WorldWideScience

Sample records for public intercity passenger

  1. Intercity Passenger Parametric Analysis: Overview: Maglev Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    This document provides information intended to clarify consideration of some of the technically-based questions which arise in connection with intercity passenger transportation, and to provide insight into the characteristics and potential roles o...

  2. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  3. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  4. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; Enhancing intercity travel options; Ensuring a state of good repair of key intercity passenger rail assets... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail... selections for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. This notice builds on the program...

  5. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in the...

  6. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  7. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  8. Florida intercity high speed rail passenger service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T.; Watford, S.; Moore, G.; Des, A. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Plans for a new high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system in Florida were reviewed. HSR is believed to be the least expensive, most energy-efficient and least environmentally harmful alternative to air and highway travel. The system in Florida will be used as a case study to determine its overall impact on the environment, people and economy. The 300-plus mile system will move travelers at speeds of over 200 mph between Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. The study will identify the impacts of a HSR system on existing transportation networks, environment, energy, growth and growth distribution, safety, economy, travel time, and tourism. Transportation problems and the innovative mechanisms needed to realize the joint public and private venture approach to planning, locating, permitting, managing, financing, constructing and maintaining an inter-regional HSR line for the state were studied. The all-electric train would greatly help the environment in two ways: (1) zero emissions from the train itself, and (2) the reduction of trips by automobile and aircraft would reduce the amount of fuel and energy being used. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  10. 76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... agreement. 3.4 Eligible Projects 3.4.1 Definition of Capital Projects Capital projects are defined by 49 U.S... the project's financing; Encouragement of the implementation of positive train control (PTC...: Notice of funding availability for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects. SUMMARY: This notice...

  11. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 7: Study recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Research and analysis tasks to alleviate negative impacts, to augment positive impacts, or to better understand the impacts produced by the potential introduction of the alternate transportation technologies are identified. The project team's recommendations on research and analysis efforts which have resulted from the technology assessment are provided. Many of the recommendations apply to the future supply of intercity passenger transportation services, categorized by mode. Other recommendations pertain to broad issues in intercity transportation--e.g., finance, regulation, traveler values--that will affect all modes.

  12. Intercity passenger rail : financial performance of Amtrak's routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-14

    Since it began operations in 1971, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation : (Amtrak) has never been profitable and has received about $21 billion in federal : subsidies for operating and capital expenses. In December 1994, at the : direction of ...

  13. Economic and demographic impacts of passenger rail systems : the impact of intercity passenger rails on population and employment change in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research examines the impact of intercity passenger rails on change in population and employment at the county level in the continental United States from 2000 to 2010. This research adopts an integrated spatial regression approach that incorpor...

  14. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  15. Study of Intercity Travel Characteristics in Chinese Urban Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoran, Li; Yan, Wang; Shichen, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Due to rapid urban development in china, traffic problems are fast becoming considerably serious. In this study, we focus on intercity travel characteristics’ research. By investigating the travel characteristics of passengers and the intercity traffic demand forecast, we aim to discriminate the geographical spatial characteristics of departure places and to establish coupling law of city public transportation hubs and urban space which directly connect with the intercity rail station. In fut...

  16. Potential development of an intercity passenger transit system in Texas : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report describes the findings of a research study of the potential for development of an intercity rail and : express bus system in the state of Texas. Rather than focus on regional commuter or light rail systems : radiating from urban areas, th...

  17. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  18. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), passenger traffic and services (marketing, ticketing, station, and on- board services), and general... retention, ``green'' environmental outcomes, potential energy savings, and effects on community livability. Program Management Approach--A phased program implementation strategy including a preliminary description...

  19. The Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Business Plan Highlights : -No Iowa General Fund or RIIF appropriations : -State/local partnership : -Funds operation for the first 10 years : -Local cash commitment to passenger rail : -Conservative and practical financial forecasts : -Three compone...

  20. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  1. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  2. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... notice. The initial draft of this pending guidance document will be open for public comment, and FRA will... Development Program Budget and Schedule Form is a Microsoft Excel document that supports the qualitative and...-defined reporting relationships, statements of functional responsibilities, job descriptions, and job...

  3. Driver Performance Problems of Intercity Bus Public Transportation Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraji, A.; Harnen, S.; Wicaksono, A.; Djakfar, L.

    2017-11-01

    The risk of an inter-city bus public accident can be influenced by various factors such as the driver’s performance. Therefore, knowing the various influential factors related to driver’s performance is very necessary as an effort to realize road traffic safety. This study aims to determine the factors that fall on the accident associated with the driver’s performance and make mathematical modeling factors that affect the accident. Methods of data retrieval were obtained from NTSC secondary data. The data was processed by identifying factors that cause the accident. Furthermore data processing and analysis used the PCA method to obtain mathematical modeling of factors influencing the inter-city bus accidents. The results showed that the main factors that cause accidents are health, discipline, and driver competence.

  4. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... provides that the proposed pilot program would not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity... operation; provisions for accommodating the traveling public, including proposed arrangements for stations... program developed by this part will not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity passenger rail...

  5. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  6. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  7. Collaborative Optimization of Stop Schedule Plan and Ticket Allotment for the Intercity Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the ticket allotment issue of the intercity passenger corridor designed for different train grades, the matching relationship between the ticket allotment and the passenger flow demand is studied. The passenger flow conversion equation which is based on the collaborative optimization of the intercity train stop schedule plan and ticket allotment is established. Then the mathematical model aiming at the maximum revenue of intercity train system and the highest satisfaction from the passengers is established. The particle swarm harmony search algorithm is designed to solve the model. The example verifies the effectiveness of the model and algorithm, which indicates that, through the collaborative optimization of the stop schedule plan and ticket allotment for different grades intercity trains, the sectional utilization rate of the train can be improved; meanwhile, the optimum matching between the intercity train revenue and the passenger satisfaction can be realized.

  8. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.

  9. Models in Planning Urban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The solving of complex problems in public transport requiresthe usage of models that are based on the estimate of demandin planning the transport routes. The intention is to predictwhat is going to happen in the future, if the proposed solutionsare implemented. In the majority of cases, the publictransport system is formed as a network and stored in the computermemory in order to start the evaluation process by specifYingthe number of trip origins and destinations in each zone.The trip distribution model which is used to calculate the numberof trips between each pair in the zone is based on the overalltravel frictions from zone to zone.

  10. Short-term exposure to PM 10, PM 2.5, ultrafine particles and CO 2 for passengers at an intercity bus terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsiao-Peng; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2011-04-01

    The Taipei Bus Station is the main transportation hub for over 50 bus routes to eastern, central, and southern Taiwan. Daily traffic volume at this station is about 2500 vehicles, serving over 45,000 passengers daily. The station is a massive 24-story building housing a bus terminal, a business hotel, a shopping mall, several cinemas, offices, private residential suites, and over 900 parking spaces. However, air quality inside this bus terminal is a concern as over 2500 buses are scheduled to run daily. This study investigates the PM 10, PM 2.5, UFP and CO 2 levels inside and outside the bus terminal. All measurements were taken between February and April 2010. Measurement results show that coarse PM inside the bus terminal was resuspended by the movement of large numbers of passengers. The fine and ultrafine PM in the station concourse were from outside vehicles. Moreover, fine and ultrafine PM at waiting areas were exhausted directly from buses in the building. The CO 2 levels at waiting areas were likely elevated by bus exhaust and passengers exhaling. The PM 10, PM 2.5 and CO 2 levels at the bus terminal were lower than Taiwan's EPA suggested standards for indoor air quality. However, UFP levels at the bus terminal were significantly higher than those in the urban background by about 10 times. Therefore, the effects of UFPs on the health of passengers and workers must be addressed at this bus terminal since the levels of UFPs are higher than >1.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3.

  11. Effect of Variation of Speed Limits on Intercity Bus Fuel Consumption, Coach and Driver Utilization, and Corporate Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    The effect of speed limit and passenger load on fuel consumption was determined using actual intercity buses with simulated passenger loads over different types of terrain. In addition to road tests, laboratory type measurements were made on four int...

  12. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... transportation modes such as auto, air travel, intercity bus, and existing rail and the physical characteristics... alternatives to provide higher speed passenger rail service to meet future intercity travel demand and to... truck traffic demand, intercity truck traffic demand, and passenger travel demand compete for highway...

  13. Behavioral pattern of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the travel behavior of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire. A total of 84 samples were used as representative population, while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significant. The results that were obtained indicated that a positive correlation exists between frequency of   travel and commuters income in Lagos Metropolis and also that a positive correlation exists between frequency of travel and distance covered by commuters in Lagos Metropolis. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were also adopted to present the socio-economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that about 57% of sampled population are male, 62 % are civil servants, 48% of respondents travel for business purposes. Also, that majority of the respondents (50% said that the commercial public transport is highly prone to accident, while about 64% of the respondents commute on daily basis. It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.

  14. Viaggio Comfort - intercity coaches for the twenty-first century; Viaggio Comfort - Intercity-Reisezugwagen fuer das 21. Jahrhundert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, H.D.; Simbuerger, A. [Siemens Transportation Systems, Wien (Austria); Oreski, W. [Siemens Transportation Systems, Graz (Austria)

    2008-05-15

    Modern passenger coaches for intercity trains with a top speed in the range of 230-250 km/h are creating new opportunities for travel by rail in Europe and offer an economically very attractive complement to high-speed services at speeds of more than 300 km/h. (orig.)

  15. Spatial-Temporal Similarity Correlation between Public Transit Passengers Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Faroqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of public transit smart card data has enabled several studies to focus on identifying passengers with similar spatial and/or temporal trip characteristics. However, this paper goes one step further by investigating the relationship between passengers’ spatial and temporal characteristics. For the first time, this paper investigates the correlation of the spatial similarity with the temporal similarity between public transit passengers by developing spatial similarity and temporal similarity measures for the public transit network with a novel passenger-based perspective. The perspective considers the passengers as agents who can make multiple trips in the network. The spatial similarity measure takes into account direction as well as the distance between the trips of the passengers. The temporal similarity measure considers both the boarding and alighting time in a continuous linear space. The spatial-temporal similarity correlation between passengers is analysed using histograms, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hexagonal binning. Also, relations between the spatial and temporal similarity values with the trip time and length are examined. The proposed methodology is implemented for four-day smart card data including 80,000 passengers in Brisbane, Australia. The results show a nonlinear spatial-temporal similarity correlation among the passengers.

  16. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices...

  17. Rationalization of Public Road Passenger Transport by Merging Bus Lines on the Example of Zadar County

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Kos; Predrag Brlek; Igor Franolić

    2012-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis of public passenger transport in Zadar County, that is, transport on the County and school lines and suggestions of transport rationalization. The rationalization comprises the application of the County and school lines integration, as well as suggestions of other measures which aim to reduce transport costs financed by Zadar County. The objectives to rationalize public passenger transport have been defined, all County transport lines of schoolchildren and ...

  18. Solar-ships, solar passenger vessels in public passenger traffic; Solarschiffe, Solarfahrgastschiffe im oeffentlichen Personenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T. [Ingenieurbuero Schiffbau und Meerestechnik, Inst. fuer Solarschiffbau, Berlin und Hameln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It should first be said that solar boats are nothing other than electrically powered boats with their own independent, silent and clean power generator with which to recharge the storage batteries with free solar energy. There are only very few connection points to the public electricity grid on the open sea, on inland waterways and along their shores and banks. This fact has resulted in the many battery- and photo-voltaic-powered beacons and buoys that are so common today. But people who live aboard inland vessels, yachts, space stations and house boats are equally dependent on energy provided by electric storage batteries. Solar electricity generators are reliable, robust and perform their given task without requiring major maintenance work. This has resulted in ever more areas of application for solar electricity, also favoured by constantly falling prices and ever improving technology. Some of the currently available photo-voltaic modules are already pliable enough to form a single unit with the roof of a boat (see photo of the Aquabus 1050). Electric motors are older and more reliable than combustion engines. The motor can always be started just as long as the storage batteries have been recharged, i.e. the tank is full, and an electrical current is applied. In actual fact, such electric motors are in widespread use as nearly every cruise liner, submarine and even torpedo is equipped with electric drives. There are various reasons for this, such as a low degree of oscillation, silent operation and reliability. Large passenger-carrying vessels, however, do not use storage batteries but rather generate their electricity directly using numerous smaller diesel engines. (orig.) [German] Solarboote sind eigentlich nur Elektroboote, die ueber ihr eigenes unabhaengiges sauberes Kraftwerk verfuegen, das mit kostenloser Energie von der Sonne die Akkus auflaedt, ohne Kraftstoffe zu benoetigen. Auf den Meeren und Binnengewaessern sowie entlang ihrer Ufer gibt es nur

  19. Distribution pattern of public transport passenger in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Alfa; Malkhamah, Siti; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2018-03-01

    The arrival and departure distribution pattern of Trans Jogja bus passenger is one of the fundamental model for simulation. The purpose of this paper is to build models of passengers flows. This research used passengers data from January to May 2014. There is no policy that change the operation system affecting the nature of this pattern nowadays. The roads, buses, land uses, schedule, and people are relatively still the same. The data then categorized based on the direction, days, and location. Moreover, each category was fitted into some well-known discrete distributions. Those distributions are compared based on its AIC value and BIC. The chosen distribution model has the smallest AIC and BIC value and the negative binomial distribution found has the smallest AIC and BIC value. Probability mass function (PMF) plots of those models were compared to draw generic model from each categorical negative binomial distribution models. The value of accepted generic negative binomial distribution is 0.7064 and 1.4504 of mu. The minimum and maximum passenger vector value of distribution are is 0 and 41.

  20. Optimizing Bus Passenger Complaint Service through Big Data Analysis: Systematized Analysis for Improved Public Sector Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Kun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply–demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan, was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector–transportation company–passenger supply chain.

  1. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  2. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  3. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... purpose of the 3C ``Quick Start'' Passenger Rail Project is to reestablish intercity conventional speed... predictable and consistent travel times. It is intended to provide travel options and develop the passenger... through the High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program (HSIPR Program) administered by the FRA and funded...

  4. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  5. Rationalization of Public Road Passenger Transport by Merging Bus Lines on the Example of Zadar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of the analysis of public passenger transport in Zadar County, that is, transport on the County and school lines and suggestions of transport rationalization. The rationalization comprises the application of the County and school lines integration, as well as suggestions of other measures which aim to reduce transport costs financed by Zadar County. The objectives to rationalize public passenger transport have been defined, all County transport lines of schoolchildren and other passengers have been analysed as well as actual deficiencies in the city, County and school transport needs. Road transport infrastructure, carriers and transportation vehicles have been analysed. The future transport demand has been reviewed and the prediction of passengers on lines has been provided. Within the next five to ten years no relevant changes will take place, meaning that the balance in transport supply and demand will not be disrupted significantly. This study presents the measures for transport cost reduction and increase in the safety level in the performance of public transport.

  6. Marketing Research on Passenger Satisfaction With Public Transport Service in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radnović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine, based on conducted marketing research, the level of passenger satisfaction with public transport services for the purpose of making better marketing decisions in the example of the City of Belgrade. The main task is to test the hypothesis on the existence of significant influence of factors, such as quality service, attitude and behaviour of employees (e.g. driver, adequate informing, quality of vehicles, line routes and timetable, on passenger satisfaction. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for interpreting the obtained results and examining the formulated hypothesis. Empirical research has shown that there is a significant correlation between the aforementioned factors and passenger satisfaction with public transport services. The obtained results provided recommendations and guidelines for improving and increasing the quality of public transport services. The research results also provide the basis for future research that could examine the relationship between passenger satisfaction with services and sub-groups within the analyzed factors.

  7. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Liang; Jiancheng Weng; Wei Zhou; Selene Baez Santamaria; Jianming Ma; Jian Rong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds...

  8. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  9. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Introduction MIST Fall 2010 high-density tunnels, stations, and bridges. Another $20 million was provided for intercity ...passenger rail to protect infrastructure and the traveling public.12 This commitment of funds at a time of shrinking budgets demonstrates the essential

  10. Prospects of introduction of innovative technology overhead passenger traffic on the basis of the passenger ropeways for the modernization of the public transport system of the Bryansk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the current situation in the field of public transport in the Bryansk city was shown the main problems in the implementation of innovative technology for the aerial passenger transport on the basis of suspended passenger ropeways (Cable metro. Shows the advantages of the cable metro-based mechatronic technology transportation compared to the traditional suspended passenger ropeways. Was made the technical and economic feasibility analysis of the construction of the cable metro in conditions of a highly urbanized urban environment of large cities, metropolises and urban agglomerations. Presented the statistical data on the development of vehicles in the Bryansk city in the period 2004-2016 years and based on the analysis of these data shows the feasibility of the development of aerial passenger transport as the most high-speed and environmentally friendly mode of transport compared with automobile and electric transport. Considered the possible sources of financing of design and construction works and shows the commercial attractiveness of the project to potential investors in the framework of public-private partnerships. For existing urban development and major transport flows of the Bryansk city was formulated proposals for the location of future transport cable metro lines, order their gaskets, the formation routes of movement of the rolling stock. Made the estimation of labor and financial costs for the implementation of the project of modernization of the public transport system of the city of Bryansk on the basis of the suspended passenger ropeways. The proposed option has the following characteristics: the number of transport lines - 6, total length - 54.8 km, total number of passenger boarding stations - 26, hub passenger stations – 6, the total number of intermediate supports – 100...110 pieces with a span between supports of 400...600 m. the cost of construction of transport lines and the purchase of necessary

  11. Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds to a travel association map and represents a travel behavior. A travel association map also contains its own nodes. The nodes of a travel association map are created when the processed travel chain data shows significant change. Thus, each node of three layers represents a significant change of spatial travel positions, travel time, and routes, respectively. Since a travel association map represents a travel behavior, the graph can be considered a sequence of travel behaviors. Through integrating travel association map and calculating the probabilities of the arcs, it is possible to construct a unique travel behavior graph for each passenger. The data used in this study are multimode data matched by certain rules based on the data of public transport smart card transactions and network features. The case study results show that graph based method to model the individual travel behavior of public transport passengers is effective and feasible. Travel behavior graphs support customized public transport travel characteristics analysis and demand prediction.

  12. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  13. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  14. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  15. Influence of the seasonal factor on the long-distance passenger correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dolia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Up-today intercity passenger transportation is needed to consider fluctuations in demand for services over time. Designated fluctuations in demand mainly linked to the onset of a period of national or religious celebrations holidays, mass vacation in summer, internal and international sports and cultural activities, ect. Therefore, these demand irregularity of using public intercity transport should be considered when managing transportation. In issue to meet the needs of passengers moving within existing fluctuations in demand can decide to change the parameters of the components of the transport system. These changes include variety in amount or type of vehicles, schedules, changes in traffic patterns routes, introduction of these routes, limiting of the passenger’s purchasing ability fares and so on. It is important to determine the passenger’s place in the social, economic or cultural development of the population overemphasized. Therefore, regulation of activity of the public transport services must satisfy the possibility of these services within acceptable financial, time and physical burden for passengers. So, component optimization efficiency of intercity passengers’ transportation should take place in harmony with the social and economic development of society. The requirements set out not to satisfy the demand of passengers to move through extra large fare, lack of communication between bus transport areas with constant correspondence, failure to comply with increasing comfort haulage transport of tiredness or lack of means of transport are unacceptable phenomena. On the one hand the importance of the social dimension in long-distance traffic route of transport. In accordance with the meaning specified the need for balanced decision-making on the management system of passenger traffic. Invention compromise between technical and economic level to meet the demand and requirements of the conservation of expenditure

  16. Estimation of Collective Effective Dose Due to Cosmic Ray Exposures to Members of The Public and to Airline Passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, N.S.; Salah Eldin, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; El Dosoky, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using UNSCEAR 2000 report to United Nation General Assembly and its appendices, Annual collective dose to Egyptian members of the public (75097301). Was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average collective effective dose to air line passenger for 10 million is estimated as 25.25 micro Sievert. Furthermore using hypothetical approach for Egyptian passengers who fly locally, regionally and internationally, the collective dose was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average average collective effective dose for Egyptian passenger is due to Aviation is 3.36 micro Sievert

  17. Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen

    in the estimation of route choice models of public transport users based upon observed choices. Public transport route choice models have not benefitted from the same technological enhancements as car models because of the necessity (i) to collect additional information concerning lines and transfers, and (ii...... modes, public transport modes, lines, transfers, egress modes) is large. This thesis proposes a doubly stochastic approach for generating alternative routes that are relevant to travellers, since the method allows accounting for both perceived costs of the network elements and heterogeneity......The subject of this thesis is behavioural models for route choice of passengers in multimodal public transport networks. While research in sustainable transport has dedicated much attention toward the determinants of choice between car and sustainable travel options, it has devoted less attention...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... if the bus has a passenger seating capacity of at least 20 adults and the transportation is available... of a school. Incidental use (deadheading) of the school bus without passengers to or from a point to... used on intercity, local, and school buses. 48.4221-8 Section 48.4221-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  19. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... brakes; (C) Piston travel that is in excess of the Class I brake test limits required in § 238.313 but... where the necessary repairs can be made. (3) Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which develop...

  20. An instrument to measure passenger satisfaction of a public transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Leite Dias de Mattos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an instrument, based on fuzzy logic, to measure the satisfaction with the public transport. It is based on previous studies, expert opinion and results of two surveys conducted among the data samples of the studied population: a university community. Qualitative techniques (questionaries and interviews were used for validating content, while the construct validation uses quantitative techniques (Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis. An experiment is also performed to define some properties of fuzzy controllers: membership function and method of defuzzification. The final instrument consists of twenty items in four dimensions, namely: service, stops/terminals, vehicle and safety. It is considered valid and reliable by the present study. It can be used as a tool to understand the satisfaction of the passengers of public transport system investigated. It can also provide subsidies for managers to improve their work quality.

  1. Level of service for pedestrian movement towards the performance of passenger information in public transport stations in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M. Z.; Hanipah, M. H.; Lee, L. G.; Loo, K. F.; Wong, J. K.; Zawawi, M. H.; Fuad, N. F. S.

    2017-09-01

    Rapid growth in car ownership in Malaysia plays a major role to traffic congestion. Hence, public transportation is crucial to cater the residents in high-density area especially in Klang Valley. Signage information in public transport station is one of an important passenger information system. Poor placement of sign information will decrease the efficiency of passenger flow and caused congestion in the station. Passenger information system is very useful for trip planning and decision making. Therefore, it is interesting to study the performance of passenger information system in focusing the movement behavior of pedestrian at non-peak period. Thus, the study on pedestrian movement during non-peak period on weekdays and weekends in mass transit stations and bus transit stations in Klang Valley was carried out by using video observation. The observation of the pedestrian movement was made in Mass Transit Station 1 in the middle of Kuala Lumpur and Mass Transit Station 2 in southern of Kuala Lumpur. The other site was focused at Bus Transit Station 1 in Putrajaya and Bus Transit Station 2 in Kajang. Findings shown that Mass Transit Station 1 having the best facility in terms of passenger information which the level of service obtained is LOS A, while the lowest level of service which is LOS E was obtained in Bus Transit Station 2.

  2. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF PERSONALISED TEPESTRY INSIDE PUBLIC MEANS OF CONVEYANCE ON PASSENGER – STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR-STANCIU Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wishes to present the effects of the personalisation of tapestry inside public means of conveyance on the passengers’ psychology. Thus, a study case is presented, regarding a project from May 2016. The project regarded a certain theme personalisation of the seat tapestry inside a tram in Iasi following the diminishment of vandalising acts on means of conveyance involved in the cultural project Iasi – The City of Painted Trams, initiated TRAMCLUB IAȘI NGO. Beyond its cultural role, the project aimed at growing the quality of the travel experience, both at a physical level, as well as a psychological one, by carefully choosing the fabrics, the colours and the graphic personalisation of the tapestry. Also, the project wanted to discourage the acts of vandalism by involving the members of the civil society. The participation of the students of the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design in the project of interior personalisation of the public mean of transport led to a sense of respect and belonging among the passengers. On a long term the project has as objective the change of the negative perception regarding urban public transport and discouraging the use of the personal vehicle in the urban areas.

  3. A Bilevel Programming Model to Optimize Train Operation Based on Satisfaction for an Intercity Rail Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The passenger travel demands for intercity rail lines fluctuate obviously during different time periods, which makes the rail departments unable to establish an even train operation scheme. This paper considers an optimization problem for train operations which respond to passenger travel demands of different periods in intercity rail lines. A satisfactory function of passenger travelling is proposed by means of analyzing the passengers’ travel choice behavior and correlative influencing factors. On this basis, the paper formulates a bilevel programming model which maximizes interests of railway enterprises and travelling satisfaction of each passenger. The trains operation in different periods can be optimized through upper layer planning of the model, while considering the passenger flow distribution problem based on the Wardrop user equilibrium principle in the lower layer planning. Then, a genetic algorithm is designed according to model features for solving the upper laying. The Frank-Wolfe algorithm is used for solving the lower layer planning. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the application of the method proposed in this paper.

  4. Passenger transportation problems of the public limited liability company “Lietuvos Geležinkeliai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys DAILYDKA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of passenger transportation on local and international routes by the Lithuanian railways. It identifies the reasons due to which passenger transportation has become increasingly loss-making. Also, factors that may encourage a greater number of people to travel by train are disclosed. The development of this sector up to 2030 is reviewed, i.e. a forecast for increasing the number of passengers, a perspective for the development of electric, diesel trains, passenger wagon fleet, and the levels of estimated investments are provided. It was established that after implementation of the measures envisaged, losses in the passenger transportation field could be cut by 2–3 times.

  5. Prevalence of Alcohol Use Among Inter-city Commercial Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol has been reported to be frequently used among vehicle drivers in western societies. Few studies have been done in North western Nigeria. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol use among commercial interstate vehicle (cars and buses) drivers. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was ...

  6. Transportation Costs and Subsidy Distribution Model for Urban and Suburban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ševrović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport (PT subsidy provides the means to impose the optimal combination of fare and Level of Service (LoS offered to passengers. In regions where one PT operator services multiple local communities on multiple lines it becomes hard to uniformly link the actual cost of a line and thus the LoS offered, to a particular local community. This leads to possible disproportions in the overall subsidy distribution that can result in being unfair to some local communities, mainly the ones that are sparsely populated or geographically isolated. In order to extricate this problem the appropriate level of PT subsidisation according to the average values in the European cities was investigated and the current subsidy policies in Croatia were investigated. Based on this research and the hypothesis that the offered LoS must be reflected in the subsidy amount a new subsidy distribution model was established that involves a series of analytical procedures and processes. This model introduces several factors used for the calculation of the actual share in costs. Thus, the amount of subsidies for individual lines in a region can be determined based on the actual service offered to the local community, The proposed model has been tested and successfully implemented in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia.

  7. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  8. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz, 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Jorge-Garcia, Marta [Universidad de Leon (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  9. Integrated Optimization of Service-Oriented Train Plan and Schedule on Intercity Rail Network with Varying Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a better service level of a train operating plan, we propose an integrated optimization method of train planning and train scheduling, which generally are optimized, respectively. Based on the cost analysis of both passengers travelling and enterprises operation, and the constraint analysis of trains operation, we construct a multiobjective function and build an integrated optimization model with the aim of reducing both passenger travel costs and enterprise operating costs. Then, a solving algorithm is established based on the simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, using as an example the Changzhutan intercity rail network, as an example we analyze the optimized results and the influence of the model parameters on the results.

  10. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains. 37.91 Section 37.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By Public Entities § 37.91 Wheelchair locations and food...

  11. Improving public transportation systems with self-organization: A headway-based model and regulation of passenger alighting and boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Gustavo; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    The equal headway instability-the fact that a configuration with regular time intervals between vehicles tends to be volatile-is a common regulation problem in public transportation systems. An unsatisfactory regulation results in low efficiency and possible collapses of the service. Computational simulations have shown that self-organizing methods can regulate the headway adaptively beyond the theoretical optimum. In this work, we develop a computer simulation for metro systems fed with real data from the Mexico City Metro to test the current regulatory method with a novel self-organizing approach. The current model considers overall system's data such as minimum and maximum waiting times at stations, while the self-organizing method regulates the headway in a decentralized manner using local information such as the passenger's inflow and the positions of neighboring trains. The simulation shows that the self-organizing method improves the performance over the current one as it adapts to environmental changes at the timescale they occur. The correlation between the simulation of the current model and empirical observations carried out in the Mexico City Metro provides a base to calculate the expected performance of the self-organizing method in case it is implemented in the real system. We also performed a pilot study at the Balderas station to regulate the alighting and boarding of passengers through guide signs on platforms. The analysis of empirical data shows a delay reduction of the waiting time of trains at stations. Finally, we provide recommendations to improve public transportation systems.

  12. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  13. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  14. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  15. System and prospects of China's intercity rail transit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming

    2018-06-01

    City clusters and metropolitan areas in China are flourishing in the midst of the deepening urbanization in the country, thereby resulting in the emergence of intercity rail transit. Intercity railways connect mainline and urban railways for an integrated regional transportation system that underpins and leads the development of city clusters and metropolitan areas. This study explores the development mode and service characteristics of intercity rail transit, as well as proposes overviews on this system and prospects of its future technology in China.

  16. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  17. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  18. A disaggregate model to predict the intercity travel demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study was directed towards developing disaggregate models to predict the intercity travel demand in Canada. A conceptual framework for the intercity travel behavior was proposed; under this framework, a nested multinomial model structure that combined mode choice and trip generation was developed. The CTS (Canadian Travel Survey) data base was used for testing the structure and to determine the viability of using this data base for intercity travel-demand prediction. Mode-choice and trip-generation models were calibrated for four modes (auto, bus, rail and air) for both business and non-business trips. The models were linked through the inclusive value variable, also referred to as the long sum of the denominator in the literature. Results of the study indicated that the structure used in this study could be applied for intercity travel-demand modeling. However, some limitations of the data base were identified. It is believed that, with some modifications, the CTS data could be used for predicting intercity travel demand. Future research can identify the factors affecting intercity travel behavior, which will facilitate collection of useful data for intercity travel prediction and policy analysis.

  19. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  20. Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri

    2016-01-01

    Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...

  1. Benefit-cost analysis framework for evaluating inter-city transit investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development and application of a benefit/cost analysis (BCA) model to support the evaluation of investment decisions for intercity bus services. The model recognizes two principle types of intercity bus benefits: benefits th...

  2. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  3. 2007 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and services not available to the general public, or segments of the general public (e.g., governmental ...

  4. 26 CFR 48.6427-2 - Credits or payments to purchaser of diesel or special motor fuels used in intercity, local, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation) passenger land transportation available to the general public or in a school bus in the... (for compensation) passenger land transportation available to the general public or in school bus... during the taxable year for passenger land transportation or school bus operations if section 6427(i) and...

  5. Examining the Association of Economic Development with Intercity Multimodal Transport Demand in China: A Focus on Spatial Autoregressive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is generally perceived as a catalyst for economic development. This has been highlighted in previous studies. However, less attention has been paid to examine the relationship between economy and transport demand by exploring spatially cross-sectional data, especially for countries with significant regional economic imbalance, like China. In this article, we assess the economic influence of intercity multimodal transport demand at the prefecture level in China. Spatial autoregressive regression models are used to examine the impact of transport demand on economy by deep analysis of transport modes (land, air, and water and regions (eastern, central, and western. Through contrasting results from spatial lag model and spatial error model with those from the ordinary least square, this study finds that the estimation results can become more accurate by controlling for spatial autocorrelation, especially at the national level. Through rigorous analysis it is identified that except for water passenger traffic, all other intercity transport demand significantly contribute to a city’s economic development level in gross domestic product. In particular, air transport demands distribute more evenly and are estimated with the highest beta coefficients at both national and regional levels. In addition, the beta coefficients for land, air and water transportation are estimated with different magnitudes and significances at the national and regional levels. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the relationship between intercity multimodal transport demand and economic development level. Findings from this paper provide planning makers with valid and efficient strategies to better develop the economy by leveraging the special “⊣” cluster pattern of economic development and the benefits of air transportation.

  6. EVALUTION OF THE SINGLE INTERCITY FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION WAITING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ponomariova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The example of vechicle operation on the pendulum intercity route during single freightages processing is considered. Two approaches to the definition of the single freightage waiting time by the carrier are proposed. These approaches allow to take into account the probability of the single freightage obtaining by the carrier during the different load level of the transport enterprise capacity.

  7. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  8. A Joint Modeling Analysis of Passengers’ Intercity Travel Destination and Mode Choices in Yangtze River Delta Megaregion of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint destination-mode travel choice models are developed for intercity long-distance travel among sixteen cities in Yangtze River Delta Megaregion of China. The model is developed for all the trips in the sample and also by two different trip purposes, work-related business and personal business trips, to accommodate different time values and attraction factors. A nested logit modeling framework is applied to model trip destination and mode choices in two different levels, where the lower level is a mode choice model and the upper level is a destination choice model. The utility values from various travel modes in the lower level are summarized into a composite utility, which is then specified into the destination choice model as an intercity impedance factor. The model is then applied to predict the change in passenger number from Shanghai to Yangzhou between scenarios with and without high-speed rail service to demonstrate the applicability. It is helpful for understanding and modeling megaregional travel destination and mode choice behaviors in the context of developing country.

  9. 2005 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g.,...

  10. 2004 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g...

  11. 2006 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g...

  12. 76 FR 57924 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities at Intercity, Commuter, and High Speed Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... provide a written communication to the railroad setting forth the reasons for the delay and an estimate of... speculation, stereotypes, or generalizations about individuals with disabilities or their mobility devices..., not on mere speculation, stereotypes, or generalizations about individuals with disabilities or about...

  13. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., where appropriate, railroad operation simulations and equipment and crew scheduling analyses, which in... facilities improvements for each discrete phase of new or improved service implementation, including any... form of a department, commission, board, or official of any State, charged by its laws with the...

  14. Intercity passenger rail : Amtrak will continue to have difficulty controlling its costs and meeting capital needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    This report responds to the request to review Amtrak's costs and capital investment needs. In particular, this report discusses changes since 1995 in Amtrak's operating costs, including labor costs, payments to freight railroads to access their track...

  15. 75 FR 38365 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...] [ballot] Financial Planning Documentation....... No Specified Format [check] [check] [ballot] System.... Financial Planning Documentation--Financial planning documentation addresses the applicant's approach toward managing the financial resources necessary to deliver the project. At a minimum, the financial planning...

  16. Modeling a Multinomial Logit Model of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for All Trips in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Manssour A. Abdulsalam Bin Miskeen; Ahmed Mohamed Alhodairi; Riza Atiq Abdullah Bin O. K. Rahmat

    2013-01-01

    In the planning point of view, it is essential to have mode choice, due to the massive amount of incurred in transportation systems. The intercity travellers in Libya have distinct features, as against travellers from other countries, which includes cultural and socioeconomic factors. Consequently, the goal of this study is to recognize the behavior of intercity travel using disaggregate models, for projecting the demand of nation-level intercity travel in Libya. Multinom...

  17. Solving public passenger transportation problems: a need for policy reorientation. [Brokerage or consumer-oriented approach needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.W. Jr.; Oen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Public transportation has declined because policymakers and outdated regulations have restricted the evolution of transportation systems which more closely reflect the mobility and lifestyles of today. Public policy needs to take a consumer-oriented approach to public transportation by recognizing that all consumers do not have the same transportation needs and that one or two modes of transportation cannot satisfy these needs. This report argues that if public transportation is to become an efficient method of satisfying the transportation needs of a community, a brokerage or consumer-oriented approach should be adopted. The transportation broker will match specific individual needs with a broad array of transportation services, and overcome institutional, legal, and operational barriers to the development of new forms of transportation service. 51 references or footnotes.

  18. Requirements Elicitation of Passengers With Reduced Mobility for the Design of High Quality, Accessible and Inclusive Public Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzyńska Beata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors present the methodology adopted and the results obtained in the first stage of the research encompassing focus group interviews (FGI about the needs of public transport users in a selected city (Poznań. The elicitation and assessment of the requirements were carried out for three groups of people with disabilities using public transport in the city of Poznań: blind and partially sighted people, deaf and hearing-impaired people, as well as people with locomotor dysfunctions. A study carried out on the basis of a scenario especially designed for the FGI purpose has made it possible to identify barriers for people with disabilities and, consequently, to formulate their pre-trip,on-trip and post-trip requirements when it comes to urban public transport services. The results will be used to construct a questionnaire to be used further on in the project.

  19. THE GRAPHICAL MODELING, SIMULATION AND REALIZATION OF AN EQUIPMENT WITH OPTO-REFLECTIVE SENSORS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRIȘAN Horea George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of an equipment capable to carry out a real-time evaluation above loading of urban buses, allows the optimization of the urban transport vehicles distribution on a network segment, reducing waiting times, the passenger crowds in buses and at the same time decreasing the need of buses maintenance, issues with direct effects on the growth of the carriers economic profit. A solution based on optical detection is one that can generate results with high accuracy in relatively low cost conditions. This advantage can be obtained only if the constructive version of the equipment is properly designed, taking into account the geometric parameters of the light slots emitted and received by the sensors. Therefore, using three-dimensional CAD modelling, it was realized an optimal constructive variant. This graphical method also allows it the viewing, variation and synchronization of sensors geometrical parameters, so in this way, the equipment can produce the desired effect. Further, it has been carried out a graphical simulation of the designed equipment function, in order to validate the obtained results. Later, the designed equipment was achieved and tested under laboratory conditions, in order to be implemented and used under real conditions, on the buses of an urban public transport operator.

  20. Vulnerability effects of passengers' intermodal transfer distance preference and subway expansion on complementary urban public transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Yan, Yongze; Ouyang, Min; Tian, Hui; He, Xiaozheng

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability studies on urban public transportation systems have attracted growing attentions in recent years, due to their important role in the economy development of a city and the well-beings of its citizens. This paper proposes a vulnerability model of complementary urban public transportation systems (CUPTSs) composed of bus systems and subway systems, with the consideration of passengers’ intermodal transfer distance preference (PITDP) to capture different levels of complementary strength between the two systems. Based on the model, this paper further introduces a CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method from two specific aspects: (a) vulnerability effects of different PITDP values, which facilitate the design of policies to change PITDP to reduce system vulnerability; (b) vulnerability effects of different subway expansion plans, which facilitate the vulnerability investigation of current expansion plan and the identification of the optimal expansion plan from the system vulnerability perspective. The proposed CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method is applied to investigate the complementary bus and subway systems in the city of Wuhan, China. The insights from this study are helpful to analyze other CUPTSs for valuable planning suggestions from the vulnerability perspective. - Highlights: • We model complementary urban public transportation systems’ (CUPTSs) vulnerability. • We use a PITDP metric to capture different levels of complementary relationship. • We study vulnerability under different PITDP and different subway expansion plans. • We analyze dynamic vulnerability of CUPTSs during their expansion process.

  1. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  2. Modelling public transport passenger flows in the era of intelligent transport systems COST Action TU1004 (TransITs)

    CERN Document Server

    Noekel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how transit assignment models can be used to describe and predict the patterns of network patronage in public transport systems. It provides a fundamental technical tool that can be employed in the process of designing, implementing and evaluating measures and/or policies to improve the current state of transport systems within given financial, technical and social constraints. The book offers a unique methodological contribution to the field of transit assignment because, moving beyond “traditional” models, it describes more evolved variants that can reproduce: • intermodal networks with high- and low-frequency services; • realistic behavioural hypotheses underpinning route choice; • time dependency in frequency-based models; and • assumptions about the knowledge that users have of network conditions that are consistent with the present and future level of information that intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide. The book also considers the practical perspective of practit...

  3. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  4. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  5. 23 CFR 450.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... public, but does not include school bus, charter, or intercity bus transportation or intercity passenger... offer a significant alternative to regional highway travel. Revision means a change to a long-range...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  7. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  8. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  9. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  10. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO 2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO 2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  11. Preliminary concept for statewide intercity bus and rail transit system : priority corridor ranking and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This product summarizes the preliminary concept and priority corridors for development of a potential : statewide intercity bus and rail network. The concept is based upon the results of Tasks 1 through 5 of Texas : Department of Transportation Proje...

  12. Modeling Intercity Mode Choice and Airport Choice in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiabor, Senanu Y.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a framework to model travel choice behavior in order to estimate intercity travel demand at nation-level in the United States. Nested and mixed logit models were developed to study national-level intercity transportation in the United States. A separate General Aviation airport choice model to estimates General Aviation person-trips and number of aircraft operations though more than 3000 airports was also developed. The combination of the General Aviati...

  13. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jing; Zhi-cai, Juan; Lin-jie, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) to study the travel beh...

  14. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  15. Deduction of passengers' route choice from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hurk, Evelien; Kroon, Leo; Maroti, Gabor; Vervest, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choice from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate passenger service. Especially in case of disruptions when route choice models may not be valid this is an advantage. This paper proposes a method for deducing the chosen route of

  16. Deduction of passengers' route choices from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.; Vervest, P.

    2015-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choices from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate and improve their passenger service. Particularly in the case of disruptions, when traditional route choice models may not be valid, this is an advantage. This paper proposes a

  17. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...

  18. 78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... authorized by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Public Law 112- 141, July 6... accommodate walk-on passengers. 2. Eligible Projects Under this competitive program, eligible projects are... the number of trips (passengers and vehicles), the number of walk-on passengers, and transfers to...

  19. Problems and opportunities of the public organisation of passenger transport on the example of bus transport in Estonia. Reisijateveo riikliku korralduse probleemid ja võimalused Eesti bussitranspordi näitel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to show the need and opportunities for the public organisation of bus transport in Estonia. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to investigate Estonian and international experience in the organisation of passenger transport, its theoretical background and the resulting special measures. If we look at a specific transport service, the exclusion of the consumption thereof for a non-payer is no problem either in principle or technically. Here, public goods and market failure are not as much related to a specific transport service, but to the general availability thereof to the majority of the population. This is exactly the circumstance that the market may not necessarily guarantee. Here, the economic policy theory offers two solutions, which application in Estonian case are analysed in this article: 1 the cross-subsidisation of some lines at the expense of others, which, of course, presumes the prevention of the so-called price skimming with the establishment of regional monopolies and granting of special rights for them; 2 if cross-subsidisation cannot ensure a wide enough access to passenger transport, subsidisation must be added

  20. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  1. Deregulation and Intercity Bus Operations in Florida: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-02

    revenues have been consistent recently, but expenses have risen. The three areas most frequently served by Rabbit Bus Lines are Disney World, Sea World...Manager, Shoreline Stages had annual revenues of roughly $890,000 in 1980. In terms of trips, about ninety percent of this carrier’s traffic is interstate...this traffic constitutes the bulk of Shoreline Stage’s business by revenue , volume of traffic, and number of passengers. Charter trips to Disney

  2. International Passenger and Freight Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The International Passenger and Freight report is a summarization of all passengers and all freight transported between the U.S. and foreign countries combined, with...

  3. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  4. The U.S. Rural Population and Scheduled Intercity Transportation in 2010 : A Five-Year Decline in Transportation Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, 3.5 million rural residents lost access to scheduled intercity transportation, increasing the percent of rural residents without access to intercity transportation from 7 to 11 percent. In 2005, 5.4 million rural residents lack...

  5. 77 FR 69920 - Notice of Availability for Public Review of the Draft Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... would provide an alternative to automobile, bus, and air travel by decreasing travel times, increasing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Chicago to Omaha regional intercity passenger rail corridor extends from Chicago... current and future demand for travel in the Study area. The need stems from travel demand and increasing...

  6. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Shreekar; Ale, Bhakta Bahadur; Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands t CO 2 e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption

  7. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  8. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  9. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  10. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  11. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB to study the travel behavior of choosing from the choice set of the traditional train, the high speed railway and the coach by demographic and psychological factors. Through empirical data collection and analysis, we found that demographic factors of travelers indeed positively engender the latent variables in MIMIC, and descriptive norm and habit had direct or indirect significant effect on travel behavior and intention. On the basis of the effect of psychological constructors of the expanded TPB on the intercity travel behavior and differentiation of traveler's demographic characteristics, the agency can make reasonable policies and proper information for the intercity transportation. The results will support the basic theory of optimizing the transportation system in metropolitan area. Implications for researchers and suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.

  12. Fitness to drive among commercial intercity drivers in Benin-City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unfit drivers are prone to road traffic accident, therefore their health is paramount in ensuring the safety of road users. To determine the fitness to drive among commercial intercity bus drivers in Benin City, Edo State Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 ...

  13. FINANCING PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES FROM PUBLIC FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš POLIAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of efficiency of public passenger transport through financial support from public funds from the perspective of improving road safety. The aim is to verify the hypothesis that financing public passenger transport from public funds is a significant tool to influence the number of passengers carried by individual automobile transport, and thus it can be used a tool for influencing road safety in a particular territory. The first part of the paper analyses the sources for financial support of public passenger transport. The next part describes the assumptions for improving road safety through increasing the support of public passenger transport. The last part analyses possible impacts of financing public passenger transport on the road safety in relation to the specified hypothesis.

  14. The value of an intercâmbio: brazilian student mobility, bilateralism & international education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Spears

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s emergence in the global economy as a member of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa states has prompted the federal government to establish the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program (Science Without Borders in order to advance the country’s social capital and infrastructure in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math related disciplines and industries. Public and private investment in the Scientific Mobility Program has transformed the way in which Brazilian government, universities, and citizenry places value the intercâmbio (student exchange experience in the United States. STEM-related disciplines are now disproportionately funded versus social sciences, humanities, and fine arts fields. This development has altered the way in which student mobility in the United States is given worth and changed the trajectory of international education in Brazil. This research provides a conceptual analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program by using a critical political economy perspective. The essay conceptualizes the Science Without Borders initiative at global, national, and local levels. This research also explores what implications the bilateral U.S.-Brazil Educational Partnership may have on future policy, practice, and ultimately, funding of Brazilian student mobility. A emergência do Brasil no âmbito da economia mundializada como participante do BRIC (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul mobilizou o governo federal brasileiro a estabelecer um programa estatal de mobilidade acadêmica (Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras de modo a fazer avançar o capital social do país (general intellect e a infraestrutura em STEM (Ciência, Tecnologia, Engenharia e Matemática relacionadas à indústria. Investimentos públicos e privados no programa de mobilidade acadêmica transformaram o modo como o governo brasileiro e as universidades valorizam o intercâmbio estudantil com os Estados Unidos. As

  15. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  16. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  17. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  18. Mode shift strategies in intercity transportation and their effect on energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, S.

    1975-01-01

    Policies are examined which, if implemented, could lead to significant energy savings in intercity travel in the northeast corridor arena, without restricting the traveler's freedom of mode choice. The effects on arena energy consumption of introducing new, more energy-efficient aircraft are investigated; and several strategies unrelated to the implementation of new aircraft are introduced to yield reductions in overall intercity energy use. In both parts of this analysis, resulting changes in patronage (modal share) and energy use are demonstrated, leading to new insights into the effectiveness of different potential policies for achieving energy conservation. Some observations on induced demand trends that could be associated with certain strategies and the resultant potential effect on energy conservation are provided.

  19. MEASURING CAR DRIVERS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPROVED INTERCITY TRANSPORTATION SERVICE: A CASE STUDY IN LIBYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSSOUR A. ABDULASALM MISKEEN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates solutions to optimize the intercity highway network and to facilitate the understanding of the transport mode of Libyans, according to the proposed transport policies, in terms of reducing car usage for intercity trips. In this study, different models namely the logit and spike models are applied to estimate the mean of the willingness to pay (WTP value for some proposed policies in order to be able to compare the results from each policy and analyses to what extent that each was regarded as suitable for our data characteristics. A large number of respondents were unwilling to pay any money for the different proposed policies on transportation. Therefore, the Spike model was used to avoid errors in estimation and create a WTP pricing model for the different proposed policies on transportation. The overall results indicate that the spike model outperforms the logit model significantly.

  20. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Xiao-Wei

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the papers included in the proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-speed and Intercity Railways (IWHIR 2011) held in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China from July 19 to July 22, 2011, which is organized by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, in collaboration with Southwest Jiaotong University, Beijing Jiaotong University, Dalian Jiaotong University, China Engineering Consultants, Inc., Zhejiang University, and Tsinghua University. Continuing the great initiatives and momentums of the rapid development in high-speed and intercity railways worldwide in recent years, IWHIR 2011 aims at providing a platform for academic scholars and practicing engineers to share knowledge and experience, to promote collaboration, and to strengthen R&D activities related to railway engineering. Engineers, scientists, professors, and students from universities, research institutes, and related industrial companies have been cordially invited to participate in the workshop. These papers have covered ...

  1. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...

  2. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  4. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  5. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  6. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  7. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELİCE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    Highways, Located in the city and intercity locations are generally prone to many kind of natural disaster risks. Natural hazards and disasters that may occur firstly from highway project making to construction and operation stages and later during the implementation of highway maintenance and repair stages have to be taken into consideration. And assessment of risks that may occur against adverse situations is very important in terms of project design, construction, operation maintenance and repair costs. Making hazard and natural disaster risk analysis is largely depending on the definition of the likelihood of the probable hazards on the highways. However, assets at risk , and the impacts of the events must be examined and to be rated in their own. With the realization of these activities, intended improvements against natural hazards and disasters will be made with the utilization of Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method and their effects will be analyzed with further works. FMEA, is a useful method to identify the failure mode and effects depending on the type of failure rate effects priorities and finding the most optimum economic and effective solution. Although relevant measures being taken for the identified risks by this analysis method , it may also provide some information for some public institutions about the nature of these risks when required. Thus, the necessary measures will have been taken in advance in the city and intercity highways. Many hazards and natural disasters are taken into account in risk assessments. The most important of these dangers can be listed as follows; • Natural disasters 1. Meteorological based natural disasters (floods, severe storms, tropical storms, winter storms, avalanches, etc.). 2. Geological based natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, etc) • Human originated disasters 1. Transport accidents (traffic accidents), originating from the road surface defects (icing

  8. Intercity deceased donor renal transplantation: A single-center experience from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country such as India, deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRTx accounts for only about 1% of all renal transplants (RTx. Our institute initiated an intercity DDRTx in the year 2006, which significantly increased the number of RTx. We retrieved 74 kidneys from 37 deceased donors from various cities of Gujarat from January 2006 to December 2009. We transplanted the allografts in 66 recipients and a retrospective analysis of the donor profile and management and recipient outcome was performed. The mean age of the donors was 43.3 ± 18.8 years. The causes of death included road traffic accident in 51.35% of the donors and cerebrovascular stroke in 48.65% of the donors; 83.78% of the donors required ionotropes for hemodynamic stability in addition to vigorous intravenous fluid replacement. The average urine output of the donors was 350 ± 150 mL. The organs were perfused and stored in HTK solution. The mean cold ischemia time (CIT was 9.12 ± 5.25 h. The mean anastomosis time in the recipient was 30.8 ± 8.7 min. 57.6% of the recipients established urine output on the operating table and 42.4% developed delayed graft function. At the end of 1 month after transplantation, the mean serum creatinine was comparable to the Ahmadabad city DDRTx, although the CIT was significantly longer in the intercity patients. Intercity organ harvesting is a viable option to increase the donor pool. Distance may not be an impediment, and good recipient outcome is possible in spite of prolonged CIT in case of proper harvesting and preservation.

  9. Inter-CLI work-group: safety after Fukushima; GT inter-CLI 'surete post Fukushima'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-03

    This document contains a whole set of questions asked about nuclear safety and security by a work-group made of members of associations belonging to local information commissions. These questions are asked either to the French State, or to EDF, or to AREVA. They bear on general issues common to La Hague and Flamanville nuclear installations, notably public information, emergency plans, post-accident management, subcontracting, loss of electricity supply, public health, governance, computer hacking, extreme meteorological events. A set of questions concerns the AREVA processing plant in La Hague (warehousing, pools for irradiated fuels, plutonium oxide storage and warehousing, and so on), and another set concerns the Flamanville nuclear power plant (different aspects of the management of a crisis situation). The last set of questions concerns the Manche nuclear waste storage centre

  10. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  11. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or...

  12. Telecommunications' usage and public transport passengers' travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Dynamic Passenger Assignment during Disruptions in Railway Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passenger-oriented rescheduling problems receive increasing attention. However, the passenger assignment models used for evaluating the rescheduling solutions are usually simplified by many assumptions. To estimate passenger inconvenience more accurately, this paper establishes a dynamic passenger

  14. 75 FR 60165 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... development of intercity and commuter rail public transportation alternatives to single occupant motor vehicle... transportation policies and investments that serve the travelling public and freight movement to bring lasting... public transportation; and/or provide investments that expand the access to intercity passenger and...

  15. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from noncontiguous... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties...

  16. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  17. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  18. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... ferries was analysed retrospectively. Results: Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember patients were analysed. Passenger patients were generally older and more serious ill than...

  19. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. O valor de um intercâmbio: mobilidade estudantil brasileira, bilateralismo & internacionalização da educação. The value of an intercâmbio: brazilian student mobility, bilateralism & international education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Spears

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s emergence in the global economy as a member of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, Índia, China, and South Africa states has prompted the federal government to establish the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program (Science Without Borders in order to advance the country’s social capital and infrastructure in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math related disciplines and industries. Public and private investment in the Scientific Mobility Program has transformed the way in which Brazilian government, universities, and citizenry places value the intercâmbio (student exchange experience in the United States. STEM-related disciplines are now disproportionately funded versus social sciences, humanities, and fine arts fields. This development has altered the way in which student mobility in the United States is given worth and changed the trajectory of international education in Brazil. This research provides a conceptual analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program by using a critical political economy perspective. The essay conceptualizes the Science without Borders initiative at global, national, and local levels. This research also explores what implications the bilateral U.S.-Brazil Educational Partnership may have on future policy, practice, and ultimately, funding of Brazilian student mobility. A emergência do Brasil no âmbito da economia mundializada como participante do BRIC (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul mobilizou o governo federal brasileiro a estabelecer um programa estatal de mobilidade acadêmica (Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras de modo a fazer avançar o capital social do país (general intellect e a infraestrutura em STEM (Ciência, Tecnologia, Engenharia e Matemática relacionadas à indústria. Investimentos públicos e privados no programa de mobilidade acadêmica transformaram o modo como o governo brasileiro e as universidades valorizam o intercâmbio estudantil com os Estados Unidos. As

  1. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System - Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  2. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  3. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  4. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  5. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  6. Evaluating neighborhood structures for modeling intercity diffusion of large-scale dengue epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Shun; Hu, Ming-Che

    2018-05-03

    Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics. We proposed a framework for assessing the effect of model configurations on dengue incidence in 2014 and 2015, which were the most severe outbreaks in 70 years in Taiwan. Compared with the conventional model configuration in spatial regression analysis, our proposed model used a radiation model, which reflects population flow between townships, as a spatial weight to capture the structure of human mobility. The results of our model demonstrate better model fitting performance, indicating that the structure of human mobility has better explanatory power in dengue diffusion than the geometric structure of administration boundaries and geographic distance between centroids of cities. We also identified spatial-temporal hierarchy of dengue diffusion: dengue incidence would be influenced by its immediate neighboring townships during pre-epidemic and epidemic periods, and also with more distant neighbors (based on mobility) in pre-epidemic periods. Our findings suggest that the structure of population mobility could more reasonably capture urban-to-urban interactions, which implies that the hub cities could be a "bridge" for large-scale transmission and make townships that immediately connect to hub cities more vulnerable to dengue epidemics.

  7. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  8. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  9. 49 CFR 700.2 - Organization and functioning of Amtrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... developing, operating, and improving intercity rail passenger service. The Act also states that Amtrak will... created by Congress to compete for the transportation business of the intercity traveller, to the end that the travelling public will have a choice of travel modes. The address of its headquarters is 400 North...

  10. 75 FR 53521 - Procedures for the Handling of Retaliation Complaints Under the National Transit Systems Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... discrimination, demotion, discharge, suspension, threats, harassment, reprimand, retaliation, or any other manner... include school buses, charter, or intercity bus transportation or intercity passenger rail transportation... regular and continuous general or special transportation to the public, but does not include school buses...

  11. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  12. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  13. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  14. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  15. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  16. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  17. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  18. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition......Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...

  19. “Good passengers and not good passengers:” Adolescent drivers’ perceptions about inattention and peer passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. Design & Methods We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. Results The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (sd 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7 days (sd 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) “Good and not good” passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. Conclusions While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. Practical Implications An understanding of teens’ perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. PMID:27496828

  20. Concise N-doped Carbon Nanosheets/Vanadium Nitride Nanoparticles Materials via Intercalative Polymerization for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Tang, Zhenghua; Wang, Zhe; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Liu, Zhen; Ran, Fen

    2018-02-13

    N-doped carbon nanosheets/vanadium nitride nanoparticles (N-CNS/VNNPs) are synthesized via a novel method combining surface-initiated in-situ intercalative polymerization and thermal-treatment process in NH 3 /N 2 atmosphere. The pH value of the synthesis system plays a critical role in constructing the structure and enhancing electrochemical performance for N-CNS/VNNPs, which are characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, and XPS, and measured by electrochemical station, respectively. The results show that N-CNS/VNNPs materials consist of 2D N-doped carbon nanosheets and 0D VN nanoparticles. With the pH value decreasing from 2 to 0, the sizes of both carbon nanosheets and VN nanoparticles decreased to smaller in nanoscale. The maximum specific capacitance of 280 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 for N-CNS/VNNPs is achieved in three-electrode configuration. The asymmetric energy device of Ni(OH) 2 ||N-CNS/VNNPs offers a specific capacitance of 89.6 F g -1 and retention of 60% at 2.7 A g -1 after 5000 cycles. The maximum energy density of Ni(OH) 2 ||N-CNS/VNNPs asymmetric energy device is as high as 29.5 Wh kg -1 .

  1. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  2. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  3. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  4. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  5. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  6. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  7. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  8. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  9. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  10. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  11. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  12. Capacity, information and minority games in public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, P.C.; Kroon, L.; Vervest, P.; Maroti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many public transport operators are faced with high peak demands. This leads to crowded vehicles and discomfort for the passengers. The increasing availability of information technologies creates new opportunities for passengers to avoid crowding and for operators to inform passengers and reallocate

  13. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  14. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Mao, B. H.; Bai, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial domain. Ten cluster groups were identified, indicating a hierarchical urban polycentric structure composed of large concentrated flows at urban activity centers. These empirical findings provide insights regarding urban human mobility patterns within a large subway network.

  15. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  16. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  17. A robust transfer inference algorithm for public transport journeys during disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, M.D.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Disruptions in public transport have major impact on passengers and disproportional effects on passenger satisfaction. The availability of smart card data gives opportunities to better quantify disruption impacts on passengers’ experienced journey travel time and comfort. For this, accurate journey

  18. Passenger Rail SOEs as Domestic Institutional Market Actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    sectorial challenges. In Sweden, this role has a new public governance form as the monopoly over time is fully dismantled. In Denmark, over time marketization is put on hold due to problems with the SOE as a market actor, but the SOE is nevertheless safeguarded in a new Weberian model as a sector......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical-based conceptualization of the contemporary domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as domestic institutional market actors (IMAs) in the marketization of public service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based...... on a qualitative comparative case study of the SOEs in passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Findings: The paper shows how marketization results in a layered institutional set-up of public service delivery based on both competition and monopoly where the SOE becomes what we call an IMA bridging...

  19. Discriminating Intercalative Effects of Threading Intercalator Nogalamycin, from Classical Intercalator Daunomycin, Using Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Banerjee

    Full Text Available DNA threading intercalators are a unique class of intercalating agents, albeit little biophysical information is available on their intercalative actions. Herein, the intercalative effects of nogalamycin, which is a naturally-occurring DNA threading intercalator, have been investigated by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM and spectroscopy (AFS. The results have been compared with those of the well-known chemotherapeutic drug daunomycin, which is a non-threading classical intercalator bearing structural similarity to nogalamycin. A comparative AFM assessment revealed a greater increase in DNA contour length over the entire incubation period of 48 h for nogalamycin treatment, whereas the contour length increase manifested faster in case of daunomycin. The elastic response of single DNA molecules to an externally applied force was investigated by the single molecule AFS approach. Characteristic mechanical fingerprints in the overstretching behaviour clearly distinguished the nogalamycin/daunomycin-treated dsDNA from untreated dsDNA-the former appearing less elastic than the latter, and the nogalamycin-treated DNA distinguished from the daunomycin-treated DNA-the classically intercalated dsDNA appearing the least elastic. A single molecule AFS-based discrimination of threading intercalation from the classical type is being reported for the first time.

  20. Discriminating Intercalative Effects of Threading Intercalator Nogalamycin, from Classical Intercalator Daunomycin, Using Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Banerjee, S; Sett, S; Ghosh, S; Rakshit, T; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2016-01-01

    DNA threading intercalators are a unique class of intercalating agents, albeit little biophysical information is available on their intercalative actions. Herein, the intercalative effects of nogalamycin, which is a naturally-occurring DNA threading intercalator, have been investigated by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy (AFS). The results have been compared with those of the well-known chemotherapeutic drug daunomycin, which is a non-threading classical intercalator bearing structural similarity to nogalamycin. A comparative AFM assessment revealed a greater increase in DNA contour length over the entire incubation period of 48 h for nogalamycin treatment, whereas the contour length increase manifested faster in case of daunomycin. The elastic response of single DNA molecules to an externally applied force was investigated by the single molecule AFS approach. Characteristic mechanical fingerprints in the overstretching behaviour clearly distinguished the nogalamycin/daunomycin-treated dsDNA from untreated dsDNA-the former appearing less elastic than the latter, and the nogalamycin-treated DNA distinguished from the daunomycin-treated DNA-the classically intercalated dsDNA appearing the least elastic. A single molecule AFS-based discrimination of threading intercalation from the classical type is being reported for the first time.

  1. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F

    2016-01-01

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  2. 76 FR 62144 - Environmental Impact Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... impacts to the natural and built environment of those alternatives, and invite public participation in the... will provide programmatic assessment of environmental effects associated with the construction... Environmental Impact Statement for Implementation of Passenger Rail Service Between Tucson, AZ and Phoenix, AZ...

  3. 75 FR 1069 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: Extension (without change). Affected Public: Businesses. Estimated Number of Respondents: 95,000. Estimated.... CBP is proposing that this information collection be extended with no change to the burden hours. This... other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB...

  4. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  5. The Need for Advanced Public Transport Information Services When Making Transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.; Chorus, C.; Van Sloten, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Specific attention is given to the role of making transfers in the decision to acquire specific types of information. Intercity

  6. The need for advanced public transport information services when making transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Chorus, C.G.; Sloten, van R.; Silva, da A.N.R.; Souza, de L.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Intercity train travelers are asked to choose among information services that varied in type of information provided by the

  7. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  8. Predicting Passenger Survival Rates on the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Chanda

    2017-01-01

    The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most infamous shipwrecks in history. On April 15, 1912, during her maiden voyage, the Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, killing 1502 out of 2224 passengers and crew. This sensational tragedy shocked the international community and led to better safety regulations for ships. One of the reasons that the shipwreck led to such loss of life was that there were not enough lifeboats for the passengers and crew. Although there was some el...

  9. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  12. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  13. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  14. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  15. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R

    2002-12-01

    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  16. Analysis of potential diverted of passenger car to the new toll road (case study: Cileunyi - Sumedang, West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, Eduardi; Suangga, Made; Lutfi Ansori, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine of potential of passenger car divert from national road to on-construction Cisumdawu Toll Road. The study was conducted by traffic count survey and followed by a roadside interview survey. Stated Preference method was used in order to analyse trip forecasting value. Mode choice model of new trip mode plans (Cisumdawu Toll Road) and current intercity road for Cileunyi - Sumedang is (UJT -UJR ) = 0.1079-0.507726x 1-0.8953764x 2, while Sumedang - Cileunyi is (UJT -UJR ) = 0.0790-0.301341x 1-0.548446x 2. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to obtain the forecasting of private vehicle that diverts to the new toll road (Cisumdawu Toll Road). Trip characteristics such as trip origin and destination, types of trips, occupations, salary, and others become a motive for respondents to choose a new trip mode. Results of the new trip mode forecasting that prefer to divert to the toll road in terms of the value of cost and time for Cileunyi - Sumedang are 74.11% and 86.62% respectively, while for Sumedang - Cileunyi are 69.60% and 76.48% respectively. These results are relatively high compare to toll planning document. The impact of this results can be determined such as lower overall fuel consumption, lower pollution and more important is the maintenance cost of national road will be decrease.

  17. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  18. Rescheduling of Railway Rolling Stock with Dynamic Passenger Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to

  19. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  20. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    /or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...

  1. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  2. 03. Disruption Management in PassengerTransportation - from Air to Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular traffic around and in all larger cities of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportatio...

  3. Improving Travel Projections for Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Public transportation use saves energy and reduces emissions by taking people : out of single passenger automobiles and putting them into high occupancy, energy : efficient transit vehicles. Furthermore, public transit ridership and vehicular : trip ...

  4. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  5. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  6. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  7. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.M. Lentink (Ramon); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms

  8. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  9. Child Passenger Safety PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    This 60 second public service announcement, based on the February 2014 Vital Signs release, discusses the importance of buckling up to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  10. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  11. In situ intercalative polymerization of poly (ε-caprolactone)/ 12-amino lauric acid-modified clay nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Larry; Monserate, Juvy J.; Sumera, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Polymer/layered silicate nano composites were prepared by in situ intercalative polymerization method from from ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and 12-amino lauric acid modified montmorillonite (AMMT). The organo-modified clay was investigated for its capacity to facilitate ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone within its silicate layers. The effect of varying the organo-modified clay loading (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) on the molecular weight of the poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) product was assessed by gel-permeation chromatography. The molecular weight of the polymer with different clay loadings ranged from ∼30,000 g/mo to ∼70,000 g/mol, where the 10% loading produced the highest molecular weight. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), and 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy were conducted to probe the composition of the polymer and the catalytic activity of AMMT to polymerize ε-CL. FTIR analyses showed two medium intensity and narrow CO-O stretching vibrations for the PCL products at around 1240 cm-1 and 1160 cm-1, which are attributed to ester skeletal backbone. 1 HNMR spectroscopic analysis revealed signals at 4.07 ppm and 3.66 ppm which can be attributed to εmethylene of caprolactone and methyl of ending ester group, respectively. The formation of the nano composites were assessed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), XRD analyses showed a broadening and disappearance of diffraction peak of AMMT in the nana composite which may indicate the formation of the intercalated and partially exfoliated PCVL/AMMT nana composites. TEM observations corroborated the presence of intercalated and exfoliated layers of AMMT after polymerization. The present work demonstrates that AMMT can be used as an alternative g reen catalyst's for the production of biodegradable polymers, where the in situ intercalative polymerization was employed as a direct method of preparing polymer/layered silicates (author)

  12. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  13. Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Schipper, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have increased, mainly fueled by the rise in activity; modal shares have pulled away from public transport, with a decrease in bus and rail, towards an increase in car and air travel; energy intensities, though initially decreasing, are currently increasing; and fuel use has taken over 37% of Spanish final energy consumption. To target these issues the Spanish government has focused its efforts in targeting energy efficiency through dieselization, which has not led to positive results. More recently policies and measures have been directed towards redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. Little has been done to reduce activity besides some anecdotic public awareness campaigns. Activity reduction may be achieved with regulations, restrictions and mobility plans; by increasing high speed rail and rail freight transport; by improving intermodality and tying the Spanish rail network with the EU; and with more urban transport planning at local level. - Highlights: → Complete analysis of recent trends in Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008. → Passenger and freight activities have driven GHG emissions increase. → Modal shares have pulled away from public transport. → Policy efforts targeted energy efficiency and redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. → Little has been done to reduce activity.

  14. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc.; Transport Canada... sleeping cars. Such trains are common on long- distance, intercity rail routes operated by Amtrak. On a...

  15. An assessment of public transportation markets using NHTS data : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the American Public Transportation : Association (APTA) assessed public transit markets : in a national study published as A Profile of Public : Transportation Passenger Demographics and Travel : Characteristics Reported in On-Board Surveys....

  16. An assessment of public transportation markets using NHTS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the American Public Transportation : Association (APTA) assessed public transit markets : in a national study published as A Profile of Public : Transportation Passenger Demographics and Travel : Characteristics Reported in On-Board Surveys....

  17. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of “a significant decline in market share by the middle of the 20th century as travelers and shippers turned increasingly to airlines, trucks, and...1995). Intercity passenger rail: Financial and operating conditions threaten Amtrak’s long-term viability (GAO-95-71). Washington, DC: U.S...I. (1980). Retrenchment and flexibility in public organizations. Fiscal Stress and Public Policy, 159–178. Scheinberg, P. F. (1998). Intercity

  18. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  19. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.

  20. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.

  1. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... modes of travel, airport plans, and intercity passenger rail plans. Independent Right of Way Alternative... intercity passenger rail capital investments and may provide financial assistance for the program, including... intercity passenger rail service to accommodate electric powered passenger trains. The ACRP would service...

  2. Statistical analysis of passenger-crowding in bus transport network of Harbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Zhao, Hu

    2018-01-01

    Passenger flow data is indispensable but rare in the study of public transport networks. In this study, we focus on the passenger-crowding characteristics of the bus transport network of Harbin (BTN-H) based on passenger flow investigation. The three frequency histograms for all the uplinks and downlinks in Harbin are presented, including passengers on the bus at each section, crowding coefficients, and position parameters of crowded sections. The differences in crowding position are analyzed on each route. The distributions of degree and crowding degree (in directed space L) follow an exponential law. The new finding indicates that there are many stations with few crowded sections and a few stations with many crowded sections. The distributions of path length and crowded length (in directed space P) are presented based on the minimum transfer times, and it is found that they can be fitted by a composite Gaussian function and a Gaussian function, respectively. The stations and paths can be divided into three crowd levels. We conclude that BTN-H is crowded from a network-based perspective.

  3. An Agent-Based Model for Optimization of Road Width and Public Transport Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Koryagin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An urban passenger transportation problem is studied. Municipal authorities and passengers are regarded as participants in the passenger transportation system. The municipal authorities have to optimise road width and public transport frequency. The road consists of a dedicated bus lane and lanes for passenger cars. The car travel time depends on the number of road lanes and passengers’ choice of travel mode. The passengers’ goal is to minimize total travel costs, including time value. The passengers try to find the optimal ratio between public transport and cars. The conflict between municipal authorities and the passengers is described as a game theoretic model. The existence of Nash equilibrium in the model is proved. The numerical example shows the influence of the value of time and intensity of passenger flow on the equilibrium road width and public transport frequency.

  4. On the issue of selecting technical and operational parameters for buses in urban passenger routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinskyi V.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of a public transport bus service in urban areas were analyzed. The aim of the article is to determine actual operational parameters of buses during passenger transportation in Zhytomyr. Ways of determining technical and operational parameters of buses were developed using visual and tabular methods of city buses real-time speed and acceleration performance registration by GPS-monitoring system with the help of a communicational and informational intelligent transport system of the city. Experimental studies of city buses motion parameters were presented. A comprehensive survey of passenger traffic and conditions of public transport functioning in Zhytomyr was carried out. The values of technical and operational parameters of buses on city routes were obtained. Preliminarily conclusions and recommendations considering the criteria for selecting the optimal rolling stock for a bus network of the city were suggested.

  5. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, 2008), 18. 3 U.S. Department...Nicholas Armstrong et al., Securing America’s Passenger Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship ...as a broken rail, a faulty wire connection, or an act of terrorism, could result in a shutdown. Communication systems use centralized digital

  6. Impacts of privatising Britain's rail passenger services -- franchising, refranchising, and Ten Year Transport Plan targets

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D Knowles

    2004-01-01

    Britain's passenger rail services were privatised in 1996/97 to reduce public subsidies and produce customer benefits through the private sector competing for medium or long-term franchises. Private sector franchisees were committed to investment in rolling stock, services, and infrastructure and were expected to deliver more market-oriented and cost-effective services whilst subsidies decreased on an annual sliding scale. The author analyses why some franchisees have been unable to achieve t...

  7. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  8. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  9. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  10. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  11. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellgren, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  12. Defense Transportation Regulation. Part I: Passenger Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    indicates apart action and the "N" in the special handling block identifies the passenger as a no-show. NAME RIC CHANL MSN- NBR /TVL-PD STS...will be retained and annotated with the origin, destination, ticket or token number(s) (when issued), and date issued to traveler. A rubber stamp...J. D. Pierce, TO. The use of a rubber stamp signature of the person authorized to sign GTRs is strictly prohibited. b. Other person(s) (acting TOs

  13. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well...

  14. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  15. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, M.

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  16. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  17. Delay Management with Re-Routing of Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe question of delay management is whether trains should wait for a delayed feeder train or should depart on time. In classical delay management models passengers always take their originally planned route. In this paper, we propose a model where re-routing of passengers is

  18. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  19. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  20. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  1. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  2. Ocean passenger vessels : migrating south for the winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...

  3. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  4. 75 FR 78063 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... for determining the maximum passenger capacity of small passenger pontoon vessels either by: Dividing.... 176.110 explicitly calling attention to the OCMI's prerogative to consider a vessel's suitability for... factors to which vessel masters should give special attention in both sections, and a requirement in Sec...

  5. Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotion Contagion in Stranded Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.

    2017-01-01

    Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency

  6. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.

  7. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji-Yong; Kim, Eun-Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3}. Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements.

  8. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji-Yong; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements

  9. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  10. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  11. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  12. Methods to estimate railway capacity and passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    that an evaluation of passenger delays obtained with simulation software (in this case RailSys) and the passenger delay model is comparable with the daily operation of the Copenhagen suburban railway network. Using a microscopic simulation model, the thesis demonstrates that it is possible to compare travel times...... of additional travel time. The differences between the different kinds of delay (train delays, passenger delays and scheduled waiting time) are illustrated through simple, but representative, case examples in CHAPTER 10. The examples demonstrate that 3rd generation passenger delay models are more realistic than...... depend on the given infrastructure and timetable and can result in longer travel times for trains and passengers. Furthermore, the thesis shows that the network effects can result in reduced capacity as some trains or train services can make it impossible to operate other planned/desired trains or train...

  13. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  14. Building Airline Passenger Loyalty Through an Understanding of Customer Value: A Relationship Segmentation of Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores means of restoring profitability to the airline industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated brand loyalty between passengers and airlines in today’s fragile environment. The air transport industry is caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies. Airlines rely on archaic frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to maintain loyalty which deter customers from choosing alternative airlines by increasing the cost associated with switching. In contrast, oth...

  15. Estereótipos na comunicação intercultural: o caso do intercâmbio cultural na PUCRS

    OpenAIRE

    Espindola, Polianne Merie

    2010-01-01

    Este é um estudo da estereotipia existente na comunicação intercultural. O objetivo é entender a natureza do estereótipo mental e seu papel na comunicação entre interlocutores de culturas distintas. Para tanto, observa os estudantes estrangeiros em programas de intercâmbio no campus da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo define o conceito de estereótipo e explicita seu papel na comunicação intercultural; verifica sua relevância na construção das narrativas entre cu...

  16. O intercâmbio de hospitalidade e a sua influência nos jovens viajantes: o caso do Couchsurfing na cidade do Porto

    OpenAIRE

    Tootill, Isabel Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Os meios de comunicação têm, ao longo das últimas décadas, sofrido vastas alterações devido aos acelerados desenvolvimentos tecnológicos, resultando numa profunda transformação da natureza dos relacionamentos humanos. A evolução de plataformas online, nomeadamente de redes sociais online, tem contribuído neste sentido, incitando a partilha de conteúdos, a colaboração, a comunicação e o desenvolvimento relacional entre utilizadores. Neste sentido, o intercâmbio de hospitalidade ...

  17. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...

  18. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  19. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  20. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  1. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  2. Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Jian; Liang, Hao; Liu, Wei-Yue; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wan, Xu; Cai, Wei-Qi; Ju, Lei; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Liu-Jun; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Kai; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-12-20

    We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2009. Real-time voice telephone with one-time pad encoding between any two of the five nodes (four all-pass nodes plus one additional node through relay) is successfully established in the network within 60 km.

  3. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  4. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  5. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OF PASSENGER ROLLING STOCK: PATENT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Inventors and researchers of the world are focused on improvements of basic life support systems including provision of quality microclimate parameters in a car of the rolling stock. The research is aimed at reviewing and analyzing patents in the field of climate comfort, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (CCHVAC of railway passenger cars (the chronological framework: 2011-2017 from the date of publication. Мethodology. During the study there were reviewed patents (foreign and domestic ones in the field of CCHVAC in passenger vehicles, in particular railway cars, their optimization and ways of managing them. Patent search was carried out according to certain search criteria: keywords, time frames and in various patent systems of the world. An interdisciplinary approach was used. Findings. Based on the search results, 157 patents were found, 21 documents of which were selected for analysis. Patents are systematized into three groups: "New technical and technological solutions in systems and functioning facilities of HVAC ", "New and improved solutions for HVAC system management in a vehicle", "Air ozonation in passenger cars". It is established that all patents have one of the aspects that have solutions to the issues of more environmentally friendly, energy efficient and safe application of CCHVAC systems in railway transport. Originality. It was proved a high level of link penetration in various technical fields, which include patents with CCHVAC. It is established that it is characteristic for them to designate the majority of patent solutions for use not in the purely railway industry, but in transport in general. Practical value. Confirmation of the high level of link penetration in various technical fields will make it possible to reflect technical problems with CCHVAC and technologies for their solution throughout the world. This will contribute to a more intensive technological upgrade in the improvement of life support

  7. Intercâmbio acadêmico cultural internacional: uma experiência de crescimento pessoal e científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiara Sartori Dalmolin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou descrever a experiência discente ao integrar um programa de mobilidade acadêmica internacional, durante a graduação em enfermagem. Trata-se de relato da vivência acadêmica em Portugal, na Universidade do Algarve, viabilizada pela Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A experiência de intercâmbio realizada no período de seis meses, possibilitou a aquisição de novos conhecimentos científicos e culturais, inclusive inovações de tecnologias em saúde, desenvolvimento de pesquisa e vínculos acadêmicos. Como contribuições, espera-se estimular e intensificar a mobilidade internacional especialmente no âmbito da graduação, considerando a sua importância para o aperfeiçoamento da formação acadêmica e a excelência do ensino superior brasileiro por meio do intercâmbio científico e cultural no exterior.

  8. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  9. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  10. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  11. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...

  13. Crippling test of a Budd Pioneer passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    This research program was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development in support of the advancement of improved safety standards for passenger rail vehicles. FRA and the Volpe National Transportation Syst...

  14. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...... the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution which in each step is transformed to an actual schedule by use of a greedy heuristic. Local search is performed on the abstract representation using advanced neighborhoods which modify large parts...

  15. 49 CFR 374.305 - Ticketing and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.305 Ticketing and information... where tickets are sold shall provide telephonic information to the traveling public, including current... schedules shall be provided to the traveling public at all facilities where tickets for such services are...

  16. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  17. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  18. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  19. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  20. Determiantion of elasticity coefficient of demand for suburban passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of changes in demand for suburban passenger road transport, depending on the value, is investigated. The results of the survey of passengers about changes of fare on the chosen route are given. It is built the curve of elasticity of demand for suburban bus transport use in labor and cultural and social movements. The equilibrium tariff for suburban road transport is defined

  1. An Optimization Method of Passenger Assignment for Customized Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Cao; Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an optimization method of passenger assignment on customized buses (CB). Our proposed method guarantees benefits to passengers by balancing the elements of travel time, waiting time, delay, and economic cost. The optimization problem was solved using a Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithm based on the shortest path for the selected stations. A simulation-based evaluation of the proposed optimization method was conducted. We find that a CB service can save 38.33% in average tra...

  2. Real-time passenger counting by active linear cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudour, Louahdi; Duvieubourg, Luc; Deparis, Jean-Pierre

    1996-03-01

    The companies operating subways are very much concerned with counting the passengers traveling through their transport systems. One of the most widely used systems for counting passengers consists of a mechanical gate equipped with a counter. However, such simple systems are not able to count passengers jumping above the gates. Moreover, passengers carrying large luggage or bags may meet some difficulties when going through such gates. The ideal solution is a contact-free counting system that would bring more comfort of use for the passengers. For these reasons, we propose to use a video processing system instead of these mechanical gates. The optical sensors discussed in this paper offer several advantages including well defined detection areas, fast response time and reliable counting capability. A new technology has been developed and tested, based on linear cameras. Preliminary results show that this system is very efficient when the passengers crossing the optical gate are well separated. In other cases, such as in compact crowd conditions, reasonable accuracy has been demonstrated. These results are illustrated by means of a number of sequences shot in field conditions. It is our belief that more precise measurements could be achieved, in the case of compact crowd, by other algorithms and acquisition techniques of the line images that we are presently developing.

  3. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  4. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenoja, H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  5. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Oil substitution and energy conservation in passenger transport - by the use of electric multiple units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padiyar, K P

    1983-11-01

    India's National Transport Policy of accelerating the electrification of railways to a target of 1000 route kilometers per year and phasing out diesel engines is justified because of indigenous coal for power generation and the flexibility and better performance of electric equipment. This article examines the growth of passenger traffic and the corresponding decline in rail's share of that traffic since 1950 to illustrate the urgency of pursuing rail electrification. Traffic forecasts through the year 2000 emphasize that railway capacity is not keeping pace with demand, which results in discouraging public use. 8 tables. (DCK)

  7. The influence of territory planning and social development on strategic decisions in passenger transport development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Griškevičienė

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of space planning and social development which play an important role in making strategic decisions in passenger transportation have been analysed. A number of strategic aims based on major principles of territory transport planning have been formulated. The investigation made has shown that the operation of public transport is not closely connected with the main carcass of urban territories. This decreases the efficiency of public transport, making it less popular and competitive compared to automobiles. The creation of the strategy of public transport development for the period of its integration into the EU system requires the use of methods taking into account territory planning and social and economic development of the country. The integration of new territories into the existing transportation system, optimization of routes and the increase of transport service quality are aimed to provide higher living standards and better social and economic conditions for the inhabitants. The appropriate tactical decisions in planning the development of modern passenger transport may be made only if the harmonized and well-grounded strategic aims are defined.

  8. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaan Corien M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM, and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%. The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7, mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days. In four flights (19%, contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided during and after the flight. Public health authorities should take into account patient delays in seeking medical advise and

  9. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  10. Passenger arrival and waiting time distributions dependent on train service frequency and station characteristics: A smart card data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Raveau, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    Waiting time at public transport stops is perceived by passengers to be more onerous than in-vehicle time, hence it strongly influences the attractiveness and use of public transport. Transport models traditionally assume that average waiting times are half the service headway by assuming random...... Copenhagen Area covering metro, suburban, and regional rail stations thereby giving a range of service headways from 2 to 60 min. It was shown that the proposed mixture distribution is superior to other distributions proposed in the literature. This can improve waiting time estimations in public transport...

  11. Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.Y.; Liu, Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban-urban, urban-suburban and urban-rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3ppm, respectively. The average concentration level between air-conditioned buses (1.8ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban-suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban-urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban-rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel.. The average CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Honk Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed. (Author)

  12. QUALITY OF SERVICE AND CRIME INCIDENTS IN PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... Findings revealed that poor quality of bus stops, ... how to secure passengers life and properties in public transport system ..... Agbola, S. B. (1997), Architecture of fear: ... Odufuwa, B. (2010), Vulnerability and mobility stress ...

  13. Alighting and Boarding Time Model of Passengers at a LRT Station in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor Peay San

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to study the factors affecting the alighting and boarding rate of passengers and establish a prediction model for alighting and boarding time of passengers for a passenger rail service in Malaysia. Data was collected at the KL Sentral LRT station during the morning and evening peak hours for a period of 5 working days. Results show that passenger behaviour, passenger volume, crowdedness in train and mixture of flow has significant effects on the alighting and boarding time though mixture of flow is not significant in the prediction model produced due to the passenger behaviour at the platform.

  14. Econometric Forecasting Models for Air Traffic Passenger of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Suryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major benefits of the air transport services operating in bigger countries is the fact that they provide a vital social economic linkage. This study is an attempt to establish the determinants of the passenger air traffic in Indonesia. The main objective of the study is to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of panel data and to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of time series data. This research also predicts the upcoming number of air traffic passenger until 2030. Air transportation and the economic activity in a country are interdependent. This work first uses the data at the country level and then at the selected airport level for review. The methodology used in this study has adopted the study for both normal regression and panel data regression techniques. Once all these steps are performed, the final equation is taken up for the forecast of the passenger inflow data in the Indonesian airports. To forecast the same, the forecasted numbers of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product and population (independent variables were chosen as a part of the literature review exercise are used. The result of this study shows the GDP per capita have significant related to a number of passengers which the elasticity 2.23 (time-series data and 1.889 for panel data. The exchange rate variable is unrelated to a number of passengers as shown in the value of elasticity. In addition, the total of population gives small value for the elasticity. Moreover, the number of passengers is also affected by the dummy variable (deregulation. With three scenarios: low, medium and high for GDP per capita, the percentage of growth for total number of air traffic passenger from the year 2015 to 2030 is 199.3%, 205.7%, and 320.9% respectively.

  15. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  16. InterCity tilting e.m.u. for Deutsche Bahn; InterCity-Triebzuege mit Neigetechnik fuer die Deutsche Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmann, U.

    1999-07-01

    When changing time schedule in the end of may 1999 the German Railway (DB) starts with a new generation of electric intercity trains for 1 AC 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz. Five trains with tilt mechanism will travel between Stuttgart - Singen - Schaffhausen - Zurich. For this purpose these trains are equipped in addition with swiss current collectors and safety engineering. [German] Zum Fahrplanwechsel Ende Mai 1999 wird die Deutsche Bahn (DB) mit einer neuen Generation elektrischer InterCity-Triebzuege fuer 1 AC 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz in den kommerziellen Dienst gehen. Mit fuenf Zuegen Baureihe (BR) 415 mit Neigetechnik (ICT) wird sie die Relation Stuttgart - Singen - Schaffhausen - Zuerich bedienen. Dafuer wurden diese fuenf Zuege zusaetzlich mit schweizerischer Stromabnehmerwippe und Zugsicherungseinrichtung ausgeruestet. (orig/GL)

  17. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  18. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  19. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  20. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  1. 49 CFR 239.7 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sleeping car or coach assigned to intercity service, other than food, beverage, or security service... operation of passenger train service involving a significant threat to the safety or health of one or more... fire department, or other organization involved with public safety charged with providing or...

  2. ANALYTICAL AND SIMULATION PLANNING MODEL OF URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article described the structure of the analytical and simulation models to make informed decisions in the planning of urban passenger transport. Designed UML diagram that describes the relationship of classes of the proposed model. A description of the main agents of the model developed in the simulation AnyLogic. Designed user interface integration with GIS map. Also provides simulation results that allow concluding about her health and the possibility of its use in solving planning problems of urban passenger transport.

  3. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  4. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  5. High Speed Vessels to Market : Comparative Case Studies in the Passenger Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Volpe Center chose to study several existing catamarans and high speed monohulls in comparison to representative SWATH family craft, including the SLICE 400 (passenger) and SLICE 600 (passenger/90 car) variants, the former similar in size and per...

  6. Forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro applying artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Natsional'nyj Issledovatel'skij Yadernyj Univ. MIFI, Moscow; FKU Rostransmodernizatsiya, Moscow

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro have been developed using artificial neural networks. To this end, the factors primarily determining passenger traffic in the subway have been analyzed and selected [ru

  7. Multiple imputation of missing passenger boarding data in the national census of ferry operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report presents findings from the 2006 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO) augmented with imputed values for passengers and passenger miles. Due to the imputation procedures used to calculate missing data, totals in Table 1 may not corresp...

  8. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  9. Рassenger survey on public transport in Zhitomir and evaluation of the main technical and operational parameters for the choice of city buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzynskyi V.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of the passenger movements in the direction of public transport in Zhitomir are defined and conformity assessment of technical and operational parameters of urban shuttle buses is folded. Firstly, the amount of passenger traffic affects the optimal choice of passenger vehicles and secondly, the intensity of road traffic on the streets of areas where passengers pass routes. It should also be kept in mind that passenger traffic can fluctuate significantly depending on the time of day and days of the week. But virtually all carriers can be replaced within days with rolling at a large passenger capacity, and vice versa. Therefore, the choice of one type of rolling stock, the capacity of which is set taking into account the data on hourly passenger capacity on the most loaded part of the route up to an hour "peak", or its capacity per day on the route as a whole. Thus the research work on inspection of passenger-route passenger transport, and public electric transport in Zhitomir is conducted. Primary data was estimated to select the main criteria for urban passenger bus. It was found that the buses in the "peak" hours move on passenger congestion. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations on the criteria of optimal rolling of choice for the city bus route network are provided.

  10. In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, L.; Mellios, G.; Tsokolis, D.; Keller, M.; Hausberger, S.; Ligterink, N.E.; Dilara, P.

    2014-01-01

    In-use fuel consumption data of 924 passenger cars (611 petrol, 313 diesel) were collected from various European sources and were evaluated in comparison to their corresponding type-approval values. The analysis indicated that the average in-use fuel consumption was higher than the type-approval one by 11% for petrol cars and 16% for diesel cars. Comparison of this dataset with the Travelcard database in the Netherlands showed that the deviation increased for late model years and in particular for cars with low type-approval values. The deviation was higher than 60% for vehicles registered in 2012 within the 90–100 gCO 2 /km bin. Unrealistic vehicle resistances used in type-approval were identified as one of the prime reasons of the difference. A simplified linear model developed in the study may be used to predict in-use fuel consumption based on data publicly available. The model utilizes the fuel consumption measured in type-approval, the mass, and the engine capacity to provide in-use fuel consumption. This may be either used to correct fuel consumption factors currently utilized by emission models (e.g. COPERT, HBEFA, VERSIT+, and others) or could be used independently to make projections on how fuel consumption may develop on the basis of changing future passenger cars characteristics. - Highlights: • In-use fuel consumption of petrol and diesel passenger cars is 11% and 16% higher than type-approval, respectively. • The relative difference between in-use and type-approval increases for late model and vehicles with low consumption. • Unrealistically low vehicle resistances are identified as a prime reason of low type-approval fuel consumption. • A model developed predicts in-use consumption on the basis of type-approval consumption, vehicle mass, and engine capacity

  11. Public transport traffic management systems simulation in Craiova city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    Urban transport is a comprehensive and dynamic mechanism. Therefore, all the problems for improving and reorganization of the system can be examined only in the light of a systemic approach. Currently, public passenger transport is one of the most important branches of the urban development in cities and metropolis. Public passenger transport activity and all the steps taken to improve that activity are considered to be of great social importance. In the current stage of city development, one of the main tasks is to create a public passenger transportation system that is safe, affordable, economical, reliable and environmentally friendly. The important role of passenger transport in the city's economy and achieving important social services to the population, dictates the need to introduce measures in the system that are harmonious, balanced and effective. This can only be done, in the context of current development, only after the system as a whole is tested extensively through special traffic and management software. (Author)

  12. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  13. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Dingjun Chen; Shaoquan Ni; Chang’an Xu; Hongxia Lv; Simin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model i...

  14. Value of Crowding on Public Transport in Ile-de-France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, E.P.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Debrincat, L.; Pauget, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research project that aimed to establish passenger values of crowding on public transport services in the Paris region. Qualitative research, stated preference (SP) experiments, and passenger counts and surveys were conducted to obtain such values. A simple

  15. 49 CFR 200.13 - Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication. 200.13 Section 200.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PASSENGER SERVICE § 200.13 Publication. (a) General notice of any...

  16. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  17. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  18. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  19. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  20. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with glazing...

  1. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  2. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  3. Passenger transport in Nigeria: Environmental and economic analysis with policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle environmental impacts and economic costs of the passenger transport sector in Nigeria for 2003–2030. Four scenarios are considered: business as usual (BAU); increased use of public transport (buses) at the expense of cars (LOWCAR) and motorcycles (LOWMC), respectively; and high economic growth with increased car ownership and decline of public transport (HICAR). The findings show that for the BAU scenario the life cycle environmental impacts double over the period, despite the assumption of increased fuel and vehicle efficiency of 35% over time. The total fuel costs at the sectoral level increase three times, from US$3.4 billion/yr in 2003 to US$9.7 billion in 2030. Increasing the use of buses would reduce the environmental impacts on average by 15–20% compared to BAU; at the same time, the total fuel costs would be 25–30% lower. If the use of cars grows much faster due to a high economic growth as in HICAR, the environmental impacts and fuel costs would increase by 16% and 26%, respectively. These results demonstrate clearly that future transport policy in Nigeria should promote and incentivise public (bus) transport as a much more environmentally and economically sustainable option than transport by cars and motorcycles. - Highlights: ► The life cycle environmental impacts of passenger transport in Nigeria estimated for 2003–2030. ► The tradeoffs between economic costs and environmental impacts discussed. ► Scenarios considered: business as usual; sustainable transport; high economic growth. ► Public transport is more sustainable than transport by cars and motorcycles. ► Ending gas flaring would improve substantially environmental, economic and social impacts

  4. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  5. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-04-01

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The

  7. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  8. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  9. Fast Heuristics for Delay Management with Passenger Rerouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDelay management models determine which connections should be maintained in case of a delayed feeder train. Recently, delay management models are developed that take into account that passengers will adjust their routes when they miss a connection. However, for large-scale real-world

  10. Trends in passenger transport energy use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jiyong; Schipper, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Having a clear understanding of transport energy use trends is crucial to identifying opportunities and challenges for efficient energy use for the transport sector. To this date, however, no detailed analysis has been conducted with regard to rapidly growing passenger transport energy use in South Korea. Using bottom-up data developed from a variety of recent sources, we described the trends of transport activity, energy use, and CO 2 emissions from South Korea's transport sector since 1986 with a particular focus on its passenger transport. By decomposing the trends in passenger transport energy use into activity, modal structure, and energy intensity, we showed that while travel activity has been the major driver of the increase in passenger transport energy use in South Korea, the increase was to some extent offset by the recent favorable structural shift toward bus travel and away from car travel. We also demonstrated that while bus travel has become less energy intensive since the Asian Financial Crisis, car travel has become increasingly energy intensive.

  11. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  12. Passenger Transportation and Travel Curriculum Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Carol

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course in passenger transportation and travel. The four-credit, competency-based program provides students with skills necessary to obtain employment in the aviation industry, travel agencies, hotel/motel management, and car rental agencies. An overview of vocational-technical education at the school…

  13. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  14. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  15. Factor Analysis of Passenger Cars Using as a Taxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deriugin O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to select passenger cars has been proposed. The procedure helps substantiate choice of effective transportation means in accordance with taxi class to meet consumption requirements of those taking part in transportation process from the viewpoint of comfort, safety, and minimum expenditures in the context of such transportation type.

  16. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  17. Choosing the tariff for city passenger transportation in Kiev

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with basic problems of tariff policy of city passenger transportations by busses fleets of communal pattern ownership in Kiev. Principles of perfection of method of calculation of tariffs have been offered by introduction of rout and unique tariff.

  18. Causal analysis of passenger train accidents on freight rail corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of economic, technical and political factors have limited the development of new, dedicated, very-high-speed rail systems in North America. Consequently, most, near-term development of improved or expanded passenger rail service in the U.S. ...

  19. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers' baggage. The importation of Cuban-origin goods, otherwise prohibited by this part, brought into the United States as baggage by any person arriving in the United States other than a citizen or resident of the United States is hereby...

  1. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...., third checked bag or more) Overweight/Oversized Baggage/Sports Equipment Carry-On Baggage 4. In-Flight Medical Equipment 5. In-Flight Entertainment/Internet Access 6. Sleep Sets 7. In-Flight Food/Non Alcoholic... baggage performance is outdated. Airline passengers would [[Page 41728

  2. APPLICATION OF NFC TECHNOLOGY IN PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk KOMSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of the application of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport. The NFC (Near Field Communication technology is a wireless and contactless technology of transmission of radio data over short distances (max. 5 cm. This technology is very similar to the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. It is assumed that this technology will spread rapidly and that already in 2015 around 85% of the payments in the EU will be made via mobile phones. This paper presents a research of passenger interest in this method of payment for tickets in the passenger rail transport in Slovakia. Further, an analysis of the applications of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport, including the protection of data in mobile phones, the processes in case of losing a mobile phone and ensuring the communication between both parties was presented in the article. The last part of this analysis shows the possibility of purchasing tickets regardless of the carrier and the transport type.

  3. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  4. 78 FR 38102 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Costs and Benefits The primary estimates of the costs and benefits of the proposed guidelines are shown... quantify the benefits of the proposed guidelines due to the nature of the benefits. The proposed guidelines..., transportation, public accommodation, and leisure. The proposed guidelines would enable these individuals to...

  5. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Washington State is to improve intercity passenger rail service by reducing travel times, achieving greater... intercity travel demand. To achieve these goals WSDOT applied for federal funding through the High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program (HSIPR Program) administered by the FRA and funded by the American Recovery...

  6. 49 CFR 1580.3 - Terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... track over which goods may be transported throughout the Nation and passengers may travel between cities.... Intercity passenger train service means both “train, long-distance intercity passenger” and “train, short-distance intercity passenger” as defined in 49 CFR 238.5. Light rail transit means service provided by self...

  7. 77 FR 49854 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Oregon Portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... represents other transportation modes such as auto, air travel, intercity bus, and existing rail and the... well as making decisions regarding the level of intercity passenger rail service provided in the... growth of 139% between 2000 and 2008. Current intercity passenger rail service in Oregon includes two...

  8. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  9. The Impact of Intelligent Transportation System Implementations on the Sustainable Growth of Passenger Transport in EU Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stawiarska

    2018-04-01

    conclusions emphasize the importance of data accumulated for ITS in decision-making processes aiming to ensure the sustainable development of mass/passenger transport. The article confirms a hypothesis which claims that “modeling the regional public transportation grid, applying the principles of ITS, stimulates a growth in the share of passenger transport in the overall bulk of transport, thus contributing to the sustainable development of the region”.

  10. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through ...

  11. Developing a Risk Model for Fire in Passenger Ships - Based on Bayesian Belief Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmo, Hanne Bjørkås

    2016-01-01

    Passenger ships, especially cruise ships, are rapidly increasing in size. With larger vessels, comes a greater risk to the passengers if something where to happen. A fire on a passenger vessel can spread quickly, and with as much as thousands of people needing to be evacuated many things could go wrong. The issue of the safety on board is therefore crucial to consider, seeing as the consequences could be tremendous. There are three types of passenger ships; Passenger vessel, RoPax vessel and ...

  12. Passenger train emergency systems : development of prototype railEXODUS software for U.S. passenger rail car egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), is sponsoring a research program, which includes investigation of the applicability of time-based egress performance requirements to U.S. passenger rail cars. Th...

  13. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  15. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices... to use in the passenger cabin during air transportation, a ventilator, respirator, continuous...

  16. Forecasting Public Transit Use by Crowdsensing and Semantic Trajectory Mining: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the growing development of smart cities, public transit forecasting has begun to attract significant attention. In this paper, we propose an approach for forecasting passenger boarding choices and public transit passenger flow. Our prediction model is based on mining common user behaviors for semantic trajectories and enriching features using knowledge from geographic and weather data. All the experimental data comes from the Ridge Nantong Limited bus company and Alibaba platform which is also open to the public. We evaluate our approach using various data sources, including point of interest (POI, weather condition, and public bus information in Guangzhou to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposal performs better than baselines in the prediction of passenger boarding choices and public transit passenger flow.

  17. Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio; Blank-Gomel, Aharon

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impact of demographic, intrapersonal and environmental factors on the likelihood in Chile of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID). Multi-level cross-sectional study. Data were acquired from two large-scale household surveys of representative samples of Chile's Metropolitan Region. The study included 1341 individuals ≥ 16 years; 696 of them reported engaging in PAID. The primary outcome was self-reported frequencies of having accepted a ride with an alcohol-impaired driver. PAID was associated significantly with 'age' [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.03], 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.078-0.44, P = 0.00), 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.00) and 'sex' (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.53-0.87, P = 0.00). In women, PAID was associated with 'age' (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99, P = 0.02), 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.59, P = 0.00) and 'low quality of public bus stops' (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.01). Younger women with high education levels were more likely to engage in PAID than younger women with low education levels. In men, PAID was associated with 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.63, P = 0.01) and 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.02). In Chile, men are at higher risk of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID) than women. In women, PAID appears to be associated with lower traffic safety beliefs, lower quality of public bus stations and an interaction between education and age. In men, PAID is associated with lower traffic safety beliefs and higher time exposure as passenger. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  19. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  20. CONCERNING THE PROBLEM OF SEMANTIC CONTRADICTIONS ARISING WHEN USING THE TERMS “INTERMODAL” AND “MULTIMODAL” PASSENGER CARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Russian and foreign regulatory documents, concerning the issues of intermodal/multimodal passenger carriages, shows the essence of intermodal transportation in passenger transport, includes the analysis of various approaches to the concepts of “intermodal passenger transportations” and “multimodal passenger transportations” and contains proposals for legislative consolidation of the mentioned terms and for the implementation of intermodal technologies in passenger transport.

  1. Germany's Intercity Express with ABB three-phase propulsion. The high-speed era begins for German Federal Railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D.

    1991-01-01

    June 2, 1991, marked for German Federal Railway (DB) the start of a new era. On that day its new Intercity Express (ICE) trains began regular operation, setting new standards not only in travel comfort but also in technical and operational innovation. The train's present running speed on the Hamburg-Frankfurt-Munich line, which includes the longest section of DB's new high-speed 'Neubaustrecke' routes, is 250 km/h. Of the 60 ICE trains ordered by DB, 41 had been delivered by September 1991. ABB invested its entire AC drive know-how in the development of the train's power cars. Acting within a consortium, ABB Henschel supplied about one third of the electrical equipment, including transformers, power converters and the control equipment, which includes DAVID, a modern diagnostics system. Other ABB deliveries were the displays for the drivers' cabs and the locomotive's safety equipment. Among the mechanical parts ABB supplied were the bogies, doors, walls and roofs, and the brake modules. (orig.).

  2. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA

  3. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  4. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/ clay nano composites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.M.; Mansor Ahmad; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Rida Tajau; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/ clay nano composites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4 ' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5 % wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nano composites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nano clay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Angstrom, while the structure morphology of the nano composites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nano composites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nano composites was significantly increased by incorporation of nano clay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the T g was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nano composites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nano composites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA. (author)

  5. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study...... is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were...... collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority...

  6. U. K. surface passenger transport sector. Energy consumption and policy options for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, D; Monteath, I G; Lawler, K A

    1978-12-01

    Forecasts of U.K. energy consumption in this sector for four future scenarios based on different economic growth rates, energy prices, and energy conservation policies, show that by the year 2000, private transport will probably account for 76-94% of total energy consumption in surface passenger transport. A 33% increase in the average miles-per-gallon fuel consumption through technological improvements in private vehicles, conversion of private vehicles to diesel oil, additional fuel taxation equivalent to 25 or 50% fuel price increase, a 10% reduction in average car engine size (encouraged by taxation), and changes in public transport technology offer energy savings of about 20, 5-10, 6.3 or 12.5, 2-4, and 2%, respectively. There is considerable uncertainty about the outcome of these options.

  7. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  8. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  9. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...... examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...

  10. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  11. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  12. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  13. Materials for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, G.; Moussa, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the selection of cushioning foam and upholstery fabric materials for aircraft passenger seats. Polyurethane, polychloroprene, polyimide, and polyphosphazene are the foam materials considered; and a variety of commercial and developmental fabrics (including wool, cotton, synthetics, and blends) are examined. Viable approaches to the design of fire-resistant seat assemblies are indicated. Results of an experimental laboratory study of fabrics and fabric/foam assemblies exposed to external point-source radiative heat flux are discussed.

  14. Evaluating efficiency of passenger railway stations: a DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Preston, John; Khadem Sameni, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Stations are bottlenecks for railway transportation as they are where traffics merge and diverge. Numerous activities such as passengers boarding, alighting and interchanging, train formation and technical checks are also done at these points. The number of platforms is limited and it is vital to do all the work efficiently. For the first time in the literature, we implement a methodology based on data envelopment analysis which is benchmarked from ports and airport efficiency studies. It can...

  15. A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-xia Hu; Eric T. T. Wong

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoi...

  16. Development Of Fiber Optics For Passenger Car Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, R. E.; Schmitt, H. J.

    1987-12-01

    The benefits of fiber optics for telecommunications and Local Area Networks (LANs) are well documented. The benefits to passenger car applications are not as clearly defined. This paper examines the differences between Telecommunications, LAN, and automotive point to point and network applications. Current production automotive applications of optics and fiber optics, automotive data communications trends, and both functional and non-functional requirements and constraints will be described.

  17. Concept of accident and injury of air passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts from the international community to create an unified liability regime in Private International Air Law, there are still significant hurdles to be overcome. Many essential rules from this legal regime are vague and open to interpretation. The role of judges is crucial in order to give them their intended meaning. Thus, this paper examines jurisprudence concerning carrier liability in case of death or injury of passengers.

  18. PASSENGER TRAFFIC MOVEMENT MODELLING BY THE CELLULAR-AUTOMAT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mikhaylovskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of passenger traffic movement developed on the basis of the cellular-automat approach is considered. The program realization of the cellular-automat model of pedastrians streams movement in pedestrian subways at presence of obstacles, at subway structure narrowing is presented. The optimum distances between the obstacles and the angle of subway structure narrowing providing pedastrians stream safe movement and traffic congestion occurance are determined.

  19. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands. PMID:29505585

  20. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhao, Shuzhi; Liu, Huasheng; Liang, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands.

  1. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  2. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  3. Noise in the passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Cha, Yongwon; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both room acoustic conditions and spectral characteristics of noises on acoustic discomfort in a high-speed train's passenger car. Measurement of interior noises in a high-speed train was performed when the train was operating at speeds of 100 km/h and 300 km/h. Acoustic discomfort caused by interior noises was evaluated by paired comparison methods based on the variation of reverberation time (RT) in a passenger car and the spectral differences in interior noises. The effect of RT on acoustic discomfort was not significant, whereas acoustic discomfort significantly varied depending on spectral differences in noise. Acoustic discomfort increased with increment of the sound pressure level (SPL) ratio at high frequencies, and variation in high-frequency noise components were described using sharpness. Just noticeable differences of SPL with low- and high-frequency components were determined to be 3.7 and 2.9 dB, respectively. This indicates that subjects were more sensitive to differences in SPLs at the high-frequency range than differences at the low-frequency range. These results support that, for interior noises, reduction in SPLs at high frequencies would significantly contribute to improved acoustic quality in passenger cars of high-speed trains.

  4. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  5. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2017-12-01

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  6. Experimental verification of numerical calculations of railway passenger seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    The construction of railway seats is based on industry regulations and the requirements of end users, i.e. passengers. The two main documents in this context are the UIC 566 (3rd Edition, dated 7 January 1994) and the EN 12663-1: 2010+A1:2014. The study was to carry out static load tests of passenger seat frames. The paper presents the construction of the test bench and the results of experimental and numerical studies of passenger seat rail frames. The test bench consists of a frame, a transverse beam, two electric cylinders with a force value of 6 kN, and a strain gauge amplifier. It has a modular structure that allows for its expansion depending on the structure of the seats. Comparing experimental results with numerical results for points A and B allowed to determine the existing differences. It follows from it that higher stress values are obtained by numerical calculations in the range of 0.2 MPa to 35.9 MPa.

  7. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  8. Passenger flow analysis of Beijing urban rail transit network using fractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Peiwen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger flow and the characteristics of an urban rail transit network, we introduce four radius fractal dimensions and two branch fractal dimensions by combining a fractal approach with passenger flow assignment model. These fractal dimensions can numerically describe the complexity of passenger flow in the urban rail transit network and its change characteristics. Based on it, we establish a fractal quantification method to measure the fractal characteristics of passenger follow in the rail transit network. Finally, we validate the reasonability of our proposed method by using the actual data of Beijing subway network. It has been shown that our proposed method can effectively measure the scale-free range of the urban rail transit network, network development and the fractal characteristics of time-varying passenger flow, which further provides a reference for network planning and analysis of passenger flow.

  9. Logistic system as an essential element of modern organization of railway passenger traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Khodoskina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and place of passenger transport services in the modern structure of rail transportation is considered. The need for approach to rail passenger transport as a logistics system, which is characterized by a set of parameters corresponding to the concept of logistics system in general and taking into account the peculiarities of railway passenger transportation is determined. The features of formation of such a system, taking into account the generally accepted theoretical approach and the specifics of rail transport are also presented. The concept of logistic system for railway vehicles is given; its overall structure is reviewed. The structure of the particular transport is defined by rail freight and in passenger traffic. Is an example of a mathematical model of the logistics system of rail passenger services on the basis of sets of incoming and outgoing parameters is determined. The structure of technologic process for goods and passenger transportation by rail from the perspective of logistics is characterized.

  10. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  11. Analyzing Factors Of In-flight Services Of Garuda Indonesia And Batik Air Towards Passengers Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tulandi, Victor Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transportation services play an important role in supporting any activity, of human. Various types of the transportation that we use. Among them, are air transportation or airplane. Talk about the satisfaction of airline passenger, nowadays many airlines competing to provide the best service for the passengers, one of the things that can influence passenger satisfaction is through airline service especially in-flight service. The objective of this research is to identify the factors of in-fli...

  12. Passenger choice attributes in choosing a secondary airport: A study of passenger attributes in using Lanseria International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kriel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport. Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport. Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport. Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started

  13. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  14. Unconventional funding of urban public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbels, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade public authorities have developed a wealth of creative funding mechanisms to support transit systems. This paper offers a taxonomy of various unconventional funding mechanisms (i.e. outside the domain of charges for transit passengers or general taxation schemes), based on a

  15. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  16. [Comfort of crew and passengers and atmospheric pressure, noise, wind speed in high-speed train of Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi-biao; Huo, Wei; Liu, Qiao-ying; Chen, Bao-shan; Zhang, Jin-long; Shi, Lei

    2012-11-01

    To explore the crew and passengers' comfort on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line and physical factors, such as air pressure, noise, wind speed. Comfort investigation of all the crew (n = 244) and passengers (n = 377) on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line at speed of 250 km/h and 200 km/h and the detection of the air pressure, noise and wind speed were performed in 2011. Significantly higher ratio of comfortable feeling, lower ratio of seriously discomfortable feeling were observed in crew and passengers at 200 km/h compared with those at 250 km/h (P noise in passengers at 200 km/h. No significant difference was observed in ear discomfort induced by air pressure and noise among crew, and the duration of disappearance of discomfortable feeling among passengers between 200 km/h and 250 km/h. The noise in carriages exceeded the related standard when the high-speed train passing through the tunnels. The individuals feel more comfortable at 200 km/h than 250 km/h in this line., which may be related with rapid variation of wind speed and noise when the train passes through the tunnels with high speed.

  17. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  18. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  19. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  20. 9. Anti-vibration Design of a Passenger Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, Umezaki; Mikihiro, Kobayashi; Hioshi Kohkawa, Kohkawa; Hiroyuki, Mizuno; Shin-ichi, Nishimura; Takayuki, Okayasu; Kazuhisa, Yanagi; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Ltd; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Ltd; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Nagasaki Research and Development Center

    1992-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks in designing a passenger ship is to make it vibration free while keeping the hull structure very light for stability reason. In order to accomplish this for the 23,000 GT cruise ship the particulars of which are shown in Table l, special attention was paid to the alignment of structures during layout design, and analyses and experiments of vibration were carried out through every stage of design and construction. This paper describes outlines of these tasks and...

  1. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    used, the result being the loss of optimality. The talk will present a new, integrated rolling stock planning model in which the many requirements are handled all at the same time. Preliminary results from DSB S-tog, the suburban train operator of the City of Copenhagen will also be presented.......A central issue for operators of passenger trains is providing sufficient number of seats while minimising operating costs. This process must be conducted taking a large number of practical, railway oriented requirements into account. Because of this complexity, a stepwise solution was previously...

  2. Panorama 2009 - trends and challenges in passenger mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Current demand for mobility encourages people to seek fast, individual means of transport. The automobile accounts for the bulk of passenger travel worldwide. This mode of transport is a source of annoying and harmful effects including noise, accidents, deteriorating infrastructure, traffic congestion and pollution (local and atmospheric). Some of these issues are now under regulation and have become less acute, but traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions are still major problems. Before assessing any policy undertaken to curb nuisance levels and harmful effects, one must be familiar with global mobility trends and the challenges involved

  3. Extent, nature and covariates of multitasking of rail passengers in an urban corridor: a Dutch case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Neerven, van R.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the frequency and nature of multitasking on Dutch trains is described. Descriptive and model analyses were carried out on the basis of field observations on intercity and regional trains. The most frequent task was "doing nothing," followed by "talking socially" and "reading a newspaper."

  4. 78 FR 58829 - Second Interim Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... employee means a train employee who is engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation, as... Interpretations of Travel Time Involving Signal Employees I. Executive Summary of the Second Interim Statement of... passenger transportation or intercity rail passenger transportation were subject to Sec. 21103 as it existed...

  5. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also...

  6. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  7. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  8. Modeling Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure to Support Passenger Vehicles †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Muratori

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2014 marked hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs first becoming commercially available in California, where significant investments are being made to promote the adoption of alternative transportation fuels. A refueling infrastructure network that guarantees adequate coverage and expands in line with vehicle sales is required for FCEVs to be successfully adopted by private customers. In this paper, we provide an overview of modelling methodologies used to project hydrogen refueling infrastructure requirements to support FCEV adoption, and we describe, in detail, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s scenario evaluation and regionalization analysis (SERA model. As an example, we use SERA to explore two alternative scenarios of FCEV adoption: one in which FCEV deployment is limited to California and several major cities in the United States; and one in which FCEVs reach widespread adoption, becoming a major option as passenger vehicles across the entire country. Such scenarios can provide guidance and insights for efforts required to deploy the infrastructure supporting transition toward different levels of hydrogen use as a transportation fuel for passenger vehicles in the United States.

  9. Auralization of Accelerating Passenger Cars Using Spectral Modeling Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Pieren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the technique of auralization has been in use for quite some time in architectural acoustics, the application to environmental noise has been discovered only recently. With road traffic noise being the dominant noise source in most countries, particular interest lies in the synthesis of realistic pass-by sounds. This article describes an auralizator for pass-bys of accelerating passenger cars. The key element is a synthesizer that simulates the acoustical emission of different vehicles, driving on different surfaces, under different operating conditions. Audio signals for the emitted tire noise, as well as the propulsion noise are generated using spectral modeling synthesis, which gives complete control of the signal characteristics. The sound of propulsion is synthesized as a function of instantaneous engine speed, engine load and emission angle, whereas the sound of tires is created in dependence of vehicle speed and emission angle. The sound propagation is simulated by applying a series of time-variant digital filters. To obtain the corresponding steering parameters of the synthesizer, controlled experiments were carried out. The tire noise parameters were determined from coast-by measurements of passenger cars with idling engines. To obtain the propulsion noise parameters, measurements at different engine speeds, engine loads and emission angles were performed using a chassis dynamometer. The article shows how, from the measured data, the synthesizer parameters are calculated using audio signal processing.

  10. Turbulence Hazard Metric Based on Peak Accelerations for Jetliner Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations are made of the approximate hazard due to peak normal accelerations of an airplane flying through a simulated vertical wind field associated with a convective frontal system. The calculations are based on a hazard metric developed from a systematic application of a generic math model to 1-cosine discrete gusts of various amplitudes and gust lengths. The math model simulates the three degree-of- freedom longitudinal rigid body motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) fuselage flexibility, (2) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, (3) gradual lift effects, (4) a simplified autopilot, and (5) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths. The airplane response contours are used to develop an approximate hazard metric of peak normal accelerations as a function of gust amplitude and gust length. The hazard metric is then applied to a two-dimensional simulated vertical wind field of a convective frontal system. The variations of the hazard metric with gust length and airplane heading are demonstrated.

  11. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  12. Analysis of Passenger Car Emission Factors in RDE Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study on emission measurements in passenger cars in tests conducted under real traffic conditions – Real Driving Emissions using a Portable Emission Measurement System type of equipment. A special feature of the outlined RDE tests is that they were performed in Polish road conditions, and thus their parameters may differ from their counterparts adopted in most European Union countries. Based on the findings vehicle emission conformity factors were developed, characterized as the fractional increase (or decrease of traffic emissions during the homologation test or under normal operation conditions in relation to the emission limit standards (for chosen emission class of the vehicle. Conducted research and the calculated conformity factors allowed for the environmental impact assessment of the vehicles of various emission classes, while also allowing early actions to restrict the emissions of selected components in passenger vehicles. The methods and measures used can also be applied to other types of vehicles (e.g. heavy duty or off-road vehicles or vehicles powered by other fuels.

  13. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  14. Radon exposure of passengers in the Prague metro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of radon concentration monitoring in the carriages and at some stations of the Prague Metro network. The measurements revealed that radon levels in the Metro are relatively low in comparison to those normally encountered in dwellings in the Prague region. On average, the radon concentrations in the air inside the carriages have been found to be about 11 - 12 Bq m -3 while the levels at most stations reached values between 10 and 15 Bq m -3 . The Metro is intensively ventilated by means of powerful blowers and fans; the piston effect of the moving trains also contributes to air exchange. The ventilation rate is typically 3-4 h -1 . The highest rate is in line C, where the air in all underground areas is completely exchanged 6 times within each hour. These results demonstrate that Metro passengers receive about the same effective dose as passengers using surface transport. The doses from radon in the metro are only slightly higher than radon-related doses in the open air, while exposure due to external photon radiation seems to be a few percent lower than dose rates common in typical Czech houses. (author)

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Khomenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Existing mathematicalmodelsofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercardonotsatisfytheneedofthedifferentconstructivedecisionsofthelifesupportsystemefficiencyestimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreoverquite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisionsof the lifesupportsystemthe need of a new mathematical instrument that would satisfy the mentioned features and their influence on the unsteadyheatexchangeprocesses during the whole time of the road appeared. The purpose of this work is creation of the mathematicalmodel ofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarthatcan satisfythe above-listed requirements. Methodology. Fortheassigned task realizationsystemofdifferentialequationsthatcharacterizesunsteadyheatexchangeprocessesinapassengercarwascomposed; forthesystemof equationssolution elementary balance method was used. Findings. Computational algorithm was developed andcomputer program for modeling transitional heat processes in the car was designed. It allows comparing different life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditionsand unsteady heat exchange processes can be studied at every car motion stage. Originality.Mathematicalmodelofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwasimproved. That is why it can be used for the heat engineering studying of the inner car state under various conditions and for the operation of the different life support systems of passenger cars comparison. Mathematicalmodelingofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwas made by the elementary balance method. Practical value. Created mathematical model gives the possibility to simulate temperature changes in passenger car on unsteady thermal conditions with enough accuracy and to introduce and remove additional elements to the designed model. Thus different

  16. Research on some auxiliary mechanisms used in passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Daniela; Iozsa, Daniel; Antonescu, Ovidiu; Fratila, Gh.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on the topological structure and geometrical analysis of the planar mechanisms with articulated bars, which are used for actuating the doors of cars. The main five types of car doors with rotate movement (folding) are presented, being described both as constructive structure and mode of operation, through suitable kinematic schemes. Some innovative solutions for vehicle door actuating mechanisms aim to use as little space as possible, which is beneficial for car parking. There are three types of car door movements: rotation, sliding and planar rotational-sliding. Most of the cars are equipped with folding doors, where the rotate movement is limited and operates horizontally. Almost all sliding doors are placed on the rear of the car (only for passengers, not for driver). Unlike rotate doors, the sliding doors require a minimum lateral space, which is an advantage, especially in parking places. In the end of the paper, a kinematic analysis of the canopy 4-bar mechanism has been performed, in order to increase the passenger comfort on the access into the vehicle.

  17. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  18. 46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shown that a natural system will provide adequate ventilation. However, vessels which trade regularly in... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. 72... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

  19. CAD/CAE-technologies application for assessment of passenger safety on railway transport in emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Shorokhov, S. G.; Bondarenko, O. I.

    2018-03-01

    A possibility of using current software products realizing CAD/CAE-technologies for the assessment of passenger safety in emergency cases on railway transport has been analyzed. On the basis of the developed solid computer model of an anthropometric dummy, the authors carried out an analysis of possible levels of passenger injury during accident collision of a train with an obstacle.

  20. How to mix per-flight and per-passenger based airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czerny, A.I.; Zhang, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the questions of why carriers advocate for higher per-passenger airport charges and lower per-flight charges, and whether and when this proposal is welfare-enhancing. Specifically, the paper compares the optimal mix of per-flight and per-passenger based airport charges from

  1. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. 250.5 Section 250.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. (a) Subject to the exceptions provided...

  2. The effect on road load due to variations in valid coast down tests for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van; Ligterink, N.E.; Cuelenaere, R.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world CO2 emissions of passenger cars very often deviate from the Type Approval value. The Type Approval value for CO2 emissions of passenger cars is based on a chassis dynamometer test in a laboratory. The total vehicle resistance of a vehicle, or 'road load', is simulated on the chassis

  3. Analysis of network-wide transit passenger flows based on principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, D.; Cats, O.; van Lint, J.W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Transit networks are complex systems in which the passenger flow dynamics are difficult to capture and understand. While there is a growing ability to monitor and record travelers' behavior in the past decade, knowledge on network-wide passenger flows, which are essentially high-dimensional

  4. 49 CFR 1242.45 - Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45). 1242.45 Section 1242.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.45 Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45...

  5. Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables and rolling stock schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Maróti, G.

    2017-01-01

    In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take

  6. Cosmic radiation during air travel: trends in exposure of aircrews and airline passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; LSO

    2004-01-01

    An unfavourable effect of flying is the enhanced exposure of both passengers and aircrew to cosmic radiation at high altitudes. On the basis of a detailed survey on passengers arriving at or departing from Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the 1988-1997 period, estimates of individual effective dose for

  7. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  8. Diarrhea and related factors among passengers on world cruises departing from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sasai, Megumi; Kasai, Yosuke; Tsuda, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2018-01-25

    Despite growth in the number of cruises worldwide, evidence about diarrhea experienced by cruise ship passengers remains sparse. We investigated rates of diarrhea and related factors among passengers on world cruises departing from Japan. Targeting passengers on five world cruises (n = 4180) from 2012 to 2013 (85-103 travel days), we calculated rates of health seeking behavior for diarrhea by sex, age group, and number of roommates for each cruise. We estimated rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the group aged 20-39 years, women, and 2-4 roommates as referent categories. We found 5.04-6.00 cases per 10,000 person-days in the five cruises, with an elevated number after calling at ports. Older passengers (>60 years) and passengers with fewer roommates had an elevated risk of health seeking behavior for diarrhea, although passengers aged 60 years and without roommates. Older passengers and passengers with fewer roommates may be more likely to seek medical treatment for diarrhea during travel on a world cruise, and should take preventive measures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effect of extended periodic inspection of passenger cars and vans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Ninette; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    The purpose of this note is to perform a calculation of the costs and benefits of extended period-ic inspection of passenger cars and vans in Denmark, provided that the first inspection of pas-senger cars and vans is performed after four years, then one inspection after two years and thereafter...

  10. ANALYTICAL ESTIMATION OF MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM TIME EXPENDITURES OF PASSENGERS AT AN URBAN ROUTE STOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper deals with the problem related to the definition of average time spent by passengers while waiting for transport vehicles at urban stops as well as the results of analytical modeling of this value at traffic schedule unknown to the passengers and of two options of the vehicle traffic management on the given route.

  11. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on....166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels. (a) Only the following Class 1 (explosive) materials may be transported as cargo on passenger vessels: (1) Division 1.4 (explosive...

  12. 76 FR 27897 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0342] Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River... will enforce the security and safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1318 for large passenger vessels operating in...

  13. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter W...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  17. "Banned from the streets I have paid to use": an analysis of Australian print media coverage of proposals for passenger and night driving restrictions for young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blows, S; Ivers, R Q; Chapman, S

    2005-10-01

    To catalogue arguments that can be anticipated in public debate when passenger and night driving restrictions are being advocated. Frame analysis of all relevant coverage of these topics in Australian print media during the three month period between June and September 2004 when intensive debate on the topic occurred. Debating frames used in reports and commentary on passenger and night driving restrictions. There were 52 relevant articles published containing seven distinct frames supporting the restrictions and six opposing them. Overall, more instances of frames supporting the restrictions were published; these mostly focused on the potential for saving lives. Opposition to the restrictions focused largely on their inappropriateness as a road safety measure as well as on the importance of young people's autonomy and freedom. Advocates of passenger and night driving restrictions have a number of arguments available to advance their case; however, it is important to anticipate and address possible counter arguments. Future research should address the saliency of different arguments to the public and key decision makers in government.

  18. Headway Deviation Effects on Bus Passenger Loads : Analysis of Tri-Met's Archived AVL-APC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the relationship between transit service headway deviations and passenger loads, using archived data from Tri-Met's automatic vehicle location and automatic passenger counter systems. The analysis employs twostage...

  19. Passenger Flow Forecasting Research for Airport Terminal Based on SARIMA Time Series Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyu; Bi, Jun; Li, Zhiyin

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data of practical operating of Kunming Changshui International Airport during2016, this paper proposes Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model to predict the passenger flow. This article not only considers the non-stationary and autocorrelation of the sequence, but also considers the daily periodicity of the sequence. The prediction results can accurately describe the change trend of airport passenger flow and provide scientific decision support for the optimal allocation of airport resources and optimization of departure process. The result shows that this model is applicable to the short-term prediction of airport terminal departure passenger traffic and the average error ranges from 1% to 3%. The difference between the predicted and the true values of passenger traffic flow is quite small, which indicates that the model has fairly good passenger traffic flow prediction ability.

  20. Modernisation of passengers stock deposit at the regional division Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SIMA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines.   Passenger transport organisation should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations; reducing travel time (by increasing trains’ speed, choosing the best routes, reducing stops at stations, ensuring certain fast links at railway junctions; intensive usage of rolling stock, of fixed installations; the appropriate combination of freight with passenger transport, passengers’ good serving at stations and trains, especially by ensuring a timetable which would provide convenient hours and reliable connections at railway junctions.

  1. Natural selection shaped the rise and fall of passenger pigeon genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gemma G R; Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Schaefer, Nathan K; Cahill, James A; Baker, Allan J; Demboski, John R; Doll, Andrew; Da Fonseca, Rute R; Fulton, Tara L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Heintzman, Peter D; Letts, Brandon; McIntosh, George; O'Connell, Brendan L; Peck, Mark; Pipes, Marie-Lorraine; Rice, Edward S; Santos, Kathryn M; Sohrweide, A Gregory; Vohr, Samuel H; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-11-17

    The extinct passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, and possibly the world. Although theory predicts that large populations will be more genetically diverse, passenger pigeon genetic diversity was surprisingly low. To investigate this disconnect, we analyzed 41 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genomes from passenger pigeons and 2 genomes from band-tailed pigeons, which are passenger pigeons' closest living relatives. Passenger pigeons' large population size appears to have allowed for faster adaptive evolution and removal of harmful mutations, driving a huge loss in their neutral genetic diversity. These results demonstrate the effect that selection can have on a vertebrate genome and contradict results that suggested that population instability contributed to this species's surprisingly rapid extinction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...... Oeresund tender for the provision of passenger transport by railway. From the start, the services were provided at a loss, and in the end a part of DSBFirst was wound up. In order to frame the problems illustrated by this case, the jurisprudence-based imputability requirement in the definition of State aid...... in Article 107(1) TFEU is analysed. It is concluded that where the public undertaking transgresses the control system put in place by the State, conditions for imputability are not fulfilled, and it is argued that in the current state of law, there is no conditional link between the level of control...

  3. Public transport optimisation emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Passengers in public transport complaining about their travel experiences are not uncommon. This might seem counterintuitive since several operators worldwide are presenting better key performance indicators year by year. The present PhD study focuses on developing optimisation algorithms to enhance the operations of public transport while explicitly emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour and preferences. Similar to economic theory, interactions between supply and demand are omnipresent in ...

  4. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  5. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  6. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger... Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate survival craft with enough capacity...

  7. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a passenger vessel? 39.93 Section 39.93 Transportation Office of the... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may...

  8. 49 CFR 39.43 - May PVOs impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services required...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to passengers with a disability are available only in a type or class of service or part of a vessel that are more expensive than the type or class of service or part of a vessel that the passenger... of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER...

  9. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger....122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger...

  10. Calculation of Selected Emissions from Transport Services in Road Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with road public transport and its impact on the environment. According to the methodology given in EN 16258, CO2 emission value has been calculated. The input data for the calculation and the results are shown in the tables. The declaration is created according to STN CEN / TR 14310, which contains recommendations for compiling environmental reports. Finally, the comparison of the environmental impact of a bus and a passenger car, when converted to one passenger, bus has a lower CO2 emission than a passenger car in that section.

  11. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  12. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out

  13. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Westacott, Sandra; Nichols, Gordon; Riemer, Tobias; Skipp, Mel; Bartlett, Christopher L R; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-03-10

    Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port

  14. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48 and the creation of legislation (n = 44; response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6% of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2% for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6% of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44. The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44 of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5% declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6% and 39 (81.3% authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48 of the responding authorities

  15. Leveraging the Strategic Value of the U.S. Inland Waterway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-14

    on the highway system. Although commercial vehicles currently account for less than 10 percent of all vehicle-miles of travel , truck traffic is...growing faster than passenger vehicle traffic and is having major effects on intercity highways. Trucks already account for more than 30 percent of...seen by the traveling public as an unwanted competitor for space on congested highways, but that same public depends on trucking to meet the

  16. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  17. Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

    2013-07-16

    The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation.

  18. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Husna, Iksiroh; Unzilatirrizqi, Rizal D. Yan El; Karyanto, Yudi; Sunoko, Henna R.

    2018-02-01

    Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR). The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR) on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  19. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  20. The Danish national passenger model – Model specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  1. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  2. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  3. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Husna Iksiroh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR. The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  4. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  5. Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Rosalind; Stettler, Marc E J; Molden, Nick; Oxley, Tim; ApSimon, Helen M

    2018-04-15

    In this study CO 2 and NO x emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars were compared using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The models sampled accounted for 56% of all passenger cars sold in Europe in 2016. We found gasoline vehicles had CO 2 emissions 13-66% higher than diesel. During urban driving, the average CO 2 emission factor was 210.5 (sd. 47) gkm -1 for gasoline and 170.2 (sd. 34) gkm -1 for diesel. Half the gasoline vehicles tested were Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Euro 6 GDI engines cars. The average urban NO x emission from Euro 6 diesel vehicles 0.44 (sd. 0.44) gkm -1 was 11 times higher than for gasoline 0.04 (sd. 0.04) gkm -1 . We also analysed two gasoline-electric hybrids which out-performed both gasoline and diesel for NO x and CO 2 . We conclude action is required to mitigate the public health risk created by excessive NO x emissions from modern diesel vehicles. Replacing diesel with gasoline would incur a substantial CO 2 penalty, however greater uptake of hybrid vehicles would likely reduce both CO 2 and NO x emissions. Discrimination of vehicles on the basis of Euro standard is arbitrary and incentives should promote vehicles with the lowest real-world emissions of both NO x and CO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  7. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  8. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of WBV on standing and seated passengers during off-peak operation in KL monorail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, K.; Bakhsh, Q.; Ahmed, A.; Ali, D.; Jamali, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) was analyzed on the standing and seated passenger during off-peak operating hours when train was on the track. The experiments were conducted on two car train at one constant location (bogie-1, which is near to driver’s cabin) during downward direction from KL sentral station towards Titiwangsa station. The aim of this study was to analyze that, in which posture of passenger’s exposures the maximum level of WBV. Since, one passenger was performed the whole journey in standing posture whereas, the other passenger was in seated posture. The result obtained from experiments for the RMS accelerations (Arms), maximum acceleration (Amax) and minimum acceleration (Amin) during the trip. As per standard ISO 2631-1, the daily vibration exposure (A8), Vibration Dose value (VDV) and Crest Factor (CF) of this trip for both standing and sitting orientations were calculated. Results shows that the seated passenger was exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration as compared to the standing passenger. Whereas, the Vibration Dose value (VDV) value was greater than the action value as per ISO 2631-1 and within the limit values. The study concluded that whole body vibration transmitted towards both passengers either standing or seated during their journey. But in overall results comparison of both orientations, the seated passengers gained higher vibration than the standing one.

  10. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  11. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  12. METHODICAL APPROACH TO DEFINING INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT OF THE COSTS FOR THE PARTICULAR PASSENGER TRAIN TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the scientific paper a methodical approach concerning determining the infrastructure component of the costs for traffic of the particular passenger train should be developed. It takes into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Methodology. To achieve the research purposes was used a method which is based on apportionment of expenses for the traffic of a particular passenger train taking into account the factors affecting the magnitude of costs. This methodology allows allocating properly infrastructure costs for a particular train and, consequently, to determine the accurate profitability of each train. Findings. All expenditures relating to passenger traffic of a long distance were allocated from first cost of passenger and freight traffic. These costs are divided into four components. Three groups of expenses were allocated in infrastructure component, which are calculated according to the certain principle taking into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Originality. The allocation method of all passenger transportation costs of all Ukrzaliznytsia departments for a particular passenger train was improved. It is based on principles of general indicators formation of each department costs, which correspond to the main influential factors of operating trains. The methodical approach to determining the cost of infrastructure component is improved, which takes into account the effect of the speed and weight of a passenger train on the wear of the railway track superstructure and contact network. All this allows allocating to reasonably the costs of particular passenger train traffic and to determine its profitability. Practical value. Implementing these methods allows calculating the real, economically justified costs of a particular train that will correctly determine the profitability of a particular passenger train and on this basis it allows to make management

  13. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  14. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  15. Synchronized dial-a-ride transportation of disabled passengers at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. The problem of transporting these passengers is in some cases a multi-modal transportation problem with synchronization constraints. A description of the problem together with a mathematical...... model is presented. The objective is to schedule as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution...

  16. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  17. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  18. Instilling safety culture in the passenger rail transport industry within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulumane (John Maluleke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has two major rail operators that constitute the rail transport industry. These are Transnet Freight Rail (TFR, which operates freight and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA. Although the Railway Safety Regulator (2011:29 reported the year on year declining trend of collisions, the main concern is that the costs incurred for each year’s incidents is escalating. This article is concerned with the declining safety standards of these operators as evidenced by 742 collisions recorded during the 2011/2012 financial year for both operators. The focus is mainly on collisions during the movement of rolling stock within the PRASA environment. The analysis of the occurrences is narrowed down, with the emphasis on the province of Gauteng. In the analysis of the causes of these collisions, the problems that led to the root causes of these collisions is reported. Of critical importance is that every transport operator is faced with the challenges of how to effectively respond to the basic transport needs and requirements of the travelling public. The transport users’ need is to travel between the two geographical points. During the journey between these geographical points, the operator has safety and security requirements and must provide a reliable, accessible and affordable transport system. As the travelling public becomes more affluent, the transport needs become open ended and require much more rational public choices. The rail transport system remains a vital or indispensable business sector of the economy. By investing in new technology, rolling stock and infrastructure, we woud see an increase in innovation, competitiveness, and an elevated standard of living.

  19. Location Planning for Dynamic Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Airport Passenger Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Helber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the ground vehicles operating on the airside parts of commercial airports are currently powered by diesel engines. These include vehicles such as apron buses, fuel trucks, and aircraft tractors. Hence, these vehicles contribute to the overall CO 2 emissions of the aviation transport system and thus negatively influence its environmental footprint. To reduce this damaging environmental impact, these vehicles could potentially be electrified with on-board batteries as their energy sources. However, the conductive charging of such vehicles via stationary cable connections is rather time-consuming. A dynamic wireless charging system to supply public transportation passenger buses with electric energy while in motion has recently been installed on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST campus and in the Korean city of Gumi. In this paper, we study configuration problems related to the use of this technology to make airport operations more environmentally sustainable. We concentrate on the power supply for apron buses and analyze the location planning problems related to the distribution of the required power supply and the wireless charging units in the apron road system. To this end, we develop a formal optimization model and discuss the first numerical results.

  20. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.