after class,It is hypothesized that learners’interest in oral practice after class will be greatly increased.We will spend three weeks practicing oral work activities.Methodologically,four methods are used,and they are analytic method,cause analysis.Questionnaire survey,and brainstorming activation.

  13. Patient Advocacy Organizations, Industry Funding, and Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susannah L; Highland, Janelle; Karafa, Matthew T; Joffe, Steven

    2017-03-01

    their positions to the interests of corporate donors. Patient advocacy organizations engage in wide-ranging health activities. Although most PAOs receive modest funding from industry, a minority receive substantial industry support, raising added concerns about independence. Many respondents report a need to improve their conflict of interest policies to help maintain public trust.

  14. THE LEADERSHIP WITHIN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTE CRISTIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate the important role played by leadership in the managementof public organizations. Organizational culture can help to the clarification of many phenomena that appearin the organizations, can operate as brake or incentive for organizational effectiveness and the leadership playthe main role in the creation and the development of organizational culture.

  15. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest

  16. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest norm

  17. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  18. Osmoregulation in Methanogens (and Other Interesting Organisms)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Mary Fedarko [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    Our research has been aimed at (i) identifying, (ii) determining mode of regulation, and (iii) understanding how different classes of compatible solutes (also termed osmolytes) affect macromolecular stability in response to osmotic and thermal stress. For solutes we have identified (e.g., di-inositol-1,1’-phosphate (DIP)), we used NMR to elucidate biosynthetic pathways and then cloned suspected enzymes in the pathway to explore how they are regulated. Compatible solutes are thought to protect proteins from thermal and osmotic stresses by being excluded from the surface, allowing critical water molecules to interact with the protein. This implies there are no specific binding interactions between osmolytes and proteins. However, we and others have often observed very specific solute effects for proteins that suggest a more direct interaction between solute and protein is likely can occur. Measuring such a weak interaction is extremely difficult. We have developed a solution NMR method, high-resolution field cycling relaxometry, that can measure spin-lattice relaxation rates as a function of magnetic field from 11.7 (the field of a 500 MHz spectrometer) to 0.003 T. The methodology is ideal for nuclei in small molecules with moderately long relaxation times at high fields – phosphate groups (31P), enriched carbonyls (13C), or methyl groups (1H). The protein of interest is spin-labeled to introduce a large dipole on it that will dominate the relaxation of nuclei on any small molecules that bind transiently. The key is to measure relaxation below 1-2 T (and extract nuclei-spin label distances in the bound complex) where the small molecule relaxation will be dominated by dipolar mechanisms with a correlation time indicative of the large protein complex. Our explorations of an inositol monophosphatase (the last step in DIP generation) localized four discrete binding sides for the thermoprotectant α-glutamate. This is a novel approach, and while the work did not fully

  19. Using social media to discover public values, interests, and perceptions about cattle grazing on park lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, Flickr(TM) that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  20. Using Social Media to Discover Public Values, Interests, and Perceptions about Cattle Grazing on Park Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sheila J.

    2014-02-01

    In the western United States, livestock grazing often co-exists with recreation, cultural resource management and biodiversity protection on federal and state protected rangelands as well as on many local government open space areas. While the value of livestock grazing for managing rangeland vegetation to reduce fire fuel loads and improve wildlife habitat is increasingly recognized by resource management professionals, public concerns, and conflict between recreationist and livestock have led to reductions in public land grazing. Traditional public input methods yield a constrained picture of people's attitudes toward cows and public land grazing. Public meetings, hearings, and surveys, the most commonly used mechanisms for public land managers to solicit public opinion, tend to foster participation of organized special interests or, in the case of surveys, focus on a specific topic. General public input is limited. This study explored the use of personal photography in social media to gain insight into public perceptions of livestock grazing in public spaces. Key findings of this study include that many recreationist in grazed San Francisco Bay Area parks shared views, interests, and concerns about cows and grazing on the photo-sharing website, FlickrTM that seldom show up at a public meeting or in surveys. Results suggest that social media analysis can help develop a more nuanced understanding of public viewpoints useful in making decisions and creating outreach and education programs for public grazing lands. This study demonstrates that using such media can be useful in gaining an understanding of public concerns about natural resource management.

  1. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimationduring the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  2. Interest Groups and Political Economy of Public Education Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the lobbying power of different interest groups and public education spending in a panel data estimation during the period 1996-2009 for 132 countries. The resource rents, manufacture exports, and agriculture value added are used as proxy variables for the lobbying power of the natural resource owners, manufacturers, and landowners, respectively, in order to substantiate the definition of the lobbying power of the interest groups more with economic fundamentals. As lobbying power is mediated through political institutions, different governance indicators are used individually and in interaction terms with the proxy variables in the estimations. It is found that when the country is more politically stable and the more the rule of law applies, the negative (positive effect of the lobbying power of natural resource owners (manufacturers on public education spending intensifies. The negative effect of landowners’ lobbying power diminishes as institutional quality as measured by governance indicators improves.

  3. 20 CFR 402.185 - Waiver or reduction of fees in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 402.185 Waiver or reduction of fees in the public interest. (a... interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or...) Public interest. The disclosure passes the first test only if it furthers the specific public interest...

  4. Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional

  5. Public Interest in Microclimate Data in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Reyes Mason

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can sense urban environmental conditions at finer scales than previously possible. This has paved the way for monitoring microclimates between and within neighborhoods. Equally vital, though much less studied, is stakeholder engagement in understanding and using such data. This study examines interests and preferences for accessing neighborhood-scale microclimate data among residents of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Data are from randomly sampled phone surveys (N = 200 and purposively sampled focus group participants (N = 25. Survey participants expressed high interest in neighborhood air quality, temperature, and rainfall. Focus groups revealed four themes for designing smartphone applications or websites for neighborhood-scale data: easy access to integrated data, clear and intuitive design, information for everyday living and healthy behavior, and tools for civic engagement. Results support the value of creating meaningful, usable science interfaces with which the public can readily engage.

  6. Public Interest and Public Governance%公共利益与公共治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成福; 李丹婷

    2012-01-01

    公共治理是实现公共利益的核心途径。公共利益在公共治理中具有的重大功能可以从政治、经济、法律、社会和文化四个方面得以体现。公共利益所反映的是,在多元社会的治理过程中,政府与利益相关者在利益和利益分配问题上所达成的共识。在公共治理的过程中,如何体现和实现公共利益,以下几个方面是重要的:公共治理是否尊重了人的尊严和保护了公民的权利;公共治理是否体现了大多数人的利益和弱势群体利益优先;公共治理是否超越了特殊利益集团、部门、地方和短期的利益;公共治理是否尊重了科学与理性;公共治理的过程是否开放和尊重了民意、遵循了正当程序和社会公认的伦理和道德标准。%Public governance is the crucial way to realize public interest. The importance of public in terest for public governance mainly represents in the fields of polity, economy, society and law. It is believed that the public interest is a consensus between the government and stakeholders on the interest and the interest distribution in a pluralistic society. In the process of public governance, the following aspects are significant to achieve public interest: public governance whether or not respects human dig nity and protects civil rights; public governance whether or not reflects the majority's interest and takes the disadvantaged groups' interest as a superior valueorientation; public governance whether or not goes beyond the special interest group, sectorial, local and the shortterm interest public govern ance whether or not respects rationality; the process of public governance whether or not opens to the public and responds people's needs, adheres to the democratic and legal process, and the ethical as well as moral standard deemed by the society.

  7. Public service motivation ad fonts : Personality traits as antecedents to serve the public interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Esteve, M.; Boyne, G.

    2017-01-01

    Public Service Motivation (PSM) is a topic that has generated considerable interest among Public Administration scholars. Research on PSM has mainly focused on either defining what PSM is and how this construct can be measured or on testing how PSM affects individual and organizational variables. Ho

  8. Ex ante and ex post control of the public interest in public-private partnership agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the provisions of public-private partnership agreement (hereinafter: the 'PPP' in the context of control of the public interest in the process of preparing and implementing PPP projects. PPP agreements are a mechanism for defining rights and obligations of public and private partners in the process of realization of a particular PPP project. In spite of being defined as partnership, public and private interests largely remain competitive. However, in case it is not possible to achieve both interests at the same time, the public interest is deemed to have priority. The proper implementation of the supremacy of public interests over the private ones calls for an appropriate contractual definition of conditions and manner for such implementation. The methodology for exercising control of the public interest in PPP projects through agreements on public-private partnership has two aspects. The first aspect is to provide verifiable parameters of legal, economic and technological conditions, as well as the procedure for selecting the best bid for the realization of public-private partnership (ex ante methodological aspect; these conditions are the basis for future PPP agreement. Ex ante methodology has to provide instruments for control of the public interest through pre-established mechanisms aimed at verifying whether the private partner has fulfilled the agreement. If such verification is not possible or if it is considered unreasonable (either financially or otherwise, it may raise an issue whether the public-private partnership is an adequate modality for implementation of the project aimed at promoting the public interest; it further implies that the public partner should resort to other options (employing 'internal' resources or taking a loan for financing the projects of public interests. The second aspect is that the PPP agreements are to provide for the proper implementation of the elements that ensure some flexibility in

  9. Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

  10. Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

  11. Capturing Public Interest in Astronomy through Art and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Sabraw, J.; Salgado, J. F.; Statler, T.; Summers, F.

    2008-11-01

    This is a summary of our 90-minute International Year of Astronomy (IYA) symposium workshop about engaging greater public interest in astronomy during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 through art and music. The session focused on: (i) plans for visually interesting and challenging astronomy presentations to connect with an audience at venues such as museums, concert halls, etc that might be apprehensive about science but open to creative experiences; (ii) the nuts-and-bolts of turning creative ideas into exhibits or visualizations; (iii) balancing scientific accuracy with artistic license; and (iv) how scientists, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) professionals, artists, musicians et al. can bridge the ``two cultures''---starting and sustaining multi-disciplinary collaborations, articulating expectations, and building synergy. The presenters shared with the EPO community some of the astronomy-art projects and resources that we have been developing for the IYA through a variety of collaborations. Our portfolios include state-of-the-art astronomy visualizations and tools, music videos and podcasts that highlight stunning images from NASA's Great Observatories; a video suite of astronomical images that can accompany live performances of Holst's The Planets and Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; and SCALE, a multicomponent traveling art installation including the largest pastel drawing of the Milky Way.

  12. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  13. 78 FR 69440 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY...'') recommended by the ALJ. This notice is soliciting public interest comments from the public only. Parties are to file public interest submissions pursuant to 19 CFR 210.50(a)(4). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved. PMID:20615242

  15. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Kuziw, Michael; Naylor, Melinda Treurnicht; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-07-08

    Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  16. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  17. Accreditation and the Public Interest: Can Accreditors Continue to Play a Central Role in Public Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry W.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional accreditation has served higher education and the public interest well for more than a century, but now its purposes are changing quickly and dramatically. Accreditation began as a voluntary, nongovernmental peer review process internally managed by colleges and universities to determine if schools met threshold tests of academic…

  18. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being...

  19. Organized Interests in the EC and the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kohler-Koch

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a truism that the emergent European polity contributes to the transformation of interest representation in Europe. It is, however, highly contested if a uniform system of interest intermediation is in the making and if so, what will be its shape. Pressures to adapt are quite strong, but national traditions provide strong institutional constraints to European convergence. In addition, the institutional properties of the EU make sure that no single system is likely to emerge. The paper presents theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence to that point. The empirical findings concentrate on the relationship between interest representatives and the European Parliament and are taken from a written survey among MEPs and European Public Affairs Consultants.

  20. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  1. 76 FR 383 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... 2777; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of...

  2. 75 FR 53710 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Marine Autopilots with GPS or IMU, DN 2752; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  3. 78 FR 7811 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Canada. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages in length, inclusive of attachments, on any public interest...

  4. 77 FR 77091 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, DN 2925; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  5. 76 FR 3924 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R. Abbott... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  6. 76 FR 11813 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Devices, DN 2789; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an...

  7. 75 FR 48724 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof; DN 2747; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., China. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  8. 78 FR 79708 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, DN 2995; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  9. 77 FR 59978 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b.... Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  10. 78 FR 79479 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Integrated Circuits, DN 2994; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... 19 U.S.C. 1337(j). Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  11. 77 FR 59003 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing the Same, DN 2915 the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., inclusive of attachments, on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or section 210.8(b)...

  12. 76 FR 62842 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2847; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an...

  13. 19 CFR 210.67 - Remedy, the public interest, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedy, the public interest, and bonding. 210.67... PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.67 Remedy, the public interest... appropriate form of temporary relief, whether the public interest factors enumerated in the statute...

  14. 75 FR 42783 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Components Thereof''; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of...

  15. 78 FR 60896 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, DN 2984; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... cease and desist orders. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  16. 75 FR 62140 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Software, and Components Thereof, DN 2757; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., IL. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  17. 76 FR 18246 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein, Acting..., proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  18. 75 FR 57500 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2755 ; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by..., proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  19. 78 FR 64010 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, DN 2987; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... any public interest issues raised by the complaint or section 210.8(b) filing. Comments should...

  20. 10 CFR 780.24 - Criteria for declaring a patent affected with the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Patents Affected With the Public Interest Under Section 153a of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 § 780.24 Criteria for declaring a patent affected with the public interest. A patent shall be declared to be affected with the public interest pursuant to section 153a of the Act upon the Board's final decision...

  1. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the... Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of limited public interest waiver. SUMMARY... application of section 1605 would be inconsistent with the public interest. On April 25, 2011, the...

  2. 76 FR 45294 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing the Same, DN 2833; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  3. 76 FR 18247 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U...; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  4. 76 FR 797 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Associated Systems, DN 2778; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by.... The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  5. 76 FR 28456 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2804; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  6. 76 FR 32987 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Products Containing Same, DN 2811; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  7. 78 FR 76655 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  8. 76 FR 36936 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... 2821; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  9. 78 FR 5495 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2933; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by.... Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments,...

  10. 75 FR 66790 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  11. 77 FR 7602 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Haptics, DN 2875; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... Holdings, Inc. of IL. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  12. 76 FR 62092 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Thereof, and Related Software, DN 2846; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  13. 75 FR 53981 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  14. 76 FR 29264 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages...

  15. 77 FR 29689 - Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S... and Devices Containing Same, DN 2877; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... Corporation of Taiwan. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  16. 76 FR 51395 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein... respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to...

  17. 76 FR 50756 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R... complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to...

  18. 76 FR 34100 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U..., other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five pages in length, on any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address...

  19. 77 FR 10556 - Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S... Devices Containing Same, DN 2877; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues... interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed five (5) pages...

  20. 75 FR 54910 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... and Products Containing Same DN 2754; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., NY. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public...

  1. 76 FR 19126 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Containing Same, and Related Methods, DN 2798; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest..., other interested parties, and members of the public are invited to file comments, not to exceed...

  2. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  3. Interest Arbitration in Public Employment: An Arbitrator Views the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Tim

    1978-01-01

    Examines the inherent differences between the roles of grievance arbitrator, fact-finder, and interest arbitrator and discusses the skills and insights the interest arbitrator needs to fulfill his role. Available from: Commerce Clearing House, Inc., 4025 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646. (JG)

  4. Public service broadcasting (PSB regulation in Indonesia: Between market and public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform of public service broadcasting (PSB faces many obstacles in countries with political transition such as Indonesia. After 1998-political change, the arrival of ideas to establish PSB in Indonesia in two decades lacks of appropriate policies. As in other transitional states in Eastern Europe, there is the lack of regulatory design as well as its implementation. This paper examines process of formulating PSB law in 2002, particularly pays attention to industry capture over the making process as a critical tool to observe a long-controvercial of broadcasting law revision process in Indonesia (2012-2016. By use public interest and capture theories in regulation, this paper answers why the outcome of PSB regulation is weak by observing how the law was made. This study provides new analysis on PSB media law that still rare in Indonesia. As independent and non-profit body, Indonesian PSB represented by RRI (Radio of the Republic Indonesia and TVRI (Television of the Republic Indonesia is protected by Broadcasting Act.32/2002. It was enacted in favor of two actors: authoritarian officials with interest to use PSB as their mouthpiece in one side and the industry groups with interest to apply free market policy on the other.

  5. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN NONPROFIT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan NICOLAE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic management in public organizations can use coerciveness as a keyelement of their strategy. Private organizations are more dependent onmarketing or selling to potential customers. As publicness increases,marketing declines in importance and maintaining favorable coercivearrangements increases in importance. Strategic managers should be awareof coercive opportunities in their mandates as they fashion strategy anddevise implementation plans.

  6. The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

    2006-01-01

    Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks

  7. Reflections Regarding the Concept of Local Interest within Public Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we aim at performing an analysis of the concept of local interest, having as prerequisites the doctrinal debates regarding the general interest. The examination of this concept occurs in relation with the new trends, as concerns the exercise of competences at local level, respectively with the elements that define the interest of the community and its means of application within the life of the local community. Our research aims to establish theoretically the notion of local interest, an approach that we carry out within a difficult environment, whereas the notion of interest is fluctuating, being constantly modified under the pressure of the evolutions of social and economic needs. The results and the essential contribution of the material consist in the establishment of a framework that would offer to local authorities the practical possibilities for identifying the landmarks that surround this concept and that has to be harmonised with the values of modernity in order to respond better to the needs that are expressed.

  8. 76 FR 25706 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James R. Holbein, Acting... Diego, CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the...

  9. 76 FR 36935 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Components Thereof, DN 2819; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by... County, CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the...

  10. Providing Appropriate Evaluative Support for Valuing in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julnes, George; Bustelo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation is increasingly accepted as a tool for understanding and assessing the value of public programs and policies. Less understood, however, is how and why evaluation helps to inform judgments of value. This "American Journal of Evaluation" ("AJE") section on Professional Values and Ethics focuses on how values are to…

  11. Development and Initial Validation of Public Domain Basic Interest Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-Ya; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg (Goldberg, L. R. (1999). "A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models." In: I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), "Personality psychology in Europe" (Vol. 7, pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press) has argued that the…

  12. 75 FR 65652 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... public interest issues raised by the complaint. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn R. Abbott..., telephone (202) 205-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's...

  13. 76 FR 35238 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U... Products Containing Same, DN 2816; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues...-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's electronic docket...

  14. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  15. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  16. Autonomy, best interests and the public interest: treatment, non-treatment and the values of medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2014-01-01

    When constructing its responses to cases concerning the treatment and non-treatment of patients, both competent and incompetent, English medical law primarily uses two analytic tools: the autonomy and the welfare (or best interests) of the patient. I argue, however, that the construction going on behind the facade involves the use of more-and more precise-tools. In such cases, the law effectively asks three questions. The first, autonomy, question asks: is the proposed course desired by the patient? The second, best interests, question asks: if the patient is not autonomous, then (what) is the proposed course in the patient's best interests? And the third, public interest, question asks: whether or not the patient is autonomous, is the proposed course in the public interest? In its responses to each question, law then offers three different answers, which reveal a plurality of ethical commitments. Thus, the wishes of the (autonomous) patient might reflect her current, her best, or her ideal desires. The best interests of the (non-autonomous) patient, meanwhile, are variously articulated in terms of (again) her desires, or the promotion or preservation of a particular mental state, or the attainment of certain objective goods. Finally, and most often obscured from view, there are public interest concerns-with the interests of the patient, some other (or others), or even the community at large. In identifying these different questions and answers, I hope to provide an explanatory typology. Whether law's plurality of answers-and values-is appropriate, however, remains open to question.

  17. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Draft Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C199 Establishing the Minimum... Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  18. Why utilisation of medicines is a public health interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of medicines exerts important effects on public health and health systems in different ways, including their pharmacological properties, their economic impact on health systems and their impact on the environment. Medicines cause intended therapeutic effects. Medicines are able to treat diseases, slow their progression or prevent their appearance as well as relieve symptoms. This is the reason why physicians prescribe, patients use and governments pay for medicines. Some therapeutic classes of drugs represent important progress in medicine and have dramatically improved the therapeutic approach to several diseases.As an example antiulcer agents have changed a severe disease (with fatal complications, requiring gastric surgical resection, into a disease requiring only the consumption of few pills each day for a short period of time, with a substantial improvement in prognosis and quality of life for patients. Avoiding the surgical intervention of gastric resection, and all of its complications, has resulted in substantial gains for individual patients and public health as well as a substantial reduction in the costs of hospitalisation. For other therapeutic classes the benefits are more limited, while the advantages of their use in everyday practice are less evident.

  19. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  20. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  1. Business process reengineering in Ethiopian public organizations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Ethiopian public organizations: the relationship between theory and practice. ... Hence, it is important to introduce a conceptual framework and a working model ... Management Information System (MIS), Information Technology (IT) , MCB, ...

  2. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  3. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland.

  4. 75 FR 76753 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... and Packaging Thereof, DN 2772; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues... States after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof. The complaint... comments, not to exceed five pages in length, on any public interest issues raised by the...

  5. 24 CFR 103.320 - Provisions sought for the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the public interest. The following are types of provisions may be sought for the vindication of the public interest: (a) Elimination of discriminatory housing practices. (b) Prevention of future... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions sought for the...

  6. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  7. Discursive strategies of strategy in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    In the last decades, private sector principles and policies have spread into public management. This has fuelled the growth of strategic practices in public service organizations. Although public service organizations typically do not exist in markets or have directs competitors, they tend...... to articulate their strategies through private sector strategy terminology about competition, ranking, benchmarking, etc.. Thus, it is time to explore how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public organizations. An important way to study strategy as practice is by attending of the discourse...... of strategy. Bodies of discursive scholarship, such as critical discourse analysis, narrative analysis, metaphor analysis and conversation analysis, have contributed with significant research into important issues and themes in strategy making processes such as sense-making, subject-positions and power...

  8. 36 CFR 219.16 - Relationships with interested individuals and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Planning for Sustainability § 219.16 Relationships with interested individuals and organizations. The... and frequent opportunities for participation in the identification of issues; (d) Encourage interested...

  9. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  10. Why interest organizations do what they do: assessing the explanatory potential of ‘exchange’ approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.

    2013-01-01

    mportant parts of the literature on strategies of interest organizations consider the political activities of interest organizations as serving to build and maintain exchange relationships between organizational representatives and constituents, policymakers and the news media. The incentive for org

  11. Conflict of interest policies for organizations producing a large number of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Susan L; Holmer, Haley K; Burda, Brittany U; Ogden, Lauren A; Fu, Rongwei

    2012-01-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines.

  12. Conflict of interest policies for organizations producing a large number of clinical practice guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Norris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conflict of interest (COI of clinical practice guideline (CPG sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM standards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46% had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines.

  13. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Anneliese A. Singh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  15. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  16. Management Control Packages in Public Sector Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Berend

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines configurations of management control (MC) packages in public sector organizations, and how they relate to employee motivation and behavior. Using multiple case studies and a survey study, this thesis contributes to the extant literature in three ways. First, it enhances the unde

  17. 49 CFR 40.361 - What is the purpose of a public interest exclusion (PIE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.361 What is the... punishment. (d) Nothing in this subpart precludes a DOT agency or the Inspector General from taking...

  18. Supremacy of the public interest: A reading based on the complex thought of Edgar Morin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renata Nascimento Gomes; Rafael Lazzarotto Simioni

    2014-01-01

    .... For that purpose, we use the arguments of Edgar Morin's "complex thought" theory developed in his work "Science with a conscience", which suggests a use of the concept of public interest not as an...

  19. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The sideshow or the circus? The role for public interest organisations at inquests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prictor, Megan

    2012-12-01

    Recent changes in coronial law in Australian jurisdictions have enabled inquests to adopt an expanded scope and have facilitated the participation of family members and other interested parties. Public interest bodies have increasingly sought to have input to coronial policy and practice. This article examines the involvement by public interest organisations in Australian inquests over recent years. These organisations adopt various roles in inquests, including the representation and support of family members of the deceased, and the pursuit of policy and legislative changes. A further role is that of participation in specific inquests as an "interested party", in order to provide relevant expertise, shape the scope of the inquiry, and illuminate systemic issues which may have contributed to a death. This article considers the legal framework for the involvement of public interest organisations, and critically reflects upon the main purposes and effects of such intervention.

  1. Staff Performance Evaluation in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drumea C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In public Organizations staff performance is difficult to measure in absence of overall quantitative performance indicators. There are also the qualitative indicators that give an overview on staff’s motivation, strive, ability, commitment to values, teamwork. These aspects are even less easy to illustrate, in private and public sectors equally. In both cases, measuring staff performance at work, as well as its input on the global performance of the organization is a difficult task which has in practice different approaches. Subsequently, this paper is discussing the system indicators and performance triggers used in International Organizations UN affiliated, in order to adjust staff classification and benefits to their staff’s performance.

  2. The Effects of Audience Interest, Responsiveness, and Evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety and Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Thivierge, Kimly A.; MacDonald, J. Renee

    1997-01-01

    Examines potential sources of public-speaking anxiety among undergraduate students stemming from the audience. Identifies three sources of anxiety: degree of formal evaluation, level of audience interest in the topic, and audience's responsiveness to the speaker. Measures willingness to speak and expected speech quality. Finds interest,…

  3. 环境公益的司法救济%On Judicial Relief of Environmental Public Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨添翼; 徐信贵

    2012-01-01

    Protecting environmental public interest is the most important respect. At present in China, if environmental public interest is damaged, it depends on the relief from administrative organ. However, only administrative relief cannot protect environmental public interest, we also need judicial relief. There are two channels that are environmental civil public litigation and environmental administrative public litigation on judicial relief of environmental public interest, which have many same and different places on many aspects such as purpose of action, subject of action, burden of proof, result of action and so on. Comparing the same and different of them has active significant to build the system of environmental public interest litigation.%保护环境公益是环境保护最重要的方面.在目前的中国,环境公益受到损害主要依赖于行政机关的救济.然而,仅仅依赖行政救济不足以保护环境公益,我们还需要司法救济.环境公益的司法救济途径有二种,即环境民事公益诉讼和环境行政公益诉讼,二者在诉讼目的、诉讼主体、举证责任、诉讼效果等方面具有诸多的相同点和差异,比较它们的异同对于我国构建环境公益诉讼制度具有积极的指导意义.

  4. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  5. [On the clients of public health organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Júlia; Villalbí, Joan R; Guix, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Public services must satisfy a variety of agents: users of these services, the citizens who pay the taxes that finance them, politicians, and those that work in them. To obtain public services that give priority to the citizen-user, knowledge of clients, their expectations, preferences, complaints and degree of satisfaction is essential. This article presents the process of internal discussion in our agency about its clients, who differ from those of an industrial or commercial organization. A proposal for the classification of clients, as well as the process that has led to a client portfolio, are presented and steps to improve services from the perspective of the client are suggested.

  6. The investigation of present situation of public participation in environmental public interest litigation--Take Xi ‘ning city folk environmental protection organization for example%环境公益诉讼中公众参与现状的调查研究报告--以西宁市民间环保组织为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国晓莉

    2015-01-01

    由于人口数量和人类驾驭自然能力不断增长,市场经济给人类带来了巨大繁荣,但是,一味追求经济效益和短期利益致使环境污染加剧,我国民间环保组织即在环境日益恶化的背景下产生并蓬勃发展。%Because of the growing population and human control ability over nature, market economy has brought great prosperity to mankind, but blindly pursuing economic benefits and short-term interests cause environmental pollution aggravate, folk environmental protection organization in our country is in the environment against the backdrop of a worsening and thrive.

  7. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  8. OPPORTUNITY LOST: THE SUPREME COURT MISSES A HISTORIC CHANCE TO CONSIDER QUESTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST STANDING FOR ANIMAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sankoff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of Canada recently denied leave to appeal in Reece v. Edmonton (City, a 2-1 decision of the Alberta Court of Appeal, which focused on the right of private parties to seek judicial intervention on behalf of animals. In this article, the author examines the implications of this "lost opportunity" to develop an important area of law relating to public interest standing, explores the important questions that were at stake in the appeal, and suggests why the Supreme Court should have decided otherwise. La Cour suprême du Canada a récemment rejeté la demande d’autorisation d’appel de l’affaire Reece v. Edmonton (Ville, – une décision (2 contre 1 de la Cour d’appel de l’Alberta – qui portait sur le droit de simples individus de demander une intervention judiciaire au nom des animaux. Dans le présent article, l’auteur examine les conséquences de cette [TRADUCTION] « occasion ratée » de développer un important domaine du droit relatif à l’intérêt public, et de traiter les questions sérieuses qui étaient soulevées dans l’appel; il tente d’expliquer pourquoi la Cour suprême aurait dû rendre une décision différente.

  9. Lack of proportionality. Seven specifications of public interest that override post-approval commercial interests on limited access to clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the protection of commercial interests, licensing bodies such as the EMA and health technology assessment institutions such as NICE restrict full access to unpublished evidence. Their respective policies on data transparency, however, lack a systematic account of (1 what kinds of commercial interests remain relevant after market approval has been granted, (2 what the specific types of public interest are that may override these commercial interests post approval, and, most importantly, (3 what criteria guide the trade-off between public interest and legitimate measures for the protection of commercial interest. Comparing potential commercial interests with seven specifications of relevant public interest reveals the lack of proportionality inherent in the current practices of EMA and NICE.

  10. Knowledge and interest in Public Health: opinions of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Erickson Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the opinions of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy on acquired knowledge and interest in the study of Public Health. Methods: This is a crosssectional and qualitative study conducted in a private higher education institution, inMaceió-AL, Brazil, from June to December 2010. It comprised students from 5th and 10th period, which were allocated by convenience sampling, resulting in a final sample of 40 students with 20 students from each period. Later, each student was individually interviewedin a private, lit, air conditioned place, without time limit, being collected through a digital voice recorder the answers to the following questions: “How do you judge your knowledgeabout Public Health?” and “What is your interest in the study of Public Health?”. Collective subject discourse was used to analysis of qualitative variables. Results: Students considered their knowledge of Public Health as “limited”. Regarding their interest, the students in 5th period declared “little interest”, while the academics of the 10th period reported themselves as “very interested”. Conclusions: From the point of view of undergraduate students in Physical Therapy, their knowledge about Public Health is limited. Interest in the study of Public Health is greater among the academics closer to graduation.

  11. The tobacco industry, researchers, and ethical access to UK Biobank: using the public interest and public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin James; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-10-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry-funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking.

  12. Education & Public Policy in Bogotá: Guarding the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Juan David

    2009-01-01

    High school education appears to be a key variable for the economic prosperity of Bogotá. However, the lack of consideration of quality as a necessary standard for education in the city threatens its potential to positively affect social welfare. One of the main problems emerges from an imprecise conception of education as a public good, which is…

  13. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Mark L. Hatzenbuehler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Mark L. Hatzenbuehler. The Award recognizes Dr. Hatzenbuehler's advancements in understanding stigma, particularly "the stigma experience of being gay or bisexual at the psychological level in terms of rumination, secret keeping, and the like; at the social level in terms of stigma-imbued social interactions; and at the structural level in terms of policies such as the presence or absence of anti-bullying interventions in schools or gay marriage prohibitions at the level of states." Hatzenbuehler's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. 76 FR 67207 - Certain Wiper Blades; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ..., DN 2852; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint... any public interest issues raised by the complaint. Comments should address whether issuance of an... opportunities for comment on the public interest after the issuance of any final initial determination in...

  15. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  16. The Role of Regulating the Accounting Profession and the Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Necsulescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The high quality services provided by the accounting profession are a function of theprofessional standards, of the personal value and competences, the regulation systems, all having tobe coherent and back each other. All the activities that form the accounting profession are of equalimportance, as seen through the eyes of the public interest. The scope of this paper is to underline therole of CECCAR in sustaining and promoting international practices at a high level, in regulating theactivities and the conduct of its members, in developing and consolidating the accounting professionin order to serve the public interest.

  17. INFORMAL STRATEGIZING IN A PUBLIC ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pedro Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategy as Practice analyzes what people do in relation to the development of strategy in organizations, providing insights into current issues in strategy that require a more micro level of understanding (JOHNSON et al., 2007. Considering the perspective of strategy as practice arising from the emerging strategies, we noticed the lack of studies to understand how these activities occur in a daily basis of organization characterizing as informal strategies (WHITTINGTON, 2007. Therefore, this study proposes to address this issue, showing the occurrence of informal strategizing at a public organization under the strategy-as-practice perspective. For this we held a qualitative research through a single case study (EISENHARDT, 1989 in a municipality in southern Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with officials of different levels of the organization; direct observation, with notebook guide and analysis of documents provided by the organization, encouraging the triangulation of data. Informal strategies were mainly identified on customer service activities when an applicant’s request is not strictly met under the law or the legislation is dubious and opens room for double-meaning surveying, interpretation and information communication.

  18. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  19. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  20. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  1. 76 FR 55108 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    .... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Devices for Mobile Data Communication, DN 2843; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain devices for mobile...

  2. 77 FR 3794 - Certain Mobile Devices and Related Software; Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Devices and Related Software; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  3. Public and private interests in regulation : essays in the law and economics of regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    2003-01-01

    The six chapters in this thesis all focus on regulation. Public and private interest theories of regulation are used as a viewpoint and as an instrument to analyse and evaluate particular regulations and policy developments. Furthermore, in the literature there is a debate about the explanatory powe

  4. 76 FR 1458 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) for Fiscal Year 2010 Transformation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief of the... Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program. The purpose of this Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) is to...

  5. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is awarded to Florence L. Denmark. She is recognized for her efforts to help legitimize the psychology of women by teaching the first doctoral psychology course in the field and through her scholarly texts and articles. She continues to have an impact on the…

  6. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  7. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  8. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  9. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  11. Accountability and Assessment: Is Public Interest in K-12 Education Being Served? CRESST Report 728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.

    2007-01-01

    The reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) makes this a good time to consider whether and how current accountability serves the public interest and whether and how it can better do so. This report explores these issues in the context of the current literature on the effects of accountability in K-12 education. It considers the meaning…

  12. 75 FR 38068 - Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 403, 501 and 503 Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National... than Wednesday, July 7, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to all stakeholders... targeted to protect the environment. For this meeting, EPA plans to seek comment from...

  13. Disclosing conflicts of interest in German publications concerning health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Friedrich W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders on medical science has been increasingly criticised. When dealing with conflicts of interest in scientific publications it is important to ensure the best possible transparency. The objective of this work is to examine the disclosure practice of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in German language publications concerning health services research for the first time. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in the PubMed data base using the MeSH term "health services research". The review was conducted on July 10, 2006, setting the limits "dates: published in the last 2 years" and "languages: German" (only articles with abstracts. 124 articles in 31 magazines were found. In the magazines the instructions for authors were examined as to whether a statement on conflicts of interest is expected – and if, in which form. Regarding the articles in the journals which require a statement, we examined whether the statement is explicitly published. The results are descriptively represented. Results 13 magazines (42% do not require any statement on conflicts of interest, whereas 18 journals (58% expect a statement. Two of these 18 magazines refer explicitly to the uniform requirements of the International Committee of the Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; the remaining 16 magazines give differently accentuated instructions on how to disclose conflicts of interest, whereby the focus is primarily on financial issues. A statement on conflicts of interest is explicitly published in 11 of the 71 articles (15% which are found in the magazines that require a statement with the submission of a manuscript. Related to the total number of included articles, this means that the reader explicitly receives information on potential conflicts of interest in 9% of the cases (11 of 124 articles. Statements of others that are involved in the publication process

  14. Why interest organizations do what they do: assessing the explanatory potential of ‘exchange’ approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, J.

    2013-01-01

    mportant parts of the literature on strategies of interest organizations consider the political activities of interest organizations as serving to build and maintain exchange relationships between organizational representatives and constituents, policymakers and the news media. The incentive for organizational survival produces activities that links social and political domains. This review integrates various strands of existing thinking on interest groups under an ‘exchange’ perspective. It ...

  15. Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deverell, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learn from crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisis management researchers. This dissertation sheds light on the problems regarding the lack of knowledge on how public organizations manage and

  16. Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deverell, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learn from crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisis management researchers. This dissertation sheds light on the problems regarding the lack of knowledge on how public organizations manage and

  17. The post-2015 landscape: vested interests, corporate social responsibility and public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the tensions between UN calls for private sector engagement in the post-2015 landscape and public health opposition to those 'harm industries' that are 'corporate vectors of disease' for the mounting global non-communicable disease burden. The UN's support for public-private partnership has provided industries with 'vested interests' in the propagation of unhealthy behaviours with new opportunities for the strategic alignment of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) endeavours with the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. This has galvanised public health advocates to place pressure on the World Health Organisation to formalise their ambiguous stance towards private sector involvement in public policy formation and the resultant 'conflicts of interest'. This paper critically examines the 'gathering storm' between this 'anti-corporate movement' and the alcohol industry in the increasingly politicised domain of CSR. Drawing on the example of SABMiller's Tavern Intervention Program, the paper argues that CSR represents a profound threat to the sanctity and moral authority of the public health worldview. Questions therefore need to be asked about whether the public health-led path of industry non-association will necessarily result in health improvements or just a further retrenchment of the ideological faultlines explored in the paper.

  18. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  19. Discursive strategies of strategy in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    of strategy. Bodies of discursive scholarship, such as critical discourse analysis, narrative analysis, metaphor analysis and conversation analysis, have contributed with significant research into important issues and themes in strategy making processes such as sense-making, subject-positions and power...... relations, however they have not depicted an underlying conceptual structure in how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public service organizations. In this study, we depart from previous discursive strategy research by taking a deconstructive approach in order to identify underlying...... concerns whether the main emphasis is on “logical” or rather on “emotional” foundations and another dimension concerns whether the emphasis is rooted in internal forces or external forces. We label the four discourses “rationalistic”, structuralistic”, “idealistic” and “identity “....

  20. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  1. Public interest litigation in the Netherlands : A multidimensional take on the promotion of environmental interests by private parties through the courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Berthy; Enneking, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative

  2. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  3. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  4. Medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Neale, Anne Victoria; Monsur, Joseph C

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews. We examined book reviews published in 1999, 2000, and 2001 (N = 1,876) in five leading medical journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. The main outcome measure was journal publication of reviews of books that had been published by the journal's own publisher, that had been edited or authored by a lead editor of the journal, or that posed another conflict of interest. We also surveyed the editors-in-chief of the five journals about their policies on these conflicts of interests. During the study period, four of the five journals published 30 book reviews presenting a conflict of interest: nineteen by the BMJ, five by the Annals, four by JAMA, and two by the Lancet. These reviews represent 5.8%, 2.7%, 0.7%, and 0.7%, respectively, of all book reviews published by the journals. These four journals, respectively, published reviews of 11.9%, 25.0%, 0.9%, and 1.0% of all medical books published by the journals' publishers. Only one of the 30 book reviews included a disclosure statement addressing the conflict of interest. None of the journals had a written policy pertaining to the conflicts of interest assessed in this study, although four reported having unwritten policies. We recommend that scientific journals and associations representing journal editors develop policies on conflicts of interest pertaining to book reviews.

  5. Interests, Norms, and Support for the Provision of Global Public Goods: The Case of Climate Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel, Michael; Genovese, Federica; Kenneth F. Scheve

    2016-01-01

    Mitigating climate change requires countries to provide a global public good. This means that the domestic cleavages underlying mass attitudes toward international climate policy are a central determinant of its provision. We argue that the industry-specific costs of emission abatement and internalized social norms help explain support for climate policy. To evaluate our predictions we develop novel measures of industry-specific interests by cross-referencing individuals’ sectors of employmen...

  6. "Angel's Love" Chinese Goddess Nuwa Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Initiated by Chinese Red Cross Foundation and sponsored by American General Business Association, Chinese Nuwa (a goddess-creator of the Chinese nation) Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests undertaken by Beijing Absolute Challenge International Advertising Co., Ltd. has recently commenced in an all-round way. A grand ceremony will be held at Nuwa Plaza in Shexian County, Hebei Province on Septemper 24, 2007.

  7. Evaluating postgraduate public health and biomedical training program outcomes: : lost opportunities and renewed interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Nelson, David E; Marcus, Stephen; Kudura, Aisha; Nghiem, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    To identify recent studies in the scientific literature that evaluated structured postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs and reported career outcomes among individual trainees, a comprehensive search of several databases was conducted to identify published studies in English between January 1995 and January 2012. Studies of interest included those that evaluated career outcomes for trainees completing full-time public health or biomedical training programs of at least 12 months duration, with structured training offered on-site. Of the over 600 articles identified, only 13 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies evaluated US federal agency programs and six were of university-based programs. Seven programs were solely or predominantly of physicians, with only one consisting mainly of PhDs. Most studies used a cohort or cross-sectional design. The studies were mainly descriptive, with only four containing statistical data. Type of employment was the most common outcome measure (n = 12) and number of scientific publications (n = 6) was second. The lack of outcomes evaluation data from postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs in the published literature is a lost opportunity for understanding the career paths of trainees and the potential impact of training programs. Suggestions for increasing interest in conducting and reporting evaluation studies of these structured postgraduate training programs are provided.

  8. 78 FR 63989 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection Process for Nonvoting Industry Representatives and Request...

  9. Deciding in the best interest of clients with dementia: the experience of public guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Black, Betty S; Rabins, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    We conducted an in-depth interview study of public guardians in three local jurisdictions in the state of Maryland to explore the decision-making process utilized by court-appointed public guardians making medical and EOL care decisions on behalf of their clients with dementia. Overall, public guardians appeared to make their decisions in the context of relevant ethical principles and relevant case law and state statute, and the basis upon which they made informed decisions was dependent on their training and experience. The stated goal of public guardians is to make decisions that they believe are in the best interest of their clients. In the case of a healthcare decision, their goal is to maximize quality of life; and in the case of an EOL care decision, their goal is to minimize pain and suffering. In general, public guardians gathered information in order to identify previous preferences of their now-incapacitated clients, so that they could develop a preference profile to assist both an initial decision on whether an individual ought to have a court-appointed public guardian, and with healthcare and EOL decisions once an appointment was made. When guardians were unable to develop a preference profile for a particular client, they relied on past decisions in similar situations. Healthcare and EOL decisions were most often triggered by a recommendation by the client's healthcare provider. Once a decision-point was identified, the public guardian considered the risks and benefits of the proposed intervention in light of the client's current condition. At times the guardians reviewed informational resources such as textbooks and the Internet. In addition, most guardians sought advice from a medical consultant who is available to all public guardians in Maryland. Some guardians sought the advice of this medical consultant only when faced with more complex decisions. Guardians challenged physicians' recommendations when they believed the physicians were recommending

  10. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies.

  11. Performance in Public Organizations: Clarifying the Conceptual Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder'...

  12. 公益诉讼当事人问题探究%Research onPublic Interest Litigants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒亮

    2014-01-01

    In public interest litigation ,the two problems of public interest litigants being qualified or not and the pro-tection of public interest litigants ’ rights are important to promote the rationalization and legalization of public inter-est litigation.On the basis of discussing the qualification and litigation status of public interest litigants ,the article researches the influence of our imperfect public interest litigation system on public interest litigants and realizes that it is necessary to improve public interest litigation system and protect public interest litigants ’ rights.Then,our pub-lic interest litigation system can play its due role and public interest can be protected in the lawsuit level .%公益诉讼中,公益诉讼当事人的适格与否、公益诉讼当事人权益的保护这两大问题,对促进公益诉讼制度的合理化与合法化具有重要作用。文章在探讨公益诉讼当事人适格问题和其诉讼地位的基础上,研究了我国不完善的公益诉讼制度对公益诉讼当事人的影响,认识到完善公益诉讼制度保障公益诉讼当事人的权益是十分必要的,如此,我国的公益诉讼制度才能发挥其应有的作用,公共利益在诉讼层面才能得到保障。

  13. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs. PMID:24382859

  14. The Problematic of Small-Scale Land Acquisition (Less than 5 Hectares for Public Interest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Okhtalia Setiabudhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land acquisition for public interest development is stipulated in Act No. 2 of 2012 concerning Land Acquisition for Development of Public Interest. One arrangement of land acquisition in legal substances that have been formed are small-scale land acquisition (less than 5 hectares, but it is still governed by very vague and thus susceptible to the multi-interpretation and raises doubts in its implementation. This paper discusses the problematic that arise due to unclear regulations concerning small-scale land acquisition and to provide solutions to these problems. Based on the discussion the authors concluded first, the problematic of small-scale land acquisition is the arrangement of land acquisition that is so vague that there is no clarity regarding the procedures for determining of location, the phase of land acquisition, which excludes public consultation, there is no regulation regarding preventive measures against the impact for the community around location of land acquisition. Second, the solution could be found to this problem is a regulation of small-scale land acquisition should ideally be regulated more comprehensively considering that small-scale land acquisition allows the emergence of adverse effects for the community around location of land acquisition so that the stages of planning and preparation that is set for the large-scale land acquisition is similarly applied for small-scale.

  15. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  16. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  17. Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learn from crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisis management researchers. This dissertation sheds light on the problems regarding the lack of knowledge on how public organizations manage and learn from crises, with a number of critical knowledge gaps in contemporary crisis management as the starting point. It argues that there is a need of increased knowledge not only about crises and...

  18. Public Private Partnerships and the Public Interest: A Case Study of Ottawa’s Lansdowne Park Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly advocated as beneficial for the delivery of public services, facilities, and infrastructure for municipal governments. However, such partnerships often raise serious concerns about transparency and accountability. While municipal governments across Canada have tried to increase public participation in local affairs, PPPs can impede such efforts. This article presents a case study of the Lansdowne Park PPP redevelopment in the City of Ottawa. We focus on how transparency and citizen engagement have been compromised and circumvented and link to broader issues of how to balance the privileged status of business and the demands for commercial confidentiality with the public interest, transparency, and citizen engagement in projects that use PPPs. The article concludes by arguing that some projects and some conditions can render the use of PPPs inappropriate and counterproductive in terms of both effectiveness and the basic principles of good governance. / Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont de plus en plus préconisés par les municipalités comme étant une solution avantageuse pour la prestation de services publics ainsi que la réalisation de projets d’installations et d’infrastructures publiques. Toutefois, de tels partenariats soulèvent souvent d’importantes préoccupations quant à la transparence et la reddition de compte en lien avec ce processus. Plusieurs municipalités canadiennes ont fait de grands progrès pour accroître la participation des citoyens aux affaires municipales, mais les PPP peuvent représenter un obstacle important à de tels efforts. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur le réaménagement du parc Lansdowne dans le cadre d’un PPP à la Ville d’Ottawa. L’article se concentre sur la façon dont la transparence et l’engagement des citoyens ont été compromis et contournés dans ce processus. Cette analyse est liée à des considérations sur la

  19. How the public perceives the visual effects of timber harvesting: an evaluation of interest group preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Stephen F.; Benson, Robert E.; Ashor, Joseph L.

    1986-05-01

    A total of 25 scenes representing the five visual quality objectives in the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service visual management system were presented to 18 professional and public interest groups in western Montana. The results indicate that nearly all the groups have similar rank orderings of the scenes in terms of visual preference. However, the groups differ according to the absolute values of their ratings. Most groups were unable, in a statistical sense, to differentiate the scenic quality of areas in the preservation and retention visual quality objectives. Landscape architects tended to rate scenes in a way similar to professional forest management groups.

  20. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mańko

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  1. 47 CFR 64.1330 - State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and public interest payphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations and public interest payphones. 64.1330 Section 64.1330 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... its rules and policies to determine whether it has provided for public interest payphones consistent... Provision of Payphone Service § 64.1330 State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and...

  2. The Performance of Public Organization: Still Unclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanu B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the present discussions about the organisation’s performance have revealed the fact that the concept is unclear. The use of the concept is more difficult in public organisations. The paper presents the case of Romanian SOE Hidroelectrica and the case of public universities, to pinpoint the fact that ambiguous objectives are the cause of a dilemmatic management. The general opinion is that the results of the public organisations management reflect a poor performance of the latter.

  3. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  4. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in psychology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Salvatore R. Maddi. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  5. Public accept for environmental taxes: self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Haakon

    2010-07-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There have, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes, and few attempts to isolate the effects of selfish and social preferences. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self ( self interest ) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. (Author)

  6. The World Health Organization and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Common areas of interest and differing views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Caroline J

    2002-01-01

    No article published in the scientific press in the last 10 years reviews the various areas of interest common to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the pharmaceutical industry. Despite a vast amount of information in the public domain, the policies expound the views only of the bodies they represent rather than comparing differing views. An understanding of the factors which affect the interaction between these organisations as well as the organisational structures and the actual areas of intersecting interest, may help to find ways for the industry to assist the WHO in its endeavours in developing countries. Modern drug development is performed initially in and for western society, leaving the areas of infectious or tropical diseases with relatively less industry investment than cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Aspects of the development of an ethical drug, regardless of its therapeutic class (selection of drug name, intellectual property rights, drug safety, marketing and pricing, quality assurance and counterfeiting, generic use, emerging drug donations) are influenced to varying degrees by the triad of money, politics and medical need and the perspectives (each defensible) placed thereon by the WHO and industry. Instead of simply defending their positions combining the best of these strategies to optimise drug development for the needs of developing countries appears logical. Similarly, via its philanthropic initiatives, industry will have donated over $US1 billion in drug and research aid in the period 1995 to 2005. These charitable projects should yield useful information for planning and organising future aid efforts. Global warming, only recently given serious governmental consideration, is an area not yet addressed in drug development policy although along with geographical effects, it is likely to have an impact on the epidemiology of diseases e.g. malaria returning to the Mediterranean, worldwide. With changing disease patterns (and

  7. Research on public interests and government interests relationship problems in the process of public policy%公共政策过程中的公共利益与政府利益关系问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金梅; 付浩海

    2015-01-01

    公共政策的问题从本质上说是公共利益的问题,而公共利益内部又孕育着政府利益,本文从公共利益与政府利益的相互关系开始分析,进而分析政府利益扩张的根本原因,最后提出了克服政府自利性行为的有效途径。强调政府的根本职责是制定和实施有效的公共政策以实现公共利益,探索在公共政策过程中实现公共利益与政府利益互惠与公正的基本路径,规避不适的政府利益对公共政策效果的影响。%The problem of the public policy is essentially the problem of public interests,and public interests and government interests within breeds,began to analyze the relationship from the public interests and government inter-ests,government interests expansion and root cause analysis,finally puts forward the effective way to overcome the government self benefit behavior.It emphasizes that the fundamental responsibility of the government's public policy formulation and implementation of effective in order to achieve the public interest,to explore the basic way to a-chieve public interests and government interests reciprocity and fairness in the public policy process,influence to a-void discomfort government interests in public policy effect.

  8. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen, E-mail: steffen.kallbekken@cicero.uio.n [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Saelen, Hakon [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: {yields} Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? {yields} We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. {yields} Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. {yields} Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. {yields} Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  9. Public Interest Litigation in the NetherlandsA Multidimensional Take on the Promotion of Environmental Interests by Private Parties through the Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthy van den Broek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative courts in order to challenge land-use plans, environmental permits and other types of public orders that may have adverse impacts on local natural habitats and/or the environment more generally. However, over the past five years a number of developments have resulted in a more restricted access to administrative courts for environmental NGOs. It has been suggested that these developments may result in an increased reliance on public interest-related procedures before civil courts. This raises the question of what position public interest-related claims, like those against Shell for oil pollution in the Niger Delta and those against the Dutch government for its alleged failure to implement adequate climate change policies, currently have within the Dutch system of civil procedure. It also raises the question whether environmental NGOs in practice do have the broad access to Dutch courts that is required by international obligations, and whether room for improvement should perhaps be sought in the civil law domain.

  10. Public Interest Litigation in the Netherlands
    A Multidimensional Take on the Promotion of Environmental Interests by Private Parties through the Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthy van den Broek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the administrative law system is traditionally seen as best suited for dealing with public interest-related lawsuits. Especially in the field of environmental law, NGOs seeking to promote broader environmental interests regularly initiate judicial procedures before administrative courts in order to challenge land-use plans, environmental permits and other types of public orders that may have adverse impacts on local natural habitats and/or the environment more generally. However, over the past five years a number of developments have resulted in a more restricted access to administrative courts for environmental NGOs. It has been suggested that these developments may result in an increased reliance on public interest-related procedures before civil courts. This raises the question of what position public interest-related claims, like those against Shell for oil pollution in the Niger Delta and those against the Dutch government for its alleged failure to implement adequate climate change policies, currently have within the Dutch system of civil procedure. It also raises the question whether environmental NGOs in practice do have the broad access to Dutch courts that is required by international obligations, and whether room for improvement should perhaps be sought in the civil law domain.

  11. The right of servitude between public interest and undisturbed use of private property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petovar Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For obtaining the land in order to build the magistral pipeline a specific form of land expropriation is applied, namely the Right of servitude. The Right of servitude can be realized on the basis of established public interest, which can be defined according to the spatial plan of the relevant area. The Right of servitude is analyzed from the point of its influence on the respect of basic human rights of property owners to enjoy their property in safety and without disturbance. Current legal framework in Serbia that regulates procedures for acquiring land for the purpose of public interest allows for breach of private property rights. There is a mutual inconsistency between a number of decrees that regulate property rights for large infrastructural development projects. A specific, and possibly a greater problem, is the status of the local population, the land owner and other real estate. It concerns their awareness of their private and individual rights, as well as technical and other legal standards, which must be applied during the preparation, construction and working stages of an energy facility. Applying the Right of servitude as a way to acquire land for construction of the Pipeline, there is direct breach of the basic human right as stated in the first Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, namely that ‘every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions’ (Article 1, Protocol 1. The Right of servitude allows the investor to use ‘public interest’ as a way of gaining access to another’s land, and under better financial conditions than if he were to apply permanent expropriation. While the owner retains his/her ownership of the land, inconvenienced by numerous limitations of its use, usability and market value of the land becomes substantially reduced.

  12. YouTube videos of 'research in action' foster diverse public interest in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, scientific enterprises seek to diversify interest and participation in STEM fields, to both provide equitable opportunities and to push research forward. However, diversity in STEM remains low in many institutions. Internet-based video has emerged as a dominant communication medium that scientists can use to communicate the motivations, process, and products of their work to a diverse, mass audience. Here I describe my use of internet-based video about my research and career as a marine biologist as a tool to inspire broad public interest in science. With my YouTube videos, I have reached a diverse and growing global viewership, amassing >10,000 hours of watch time at the time of this writing. Viewer surveys revealed that my videos have improved individual perceptions about science and science careers, particularly among women and minority groups. I conclude that the emergence of internet-based video as a dominant, ever-expanding communication medium provides an unprecedented but largely untapped opportunity for scientists to broadly communicate their research and to inspire diverse interest in STEM careers.

  13. The Pacific Northwest's Climate Impacts Group: Climate Science in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, N.; Snover, A.

    2006-12-01

    Since its inception in 1995, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) (funded under NOAA's Regional Integrated Science and Assessments (RISA) Program) has become the leader in exploring the impacts of climate variability and climate change on natural and human systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), specifically climate impacts on water, forest, fish and coastal resource systems. The CIG's research provides PNW planners, decision makers, resource managers, local media, and the general public with valuable knowledge of ways in which the region's key natural resources are vulnerable to changes in climate, and how this vulnerability can be reduced. The CIG engages in climate science in the public interest, conducting original research on the causes and consequences of climate variability and change for the PNW and developing forecasts and decision support tools to support the use of this information in federal, state, local, tribal, and private sector resource management decisions. The CIG's focus on the intersection of climate science and public policy has placed the CIG nationally at the forefront of regional climate impacts assessment and integrated analysis.

  14. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  15. Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Ulrik; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments suggest that management actions have different impacts on outcomes in public and private organizations. This proposition is important to public organizations’ widespread import of private sector management tools such as performance management. This article examines...... how performance management influences performance outcomes in otherwise similar public and private organizations. Showing that the factors expected to diminish the impact of performance management parallel the organizational characteristics of public organizations, we hypothesize that this type...... of management is less effective in public organizations. A difference-in-differences model based on survey data on management in Danish public and private schools, combined with administrative data of students’ test scores, confirms the hypothesis. The results have important implications for the transfer...

  16. The interrelations amongst control system elements in public sector organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the decisions that public sector organizations make with regard to the design and use of their management control system. New Public Management, based on economics theory, suggests that employees in the public sector should be freed from traditional bureaucratic

  17. After the reform : Change in Dutch public and private organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto Morales, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Heyse, L.

    Proponents of new public management (NPM) expect public organizations to become more flexible and adaptive after administrative reforms, effectively showing convergence with patterns of organizational change in the private sector. This "convergence argument" is tested with a sample of 61 public and

  18. After the reform : Change in Dutch public and private organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto Morales, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Heyse, L.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of new public management (NPM) expect public organizations to become more flexible and adaptive after administrative reforms, effectively showing convergence with patterns of organizational change in the private sector. This "convergence argument" is tested with a sample of 61 public and

  19. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANNING SPECIFIC TO PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Florin Tudor; Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In public services, the political component of the marketing environment has a major importance, as all decisions adopted within central administration influence both the objectives and measures implemented by units of local government and other public service providers. Any discontinuity in the activity of such entities might result in neglecting the real needs of citizens and slowing the reform process in the public sector. Therefore, all initiatives of public organizations must have a unit...

  20. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Beatrice A. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in 4 areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Beatrice A. Wright. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are: Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...... to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects...

  2. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects......The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...

  3. The Quasi Nongovernmental Organization in Public Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael B.

    1969-01-01

    "Educational broadcasting faces a problem of remaining autonomous under increased governmental support through the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Dr. Grossman draws parallels between what is happening in ETV and the history of autonomy and constituency in the schools and universities. (Editor)

  4. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  5. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  6. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  7. PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS STRATEGIC LEVERS FOR A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfranco Malizia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the most interesting volumes of an equally interesting series entitled “Proposals for a change in the public administrations” concerning the Italian P.A. (VV. AA., 2002, edited by the Civil Service Department of the Italian government and realised with the collaboration of public and private partners to stimulate processes of change in the P.A., a precise and carefully explained reference is made to the absolute importance for the public administrations of the promotion of know-how development by means of the creation, valorisation and sharing of the knowledge-competence patrimony necessary to back the innovation processes like the logic of learning organizations and knowledge management.

  8. Public representation in water management -- A network analysis of organization and public perceptions in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany B. Cutts; Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson; Shade T. Shutters

    2015-01-01

    To better accomplish their mission of an informed public, environmental education organizations often exchange ideas, share financing, and distribute overhead through collaboration. Yet it remains to be seen whether benefits of these collaborations extend to the public. We examine two possible benefits: the ability of the organizations to act as representatives of the...

  9. The national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger. Kaye

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...

  10. Lawyers, Governance, and Globalization: the Diverging Paths of “Public Interest Law” across the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Sa e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, “public interest law” (PIL has become a frequent component in conversations about law and policy around the globe. While this worldwide manifestation of a professional and political script that thus far seemed to be typically so American suggests a remarkable process of diffusion, its mechanics and significance are yet to be examined more deeply and systematically. The available account contends that this process has been one of “convergence” and “adaptation”. Yet, there are good empirical and theoretical reasons to subject this account to further examination. Drawing from a comparative and international empirical research on the everyday lives of “public interest lawyers” in the United States and Latin America, this article stresses significant differences in the ways US and LA lawyers have structured “public interest law” – thus challenging the idea of convergence –, while also unveiling factors in the rich histories of professional and political development in the studied contexts, which initially account for such differentiation. These findings call for further research, but already speak to a variety of theories about institutional development in times of globalization, such as theories of institutional isomorphism and field constitution. En los últimos años, el “derecho de interés público” (DIP se ha convertido en un componente frecuente en las conversaciones sobre derecho y política a lo largo y ancho del globo. Mientras que esta manifestación a nivel mundial de un discurso profesional y político que hasta ahora parecía ser típicamente americano sugiere un notable proceso de difusión, sus mecanismos y significado todavía se deben examinar más profunda y sistemáticamente. La teoría disponible sostiene que este proceso ha sido de “convergencia” y “adaptación”. Sin embargo, hay buenas razones empíricas y teóricas para someter esta afirmación a un examen más profundo. A

  11. Marketing communication practices of public organizations to prevent human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze marketing communicative measures against human trafficking which were implemented by public organizations in 15 regions of Ukraine in 2011-2012. There are following research objectives: to investigate what kind of campaign or program of preventing the potential victims of human trafficking has been used by Ukrainian public organizations during 2011-2012; to determine whether marketing communicative measures have been implement...

  12. Communication and Conflict Management in Local Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela HENER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-organizational conflict within public institutions represents a topic that, until recently, has been rather ignored in Romania. This article is trying to present the multiple role of communication in solving, controlling and preventing conflicts in local public organizations. The paper presents a set of theoretical models (of conflict and communication in organizations and, based on the data offered by an organizational diagnosis-type research, analyzes the role of communication processes in conflict management and prevention.

  13. Who owns what? Private ownership and the public interest in recombinant DNA technology in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Doogab

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes how academic institutions, government agencies, and the nascent biotech industry contested the legal ownership of recombinant DNA technology in the name of the public interest. It reconstructs the way a small but influential group of government officials and university research administrators introduced a new framework for the commercialization of academic research in the context of a national debate over scientific research's contributions to American economic prosperity and public health. They claimed that private ownership of inventions arising from public support would provide a powerful means to liberate biomedical discoveries for public benefit. This articulation of the causal link between private ownership and the public interest, it is argued, justified a new set of expectations about the use of research results arising from government or public support, in which commercialization became a new public obligation for academic researchers. By highlighting the broader economic and legal shifts that prompted the reconfiguration of the ownership of public knowledge in late twentieth-century American capitalism, the essay examines the threads of policy-informed legal ideas that came together to affirm private ownership of biomedical knowledge as germane to the public interest in the coming of age of biotechnology and genetic medicine.

  14. Information Technology and the Organization Chart of Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouridis, S.; Snellen, I.Th.M.; van de Donk, W.B.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    To a certain extent the organization chart of public administration is inspired by the doctrines which are offered by public administration science. Some of these doctrines relate to policy implementation and the design of implementing agencies. In this chapter three of these main doctrines are disc

  15. Information Technology and the Organization Chart of Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouridis, S.; Snellen, I.Th.M.; van de Donk, W.B.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    To a certain extent the organization chart of public administration is inspired by the doctrines which are offered by public administration science. Some of these doctrines relate to policy implementation and the design of implementing agencies. In this chapter three of these main doctrines are

  16. On the Principles for Determining the Public Interest%论公共利益的认定原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志宏

    2012-01-01

    Public interest belongs to the legal revered matters, and the first policy of identifying public interest is to identify legally. In China, we need a law to clarify the scope and boundaries of public interest to identify law enforcement and justice. The principle of legitimacy is a reasonable standard of public interest. Public interest should be carried out within a reasonable range. The public interest can sacrifice personal interests in case of the lack of other alternative. The identification process of public interest is a process of value determination, and the public interest is relatively long--term interest and vital interest. When achieving public interest requires restriction or sacrifice, the restriction or sacrifice should be limited to a minimum in line with the principle of proportionality. If pursuing public interest damages the personal interests, they should be given full and fair compensation. Definition and identification of public interest should be processed in an open, fair and equitable procedure on basis of the rule of law to ensure that the public interest is in line with the requirements of most people.%公共利益属于法律保留事项,依法认定是公共利益认定的首要原则,我国需要通过立法进一步明确公共利益的范围和边界,以明确执法和司法。正当性原则是公共利益的合理性标准,公共利益应当在合理的范围内进行,公共利益只能在没有其他备选替代方案时才能牺牲个人利益。公共利益的认定是一个价值判断过程,公共利益是相对的长远利益和重大利益。当公共利益的实现需要其他利益作出限制或牺牲时,应当把这种限制或牺牲限制在最小范围,符合比例原则。如果追求公共利益时损害了个人利益,就应当给予充分的公平的补偿。公共利益的界定以及认定应当以公开、公平和公正的法治程序为基础,以确保公共利益符合大多数人的要求。

  17. Applying strategic management theories in public sector organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Ewan, Ferlie

    2016-01-01

    conditions: the degree of administrative autonomy, performance-based budgeting and market-like competition. We give empirical examples drawn from public servives in the UK and Denmark. We call for more exploration of these (and other) strategic management approaches within contemporary public services...... that possibiliteis for applying these theories vary depending on the type of public organizations involved, and are les appropriate in traditional settings but more relevant in autonomized and market-like service-delivery organizations. We further propose that their increased applicability depends on three specific...

  18. Introducing a Technological Change in a Public School Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.

    A segment of a longitudinal study of the changing management philosophy of a public school organization involves the introduction of a new technology--the use of an integrated information system--in an environment that was to have been prepared for change. The administrators and staff of the organization had participated in a feasibility study…

  19. When Opportunity Knocks Twice: Dual Living Kidney Donation, Autonomy and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa; Huxtable, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Living kidney transplantation offers the best treatment in terms of life-expectancy and quality of life for those with end-stage renal disease. The long-term risks of living donor nephrectomy, although real, are very small, with evidence of good medium-term outcomes. Who should be entitled to donate, and in which circumstances, is nevertheless a live question. We explore the ethical dimensions of a request by an individual to donate both of their kidneys during life: 'dual living kidney donation'. Our ethical analysis is tethered to a hypothetical case study in which a father asks to donate a kidney to each of his twin boys. We explore the autonomy of the protagonists, alongside different dimensions of the public interest, such as the need to protect not only the recipients, but also the donor and even the wider community. Whilst acknowledging objections to 'dual-donation', not least by reference to the harms that the donor might be expected to endure, we suggest there is a prima facie case for permitting this, provided that both donor and recipients are willing and that due attention is paid to such considerations as the autonomy and welfare of all parties, as well as to the wider ramifications of acting on such a request. We argue for broader interpretations of the concepts of autonomy and welfare, recognizing the importance of relationships and the relevance of more than merely physical well-being. Equipped with such a holistic assessment, we suggest there is a prima facie case for allowing 'dual living kidney donation'.

  20. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  1. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics

  2. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  3. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  4. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Doing and Feeling Research in Public: Queer Organizing for Public Education and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Erica R.; Quinn, Therese M.

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in activism--fighting the implementation of Department of Defense-run schools in a public schools system; organizing to fight the largest national teacher education accreditation agency's removal of sexual orientation and social justice from its accreditation standards; and protesting a state's decision to hold a public meeting for…

  6. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  7. FORECAST, ORGANIZATION-COORDINATION AND MOTIVATION IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of local administrative system is not possible without the exercise of the functions of local public administration management. From such a direction, in this article we intend to analyze the contents of the functions of forecast, of organization-coordination and of motivation, in order to show how each of these contributes to good management of local public affairs. Defining the mission, the objectives of local government and the actions to be taken to achieve them, the design and harmonization of optimal local organizational structure components to achieve preset objectives, but also the human resources training from local public administration to use their skills and capacities towards achieving the objectives of the local public organization contribute to improving the local administrative process with effect on satisfying the interests of the local community

  8. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges of adopting agile methods in a public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Nuottila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile development methods are widely used among business enterprises. Since the introduction of the Agile Manifesto in 2001, several agile methods have been implemented, first in single-team set-ups and later in larger multi-team set-ups for complex Information Technology (IT system development. However, the adoption of agile methods has been slow in the public sector. This is also reflected in the academic literature, as there are only a few studies discussing agile adoption in public organizations. This paper contributes to research on the use of agile practices specifically in the context of public organizations, and sheds light on the challenges a public organization may face while adopting these practices. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize the challenges that may hinder efficient adoption and use of agile methods in public IT projects that include private software vendors. This research is based on a case study of a large governmental office. As a result, this paper presents several categories of identified challenges, the root causes of these challenges, and a discussion of the characteristics of these challenges for the public sector.

  10. An Empirical Analysis on Public Prosecutors’ Roles Participating in Environmental Public Interest Litigation%检察机关参与环境公益诉讼的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪坤

    2014-01-01

    At present,the public prosecutors’ roles when participating public interest litigation are still in the “trial and error” phase on the environmental public interest litigation. When procuratorates participate in environmental public interest litigation,there are no specific procedural norms and a set of operating experience for reference. In environmental disputes,environmental authorities with a lot of information of polluting enterprises and other illegal evidences need the support of prosecuting organ which is familiar with the techniques of the proceedings and skills,the prosecuting organ also needs the environmental authorities to provide the necessary evidence. Environmental authorities and public prosecutors should collaborate and use the “steel teeth” of justice to provide a strong support for environmental enforcement. Through the empirical investigation of the main characteristics and realistic constraints of prosecuting organ in environmental public interest litigation. This article attemptes to find a way which fits our county’s reality for procuratorial organ involved in the environmental public interest litigation,thus boost the construction and improvement of ecological civilization’s justice mechanism.%当前,检察机关参与环境公益诉讼仍处于“摸着石头过河”阶段。检察机关参与环境公益诉讼具体程序性规范缺失,具体操作过程中亦缺乏一整套可供借鉴的经验。环境纠纷中,拥有污染企业众多信息以及其他违法证据的环保机关需要熟知诉讼程序与技巧的检察机关的支持,而检察机关亦离不开环保机关为其提供必要的证据与线索。两者应通力协作,以司法的“钢牙”,为环境执法提供强有力的后盾。通过实证考察检察机关参与环境公益诉讼的主要特征与现实掣肘,试图寻求契合我国实情的检察机关参与环境公益诉讼之路,从而助推生态文明建设司法机制的完善。

  11. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  12. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  13. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  14. Marketing Booze to Blacks. A Report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, George A.; And Others

    Beer, wine, and liquor manufacturers aggressively seek to maximize sales of their products to blacks, despite public health and safety problems associated with those products. Rather than act to protect the public from the over-promotion of alcohol, government has set few effective constraints on the sales stratagems of alcoholic beverage…

  15. Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and…

  16. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  17. 我国公立医院公益性的SWOT分析及对策%SWOT analysis and countermeasure of public interests in the public hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 李游江

    2015-01-01

    根据我国深化医药卫生体制改革的精神,结合当前的实际情况,综合分析我国公立医院坚持公益性的优势、劣势、机遇和威胁,应用SWOT组合策略分析原理提出促进我国公立医院实践公益性质的发展策略和政策建议,为坚持并维护我国公立医院的公益性质提供参考和决策依据。%Based on the current situation of China’s health care reform, this paper gives a comprehensive analysis on keeping public interests in the public hospitals with its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) . This SWOT strategy combination analysis would provide the public hospitals with developmental strategies and policy recommendations in practicing public interests, as well as to provide policy making evidences to sustaining the public interests in the public hospitals.

  18. 78 FR 67118 - Notice of Limited, Program-Wide, Public Interest Waivers of Section 1605(a) (Buy American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... existing safety and security systems. Both program-wide, public interest waivers of the Buy American... construction project into the recipient's existing safety and security systems (Safety and Security Systems... incidental items, the country of manufacture and the availability of domestic alternatives are not...

  19. Interest Groups Vie for Public Support: The Battle Over Anti-Affirmative Action Initiatives in California and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    Although affirmative action in college admissions has not been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the consideration of race in admissions has been banned in nine states--in six of them by public vote. This article analyzes the campaigns to ban affirmative action in California and Michigan as a battle between interest groups. The…

  20. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... (IASFPWG) to draft a revision to the current AC 20-42C, issued on March 1984, by incorporating...

  1. [The contracting process and outsourcing in health: the scenario for dispute between public and private interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Veloso; Morais, Heloísa Maria Mendonça de; Lima, Luci Praciano

    2015-06-01

    This research analyzed the public-private composition in the municipal health network and aspects of the contracting/outsourcing process for services over the period from 2001 to 2008. The research method used was a case study with documentary research and interviews. The interviewees were former secretaries of health, directors of regulation and district managers. The categories of analysis used were public funds, care networks and public control. The results showed that the contracting was restricted to philanthropic units. With respect to the other private establishments linked to the public care network, non-compliance with programmatic aspects was detected, such as the lack of regulation of bidding processes required for contracting. Management authorities did not actively pursue building up state public services, or the formation of care networks. The contracted establishments conducted their activities without effective external and internal control mechanisms, which are paramount for the proper use of public resources. The authors conclude that the contracting process does not significantly alter the standard of buying and selling of services and indeed does not enhance the empowering process of the role of the public domain.

  2. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 76 FR 60080 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Apple Inc. of CA. The complainant, proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the... behalf of VIA Technologies Inc., IP-First, LLC and Centaur Technology on September 22, 2011....

  4. On the Public Interest of Environmental Protection Law%论环境法中的公共利益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋烁

    2015-01-01

    More and more social events in relation to the public interest, which influences the daily life deeply, the most obvious one is the environmental infringement. This kind of behavior has particularity, correspondingly, the"public" factors should be put in the whole process of Legislative, administrative and judicial, when handle such cases involving the public interest.%越来越多的社会事件面向公众, 关涉公共利益, 影响面甚广, 其中以环境领域的侵权事件最为直观明显. 这类行为具有特殊性, 相应地也决定了在处理这类涉及公共利益的案件时,立法、 行政、 司法的全程都应增加"公" 因素的考量.

  5. HRM in private and public organizations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management (HRM is a management concept which obtains many practices and activities. Although there is a substantial literature on HRM in the private sector, the practice of HRM in the public sector is still scarce. In the private sector, HRM is found as a factor for gaining competitive advantage, especially if HR practices are implemented in the way of high-performing working practice (HPWP. In the public sector, HRM is seen as paternalistic management, with the standardization of employment practices, collective bargaining and working practices that emphasize equal opportunities for employees. The goal of this research is to explore the characteristics and differences between HRM practice in organizations from the private and public sector. The subject of the research is HRM practice (staffing, training and development, compensation and benefits, and industrial relation and communication in the private and public organizations in the Republic of Serbia. The methodology of the paper includes exploration of the available literature on the theme and statistical analysis of the differences between HR practices in organizations from the private and public sector. The research is based on the HR data gathered in the second CRANET research round in Serbia, performed in 2015.

  6. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics.

  7. The 'Publicness-puzzle' in public leadership. A theoretical exploration of leadership in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Dorsman (Stephan); M. Thaens (Marcel); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Following a contingency approach we argue that the content and style of administrative leadership depends on characteristics of the public context. The purpose of the paper is to develop hypotheses on the relationships between several dimensions of publicness and the content a

  8. The 'Publicness-puzzle' in public leadership. A theoretical exploration of leadership in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Dorsman (Stephan); M. Thaens (Marcel); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Following a contingency approach we argue that the content and style of administrative leadership depends on characteristics of the public context. The purpose of the paper is to develop hypotheses on the relationships between several dimensions of publicness and

  9. Dilemmas of balancing organizational and public interests: how environment affects strategy in Dutch main ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Veen, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility implies more attention to company relationships with governments and other stakeholders. The need for intensive interaction is most conspicuous when company activities come close to the provision of (former) public goods, which also have strong environmental and

  10. Stimulating Public Interest in Lunar Exploration and Enhancing Science Literacy Through Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S.; Nelson, B.; Stockman, S.; Weir, H.; Carter, B.; Bleacher, L.

    2008-07-01

    Libraries are vibrant learning places, seeking partners in science programming. LPI's Explore! program offers a model for public engagement in lunar exploration in libraries, as shown by materials created collaboratively with the LRO E/PO team.

  11. Philosophy in the Public Interest: An Interview with Martha C. Nussbaum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a wide-ranging interview with one of America's most prominent philosophers, whose reputation is due not only to her productivity, but to her willingness to speak to broad audiences on topics of public importance. (EV)

  12. IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: MODULARITY PROBLEMS IN A PUBLIC ORGANIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2012-01-01

    As today’s public and private sector organizations heavily rely on Information Technology (IT) to provide faster cycle times and better services, IT Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. This research adopts engaged scholarship to investigate IT PPM practices...... suggest a model addressing the identified problems by organizing IT PPM in three modules connected by three gateways. These results may be used to inform further research into IT PPM and to help managers improve IT PPM practices in public organizations. Keywords: IT Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM......, and (2) what modularity mechanisms can be recommended to improve IT PPM? By drawing on the theory’s distinction between visible information and Hidden design parameters five modularity problems are identified: (1) Lack of operational levels strategies, (2) No systematic approach to manage IT project...

  13. The Formation of Organic Compounds of Astrobiological Interest by the Irradiation Processing of Astrophysical Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments in space contain very low temperature mixed molecular ices that are exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of cosmic rays and high-energy photons. While traditional chemistry would not be expected to occur at the temperatures typical of these ices (T organic compounds. Many of these new products are of direct interest to astrobiology. For example, the irradiation of mixed molecular ices has been shown to produce amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, sugars, heterocyclic compounds, and nucleobases, all molecular building blocks used by terrestrial life. Insofar as the presence of these materials plays a role in the origin of life on planets, this has profound implications for the potential abundance of life in the universe since these experiments simulate universal conditions that are expected to be found wherever new stars and planets form.

  14. Identifying regions of interest in medical images using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Wei-Guang; Chang, Ping-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Advances in data acquisition, processing and visualization techniques have had a tremendous impact on medical imaging in recent years. However, the interpretation of medical images is still almost always performed by radiologists. Developments in artificial intelligence and image processing have shown the increasingly great potential of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). Nevertheless, it has remained challenging to develop a general approach to process various commonly used types of medical images (e.g., X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound images). To facilitate diagnosis, we recommend the use of image segmentation to discover regions of interest (ROI) using self-organizing maps (SOM). We devise a two-stage SOM approach that can be used to precisely identify the dominant colors of a medical image and then segment it into several small regions. In addition, by appropriately conducting the recursive merging steps to merge smaller regions into larger ones, radiologists can usually identify one or more ROIs within a medical image.

  15. THE MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: FROM INTEREST GROUPS TO CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votchenko, E.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government - public-private partnerships (PPP in the system of public discourse. The article discusses the various modern theoretical approaches to the study of the social aspects of interaction between business and government in modern political science. The author considers the concept and models of foreign public-private partnerships, social investments and corporate citizenship. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm of PPP – practice of corporate citizenship. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense - as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

  16. Moving upstream: why rehabilitative justice in military discharge proceedings serves a public health interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamone, Evan R; McGuire, James; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Clark, Sean; Smee, Daniel; Dow, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The cultural divide between US military and civilian institutions amplifies the consequences of military discharge status on public health and criminal justice systems in a manner that is invisible to a larger society. Prompt removal of problematic wounded warriors through retributive justice is more expedient than lengthy mental health treatment. Administrative and punitive discharges usually preclude Department of Veterans Affairs eligibility, posing a heavy public health burden. Moving upstream--through military rehabilitative justice addressing military offenders' mental health needs before discharge--will reduce the downstream consequences of civilian maladjustment and intergenerational transmission of mental illness. The public health community can play an illuminating role by gathering data about community effect and by advocating for policy change at Department of Veterans Affairs and community levels.

  17. Organization's Orderly Interest Exploration: Inception, Development and Insights of AIAA's Topics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jospeh R.; Morris, Allan T.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, AIAA's Computer Systems and Software Systems Technical Committees (TCs) have developed a database that aids technical committee management to map technical topics to their members. This Topics/Interest (T/I) database grew out of a collection of charts and spreadsheets maintained by the TCs. Since its inception, the tool has evolved into a multi-dimensional database whose dimensions include the importance, interest and expertise of TC members and whether or not a member and/or a TC is actively involved with the topic. In 2005, the database was expanded to include the TCs in AIAA s Information Systems Group and then expanded further to include all AIAA TCs. It was field tested at an AIAA Technical Activities Committee (TAC) Workshop in early 2006 through live access by over 80 users. Through the use of the topics database, TC and program committee (PC) members can accomplish relevant tasks such as: to identify topic experts (for Aerospace America articles or external contacts), to determine the interest of its members, to identify overlapping topics between diverse TCs and PCs, to guide new member drives and to reveal emerging topics. This paper will describe the origins, inception, initial development, field test and current version of the tool as well as elucidate the benefits and insights gained by using the database to aid the management of various TC functions. Suggestions will be provided to guide future development of the database for the purpose of providing dynamics and system level benefits to AIAA that currently do not exist in any technical organization.

  18. 76 FR 9766 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... ancillary solar Photovoltaic (PV) equipment, when this equipment is utilized in solar installations containing domestically manufactured PV cells or modules (panels). This extension of the amended public... as panels or modules. These two terms are synonymous and used interchangeably in this memorandum....

  19. 75 FR 52322 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... incidental and/or ancillary solar Photovoltaic (PV) equipment, when this equipment is utilized in solar installations containing domestically manufactured PV cells or modules (panels). Specifically, this public... assembled into larger groups known as panels or modules. These two terms are synonymous and...

  20. Interest Groups and Governmental Institutions: The Politics of State Funding of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David

    2010-01-01

    In attempting to explain state support of public higher education, this study develops a theory-driven, comprehensive conceptualization of the state political system within a larger theoretical framework that consists of state economic and demographic factors and higher education system attributes. Furthermore, although the higher education policy…

  1. 76 FR 45293 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Arco of FL; CRU Acquisitions Group LLC of WA; CRU-Data Port LLC of WA; Digital Intelligence, Inc. of WI... investigation would negatively affect the public health and welfare in the United States, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like or directly competitive articles in the...

  2. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... increases competition for National Forest System timber sales, results in higher prices paid for such timber... hazardous fuels. On June 1, 2012, there were 98 National Forest System timber sales under contract in... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public...

  3. Data ideologies of an interested public: A study of grassroots open government data intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schrock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Government officials claim open data can improve internal and external communication and collaboration. These promises hinge on “data intermediaries”: extra-institutional actors that obtain, use, and translate data for the public. However, we know little about why these individuals might regard open data as a site of civic participation. In response, we draw on Ilana Gershon to conceptualize culturally situated and socially constructed perspectives on data, or “data ideologies.” This study employs mixed methodologies to examine why members of the public hold particular data ideologies and how they vary. In late 2015 the authors engaged the public through a commission in a diverse city of approximately 500,000. Qualitative data was collected from three public focus groups with residents. Simultaneously, we obtained quantitative data from surveys. Participants’ data ideologies varied based on how they perceived data to be useful for collaboration, tasks, and translations. Bucking the “geek” stereotype, only a minority of those surveyed (20% were professional software developers or engineers. Although only a nascent movement, we argue open data intermediaries have important roles to play in a new political landscape.

  4. 75 FR 80842 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products Containing Same, DN 2774; the Commission is soliciting comments on any..., telephone (202) 205-2000. The public version of the complaint can be accessed on the Commission's electronic... for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

  5. Unions and the Public Interest: Is Collective Bargaining for Teachers Good for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Three years after Barack Obama's election signaled a seeming resurgence for America's unions, the landscape looks very different. Republican governors in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio have limited the reach of collective bargaining for public employees. The moves, especially in Wisconsin, set off a national furor that has all but obscured the…

  6. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This brief bibliography is part of a series produced by the Current Awareness Services of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information, and informational service of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The publications provide readers with regularly codified bibliographic references to recent, topical literature in…

  7. 76 FR 45850 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology, DN 2836; the Commission is soliciting comments on any... interactive program guide and parental controls technology. The complaint names as respondents Sharp... available for public inspection at the Office of the Secretary. This action is taken under the authority of...

  8. The Public Interest in the Globally Sustainable Information Society: The Traditional Knowledge Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Society increasingly perceives information as an owned commodity. As a consequence, laws born from this conception are removing uses of information from the public domain and placing them in an enclosed domain where they are subject to an owner's exclusive control. It has been argued that this enclosure movement poses a threat to the diversity of…

  9. Publications from clinical trials: process, conflict of interest and the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Low, Wah Yun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the issues of publication of clinical trials with consideration of ethics and the incomplete evidence base. We review clinical trials and issues of communications and ethics. Several case studies of notable public health researchers will be discussed. Many of the major breakthroughs of public health practice, including the works of John Snow would not have been published under modern guidelines for scientific communication. The research-publication system of modern health care poses many challenges for editors. Journal editors need to include a balance of different types of studies where insufficient randomised controlled trials are available. Clinical trials are a reliable source of evidence for health care practitioners. Journals need to uphold the integrity of the information provided by randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and synthesise and communicate health information. At the same time, editors must assess non-RCT evidence and be vigilant for many of the other potential problems in health and medical communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 39121 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data, and Tablet Computers, DN 2824; the Commission is... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers. The complaint names as.../or a cease and desist order in this investigation would negatively affect the public health...

  11. 75 FR 62565 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ..., Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof, DN 2759; the Commission is... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... investigation would negatively affect the public health and welfare in the United States, competitive...

  12. Evaluation of dairy powder products implicates thermophilic sporeformers as the primary organisms of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, M J; Kent, D J; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2014-01-01

    Dairy powder products (e.g., sweet whey, nonfat dry milk, acid whey, and whey protein concentrate-80) are of economic interest to the dairy industry. According to the US Dairy Export Council, customers have set strict tolerances (Raw, work-in-process, and finished product samples were collected from 4 dairy powder processing facilities in the northeastern United States over a 1-yr period. Two separate spore treatments: (1) 80°C for 12min (to detect sporeformers) and (2) 100°C for 30min (to detect highly heat resistant sporeformers) were applied to samples before microbiological analyses. Raw material, work-in-process, and finished product samples were analyzed for thermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrotolerant sporeformers, with 77.5, 71.0, and 4.6% of samples being positive for those organisms, respectively. Work-in-process and finished product samples were also analyzed for highly heat resistant thermophilic and mesophilic sporeformers, with 63.7 and 42.6% of samples being positive, respectively. Sporeformer prevalence and counts varied considerably by product and plant; sweet whey and nonfat dry milk showed a higher prevalence of thermophilic and mesophilic sporeformers compared with acid whey and whey protein concentrate-80. Unlike previous reports, we found limited evidence for increased spore counts toward the end of processing runs. Our data provide important insight into spore contamination patterns associated with production of different types of dairy powders and support that thermophilic sporeformers are the primary organism of concern in dairy powders.

  13. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANNING SPECIFIC TO PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Florin Tudor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In public services, the political component of the marketing environment has a major importance, as all decisions adopted within central administration influence both the objectives and measures implemented by units of local government and other public service providers. Any discontinuity in the activity of such entities might result in neglecting the real needs of citizens and slowing the reform process in the public sector. Therefore, all initiatives of public organizations must have a unitary goal and integrate harmoniously within a single process. A tool from the management-marketing literature that both contributes to this purpose and leads to an increased customer satisfaction and organizational performance is strategic marketing planning. This paper presents, firstly, requirements and particularities of this process in the public sector, focusing on the need for bottom-up planning, meaning from the functional levels of public service organizations, to the corporate level, where strategic decisions are taken. To achieve this goal, there should be included in the planning process the clients and other audiences, which can provide useful information about the services they want, the quality or the accessibility thereof, and news about the services they need in the future. There are also mentioned the factors that can influence the quality of strategic marketing planning in public services domain: the importance of marketing within the organization, marketing knowledge of employees in marketing departments and/or of management personnel, the efficiency of activities within the organization, and the manager’s marketing vision. In the final part of the paper there are presented the stages of the conceptual model of strategic marketing planning in public services field: (1 accepting the idea of bottom-up planning, (2 avoid or eliminate discrepancies between measures taken at high levels and executions carried out at operational

  14. Managing Effective Organization: Public Administration and the Competing Values Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ROHRBAUGH

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As we begin to develop the curriculum of public administration for the next century, one fundamental question remains unanswered. By what standards do we judge the effectiveness of government agencies? Our students will be leading some of the most important organizations in their countries, if not in the world. Our charge is to prepare them for distinguished management careers in which through thoughtful redesign they will be responsible for the creation of far better organizational structures and processes than existed in this decade or the last. To design curriculum appropriate to this challenge, we must be guided by a better understanding of effective and ineffective performance in the public sector.

  15. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Design: The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public...... kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Setting: Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. Subjects: A total of 622...... public kitchens. Results: The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (P...

  16. Has the American Public's Interest in Information Related to Relationships Beyond "The Couple" Increased Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Finding romance, love, and sexual intimacy is a central part of our life experience. Although people engage in romance in a variety of ways, alternatives to "the couple" are largely overlooked in relationship research. Scholars and the media have recently argued that the rules of romance are changing, suggesting that interest in consensual departures from monogamy may become popular as people navigate their long-term coupling. This study utilizes Google Trends to assess Americans' interest in seeking out information related to consensual nonmonogamous relationships across a 10-year period (2006-2015). Using anonymous Web queries from hundreds of thousands of Google search engine users, results show that searches for words related to polyamory and open relationships (but not swinging) have significantly increased over time. Moreover, the magnitude of the correlation between consensual nonmonogamy Web queries and time was significantly higher than popular Web queries over the same time period, indicating this pattern of increased interest in polyamory and open relationships is unique. Future research avenues for incorporating consensual nonmonogamous relationships into relationship science are discussed.

  17. Danish newspapers’ coverage of conflict they are part of: self-serving or serving the public interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a frame analysis of newspaper coverage of an issue that the newspapers themselves have interests vested in, asking to what extent news workers select framings in accordance with particular, self-serving rather than public interest. The paper examines...... Danish newspapers’ coverage of the conflict between the state-owned public service broadcaster DR and the newspapers, which are privately owned. The conflict concerns whether the state-owned actor distorts the media market and competes with private actors on an unfair basis at a time where the news...... for the study consists of the 94 news articles and opinion pieces that represent seven national Danish newspapers’ coverage entire of the issue in 2014 and 2015. The seven newspapers (B.T., Berlingske, Børsen, Information, Jyllands-Posten, Kristeligt Dagblad, and Politiken) span the national variations...

  18. Edward A. Delgado-Romero: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Edward A. Delgado-Romero, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. "Societies, professions, and individual citizens are enriched by the contributions of those who care. Edward A. Delgado-Romero has demonstrated through his scholarship, leadership in psychological associations such as the National Latina/Latino Psychological Association, and collaborations with universities and school districts in Georgia that he cares and is committed to addressing challenges in the provision of culturally sensitive psychological services to benefit the public interest. His example of servant leadership leaves a legacy to other early career professionals and graduate students alike. Es un hijo honorado." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  20. Analysis of the prosecution's filing public interest litigation%析检察机关提起公益诉讼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉新; 杨红

    2009-01-01

    检察机关提起公益诉讼,是指检察机关以国家法律监督者的身份对涉及国家利益和社会利益而无人起诉的案件,向法院提起诉讼,要求法院依法判决有关违法行为无效,并追究有关当事人的法律责任的活动.我国虽尚未建立该项制度,但是域外的成功实践为我国构建检察机关提起公益诉讼制度提供了良好的借鉴,在我国建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度存在必要性和可行性.%The prosecution's filing public interest litigation, refers to the activities that the prosecution as supervisor of the country law prosecute the case relating to national interests and the interests of the community and no one to prosecute to the courts, asking the court to sentence the offenses in accordance with the law null, and hold the legal responsibilities of the parties. Although China has not yet established the system, the foreign successful practice provides a good reference for prosecutors to bring public interest litigation system in China. It is necessary and feasible to establish the system of the prosecution' filing public interest litigation in China.

  1. Marketing communication practices of public organizations to prevent human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze marketing communicative measures against human trafficking which were implemented by public organizations in 15 regions of Ukraine in 2011-2012. There are following research objectives: to investigate what kind of campaign or program of preventing the potential victims of human trafficking has been used by Ukrainian public organizations during 2011-2012; to determine whether marketing communicative measures have been implemented on the basis of previously carried out researches for determining effective preventive methods and to find out if they were addressed to a target group of potential victims; to analyze the material used for the campaigns or programs and its dissemination. The results of the analysis. The analysis of data obtained from 15 investigated regions makes it possible to draw the following results: active informing of society about human trafficking by public organizations and authorities took place in 2011-2012, but their measures were not coordinated, communications were not integrated, without clearly defined executors, time frames, criteria of evaluation and were not based on previous researches. Monitoring of implementation of measures was not carried out by authorities. All target audiences were not reached; the choice of the target market and methodology of preventive work was based on previous researches; their actions were directed on target audiences of communications, which both are the population in general and potential victims, establishments aiding victims of trafficking in human beings, central executive authorities, local executive authorities; public organizations have used the following channels of communication: personal communications in forms of training, seminars, press-conferences, different outdoor actions, consultations on human trafficking combating by «hot line»; there is a problem of common, standardized, objective state statistics in the

  2. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  3. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Cecilie Høiland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  4. Mystery shopping as a quality adjunct in public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R

    1995-12-01

    Public health in Australia is undergoing unprecedented emphasis on meeting customers' needs, wants and expectations. Mystery shopping, common in the commercial world, has much to offer health organizations in their push towards quality. This paper describes this inexpensive technique and reports on its use in North West Health Service, a large rural health provider. The potential exists for its widescale adoption in health to better meet customer focus objectives.

  5. Organizing public good provision: Lessons from managerial accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito; Hansen, Stephen Eliot

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies ideas and findings from Managerial Accounting to the problem of public good provision. It first links the problems of traditional bureaucracies with those of "discretionary expense centers", which are characterized by poor user and supplier incentives as well as overproduction. It then describes alternative hybrid organizations that delegate authority and provide incentives on some dimensions, while maintaining control on others. Finally, it illustrates the ideas with sever...

  6. Selecting Large Portfolios of Social Projects in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Litvinchev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the portfolio selection of social projects in public organizations considering interdependencies (synergies affecting project funds requirements and tasks. A mixed integer linear programming model is proposed incorporating the most relevant aspects of the problem found in the literature. The model supports both complete (all or nothing and partial (a certain amount from a given interval of funding resource allocation policies. Numerical results for large-scale problem instances are presented.

  7. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  8. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    This dissertation explores the role of consumer purchasing behavior in providing public, environmental goods. It does so by empirically evaluating one market---voluntary demand for renewable energy. The dissertation addresses the following five research questions: (1) What does early experience with green power marketing tell us about the prospects for this market to deliver environmental benefits? (2) What product design and marketing approaches might be used to increase voluntary demand? (3) What motivates non-residential customers to voluntarily purchase green power? (4) What role might public policy play in the creation of the green power market? (5) What preferences do individuals hold on the most appropriate forms of support for renewable energy? By helping to answer these questions, this dissertation seeks to better understand the gap between widespread positive attitudes for the environment and an often-anemic response to green product offerings. It contributes to not only the public goods and environmental marketing literatures, but also to contingent valuation methodology and to an emerging literature on the motivations of firms to contribute to environmental causes. The analysis performed is diverse, and includes: a literature review, a mail survey of green power marketers, a mail survey of non-residential green power customers, and contingent valuation and opinion surveys of U.S. residents. Detailed statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the residential and non-residential surveys. The analysis reveals that customer participation in green power programs to date has been weak. The possibility that the traditional economic concept of "free riding" may explain this low response is raised, and the dissertation identifies a number of marketing approaches that might be used to partially combat this problem. Analysis of survey data shows that non-residential green power purchases have been motivated principally by altruistic concerns

  9. On Substantially Public Interest Relieving by the Environmental Public Interest Civil Litigation%论环境民事公益诉讼救济的实体公益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺效

    2016-01-01

    生态损害是指人为的活动已经造成或者可能造成人类生存和发展所必须依赖的生态(或环境)发生物理、化学、生物性能的重大退化。2002年发生在我国的“塔斯曼海”油轮油污案的裁判结果已充分证明,生态损害是区别于传统环境侵权损害的一种独立存在,立法对生态损害预防和救济的不作为将会造成环境公共利益的重大损害。结合法理和欧盟有关法治实践经验分析可知,直接或潜在影响广大公众和未来世代子孙的环境公共利益之无主的或非私人所有(国家或公共机构所有)的环境要素、自然资源、生态系统的损害,才是环境民事公益诉讼所应救济的主要实体性公益。%“Ecological damage”refers to any existing and/or likely significant human-induced degrada-tion in the physical,chemical and/or ecological functions of any part of ecological or environmental systems,or on the whole consisting of those interacting parts,which are the foundations for human beingssurvival and development.The Judgment of the 2002 Tasman Sea Tanker oil pollution case has testified that the ecological damage is independent from the traditional environmental tort dam-age.Absent legislative prevention and remedy of ecological damage,the environmental public interests will be seriously infringed.The legal theories and relevant law practices in the European Union indicate that only the damage to the ownerless and/or non-private environmental elements,natural elements and ecological system,which directly or potentially affects the broad publics and future generationsenvironmental public interests,shall be the core substantive public interest remedied by environmental public interest litigation.

  10. Seeds and Sparks: Cultivating Children's Interest in Physics through Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica

    2006-11-01

    The National Academies' ``Rising above the Gathering Storm'' report names the improvement of K-12 science and mathematics education as its highest priority recommendation. This recommendation includes enlarging the pipeline of students preparing to study STEM subjects at university by increasing the number of students who take (and pass) advanced high school level science courses. To this end, the American Physical Society's Public Outreach department offers PhysicsQuest, a free program designed to engage middle school science students in a learning adventure. The core idea of the program is to provide a fun and exciting way for students to encounter physics, thereby eliminating some of the fear often associated with the subject and making them more likely to take high school physics courses. In the end, the students do learn some physics, but, more importantly, they have a fun experience with physics. This talk further describes the PhysicsQuest program, including feedback and results from the 2005 project, and also gives an overview of other K-12 programs offered by APS Public Outreach. The report can be read online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11463.html#toc. STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics

  11. Molecular detection assay of five Salmonella serotypes of public interest: Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Hadar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Management of Labor Conflicts in Public Health Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena Belu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The work “Management of labor conflicts in public health organizations” treats a very importantissue, of the present, with extensive and multiple implications for public health. The work can be consideredas an interdisciplinary study justified by two arguments: first, it is essential to applied research step, theknowledge and use of enshrined informational content in management literature, especially of models andmechanisms of managerial activity on the administration of human resources, managerial style, mobilizationcapacities, communication, coordination or decision ones and, not least the mechanisms characteristic tocollective relations established between managers and employees; second, it is required for theimplementation phase of research findings, capitalization of an informational sphere of law field, specifically,labor law, because labor conflicts are based both on specific regulations of labor law and on a juridicalliterature, of great interest and of strict use for a concrete optimization of labor social relations.

  13. [Environmental spread of Taenia proglottids: an atypical yet interesting public health problem in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2010-01-01

    We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environment, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man.

  14. Gram-positive bacterial resistant strains of interest in animal and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Pilegi Sfaciotte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among multiresistant Gram-positive microorganisms, stands out methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS, an opportunistic pathogen associated with hospital acquired and community infections reported in medicine and large increase in reports of veterinary medicine. In veterinary medicine, numerous reports regarding several species of animals have been described. MRS is intrinsically resistant to all ?-lactam drugs. In veterinary medicine, numerous reports regarding several species of animals have been described, but Staphylococcus aureus with intermediate resistance and resistant to vancomycin (VISA/VRSA has not yet been reported in veterinary medicine, still need further study. Staphylococcus spp. are also related to antimicrobial resistance of macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB group, that has the same mechanism of action, although the drugs belong to different classes. In veterinary medicine, clindamycin (lincosamide class is widely used for skin infections, wounds, bone infections, pneumonia, infections of the oral cavity, and infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, besides being used for treatments of MRS infections. Enterococcus is another resistant Gram-positive microorganism, from which vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs are the most important strains. There are several reports of VREs in veterinary medicine due the use of a similar antimicrobial (avoparcin in livestock; therefore this group of microorganisms has now acquired great prominence since vancomycin is considered as the last resort for the treatment of MRS and Enterococcus associated with nosocomial infections in humans. The biggest problem these microorganisms and their resistance mechanisms cause is related to its huge impact on public health due to the increasing close contact between animals and humans. The objective of this review was to identify the main Gram-positive microorganisms associated with animals, describing their mechanisms of action that

  15. Navigating digital publics for playful production: A cross-case analysis of two interest-driven online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia A. Korobkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the set of skills and strategies associated with managing digital publics online represent an emergent literacy practice of importance to literacy researchers and educators. Drawing on two case studies of online communities popular with contemporary youth to learn, play, and socialize, we articulate how youth participants strategically negotiate multiple audiences online with varying levels of publicity in order to achieve learning outcomes. In one case, players of a popular production-centered video game share their content in ways that garner the specific kind of audience and feedback they need for their projects. In another, members of an online fan fiction community analyze and negotiate expectations of their audience in order to craft media that garners attention and sustains readership. Both examples identify how skills centered on navigating and managing publics – that is, multiple audiences that are permeable across a wider public online – constitute a recognizable and important “new literacy” in digitally mediated learning environments. We situate our empirical studies in sociocultural theories of learning and historicize the work in contemporary digital cultures and the general move from the writer-reader relationship to writer-audience relationships to more complex relationships within digital publics. The article ends with considerations for literacy researchers, policymakers, and practitioners interested in technology-mediated practices of today’s youth.

  16. Public interest in climate change over the past decade and the effects of the ‘climategate’ media event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Goldsmith, Gregory R.

    2014-05-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific consensus concerning anthropogenic climate change, many in the non-expert public perceive climate change as debated and contentious. There is concern that two recent high-profile media events—the hacking of the University of East Anglia emails and the Himalayan glacier melt rate presented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—may have altered public opinion of climate change. While survey data is valuable for tracking public perception and opinion over time, including in response to climate-related media events, emerging methods that facilitate rapid assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in public interest and opinion could be exceptionally valuable for understanding and responding to these events’ effects. We use a novel, freely-available dataset of worldwide web search term volumes to assess temporal patterns of interest in climate change over the past ten years, with a particular focus on looking at indicators of climate change skepticism around the high-profile media events. We find that both around the world and in the US, the public searches for the issue as ‘global warming,’ rather than ‘climate change,’ and that search volumes have been declining since a 2007 peak. We observe high, but transient spikes of search terms indicating skepticism around the two media events, but find no evidence of effects lasting more than a few months. Our results indicate that while such media events are visible in the short-term, they have little effect on salience of skeptical climate search terms on longer time-scales.

  17. Should childhood MMR vaccination be compulsory? Rights, duties and the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheather, Julian

    2013-06-01

    When children and young people lack the capacity to make decisions about their care and treatment, decisions have to be made on their behalf based on an assessment of their welfare or interests. In law, parents, or others with the relevant parental responsibility, are ordinarily regarded as the appropriate decision-makers. One way of framing this is to say that parents have certain decision-making rights with respect to their children. Such rights, however, are not generally regarded as absolute, rather they can be seen as secondary to and limited by the duties that parents have with regard to their children, duties to promote their welfare. It is against these parental duties that children could, at least in theory if not in practice, claim a right to certain kinds of protection. The legal rights of parents here, as opposed to the rights of the children, can be thought of as rights that secure for parents the freedom from interference necessary to fulfill the underlying duty.

  18. Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry.

  19. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  20. Transformational Leadership Type in Public and Private Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue concerning leadership is a very complex one, that is why taking into the account theplurity of styles already existent many times it was asked the questions: „What type of leadership isnecessary?”. By asking this question, we are thinking of a person responsible with organizing or coordinatingwork or the ones hired to do this, to think of what people want, to solve the management problems in group.This study is intended as a comparison of the two types of leadership (transformational vs. transactional interms of employee performance in public and private organizations. To measure performance and chose twoindicators: satisfaction and productivity. This study falls into the category of research studies the type ofdriving through subordinates with both theoretical and practical implications. The efficiency of this type ofleadership has been demonstrated by studies especially in the political and military and very few studies havebeen made in industrial .Type of transformational leadership is better than transactional perceived astransformational leaders are closer to the needs of employees and continuously investigate these necessities.This paper presents a practical validity as advising managers to develop a transformational type of leadership,both public and private organizations, leads to better performance. Also open new avenues of research,among which we can mention: study the impact of organizational culture on the adoption of transformationaltype vs transactional type; decision-making mechanisms in the type of transformational leadership; initiatetraining programs to develop a transformational type of leadership.

  1. 60th Anniversary of Turkish Librarian's Association: From the Association in the Public Interest Perspective to Non-Governmental Organization Perspective Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği’nin 60. Kuruluş Yıldönümü: Kamuya Yararlı Dernek Anlayışından Sivil Toplum Örgütlüğüne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the difference between the association which is public interest and the non-governmental organization in the context of 60th anniversary of Turkish Librarians' Association (TKD. Instead of discussing what is achieved or not achieved within these 60 years of TKD, The issue is associated with globalisation and the focus is on finding solutions to problems with the interactive contribution of colleagues and departments of information management, and on the concern that the international think tanks will intervene in our professional problems and we will alienate from our original professional culture. Bu makalede Türkiye'deki kamuya yararlı dernek ve sivil toplum örgütü kavramları arasındaki fark, kuruluşunun 60, yıldönümünde Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği (TKD bağlamında incelenmektedir. TKD'nin 60 yılda geldiği noktada yaptıkları veya yapamadıklarını tartışmaktan öte konu küreselleşme ile birlikte ele alınmakta olup, sorunlara meslektaşlar ve bilgi ve belge yönetimi bölümlerinin etkileşimli katkı sağlanması ile çözüm yollarının bulunabileceği aksi takdirde uluslararası düşünce üretme kuruluşlarının (think tank mesleki sorunlarımıza el atması ve giderek özgün mesleki kültürümüze yabancılaşacağımız kaygısı üzerinde odaklaşmaktadır.

  2. An economic analysis of health plan conversions: are they in the public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Nancy Dean

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, managed-care companies have been consolidating on both a regional and national scale. More recently, nonprofit health plans have been converting to for-profit status, and this conversion has frequently occurred as a step to facilitate merger or acquisition with a for-profit company. Some industry observers attribute these managed-care marketplace trends to an industry shakeout resulting from increased competition in the sector. At the same time, these perceived competitive pressures have led to questions about the long-run viability of nonprofit health plans. Furthermore, some industry and government leaders believe that some nonprofits are already conducting themselves like for-profit health plans and question the state premium tax exemption ordinarily accorded to such plans. This paper examines related health policy issues through the lens of a case study of the proposed conversion of the CareFirst Blue Cross Blue Shield company to a for-profit public-stock company and its merger with the Wellpoint Corporation. Company executives and board members argued that CareFirst lacked access to sufficient capital and faced serious threats to its viability as a financially healthy nonprofit health care company. They also argued that CareFirst and its beneficiaries would benefit from merger through enhanced economies of scale and product-line extensions. Critics of the proposed conversion and merger raised concerns about the adverse impacts on access to care, coverage availability, quality of care, safety-net providers, and the cost of health insurance. Analyses demonstrate that CareFirst wields substantial market power in its local market, that it is unlikely to realize cost savings through expanded economies of scale, and that access to capital concerns are largely driven by the perceived need for further expansion through merger and acquisition. Although it is impossible to predict future changes in quality of care for CareFirst, analyses suggest

  3. Negotiating public and professional interests: a rhetorical analysis of the debate concerning the regulation of midwifery in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.

  4. Why people attend science festivals: Interests, motivations and self-reported benefits of public engagement with research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Buckley, Nicol

    2014-07-01

    As a form of public engagement, science festivals have rapidly expanded in size and number over recent years. However, as with other domains of informal public engagement that are not linked to policy outcomes, existing research .does not fully address science festivals' impacts and popularity. This study adduces evidence from surveys and focus groups to elucidate the perspectives of visitors at a large UK science festival. Results show that visitors value the opportunities afforded by the science festival to interact with scientific researchers and to encounter different types of science engagement aimed at adults, children and families. The most significant self-reported impact of attending a science festival is the development of increased interest in and curiosity about new areas of scientific knowledge within a socially stimulating and enjoyable setting.

  5. IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: MODULARITY PROBLEMS IN A PUBLIC ORGANIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2012-01-01

    information across units and sub units, (3) No standard processes for submitting IT projects proposals, (4) No centralized IT project selection process, and (5) Lack of centralized follow up process on IT Projects across units and subunits. Based on data and by using recommendations from Modularity theory, we...... within a large local government. The investigation applies Modularity theory to analyze rich data from the local government covering several units with quite diverse functions to address the following two questions (1) which modularity problems does a public organization have in its IT PPM practices...

  6. Key aspects of a Flemish system to safeguard public health interests in case of chemical release incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; Colles, Ann; Cornelis, Christa; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Chovanova, Hana; Wildemeersch, Dirk; Mampaey, Maja; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Although well-established protocols are available for emergency services and first-responders in case of chemical release incidents, a well-developed system to monitor and safeguard public health was, until recently, lacking in Flanders. We therefore developed a decision support system (DSS) to aid public health officials in identifying the appropriate actions in case of incidents. Although the DSS includes human biomonitoring as one of its key instruments, it also goes well beyond this instrument alone. Also other, complementary, approaches that focus more on effect assessment using in vitro toxicity testing, indirect exposures through the food chain, and parallel means of data collection (e.g. through ecosurveillance or public consultation), are integrated in the Flemish approach. Even though the DSS is set up to provide a flexible and structured decision tree, the value of expert opinion is deemed essential to account for the many uncertainties associated with the early phases of technological incidents. When the DSS and the associated instruments will be fully operational, it will provide a valuable addition to the already available protocols, and will specifically safeguard public health interests.

  7. Participation of a non-disputing party in arbitration and protection of the public interest before an ICSID Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the need to protect the legitimacy of decision-making process in investment arbitration through public access to the proceedings. Unlike commercial arbitration, investment arbitration entails decisions on state responsibility for measures directed towards protection of environment, lives and health of its population or human rights. Presence of the public interest in such disputes brings under strong criticism a traditional characteristic of arbitration process - its confidentiality. The problem of democratic deficit of decision-making can be resolved, inter alia, by allowing persons who are not parties to the dispute to participate in the proceedings if they consider that their interest might be affected by arbitral award. The 2006 Arbitration Rules of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes envisage, subject to approval of the Tribunal, the right of a non-disputing party to file a written submission with the Tribunal regarding a factual or legal issue connected with the subject matter of the dispute. However, without right of those entities to attend arbitral hearings and, more importantly, without their access to documents submitted during the proceedings, this is not by far enough to give 'friends of the court' a meaningful and significant role.

  8. Managing Antimicrobial Resistance In Food Production : Conflicts Of Interest And Politics In The Development Of Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Williams-Jones

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern and is associated with the over- or inappropriate use of antimicrobials in both humans and agriculture. While there has been reco- gnition of this problem on the part of agricultural and public health authorities, there has none- theless been significant difficulty in translating policy recommendations into practical guidelines. In this paper, we examine the process of public health policy development in Quebec agriculture, with a focus on the case of pork production and the role of food animal veterinarians in policy making. We argue that a tendency to employ strictly techno-scientific risk analyses of antimicro- bial use ignores the fundamental social, economic and political realities of key stakeholders and so limits the applicability of policy recommendations developed by government advisory groups. In particular, we suggest that veterinarians’ personal and professional interests, and their ethi- cal norms of practice, are key factors to both the problem of and the solution to the current over-reliance on antimicrobials in food production.

  9. The Dilemma and Breakthrough of Plaintiff System of Environmental Public Interest Litigation%环境公益诉讼原告制度的困境及突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力增

    2016-01-01

    最高人民法院颁布的《关于审理环境民事公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,将环境公益诉讼的原告限定为社会组织和民政部门,实质是确立了环境公益诉讼单一原告制度。环境公益诉讼自身具有复杂性和专业性的特点,单一的原告很难有效实现环境公益诉讼的立法初衷。反思环境诉讼单一原告制度,建立环境公益诉讼联合原告机制,是未来环境公益诉讼制度的发展方向。%In the Interpretation of several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Civil Public Interest Litigation promulgated by the Supreme People's Court, the plaintiff of environmental public interest litigation is limited to the social organization and civil administration department, so the essence is to establish a single plaintiff system of environmental public interest litigation. Environmental public interest litigation it-self has the characteristics of complexity and professionalism, it is difficult for a single plaintiff to effectively realize the legislative intention of environmental public interest litigation. Based on reflecting the single plain-tiff system of environmental litigation, the establishment of the joint plaintiff mechanism of environmental public interest litigation is the development direction of the future environmental public interest litigation sys-tem.

  10. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-12-01

    To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (POrganic Cuisine Label in either silver (60-90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90-100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of 'theory', 'menu planning', 'network' and 'Organic Cuisine Label method' to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion projects include adding key curriculum components to the project's educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.

  11. Organic Chemistry in Action! Developing an Intervention Program for Introductory Organic Chemistry to Improve Learners' Understanding, Interest, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The main areas of difficulty experienced by those teaching and learning organic chemistry at high school and introductory university level in Ireland have been identified, and the findings support previous studies in Ireland and globally. Using these findings and insights from chemistry education research (CER), the Organic Chemistry in Action!…

  12. Organic Chemistry in Action! Developing an Intervention Program for Introductory Organic Chemistry to Improve Learners' Understanding, Interest, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The main areas of difficulty experienced by those teaching and learning organic chemistry at high school and introductory university level in Ireland have been identified, and the findings support previous studies in Ireland and globally. Using these findings and insights from chemistry education research (CER), the Organic Chemistry in Action!…

  13. The impact of generalized and institutional trust on donating to activist, leisure, and interest organizations: Individual and contextual effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.B.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we answer the question as to what extent donating to activist, interest, and leisure organizations is affected by both individual and national levels of generalized and institutional trust. We use the European Social Survey 2002 to estimate multilevel random intercept models, based on

  14. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  15. Which types of knowledge about organic products are consumers interested in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Povlsen, Karen Klitgaard

    2016-01-01

    a reflexive and deliberate lack of knowledge in their engagement with organics. As a consequence, an increase in the supply of information is not likely to fundamentally change the configuration of knowledge and trust in the food system. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate which types......Knowledge and trust are important concepts which help to explain consumers’ engagement with organics. It has often been stated that knowledge leads to trust. However, by digging deeper into the relationship between knowledge and trust in relation to organics, a recent Danish study found that trust...... to a certain extent seemed to replace knowledge and thereby offered consumers a choice between knowledge and trust in their relationship with organics. Indeed, they found that the majority of consumers trusted organics despite knowing little. They also found that a significant part of consumers seemed to have...

  16. 对我国民事公益诉讼制度的探析%Probe into the Litigation System of the Civil Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芗依; 王茜茜

    2016-01-01

    民事公益诉讼制度是我国《民事诉讼法》规定的诸多制度中的一项重要制度,民事公益诉讼制度落实的好与坏,直接关系到社会公共利益的保护。凡是侵害社会公共利益的行为都应该受到民事公益诉讼制度的规范,所以社会公共利益是否受到侵害是确定民事公益诉讼受案范围的主要条件。完善我国目前的民事公益诉讼制度,扩大民事公益诉讼的主体范围,赋予公民个人民事公益诉权,有助于对社会公共利益的保护。%The litigation system of civil public interests in China is one of the important systems by the Civil Procedural Law. Imple-mentation of this system is directly related to the protection of the public interests. Those who act against the public interests should be regulated by the litigation system of civil public interests. Thus, infringement of the social public interests is the main conditions to determine the range litigation. To protect social public interests, we should improve the current civil litigation of public interests, expand the scope of the public interest litigation, and give individual citizens the right to appeal for the civil public interests.

  17. [Processes maps in public health organizations: the experience of the Galician Department of Public Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboal-Viñas, José Luis; Lado-Lema, María Eugenia; Amigo-Quintana, Manuel; Hervada-Vidal, Xurxo; Gómez-Amorín, Angel; Fernández-Abreu, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To design the processes map of the Galician Department of Public Health, we performed document reviews, held meetings and interviewed persons in charge of programs and departments to identify the processes carried out. The processes were classified into strategic, key and support processes. We defined 4 levels of disaggregation and management and staff were kept informed throughout the process. At level 0, we included 4 key processes that defined the organization's mission. At level 1, 5 strategic, 5 support and 10 key processes were defined. The key processes at level 2 identified the health programs' services. A processes map was obtained by consensus and was then approved by management and staff as a first step in implanting a process management system to improve the organization's performance.

  18. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2013-12-16

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China.

  19. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental disclosure of financial... SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5502.107 Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected...

  20. 76 FR 39403 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... industry interests are encouraged from the cellular and gene therapy products biotech industry. This notice... to serve on its Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee notify FDA in writing. FDA is... Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. A nominee may either be self-nominated or nominated by an...

  1. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  2. Transcending the dilemma of "public interest"-on the meaning of the taking clause in the U.S. Constitution and its significance for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianfan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution and recent trends in the development of the constitutional concept of "public use" in the case-law history of the United States starting from the source of US government's taking powers and the original meaning of the Taking Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution. Since the concepts of "public use" and "public interest" are extremely difficult to be defined, it is very hard for the US courts to develop a relevant operative criterion. In the United States, the safeguard of "public interest" in taking mainly lies legislative rather than judicial control.In a democratic society, legislative judgment is highly respected by the courts and the entire takeovers that conform to public use as determined by the Congress are usually deemed constitutional. In this sense, the Congress is a "public interest machine", which automatically generates laws and decisions on behalf of public interests through the democratic representative process. The paper eventually suggests that China should divert its attention from the theoretical definition of "public interest" to institutional construction, and should make the National and Local People's Congresses and their standing committees to play major roles in deciding taking and compensation schemes.

  3. 论我国公益诉讼制度的构建%On the Construction of Public Interest Litigation System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立刚; 李司杰

    2011-01-01

    Public interest litigation came from Roman law, grew up in the capitalist countries, and matured in the United States and UK. Public interest litigation has played an important role in protecting the public interest, curbing the abuse of executive power, preventing unfair competition, and protecting the disadvantaged groups. Since the implementation of China's socialist market economy, the Constitution gradually decentralized some of its rights to private interest. Then the private interest infringed can be relieved through the way of litigation, while there is no litigation to help relieve infringed public interest, which results in huge losses of public interest. Therefore, the establishment of China's public interest litigation system to maintain the inviolability of public interest and realize the constitutional rights of citizens has become an urgent matter.%公益诉讼肇始于古罗马法,发展于资本主义国家,成熟于英美等国。公益诉讼在保护公共利益,抑制行政权力滥用,防止不正当竞争,保护弱小群体等方面发挥了重要的作用。我国自实行社会主义市场经济以来,宪法逐步放权于私益,私益受到侵害可以通过诉讼方式予以救济,而公益受到侵害则无诉讼方式予以救济,造成公共利益的巨大损失。因此,建立我国的公益诉讼制度,维护公共利益不受侵犯,实现宪法规定的公民权利就成为急切之事。

  4. 公共利益的主观诉讼保护模式%Subjective Litigation Mode of Public Interest Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2015-01-01

    In China,the“Administrative Procedure Law”does not provide the content of public interest litigation,so in administrative litigation practice,there forms a subjective litigation protection mode for public interest protection. That is,based on infringed personal interest,plaintiff files a lawsuit against the public interest and thus can protect public interest that related to private interest. The formation of this mode is associated with the lacking of objective litigation system design in our country and negative attitude to public interest litigation in the court. Due to lack of this kind of system,this mode can not achieve a fully and effectively protection of the public interest. Therefore, to establish objective litigation system in China is the only way to make effective protection of public interest.%由于在我国《行政诉讼法》中并未规定公益诉讼,行政诉讼的实践中对公共利益保护形成了一种主观诉讼的保护模式。即原告基于私益侵害提起诉讼进而达到维护与私益相关的公共利益的目的。这种模式的形成是与我国缺乏客观诉讼的制度设计以及法院对公益诉讼的消极审理态度分不开的。由于体系性的缺失这种模式无法实现对公共利益的全面、有效保护,建立我国的客观诉讼制度是实现公共利益有效保护的必由之路。

  5. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when

  6. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive

  7. 7 CFR 1212.22 - Qualified national organization representing importer interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified national organization representing importer... AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information...

  8. Examining Agency Theory in Training & Development: Understanding Self-Interest Behaviors in the Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Akdere, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Agency theory has been discussed widely in the business and management literature. However, to date there has been no investigation about its utility and implications for problems in training & development. Whereas organizations are still struggling to develop and implement effective training programs, there is little emphasis on the self-interest…

  9. 77 FR 47853 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... pediatric diseases or conditions, (3) the ethics, design, and analysis of clinical trials related to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations... Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  10. Organic Farming as A Development Strategy: Who are Interested and Who are not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Much evidence shows that implementation of organic farming (OF) increases productivity in the Global South, and that it will be possible to feed a growing world population with food produced in OF systems. OF is explored, analysed and discussed in relation to the principles of Ecology, Health, Care...

  11. Off-Label Prescription of Genetically Modified Organism Medicines in Europe : Emerging Conflicts of Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, Frederik H. E.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Hospers, Geke A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product

  12. Medical Mycology and the Chemistry Classroom: Germinating Student Interest in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Reid, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to provide active research context to introductory courses in basic sciences are likely to better engage learners and provide a framework for relevant concepts. A simple teaching and learning experiment was conducted to use concepts in organic chemistry to solve problems in the life sciences. Bryant University is a liberal arts university…

  13. Off-Label Prescription of Genetically Modified Organism Medicines in Europe : Emerging Conflicts of Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, Frederik H. E.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Hospers, Geke A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product

  14. 浅谈国有资产公益诉讼制度%On the public interest litigation of the state-owned assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓玲

    2012-01-01

    经济公益诉讼近年来引起学者的普遍关注,面对国有资产流失的现状,我国应该在国有资产监管中引入公益诉讼制度,为国有资产提供诉讼保障。本文通过对提起国有资产公益诉讼的可行性分析,借鉴国外资产公益诉讼的发展经验并根据公益诉讼自身特性,提出在我国构建国有资产公益诉讼的初步设想。%Economic public interest litigation in recent years has caused scholars' attention.Facing the present situation of the loss of the state-owned assets,our country should introduce public interest litigation system in state-owned assets supervision.This article analyzes the feasibility of public interest litigation of the state-owned assets,draws lessons from the foreign public interest litigation experience,and puts forward an initial tentative plan of constructing public interest litigation in our country according to the own features of public interest litigation.

  15. PRINCIPLES OF THE EUROPEAN ADMINISTRATIVE SPACE AND THEIR IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ema Cioclea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is interested in ensuring that each national administration offers comparable administrative capacity through quality of public services and professionalism from the civil servants. At the same time, the European states are characterised by long and varied institutional histories, with different trajectories in their evolution. That is why, public administration structures and regulations vary among the Member States and a set of common principles can guide them towards administrative convergence and performance. This paper aims to analyze the shared principles of a common European Administrative Space and also to address the link between these principles and the performance of public institutions from a managerial point of view. The study is based on review and analysis of academic research, government documents and personal perspectives, extracting and linking key findings from existing research and practice. The paper argues that managerial theories on performance are compatible with public administration organizations and some of the criteria are common to those promoted by the principles of the European Administrative Space.

  16. Organizational Transformation in Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan in the Quest of Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shafique Butt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to see the organizational transformations in public sector organizations and to observe which factors have great influence in transforming public sector organizations of Pakistan. In a world of growing customer opportunities and declining income, many organizations are finding ways to do more with less by consolidating and putting together departments, functions, business processes, IT infrastructure and entire organizations. Can public sector organizations revolutionize? Organizational Transformation comes about when a company reorganizes itself or practices a sudden change in culture. The objective of this study is to portray the key characteristics which are normally considered for organizational transformation in public sector organizations of Pakistan. Research questionnaire was developed and distributed to public sector organizations in Pakistan. Data analysis was done through SPSS. The results were astonishing and all variables have positive impact on organizational transformation in public sector of Pakistan.

  17. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    , the proportion of public kitchens eligible for the Organic Cuisine Label in either silver (60–90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90–100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of ‘theory...

  18. Challenges in Dealing with Different Interests between Organized and Unorganized Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Petter Sand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will describe the development of a program directed at youth problems in a mid- sized Norwegian town. The town is characterized by a rich variety of voluntary associations. Voluntary associations can be seen as a central part of Norwegian civil society. Along with describing the development of the program, I will describe the target groups of youngsters in the town center. Possessing little social capital in terms of organization, contact with and the ability to articulate their needs to the authorities in charge of the program, the target groups became losers in respect of the program. The program became dominated by organized groups and voluntary associations with more social capital as far as the program was concerned.

  19. Common and conflicting interests in the engagements between conservation organizations and corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John G

    2012-12-01

    The conservation community increasingly views the corporate sector as a positive force for conservation. Collaborations between corporations and nongovernmental conservation organizations (NGOs) seek to mitigate the negative effects of corporate activities and augment positive conservation outcomes. I reviewed the establishment of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies by corporations; the emerging focus on environmental practices and sustainability; and the history of engagement between corporations and nongovernmental organizations. I considered the ethical and reputation vulnerabilities of these collaborations, which depend especially on the financial nature of the relationship and reviewed how CSR approaches have influenced corporate practices. I concluded that whereas CSR practices can act to mitigate negative environmental impact, to date they have had limited positive effect on biodiversity conservation.

  20. Public management and public relation analysis of conflicts of interest based on the new situation%基于新形势的公共管理与公共利益冲突关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀娟

    2015-01-01

    公共管理是一项以政府为执行主体,从事管理各项公共事务,提高为人民服务的质量,达到公共利益最大化的工作。公共管理是一个过程,公共利益是公共管理的执行结果。本文将三个方面来阐述:公共管理和公共利益的概念和本质、两者之间的冲突和联系,以了解在新形势下,如何更好的调节公共管理与公共利益的关系,实现人民利益最大化。%The government as the main body in the execution of public management, engaged in all public affairs management, improve the quality of service for the people, to maximize public interests. Is a process of public management, public interest is the result of execution of public management. This article to illustrate the three aspects: the concept and essence of public administration and public interests, the conflict between the two and contact, to learn in the new situation, how to better regulate the interests of the public management and public relations, to maximize the interests of the people.

  1. Public Opinion on Merit Pay: Self Interest vs. Symbolic Politics. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, William G.; Henderson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Merit pay initiatives transparently alter the teaching profession and goings-on within classrooms, and thereby promise to stoke the self-interests of the two most prominent stakeholders in public education: teachers and parents. This memo summarizes the authors' ongoing efforts to empirically evaluate the extent to which public debates about merit…

  2. The Definition of Public Interest from the Perspective of Constitution%宪法视阈下公共利益的界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹阳

    2016-01-01

    Public interest is an important concept in law, the definition of public interest can often reflect the needs of real system. The definition of public interest has been expressed in the text of the Constitution in many countries abroad which are relative to balance public interest and private interest, no matter they are simple or complex. The definition of the public interest in the constitution of our country is the combination of principle and generality. What we should define public interest by the comprehensive application of the constitutional interpretation technology. At the same time, it is necessary to realize that the construction of the complete path of the definition of public interest needs the mutual cooperation between the legislation, administrative law enforcement and judicature.%公共利益是法学中的重要概念,对公共利益的界定往往能反映现实制度的需要。国外诸多国家的宪法均对公共利益的界定有所表述,或繁或简,都是为了寻求公益与私益的相对平衡。我国的宪法对公共利益的界定具有原则性和概括性,应当重视综合运用宪法解释技术,系统地看待公共利益的界定。在发挥宪法根本性作用的同时,须认识到公共利益界定完整路径的建构还需要立法、行政和司法的相互配合。

  3. Agile and Pro-Active Public Administration as a Collaborative Networked Organization

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    In highly competitive, globalized economies and societies of always-on-line people intensively using the Internet and mobile phones, public administrations have to adapt to new challenges. Enterprises and citizens expect public administrations to be agile and pro-active to foster development. A way to achieve agility and pro-activity is application of a model of Collaborative Network Organizations in its two forms: Virtual Organizations (VO) and Virtual Organization Breeding Environments (VOBE). In the paper, advantages are shown of public administration playing a role of a Virtual Organization customer on the one hand, and a Virtual Organization member on the other hand. It is also shown how public administration playing a role of a Virtual Organization Breeding Environment may improve its agility and promote advanced technologies and management methods among local organizations. It is argued in the paper that public administration should provide a Virtual Organization Breeding Environment as a part of publi...

  4. Simplifying volumes-of-interest (VOIs) definition in quantitative SPECT: Beyond manual definition of 3D whole-organ VOIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esther M; Lodge, Martin A; Rowe, Steven P; Wahl, Richard L; Frey, Eric C

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using simpler methods than manual whole-organ volume-of-interest (VOI) definition to estimate the organ activity concentration in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in cases where the activity in the organ can be assumed to be uniformly distributed on the scale of the voxel size. In particular, we investigated an anatomic region-of-interest (ROI) defined in a single transaxial slice, and a single sphere placed inside the organ boundaries. The evaluation was carried out using Monte Carlo simulations based on patient indium (111) In pentetreotide SPECT and computed tomography (CT) images. We modeled constant activity concentrations in each organ, validating this assumption by comparing the distribution of voxel values inside the organ VOIs of the simulated data with the patient data. We simulated projection data corresponding to 100, 50, and 25% of the clinical count level to study the effects of noise level due to shortened acquisition time. Images were reconstructed using a previously validated quantitative SPECT reconstruction method. The evaluation was performed in terms of the accuracy and precision of the activity concentration estimates. The results demonstrated that the non-uniform image intensity observed in the reconstructed images in the organs with normal uptake was consistent with uniform activity concentration in the organs on the scale of the voxel size; observed non-uniformities in image intensity were due to a combination of partial-volume effects at the boundaries of the organ, artifacts in the reconstructed image due to collimator-detector response compensation, and noise. Using an ROI defined in a single transaxial slice produced similar biases compared to the three-dimensional (3D) whole-organ VOIs, provided that the transaxial slice was near the central plane of the organ and that the pixels from the organ boundaries were not included in the ROI. Although this slice method was sensitive to noise

  5. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and... Housing Preservation § 3560.659 Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. (a) Sales... housing project to a nonprofit organization or public body, two independent appraisals will be...

  6. 19 CFR 148.89 - Property of public international organizations and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property of public international organizations and... Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for Returning Individuals § 148.89 Property of public international organizations and foreign governments. (a)...

  7. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  8. An Analytical Study on Public Interest and Private Interest from the Perspective of Political Philosophy%政治哲学视域中的公共利益与私人利益之辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝阳

    2013-01-01

    The issue of interest exists throughout the human history .From the perspective of polit-ical philosophy ,this paper makes an analysis on the relationship between public interest and pri-vate interest .Firstly ,from the angle of the history of Chinese and Western political philosophy , the paper sorts out two different views about the relationship between public interest and private interest and reduces them to public interest sectional theory and private interest sectional theory . Secondly ,from the perspective of Marxist political philosopy ,the paper analyses Marxist view of interest and concludes that the relationship between them is generaity and particularity ,common-ness and individuality .%利益问题贯穿整个人类的历史发展,文章对公共利益与私人利益的关系问题作出了政治哲学的分析。首先从中西方政治哲学史的角度梳理了关于公共利益和私人利益关系上的两种不同观点,将其归纳为公共利益本位论和私人利益本位论;其次从马克思主义政治哲学视角出发,分析了马克思主义利益观,得出两者之间是一般和个别、共性和个性的关系。

  9. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are a good source of yeasts producing organic acids of industrial interest from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, Paula; Silva, Luís R; Sánchez-Márquez, Salud; Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2013-08-15

    The production of organic acids from several yeasts isolated from mature plums on media containing glycerol as carbon source was analysed by HPLC-UV. The yeasts isolated were identified by sequencing the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer as Pichia fermentans, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida oleophila. The organic acid profiles of these strains comprise acetic, citric, succinic and malic acids that qualitatively and quantitatively vary between different species as well as among strains from the same species. The production from glycerol of succinic, acetic, citric, malic and oxalic acids from C. oleophila and W. anomalus, and that of succinic, oxalic and acetic acids by P. fermentans is reported for the first time in this work, as is the production of oxalic acid from glycerol in yeasts. Our results also showed that mature fruits can be a good source of new yeasts able to metabolise glycerol, producing different organic acids with industrial and biotechnological interest.

  11. 当代西方社群主义的公共利益思想%A Study on the Thought of Communitarianist Public Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓颖

    2015-01-01

    在利益问题上,共同体主义以公共利益为价值取向。尽管共同体主义者对公共利益缺乏一个统一的概念,但他们所说的公共利益都指向共同体的普遍善、共同善。也正是在这个意义上,他们对公共利益优先的论证,主要基于“共同体的共识”。共同体主义者强调公共利益优先,但同时也强调“我”的利益与他人和集体的利益是一致的。总体来看,共同体主义者反对个人利益至上的个人主义,强调整体利益高于个人利益,认为个人利益就包含在整体利益之中。只不过,他们对公共利益的疾呼,并未上升到行为准则的高度。%On the issue of interests,communitarians value in the public interests.Although communitarians lack of a unified concept of public interests,but their public interests point to general goods or the common goods of com-munity.In the sense,their arguments about the priority of public interests mainly base on “community consensus”. Communitarians emphasize the priority of public interests,but also stress that “My”interests with others and col-lective is consistent.Overall,Communitarians oppose to individualism,in which the individual interests is first, and emphasize the overall interests above personal interests,and consider personal interests is included in the over-all interests.But,their claims of the public interests,does not rise to the height of the code of conduct.

  12. 78 FR 44959 - Public Workshop Related to the International Maritime Organization's Development of a Mandatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Public Workshop Related to the International Maritime Organization's Development of a... International Maritime Organization (IMO Polar Code). Various safety topics will be discussed including...

  13. 公民参与对公共利益界定的价值%Values of citizen participation on the definition of public interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳君君

    2011-01-01

    The entity definition of public interest is unachievable;therefore the definition of public interest from procedure becomes a necessary choice.Defining public interest through citizen participation is in line with the requirements of modern democratic theory and practice,and it is beneficial to all parties' acceptance to the public interest,to achieve substantive rule of law,and to control the administrative discretion.In order to achieve the definition of public interests through citizen participation,it is necessary to system construction and to make a reasonable restriction.%公共利益的实体界定是难以实现的,为此从程序上对公共利益进行界定成为必要的选择。公民参与对公共利益的界定,符合现代民主理论与实践的要求,并有利于各方对公共利益的接受、实现实质法治、控制行政裁量权。为实现公民参与对公共利益的界定,有必要进行制度上的建构及作出合理的限制。

  14. The Comparative Law Thinking of Administrative Public Interest Litigation%行政公益诉讼的比较法思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢樑

    2015-01-01

    With the development of time, society continues to change. Under this background, the citizen 's con-sciousness of maintain the rights is improving, and the public interest is more attention than ever before. But in re-ality there is still damage of public interest and can't be solved, and the voice of the administrative public interest litigation has a long history. This article attempts through the perspective of comparative law analysis of administra-tive public interest litigation, to breakthrough on the plaintiff qualification and scope of accepting cases, in the hope of our country to perfect the administrative public interest litigation.%时代不断发展,社会也在不断变革,在此背景下,公民维权意识提高,较之以往对于公共利益更为关注。但现实中仍然存在公益损害求助无门之情形,行政公益诉讼的呼声由来已久。论文试图通过比较法的角度,对行政公益诉讼进行分析,在原告资格和受案范围上予以突破,以期我国行政公益诉讼之完善。

  15. 论经济法上的公共利益的识别标准%On Recognition Criteria of Public Interest in the Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗圆

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of abstractness and ambiguity of public interest make it difficult to define the concept of public interest,and scholars differ in their opinions. Therefore,it is necessary to establish the criteria for public interest recognition as it is the core of economic law. In economic law theory,the fundamental position of public interest is first ensured by distinguishing it from other related interests. Then,recognition and definition of public interest are further strengthened through the substantive standards like value judgment and categorization,and the procedure standards such as prior review and the judicial relief mechanism. Thus the legitimacy and validity of the public interests in economic law is ensured.%由于公共利益本身的模糊性和不确定性等特征,使得公共利益成为一个难以界定的概念,学者们各有分歧。但基于公共利益对于经济法的特殊性,需要对经济法上公共利益的识别标准进行探讨。在经济法理论中,需通过区别经济法上的公共利益与其他相关利益,把握公共利益在经济法中的基础地位,再从价值判断、“类型化”方式等实质标准和事前审查、事后司法救济机制等程序标准进一步加强对公共利益的识别和界定,保障经济法中公共利益的正当性与合法性。

  16. Dependability of results in conference abstracts of randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology and author financial conflicts of interest as a factor associated with full publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Ian J; Scherer, Roberta W; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Jampel, Henry D; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-26

    Discrepancies between information in conference abstracts and full publications describing the same randomized controlled trial have been reported. The association between author conflicts of interest and the publication of randomized controlled trials is unclear. The objective of this study was to use randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology to evaluate (1) the agreement in the reported main outcome results by comparing abstracts and corresponding publications and (2) the association between the author conflicts of interest and publication of the results presented in the abstracts. We considered abstracts describing results of randomized controlled trials presented at the 2001-2004 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology conferences as eligible for our study. Through electronic searching and by emailing abstract authors, we identified the earliest publication (journal article) containing results of each abstract's main outcome through November 2013. We categorized the discordance between the main outcome results in the abstract and its paired publication as qualitative (a difference in the direction of the estimated effect) or as quantitative. We used the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology categories for conflicts of interest: financial interest, employee of business with interest, consultant to business with interest, inventor/developer with patent, and receiving ≥ 1 gift from industry in the past year. We calculated the relative risks (RRs) of publication associated with the categories of conflicts of interest for abstracts with results that were statistically significant, not statistically significant, or not reported. We included 513 abstracts, 230 (44.8 %) of which reached publication. Among the 86 pairs with the same main outcome domain at the same time point, 47 pairs (54.7 %) had discordant results: qualitative discordance in 7 pairs and quantitative discordance in 40 pairs. Quantitative discordance was indicated

  17. 24 CFR 1006.335 - Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nonprofit organizations and... Requirements § 1006.335 Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships. (a) Nonprofit organizations. The DHHL must, to the extent practicable, provide for private nonprofit organizations...

  18. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  19. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  20. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2013-01-01

    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  1. The Application of the Principle of Social Public Interest in the Contract Law%社会公共利益原则的合同法适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永强

    2013-01-01

    The principle of social public interest is one set up by Chinese law itself.The social public interest stipulated in Item 4, Article 52 of the Contract Law, which can nullify a contract, shall be defined in a narrow sense.It shall be limited to the specific requirements as put forward within the law system, and distinguished from social public morality and public policies. Public interest is un-distributable, unrealistic and without a certain subject.Personal rights and public interests are different in nature.Conflicts between public interests and personal rights shall be balanced with principle theories, while personal rights shall be given initial priority.Where public interest is unobvious or uncertain, the validity of a contract shall be protected.There are four types of social public interests, namely those of basic rights protection, state-owned property protection, public security protection and legal orders protection.%  社会公共利益原则是中国法律确立的原则。《合同法》第52条第4项致合同无效的社会公共利益应采狭义说,以区别于社会公德和公共政策,仅限于法律体系内部所提出的确定要求。公共利益具有不可分配性、非现实性、主体不特定性等特征,个人权利与公共利益不具有同一性。公共利益与个人权利的冲突需要采用原则理论进行价值权衡,且个人权利具有初显优先性,在公共利益不明显或不确定时,应维护合同效力。社会公共利益存在基本权利保护型、国有资产保护型、公共安全保护型和法秩序维护型等四种类型。

  2. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  3. Corruption in the Public Organizations. Towards a Model of Costbenefit Analysis for the Anticorruption Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to evaluate how theanticorruption strategies contribute towardsminimizing the corruption phenomenon in thepublic organizations, with special referenceto the strategies used in the Romanian publicadministration and health system. Based on someessential features stated by Banfield (1975 withregard to the capacity of public organizations tominimize corruption inside the organizations, theauthors conducted two parallel researches in thepublic administration system and in the healthsystem in Romania. Thus, the researches revealeda paradox in the finality of the analyzed publicorganizations, which focus either exclusively onethical behavior or on other objectives such as:effectiveness, flexibility, dynamics etc. In thecontext of some very interesting studies, such asthose conducted by Rose-Ackerman (1975, 1999,the premises of our research are based on the ideathat “the anticorruption strategies should orientfirstly towards the improvement of the economic,technical and operational efficiency” of the publicorganization. Therefore, the authors speak about“optimal” level of corruption rather than “zero” levelof corruption. The authors justify this fact throughthe costs of supporting the anticorruption strategies,their direct impact on organizational effectivenessand performance.

  4. How does the general public view posthumous organ donation? A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Joshua D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals are unwilling to become posthumous organ donors, resulting in a disparity between the supply and demand for organ transplants. A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature was therefore conducted to determine how the general public views posthumous organ donation. Methods Three online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus were searched for articles published between January 1990 and May 2008 using the following search terms: organ donation, qualitative, interview. Eligibility criteria were: examination of beliefs about posthumous organ donation; utilization of a qualitative research design; and publication in an English peer-reviewed journal. Exclusion criteria were examining how health professionals or family members of organ donors viewed posthumous organ donation. Grounded theory was used to identify the beliefs emerging from this literature. Thematically-related beliefs were then grouped to form themes. Results 27 articles from 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The major themes identified were: religion, death, altruism, personal relevance, the body, the family, medical professionals, and transplant recipients. An altruistic motivation to help others emerged as the most commonly identified motivator for becoming an organ donor, although feeling a sense of solidarity with the broader community and believing that donated organs are put to good use may be important preconditions for the emergence of this motivation. The two most commonly identified barriers were the need to maintain bodily integrity to safeguard progression into the afterlife and the unethical recovery of organs by medical professionals. The influence of stakeholder groups on willingness to become an organ donor was also found to vary by the level of control that each stakeholder group exerted over the donation recovery process and their perceived conflict of interest in wanting organ donation to proceed. Conclusions

  5. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  6. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences--robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients' and public's trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.

  7. Accounting System in Croatian Public Healthcare Organizations: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor VAŠIČEK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In considering the adequacy of adopting accruals and IPSASs, this paper tests the appropriateness of existing modified accrual accounting and financial reporting system in Croatian public healthcare sector. The paper indicates that accounting information system contains discrepancies and constraints in assuring true and fair view of organization’s financial position and performance. Our statistics confirms low level of cost and managerial accounting methods development, and external and internal financial reporting convergence.Having in mind its specificities, we argue that Croatian public healthcare sector represents a segmental accounting subsystem within the integral public sector accounting framework, where accruals implementation might prove justifiable.

  8. The Basic Characteristics of the Confucian Outlook on Public and Private Interests%论儒家公私观的基本特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑秀丽

    2016-01-01

    The Confucian outlook on public and private interests was formed in the era of Confucius and Mencius. It has three basic features: strong moral character; long-lasting suppression of private interests and esteeming public interests; opposition of either this or that. Although in different eras public and private interests did not mean the same things, those three features remained unchanged. They determined the basic pattern and trend of outlook on public and private interests, and have deeply inlfuenced the development of Chinese culture, economy and society.%儒家公私观在孔孟荀时代已经成型,它的基本特点有三方面:一是浓厚的道义性,二是持久的崇公抑私,三是非此即彼的对立性。尽管在不同的时代“公”“私”内容不尽相同,但这三个特点始终没有改变。这些特点决定了中国公私观的基本格局和走向,对中国文化、经济及社会发展也都有很深的影响。

  9. 公立医院公益性的概念与加强策略研究%Study on the Definition and Its Enhancement Options of Public-Interests Orientation of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海潮

    2012-01-01

    Considering the different opinions towards the public-interests orientation of public hospitals, the author has put forward that public-interests orientation could be divided into two tiers: the natural public-interests orientation and the derivative public -interests orientation. The clarification and the definition for the terms were discussed in the paper The main problem of public hospital* existed in the derivative public-interests orientation aspect. Based upon the analysis on the issues of und reasons for the declining trend of public -interests orientation of public hospitals, six suggestions were presented on correcting and improving the public -interests orientation of public hospitals, which were controlling the overall size and scale of public hospitals, ensuring the adequate public financing, enhancing the budgeting activity and dealing with the residuals of income and expense surplus, controlling the pricing list and lowering the levels of user fees, developing the well -trained and professional hospital managers, and encouraging the philanthropy donations from the public and individuals.%文章针对公立医院公益性讨论的分歧,提出了可以将公益性划分为自然公益性和衍生公益性,并分别界定了两者的内涵.当前,公立医院的公益性问题主要是衍生公益性发挥不良.文章分析了公立医院衍生公益性存在的问题和原因,提出了6点加强建议,即:控制公立医院总规模;确保基本公共投入;加强预算和收支管理;控制收费项目和价格水平;发展职业化专业化管理队伍;鼓励公益性捐赠等.

  10. Organic and conventional public food procurement for youth in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Public catering in Finland has strong historical roots from the 19th century, connected with the rise of the national state, industrialisation, democracy and modern times in general. The school meal system developed hand in hand with work place meal services, and inherently the aim was to offer lateral support for workers' and pupils' activities by healthy and wholesome nutrition. The public catering had initially a strong label of welfare services and implied economical use of ingredients. ...

  11. Management of Labor Conflicts in Public Health Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Elena Belu; Elena Alexandra Ilinca

    2012-01-01

    The work “Management of labor conflicts in public health organizations” treats a very importantissue, of the present, with extensive and multiple implications for public health. The work can be consideredas an interdisciplinary study justified by two arguments: first, it is essential to applied research step, theknowledge and use of enshrined informational content in management literature, especially of models andmechanisms of managerial activity on the administration of human resources, mana...

  12. Connecting the Learning Organization, Strategic Planning, and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Bill; Perreault, George

    2002-01-01

    Examines common perceptions about barriers to effective strategic planning in school districts. Argues that primary barrier to effective use of strategic planning in schools is the failure of educators to fully understand the strategic planning process itself. Discusses the components of a learning organization. Links learning organizations with…

  13. The State Trustee Organization. ALTA Publication Number Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Barbara B.

    The topic of this document is statewide organizations of and for library trustees. The reasons for such organizations are: (1) to educate individual library trustees, (2) to inform and stimulate library trustees, individually and as library boards, (3) to work with libraries to plan for interlibrary cooperation and library systems, and (4) to work…

  14. Mapping private-public-partnership in health organizations: India experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan Chakravarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dream of universal health care demands a much larger and wider approach, engaging not just the public but also the private sector. This paper has attempted mapping the present public-private partnership scenario in India using the WHO health system functions framework, giving an insight into the nature and extent of challenge of the present dominant model. A systematic review methodology was adopted to identify published literature on private-public partnership in India. From an initial pool of 785 articles were identified. Finally a total of 29 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The descriptive framework of Health system functions by WHO (2000, were used to analyze the data. All papers which were considered for the study were segregated based on the 4 prime health system functions: Financing; Management of non-financial inputs; Health service delivery and Oversight. The literature review reveals that more than half of the papers (51.72% selected for the study were focused on health service delivery functions and quite thin literature were available for other 3 functions, which includes financing, management of non-financial inputs and oversight functions as per WHO. This finding raise an important question if the genesis of most of the public-private partnerships is out of the inability of the public sector in reaching out to a particular target group by virtue of its geographical position or difficulty in working with high risk groups. Considering the limitations of the present model of engagement of private and public sectors, it demands for an alternative model of engagement where the mutual strength that exists with each one of the partners, could be harnessed and complemented. An alternate model is to engage in tri-partite partnership (TPP between the government, non-government and the corporates.

  15. From Traditional Recruiting To E-Recruiting in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTENE Adela Suzana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting is the activity that determines, in quantitative and qualitative terms, the structure of the sample of people from which the selection will be made for a specific position and / or public office, for a position that is already created in the organizational structure. The recruitment process is triggered when in the organizational structure of public institutions appear new functions or positions, or when the existing ones become vacant through retirement, death, transfer or dismissal. E-Recruiting represents the process through which the personnel is recruited using electronic resources.

  16. AMBIGUITY IN THE IDENTITY TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Acuña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the transformations implemented by health authorities in a hospital over the last forty years with the purpose of institutionalizing geriatrics in the Chilean public health system. The transformations have been implemented through a process of identity conversion that had implied high levels of ambiguity due to the contradictory coexistence of the old hospital’s identity with the new geriatric practices. These ambiguities are associated with the erratic, precarious support provided by state authorities to the development of the public geriatric framework. Through the handling of images, authorities have paradoxically amplified the achievements of these transformations, thus promoting apparent complacency in internal and external audiences.

  17. A Survey of Textbooks for Industrial Organization and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Daniel O.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys eleven currently available undergraduate textbooks on industrial organization. Concludes that some texts have an economics emphasis and others a policy emphasis. Rates the content of each text according to established criteria. (JDH)

  18. Boards of public sector organizations: a typology with Dutch illustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, S. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this study is to present two heuristics for researchers to identify different types of boards in public sector organziations, and thus enable exchange of research findings and comparative research. - Design/methodology/approach - Based on existing knowledge, two typologies

  19. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  20. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences – robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients’ and public’s trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.  

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Co-Production Initiatives in Public Service Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine; Mortensen, Nanna Møller

    2017-01-01

    A change from New Public Management to New Public Governance (NPG) does not occur overnight. This forces public service organizations to develop new hybrid organizational forms as strategic response to the current situation. In NPG the basic assumption is that coproduction will result in increased...... efficiency and effectiveness for public service organizations as a new organizational recipe. However, a recent review determines that only few empirical studies document these claimed effects. To enable the creation of more empirical evidence that establish the effects of co-production, the purpose of our...

  2. A CONSOLIDATED MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN POLITICS AND MANAGEMENT WITHIN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical andconceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new workperspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between themanagement of public organizations and the political environment. Thetheoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relationbetween the management of public organizations and the politicalenvironment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with theregression technique of several aspects integrated to the relations betweenthe management of human resources within public organizations in theeducation field and the external political environment.

  3. The Adaptive Capabilities of Organizations. Case of Polish Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinaric

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information gathering and analysis, reaction design and implementation, and activities correction and learning are three types of adaptive capabilities connected to three phases of organizational adaptation to the environment. The primary objective of this article is to present how adaptive capabilities of high and low performers differ. In the second part of the article the key factors influencing the adaptive capabilities of Polish public hospitals will be identified and examined.

  4. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be made by the person before death. Most black ... particular to the concepts of brain-stem death and organ donation, is not .... Reasons why some people were unwilling to donate the .... We thank Research Surveys (Pry) Ltd who assisted in.

  5. 环境公益诉讼的原告模式及司法成本分析%Analysis of plaintiff mode of environmental public interest litigation and judicial cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜

    2012-01-01

    To date, China has accumulated more than 10 cases of environmental public interest litigation cases. These cases are both a breakthrough of the concept of dynamic justice to the parties in civil litigation sys- tem and providing a number of plaintiff modes of public interest litigation. Com- pare with judicial costs of different modes, can easily find the joint plaintiff mode of procuratorial organs supplemented by gov- ernment departments and environmental or- ganizations is the easiest to reduce the legal costs and decentralize the litigation risk, and the best for the sustainable development of environmental public interest litigation.%迄今为止,我国已累计出现10余例环境公益诉讼案件。这些案例既是“能动司法”理念对民事诉讼当事人制度的突破,也提供了公益诉讼的若干原告模式。比较不同模式的司法成本。不难发现,以检察机关为主,以政府职能部门和环保组织为辅的联合原告模式,最易于降低司法成本和分散诉讼风险,对我国环境公益诉讼的可持续发展最为有利。

  6. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  7. Participation of Public Benefit Organizations in Income Tax – Financial and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musiałkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents the scale of the issues against the background of the practical functioning of the public finances. The article summarizes the reflection on the rationality and the essence of the transfer of public funds to public benefit organizations.

  8. ``Mirando al Cielo'', Organization of Public Events for Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrao, L.

    2011-10-01

    The events called ``Mirando al cielo'' encompass academic, cultural and economic activities with the purpose of promoting the knowledge and furthering the economy of the place where they are held. The academic activities are carried out by students and teachers of the region, and have been organized by UNAM. The cultural and commercial activities are selected among those typical of each place and carried out under the direction of local authorities, with the participation of their inhabitants.

  9. CHANGE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGE TO TRANSFORM IT IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. K. Ravichandran; R. Raja Piramuthu

    2012-01-01

    ERP implementation, commonly involve a complete change in business process and operation. Hence, responsiveness to internal customers is critical for an organization to avoid the difficulties associated with this change. To overcome complex organizational problem of workers resistance to ERP implementation, change management methods suggested an integrated, process-oriented knowledge formulation, strategy implementation, to manage the change introduced by IT is to identify and evaluate the at...

  10. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  11. 26 CFR 1.897-9T - Treatment of certain interest in publicly traded corporations, definition of foreign person, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during the calendar... regularly traded for any calendar quarter during which it is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a... dealer holds himself out to buy or sell interests in such class at the quoted price. Stock of...

  12. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision

  13. Public Debt, Economic Growth and the Real Interest Rate : A Panel VAR Approach to EU and OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the causal relationship between the public debt to GDP ratio and economic growth for 31 EU and OECD countries from 1995 to 2013. A number of studies have tackled this problem, but very few make the transmission mechanism explicit in their analysis. We estimate a panel VAR model that

  14. Virtual Space Exploration: Let's Use Web-Based Computer Game Technology to Boost IYA 2009 Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.; Doronila, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lane, K.; Upchurch, P.; Howard, J.; Harvey, S.; Woodmansee, L.

    2008-09-01

    With the recent releases of both Google's "Sky" and Microsoft's "WorldWide Telescope" and the large and increasing popularity of video games, the time is now for using these tools, and those crafted at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to engage the public in astronomy like never before. This presentation will use "Cassini at Saturn Interactive Explorer " (CASSIE) to demonstrate the power of web-based video-game engine technology in providing the public a "first-person" look at space exploration. The concept of virtual space exploration is to allow the public to "see" objects in space as if they were either riding aboard or "flying" next to an ESA/NASA spacecraft. Using this technology, people are able to immediately "look" in any direction from their virtual location in space and "zoom-in" at will. Users can position themselves near Saturn's moons and observe the Cassini Spacecraft's "encounters" as they happened. Whenever real data for their "view" exists it is incorporated into the scene. Where data is missing, a high-fidelity simulation of the view is generated to fill in the scene. The observer can also change the time of observation into the past or future. Our approach is to utilize and extend the Unity 3d game development tool, currently in use by the computer gaming industry, along with JPL mission specific telemetry and instrument data to build our virtual explorer. The potential of the application of game technology for the development of educational curricula and public engagement are huge. We believe this technology can revolutionize the way the general public and the planetary science community views ESA/NASA missions and provides an educational context that is attractive to the younger generation. This technology is currently under development and application at JPL to assist our missions in viewing their data, communicating with the public and visualizing future mission plans. Real-time demonstrations of CASSIE and other applications in development

  15. Publication productivity of the Bio-organic division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre : a scientometric study

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to analyse quantitatively 475 papers published by the Bio-Organic Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during 1972–2002 in various domains like Synthesis (202), Bioorganic Chemistry (100), Biotechnology (70), Natural Products (53), Waste Management (30), Supra-molecular Chemistry (18) and Organic Spectroscopy (2). The highest number of publications in a year were 38 in 2001. The average number of publications per year was 15.3 and the highest collaboration coefficient 1.0 was fo...

  16. Participation of Public Benefit Organizations in Income Tax – Financial and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Musiałkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents...

  17. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  18. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  19. Phases of Recognition and Management of Financial Crisis in Public Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. R.

    Based in part on interviews conducted in 32 municipalities, this paper is intended to provide information to public managers, policy analysts, and others on methods for improving the management of retrenchment. A model summarizes how public organizations recognize and attempt to manage financial crises and prolonged financial stress. Some cutback…

  20. Organic farming and the prospects for stimulating public goods under the CAP 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Stolze, Matthias; Sanders, Jürn; Kasperczyk, Nadja; Madsen, Gudula

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for the 2014–2020 period aimed to be a flagship initiative for the delivery of more environmental and climate friendly agriculture, encapsulated in the slogan "public money for public goods”. To achieve its environmental and climate change goals, the EU uses key instruments of Pillars 1 and 2 to provide more public goods from EU agriculture. Organic farming is recognised under both instruments for the first time in terms of its contribut...

  1. iPOPY – innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth. School meals – and more!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, A; Nolting, B; Kristensen, N;

    2008-01-01

    One of eight pilot projects in the European CORE Organic programme, innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth, (iPOPY) will study efficient ways of implementing organic food in public serving outlets for young people (2007-10). By analysing practical cases of school meal systems...... and other food serving outlets for youth, we will identify hindrances and promoting factors in the participating countries (Denmark, Finland, Italy and Norway). Policies, supply chains, certification systems, the young consumers’ perception and participation, and health effects of implementation of organic...... policies and menus are focussed in iPOPY. The main aim is to suggest efficient policies and comprehensive strategies to increase the consumption of organic food among young consumers in a public setting, and fostering sustainable nutrition. Interdisciplinary project tools under development...

  2. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions and asphaltenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-03-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e. aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified infrared emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g. coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely `distillate aromatic extract', `Residual Aromatic Extract', heavy aromatic fraction (BQ-1) and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.66 μm) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.66-200 μm), and the infrared bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-aliphatic C-H stretching bands of certain PPNe, a result which is not achieved neither by the coal model nor by the other petroleum fractions considered here. This study shows that a new interesting molecular model of the emission features of PPNe is asphaltene molecules which are composed by an aromatic core containing three to four condensed aromatic rings surrounded by cycloaliphatic (naphtenic) and aliphatic alkyl chains. Instead, the weakness of the model involving a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for modelling the aromatic infrared emission bands (AIBs) is shown. The laboratory spectra of these complex organic compounds represent a unique data set of high value for the astronomical community, e.g. they may be compared with the Herschel Space Observatory spectra (˜51-220 μm) of several astrophysical environments such as (proto-) planetary nebulae, H

  3. 7 CFR 1955.119 - Sale of SFH inventory property to a public body or nonprofit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprofit organization. 1955.119 Section 1955.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... to a public body or nonprofit organization. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 1955.111 through... public body or nonprofit organization to use for transitional housing for the homeless. A public body...

  4. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, John

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation.

  5. Public health research priorities in Europe seen by non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Garrido-Herrero, Lara; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Harvey, Gabrielle; McCarthy, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Public health research is concerned with population health, determinants of health, health systems research, health promotion, environmental health, health protection, disease prevention and research in other fields of public health. During the last decades, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are more often entering the field of public health research. This paper presents results of work within SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe), a European Commission funded study aimed to gather information and produce knowledge on the state of public health research in Europe. A questionnaire survey was developed and conducted among NGOs enrolled in a database held by the European Public Health Alliance (EPHA). There were 80 replies, and the response rate for NGOs that were members of EPHA was 53%. There were no significant statistical differences in the responses when analysed for three European groups ['old' member states (EU 15), accession members states in 2004 (EU 10) and EU-associated countries]. The NGOs reported a relatively large international experience, expressed by participation in international public health research, and more often practice work. The main research priorities reported were general public health, environmental health, ADHD, obesity, nutrition, tobacco control. NGOs showed low correlation between their work field and their proposed public health research priorities. There are growing numbers of NGOs in Europe concerned with public health. This survey indicates their interest also in public health research priorities.

  6. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  7. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  8. Advertising or public relations – which is the organizations choice in the current period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current period, when the issue of efficient use of financial resources is a central, organizations seeking the best ways to both promote their self-image, and products or services they produce and sell. Between the promotional techniques by the mass communication in which organizations can appeal, the makers have to choose between advertising and public relations activities.

  9. Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Women's Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paula D.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the work of women's voluntary associations in support of public libraries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Activities studied include support of traveling libraries, library legislation, and the founding of local libraries. Cooperation of organized women's groups with the American Library Association and other organizations is…

  10. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... claims. \\2\\ See Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... Write ``Ecobaby Organics, File No. 122 3129'' on your comment and file your comment online at...

  11. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3T - Broadly, publicly supported organizations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... public charity described in 509(a)(2). N's five-member governing body consists of A, A's sons, B and C... having special knowledge in the particular field or discipline in which the organization is operating, of... section 509(a)(2) are to be computed on the basis of the nature of the organization's normal sources...

  12. DISCLOSURE OF EVIDENCE IN CARTEL LITIGATIONS IN THE EU: IS BALANCE OF VICTIMS’ RIGHTS AND PUBLIC INTERESTS POSSIBLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focus is an assessment of disclosure rules in the European Union and a perspective for implementation of the US discovery rules to improve European private enforcement. For these purposes the EU disclosure rules are compared with the US discovery rules; the influence of tension between disclosure of evidence and leniency programme on the effectiveness of protection of information is analyzed in order to propose areas for improvement and solutions to find a balance between some inconsistencies of the EU disclosure rules with interests of European plaintiffs in cartel litigations.The research method is not limited to a doctrinal approach to the EU and US legislation, but includes case law, and secondary sources. This paper does not deal with particular types of evidence and generic issues of disclosure unrelated to the cartel cases.The author contends that the American model of discovery in cartel cases cannot be transferred to the European context completely, even though disclosure of evidence in the EU is rather inefficient, and new rules are unlikely to protect consumers’ interests. In terms of consumers’ interests, protection facilitating follow-on actions looks more relevant on the EU level. Practically, the design of the US disclosure rules and priority of consumers’ rights effectively allow victims from the EU to sue in the US and obtain all necessary documents in the US proceeding. In this context convergence of the US and EU positions on disclosure of leniency materials could bring more certainty both to plaintiffs and defendants in cartel litigations.

  13. Benefits of hybridity in organizations: Views from public, private and the third sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Esa; Viinamäki, Olli-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We have recently seen research examining the origin and functioning of hybrid organizations. The growing practical and academic interest in hybrids is a clear manifestation of the changing and blurring roles of governments and private sector organizations. It also reveals new ways of thinking about governments' relations with various commercial and community organizations as well as ways of reorganizing service delivery and production. While there is a growing body of research and practical k...

  14. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S

    1999-09-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.

  15. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  16. Public interest and private concern: the role of family carers for people suffering mental illness in the twenty first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret; Crowe, Jim

    2010-04-01

    This paper looks to examine the emerging role of carers as essential components in the management of individuals affected by severe mental illness in the context of modern legal and health policy environments. Cultural and legal concepts of confidentiality within the doctor-patient relationship are complex. Increasingly, evidence is recognizing the essential role of carers in the quality management of individuals affected by severe mental illness and this emphasis is being further supported by innovative health policy and legislation. A public health definition for the role of carers may be a more appropriate way to consider their role in mental health management strategies.

  17. The Strategy against Organized Crime in Mexico: a Public Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the assumption that the organized crime is a menace for democracy. The article develops an analysis on the fight against organized crime's policy design in the Felipe Calderon's government, questioning if the policy is managed as a police's issue or a national security's issue. The main finding is the identification of the Mexican's government objective in the "war against organized crime" switching the focus from organized crime to the violence created by criminal organizations. To fight violence the government implements a policy based on the use of public force that doesn't consider the cooperation between different governmental agencies.

  18. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  19. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  20. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  1. Balancing the interests of patient data protection and medication safety monitoring in a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Richardson, Jonathan; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Bourke, Alison; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining data without the intervention of a health care provider represents an opportunity to expand understanding of the safety of medications used in difficult-to-study situations, like the first trimester of pregnancy when women may not present for medical care. While it is widely agreed that personal data, and in particular medical data, needs to be protected from unauthorized use, data protection requirements for population-based studies vary substantially by country. For public-private partnerships, the complexities are enhanced. The objective of this viewpoint paper is to illustrate the challenges related to data protection based on our experiences when performing relatively straightforward direct-to-patient noninterventional research via the Internet or telephone in four European countries. Pregnant women were invited to participate via the Internet or using an automated telephone response system in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Information was sought on medications, other factors that may cause birth defects, and pregnancy outcome. Issues relating to legal controllership of data were most problematic; assuring compliance with data protection requirements took about two years. There were also inconsistencies in the willingness to accept nonwritten informed consent. Nonetheless, enrollment and data collection have been completed, and analysis is in progress. Using direct reporting from consumers to study the safety of medicinal products allows researchers to address a myriad of research questions relating to everyday clinical practice, including treatment heterogeneity in population subgroups not traditionally included in clinical trials, like pregnant women, children, and the elderly. Nonetheless, there are a variety of administrative barriers relating to data protection and informed consent, particularly within the structure of a public-private partnership.

  2. Investigation and Strategic Analysis of Public Willingness and Attitudes Toward Organ Donation in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zheng, J; Liu, W; Ding, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, H; Zou, Y; Fu, Y

    2015-10-01

    China officially initiated deceased organ donation in 2010. Much progress has been made since then. However, compared with the developed countries in Europe and America, there is still a large gap. In this study, we investigate the willingness and attitude of the general public in East China and the factors that affect organ donation, and propose specific recommendations for promoting it. A simple and random sample was questioned. The data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 19.0 software, χ(2) test, and logistic regression. A total of 1200 questionnaires were issued; of these, 1105 were recovered, with 1074 effective questionnaires, for an effective rate of 89.5%. Among these, 426 respondents (39.7%) were willing to donate, 529 (49.3%) were in favor of donation but would not donate themselves; and 119 (11.1%) were against donation. Women (P organ donation (P organ donation. Reasons to hinder organ donation included imperfect laws and regulations, distrust on organ allocation, and insufficient promotion by relevant organizations. Much needs to be done to promote organ donation in China; targeted publicity will help to improve the work efficiency of organ donation; improvement of relevant policies and regulations, and establishment of a fair and transparent organ allocation system are key to the development of organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public management mechanism for the optimization of the interests of the state and local communities in the public administration system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kostenok

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern understanding of public authority and its essential properties such as transparency, legitimacy and democracy. Local government institutions are considered as the basis of local public authorities. The author describes Ukraine as a country of “new democracy”, which is in the transitive state and, therefore, faced with the problem of underdevelopment of democratic institutions, as leaders of civic participation in governance processes. Stresses the importance of studying the institutional environment within and against the background of which is the establishment of local government practices. The author notes that the power of local government is primarily that it initiates the movement for democracy “from below.” Through it, citizens come to understand that democracy - it is personal involvement of each for society, rather than a set of formal electoral procedures. Do not forget also that the abstract democratic right to freedom realized including in particular the right to local self-government. A sense of responsibility for the common cause is usually quite changes people. Even most passive of which it gradually turns into a socially active individuals. When the number of people in the population exceeds a certain critical point, then we can talk about the presence of civil society in the country

  4. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  5. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  6. Public health nursing-indispensible and economical for everyone if organized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Haven

    2011-01-01

    In August 1930, the editors of the original Public Health Nursing published an article derived from a speech made by Dr. Haven Emerson, then professor of public health administration at Columbia University, on the topic of the distribution and use of public health nurses. The speech was made before an audience of lay board members from hospitals and public health nursing organizations in Chicago, February 17, 1930. Emerson reported the results of a data analysis in which the numbers and credentials of public health nurses in 24 cities across the United States were reported. Excerpts from this report and Dr. Emerson's conclusions are powerful reminders that while there were issues of labor supply and distribution, the power of nurses to effect social transformation was central to the role as conceived by those administering public health services.

  7. An antidote to the emerging two tier organ donation policy in Canada: the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, S

    2005-04-01

    In Canada, as in many other countries, there exists an organ procurement/donation crisis. This paper reviews some of the most common kidney procurement and allocation programmes, analyses them in terms of public and private administration, and argues that privately administered living donor models are an inequitable stopgap measure, the good intentions of which are misplaced and opportunistic. Focusing on how to improve the publicly administered equitable cadaveric donation programme, and at the same time offering one possible explanation for its current failure, it is suggested that the simple moral principle of "give and you shall receive", already considered by some, be extended further. This would allow for those who are willing to sign up to be a public cadaveric donor be given a priority for receiving an organ donation should they ever require it. It is argued that this priority may provide the motivation to give that is so far lacking in Canada. This model is called the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

  8. Regulating and litigating in the public interest: regulating food marketing to young people worldwide: trends and policy drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2007-11-01

    The pressure to regulate the marketing of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods to young people has been mounting in light of concern about rising worldwide levels of overweight and obesity. In 2004, the World Health Organization called on governments, industry, and civil society to act to reduce unhealthy marketing messages. Since then, important changes have taken place in the global regulatory environment regarding the marketing of food to young people. Industry has developed self-regulatory approaches, civil society has campaigned for statutory restrictions, and governments have dealt with a range of regulatory proposals. Still, there have been few new regulations that restrict food marketing to young people. Despite calls for evidence-based policy, new regulatory developments appear to have been driven less by evidence than by ethics.

  9. Prosecutor's Office Role In The Process Of Ensuring Balance Between Private And Public Interests In The Conditions Of The Economic Activity Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda D. But

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the problem of prosecutor participation in the process of ensuring the balance of private and public interests during the supervision over laws on free economic activity execution. Authors noted the existence of need for the formation of the registers of subjects of small and medium business which aren't created so far. According to the authors, for more effective control over the balance of private and public interests the anti-corruption legislation of the Russian Federation, including the Federal Law of July 26, 2006 No. 135-FZ "On the competition protection" should be brought into accord with the international precepts of law and standards. Authors pay special attention to the questions of supervision, including reasons for the fact that during the supervision over the performance of laws in the conditions of the economic activity freedom in sight of prosecutors should be not dispositive, but imperative (regulatory and guarding legal norms. In the sphere of the prosecutor's law-enforcement activity in the conditions of economic activity freedom it is expedient to allocate such activity of prosecutors into the independent supervising subsector as it covers not only economic, but also other spheres of public life (state construction, social questions and many other. In the course of research authors analyze various regulations, opinions of scientists and practice of law application. In the conclusion authors explains opinion that questions listed in the present article need more accurate legislative regulation and realization in the law-enforcement practice.

  10. Strategic planning models in public and non-profit sport organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA THEAKOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is widely used by organisations, as itis an integral part of strategy. The present study tackles thetopic of strategic planning as it is developed by public andnon-profit organizations and provides an extensive review ofliterature in the area of the development and role of strategic planning within strategic management and the way it is adopted by public and non-profit organizations. For the purposes of this paper, five models of strategic planning have been discussed with the belief that they describe better the models that can be approached and developed by public and non-profit organizations in the area of sport. This article aims at partly contributing to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of organizations to integrate and deploy strategic planning. For this study we examined a non-profitsport organization in British Columbia, Canada. The authorspropose that public and non-profit sport organizations shoulddevelop their own model of strategic planning, which mayhelp them to think and act strategically.

  11. Determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior in a public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Ignacio Castaneda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior in a public sector organization. A survey was conducted with 188 knowledge workers of a public-sector organization at the national level in Colombia. In this public organization significant relationships between self-efficacy and knowledge-sharing intention, subjective norms, and knowledge-sharing behavior, and between knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior were found. There was a direct effect of perceived organizational support on knowledge-sharing behavior and a moderator role of perceived organizational support between the studied variables. The findings clarify how some personal variables and perceived organizational support interact in the explanation of knowledge sharing.

  12. Quality management techniques in public sector organizations: the role of managerial autonomy and organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Demuzere, Sara; Verhoest, Koen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2008-01-01

    According to NPM, more effective and efficient public services can be delivered if public sector organizations are granted more managerial autonomy and if they use various (private sector) management techniques. To date, only very limited attention has been paid to the link between managerial autonomy and the use of management techniques. With this study, we seek to fill this gap in the extensive NPM literature by examining the extent to which managerial autonomy has an effect on the use of m...

  13. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in mor...

  14. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools.

  15. 29 CFR 453.4 - Trusts (in which a labor organization is interested) within the coverage of section 502(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization, or one or more of the trustees or one or more members of the governing body of which is selected... the members of such labor organization or their beneficiaries. Both the language and the legislative... member of the governing body who was selected or appointed by a labor organization. 4 Daily Cong....

  16. Creating Your Strategic Plan A Workbook for Public and Nonprofit Organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Bryson, John M

    2011-01-01

    Creating Your Strategic Plan is the best-selling companion workbook to Bryson's landmark book, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Whether used with the main text or by itself, this thoroughly revised third edition provides a step-by-step guide to putting strategic planning to work in public and nonprofit organizations. The workbook contains new and revised worksheets and additional material on readiness assessment, teamwork, stakeholder analysis, visioning, strategic issue identification, and implementation. Creating Your Strategic Plan covers each of the ten key steps

  17. 我国公安机关网络舆论引导浅析%Analysis of network of public opinion of the public security organs to guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琦; 王越琳; 王晓宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounds the formation and characteristics of the network of public opinion, the lack of the guide of network of public opinion of Chtna's public security organs, and proposed some methods of improve the guide of public opinion of public security organ network.%本文通过分析网络舆论的形成和特点,我国公安机关网络舆论引导工作存在的不足,提出了加强公安机关网络舆论引导的途径。

  18. Comparative analysis of conflict dynamics within private and public sector organizations / Werner Havenga

    OpenAIRE

    Havenga, Werner

    2004-01-01

    In South Africa, private and public sector organizations have been experiencing conflict at an increasing rate during the past few decades and especially the last ten years. The prominence and high level with which conflict is regarded in this new democracy has made the study of this phenomenon more relevant. Especially within business organizations, between individuals, groups, and at management level, the influence of transformation and affirmative action has steadily affe...

  19. Best practices on institutional performance indicators system in R and D and I public organizations - the case of military organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria Cecilia [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Superintendencia da Qualidade]. E-mail: mcecilia37@hotmail.com; ctmsp-70b1@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dmzouain@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper reflects the partial results of a Master degree research, performed in IPEN and CTMSP in Brazil. The focus of this research is to establish the best practices for an Institutional Performance Indicators System in Public Research, Development and Innovation (R and D and I) Organizations, particularly, the military ones. In public sector, especially military Institutes that are strongly committed to R and D and I, there have been changes in order to modernize the organization management. The focus, in our days, is on the Performance Indicator System, financial or not, strategic, tactic and operational, as a tool for the organizational control over the accomplishment of settled plans, the completion of the mission, everything according to a continuous improvement process. Among the many approaches underlying the development of a Performance Indicator System, since the 90s, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC stands out. It is based on the studies developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1986. By using the BSC approach, it is possible to construct a Performance Indicator System that makes available the information, financial or non-financial data, in logical format. This paper presents the results of the international and national experiences review of Institutional Performance Indicator Systems, applicable to the public organizations of R and D and I, preferably military organizations, and identify the best practices of these Systems. At the end of this paper, it is conducted a comparison among the experiences analyzed, in operation or planned, and are established some suggestions for an Institutional Performance Indicator System for a Military R and D and I Organization. (author)

  20. How to Stimulate Public Interest in Science Museums%科技类博物馆展览如何激发观众参观兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨溪

    2012-01-01

    Public interest plays an important role in their visiting science museums. This article proposes that science museums could use many methods to stimulate public interest more efficiently, in terms of the content and form of the exhibitions. These methods include using peculiar forms, adding interactive exhibition items, utilizing similar background knowledge of audiences and combining humanistic ideas.%兴趣在观众参观科技类博物馆的活动中起到了重要的作用,观众的参观行为在很大程度上受到兴趣的影响。本文结合举例,说明科技类博物、馆可以通过在内容和形式方面下功夫,力求形式设计上的新奇、精美,增加观众对展览的参与度,充分利用观众相似的知识背景作为展览内容为切入点。结合人文科学领域的新思想表达展览设计者的传播意图。

  1. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in section 501(c)(3). O was created by A in 1971 for the purpose of carrying on economic studies primarily through persons receiving grants from O and engaging in the sale of economic publications. O's... societies, or civic affairs in the case of parent-teacher associations. (vii) In the case of an organization...

  2. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  3. The role and importance of public relations at non-governmental organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of globalization during the twentieth century, has increased the importance of nongovernmental organizations. Their development has gained to the whole world providing an important part of social, educational, cultural and welfare services that the community felt. Voluntary and non-profit activity which it carries led, implicitly, to increasing importance in public relations sector, compared with profit business.

  4. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision mak

  5. Building Resilience in Public Organizations: The Role of Waste and Bricolage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper shows how organizational waste and processes of bricolage have an important role in the functioning of public organizations, and how this is essential to innovation, organisational resilience and survival. This paper largely builds on the work of organisation

  6. Matching People and Organizations: Selection and Socialization in Public Accounting Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Jennifer A.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the establishment and maintenance of employee-organization fit, a recent study tracked the early careers of 171 entry-level auditors in 8 large U.S. public accounting firms and assessed the congruence of their values with organizational values. Recruits whose values match the firm's adjust more quickly and experience greater job…

  7. Coordination Incentives, Performance Measurement and Resource Allocation in Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens

    Why are coordination problems common when public sector organizations share responsibilities, and what can be done to mitigate such problems? This paper uses a multi-task principal-agent model to examine two related reasons: the incentives to coordinate resource allocation and the difficulties...

  8. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision mak

  9. A report on reporting: Why peers report integrity and law violations in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.

    2010-01-01

    The archives of three bureaus of integrity are analyzed in order to study the reasons for reporting integrity and law violations within public organizations. Peer reporting accounts for only a small percentage of cases; most investigations originate from routine and continuous institutional controls

  10. Cognitive styles, user acceptance and commitment to strategic plans in public organizations: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian); E. Cools (Eva); A. Prinzie (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGiven the lack of insights into the micro-determinants of strategic planning (SP) in public organizations, this study uses information-processing theory and self-efficacy theory to investigate individual-level predictors of commitment to strategic plans among planning team members

  11. Building Resilience in Public Organizations: The Role of Waste and Bricolage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper shows how organizational waste and processes of bricolage have an important role in the functioning of public organizations, and how this is essential to innovation, organisational resilience and survival. This paper largely builds on the work of

  12. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Difficulties and Countermeasures of Environmental Public Interests Litigation System in the New Environmental Protection Law%新环保法中环境公益诉讼制度的难点与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孝辉

    2015-01-01

    The civil procedural law (amendment) in 2012 stipulated environmental public interests litigation system, but the legal provision was simple and lack of maneuver ability. Although the new environmental protection law and relevant judicial interpretation have made great progress, still there are powerless on juridical practice about environmental pollution and ecological damage, which mainly include the main plaintiff being limited, territorial jurisdiction resulting in regional protection, the scope of accepting cases being too narrow etc. Defining procurator and the environmental protection department of the plaintiff qualification, giving citizens and enterprises of the plaintiff qualification, relaxing the plaintiff qualifications of social organization, establishing environmental circuit court, expanding actionable range of environmental public interests litigation, committing case-filing register system of environmental public interests litigation can crack the difficulties of environmental public interests litigation.%2012年民事诉讼法(修正案)最初规定了环境公益诉讼制度,但法律规定简单且缺乏可操作性.新环保法及相关司法解释虽有很大进步,却在环境污染和生态破坏司法实践方面仍显得力不从心,主要表现在原告主体资格受限、地域管辖严格导致地方保护、受案范围过窄等方面. 通过明确检察机关和环保部门原告资格、赋予公民和企业原告资格、放宽社会组织的原告资格条件、设立环境巡回法庭、扩大环境公益诉讼的可诉范围、落实环境公益诉讼立案登记制等措施可以破解环境公益诉讼制度的难点.

  14. “公益广告”多样化的语言表达技巧%Diversified language expression skills of public interest advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远水

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a new type of advertisement which is different from the commodity advertisement in recent years.The new type of advertisement talks about the culture of the new public service ads,which expound the significance of public interest advertising.It lists a number of important advertising entries.The advertising words are listed not only classify the language expression methods,but also give a detailed description of the focus and difficulty of advertising content,style of writing.This paper also discusses the specific application of Chinese knowledge and writing skills in the public service advertis-ing.%文章介绍了近年出现的一种别于商品广告的新型广告———“讲文明树新风公益广告”,阐述了公益广告的意义。列举了许多很有意义的重要广告条目,将所列举的广告词从语言表达方法上作了分类,并就广告的内容、写法两方面的重点、难点作了较为详细的说明,论述了有关汉语知识和写作技巧在公益广告中的具体运用。

  15. [Imaginary dimension and intersubjectivity in public health organizations: implications to managerial work and organizational change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with organization management in a new perspective, stressing the micro-social aspects and the role of individuals in the process of implementing change in public health organizations such as hospitals. Following the paths of French psychosociology, the article approaches the imaginary, intersubjective and collective dimensions of these organizations, highlighting the ways hospitals' directors and employees engage themselves in a struggle for power, affiliation and recognition. An essentially interactive and intersubjective activity, management is examined in the light of psychoanalysis's leadership function. It seems crucial to take into account the directors' potential structuring role in order to understand the organizational changing processes. Nevertheless, the mounting crisis in Rio de Janeiro public health services does not favor change and the building of personal bonds, but disruption, dismantle of institutional affiliations. In this scenario, the management structuring function and the director's social and psychological mediating role lose ground.

  16. Toward a model of employee engagement in a public service organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Strange

    Employee engagement has long been capturing the attention of researchers and practitioners, (e.g. Bakker, Albrecht, & Leiter, 2011; Buckingham & Coffman, 1999) due to its positive impact on various measures of organizational performance (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Mone...... & London, 2010). To date, however, employee engagement has primarily been studied in private manufacturing firms leaving out a gap of research in a public service organization, such as eldercare organizations, although engagement according to Boselie (2010) is highly relevant in the specific context....... The purpose of the PhD project is to build a model explaining employee engagement in a public service organization. Research on work design theory (e.g. Hackman & Oldham, 1976) will be used, since it has often been applied to identify antecedents associated with engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Kahn...

  17. 17 CFR 1.69 - Voting by interested members of self-regulatory organization governing boards and various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a registered futures association, pursuant to Section 17(j) of the Act, to address the avoidance... defined in § 3.1(a); (D) Net positions held at that self-regulatory organization in “customer”...

  18. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole; Castaneda, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use.

  19. A managerial approach to costing fixed assets in health care organizations: the role of depreciation and interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Y; Gafni, A

    1991-01-01

    The economic aspect of depreciation and interest on capital are incorporated within a managerial accounting framework by treating both items as imputed charges to be debited to the users of the assets' services. The costs of these services is examined for individual assets that provide either uniform or declining service over the expected life, and for a stock of assets where the character of the individual assets is ignored. By using imputed charges, the hospital's net income is allocated to its sources.

  20. On moral duty of public interest object in civil society boundary%公民社会界域中公益客体的道德义务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧韧

    2015-01-01

    During the process of building moderately prosperous society,we should not only ana‐lyze the moral rights of social vulnerable group,but also study their moral duties in order to deal with the problems scientifically and reasonably.Through analyzing civil society and its spiritual essence,as well as moral rights and duties in public interest ethics,this paper puts forward that as main object of public interest in civil society boundary,social vulnerable group should under‐take basic moral duties such as being honest while accepting donations,and taking part in social and political activities responsibly after accepting donations.%在全面建成小康社会的进程中,为了科学合理地协调处理社会弱势群体问题,在分析其应该享有道德权利的同时,需要研究其应该承担的道德义务。通过对公民社会及其精神内核以及公益伦理道德权利与道德义务的分析,提出在公民社会界域中公益行为主要客体即社会弱势群体,该群体应该承担接受捐助时诚信的义务,以及接受援助后负责任地参与社会政治活动等基本道德义务。