WorldWideScience

Sample records for public infrastructure capital

  1. Private Capital, Public Goods: Forest Plantations' Investment in Local Infrastructure and Social Services in Rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a

  2. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  3. Optimal Provision of Infrastructure Using Public-Private Partnership Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal provision of infrastructure by means of public-private partnership contracts.In the economic literature infrastructure is characterized as a large, indivisible and non-rival capital good that produces services for its users.Users can be both consumers and producers.

  4. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  5. Inclusion of the Public in the Natural Capital, Ecosystem Services and Green Infrastructure Assessments (Results of Structured Interviews with Stakeholders of Commune Liptovská Teplička

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyzeová Milena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, topics like natural capital assessment, ecosystem services and green infrastructure have become frequent subjects of a number of national and international projects accomplished on local, regional, national and cross-frontier levels. These projects respond to the deterioration of biotopes due to their fragmentation and degradation as a result of constructions and tourism/recreation. This situation requires an economic assessment of ecosystems from the view point of their capacities to satisfy human necessities with simultaneous conservation of the environmental quality, and the optimal status of landscape diversity both in rural and urban areas. The aim of the Green Infrastructure initiative is to stop the loss of land as an irreplaceable natural resource and to contribute to the inclusion of ecological and sustainability aspects into the spatial planning and regional development in rural and urban areas. Green Infrastructure is the tool that may reduce the loss of ecosystem services connected with future occupation of land and improve functions of land. It may support ecological measures aimed at conservation of agricultural landscape and adoption of measures in the sphere of forest and water economies. Important role in the assessment of ecosystems is played not only by the scientists but also by experts and the public at large. This is the reason why ever more stakeholders possessing knowledge of local territory and personal life experience participate in these projects. Their judgments and views, often bearing information important for the above-mentioned assessment, are applied to proposed measures aimed at the improvement of environmental quality and quality of life in terms of sustainability. This article brings the possible example of how to include a selected sample of stakeholders into the assessment of natural capital and ecosystem services on local level in the frame of Green Infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to

  6. Public infrastructure investment: A bridge to productivity growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: Preface, by Dimitri B. Papadimitriou; Public Capital and Economic Growth, by David Alan Aschauer; New Federal Spending for Infrastructure: Should We Let This Genie Out of the Bottle?, by Douglas Holtz-Eakin. Abstract: This brief presents contrasting views on the effects of public infrastructure investment on private sector productivity. David Alan Aschauer states that the slower rate of productivity growth since the early 1970s-coupled with an aging population, the declinin...

  7. Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Regan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth.

  8. An Exploration into the Municipal Capacity to Finance Capital Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almos T. Tassony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments own and maintain two-thirds of Canada’s stock of public infrastructure. This burden is met by municipalities within the parameters afforded to them by their respective provinces. As a result, municipalities throughout the country rely on three primary revenue streams: issuing debt, financing from dedicated revenue and transfers from higher levels of government. At the same time, strict rules on borrowing, sometimes self-imposed, have left municipalities with considerable unrealized borrowing capacity. Importantly, a shift towards increased borrowing, away from a reliance on intergovernmental grants, would reinforce the linkage between local government spending and accountability and keep spending priorities in order. This paper focuses on infrastructure spending in Alberta and Ontario to illuminate how municipalities in both provinces cope with demands to provide capital- and labour-intensive programs and services. In both provinces, transportation, environmental services and recreation and culture comprise the bulk of infrastructure expenditure. In Ontario, as of 2013, 18 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $111.8 billion. After accumulated depreciation, those assets are now estimated to be worth $73.8 billion, having lost $38 billion in value since their acquisition — although municipalities’ diligence varies. Mississauga has preserved 82.6 per cent of its assets’ original cost; Thunder Bay has only managed 45.6 per cent. In Alberta, 21 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $51.7 billion in 2013, although thanks to depreciation, their value is now estimated at $37.8 billion. Again, there is significant variability between municipalities, with Wood Buffalo having preserved 98.6 per cent of its assets’ original value, and Crowsnest Pass with 43.9 per cent. In both provinces, the older the municipality and the weaker its fiscal capacity, the lower the net book value of its capital

  9. Does Government Public Capital Expenditure Matter?: Evidence for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Dadgostar, Bahram; Mirabelli, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Does the provision of Canadian government capital expenditures and government deficits displace private economic activity? In the U.S., Erenburg (1993) found that private sector investment spending is enhanced by expected increases in public spending on infrastructure, while also showing that deficit spending has no significant effect on private investment. There is no empirical study to date that addresses the relationship between government capital investment and government debt on private ...

  10. Securing military information systems on public infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available to set up in time for scenarios which require real time information. This may force communications to utilise public infrastructure. Securing communications for military mobile and Web based systems over public networks poses a greater challenge compared...

  11. Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten

    The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....

  12. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  13. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  14. A Global Review of Public Private Partnerships Trends and Challenges for Social Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavianus Adrianto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the government which has limited budget for public infrastructure development should choose which infrastructure should be developed. Most countries decided to build more economic infrastructure than social infrastructure because former have direct economic impact for society. The involvement of private sector in public infrastructure financing has been accomplished for decades in the form of Public Private Partnership (PPP. However, the implementation is also more often for economic infrastructure, but some countries have started to implement PPP for social infrastructure (education, healthcare, care of the elderly, etc. when they think to add human capital and improve quality of life. This study attempts to review a set of public private partnership implementation models relevant for social infrastructure development in some countries. Moreover, this study also more explores to the challenges and issues in different areas of social infrastructure. The outcome is to show a trend public-private partnership for social infrastructure in some successful projects from different countries. The challenges and issues about implementation public-private partnership for social infrastructure also be a part of the results from this study. Finally, the study has a valuable input for implementation of PPP on social infrastructure in Indonesia.

  15. Adapting to climate change : the public policy response - public infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This paper assesses the threats and needs that multidimensional climate change imposes for : public infrastructure, reviews the existing adaptive capacity that could be applied to respond : to these threats and needs, and presents options for enhanci...

  16. Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations : Capital Accumulation by Social Relationship and Rethinking the Definition of Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    北見, 幸一

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...

  17. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  18. The private initiative in public infrastructure and public utilities concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Expósito Vélez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the renewed and growing importance of the initiative of the private sector in developing public infrastructure and public utilities, especially as a consequence of the incentives created by the law, this study intends to address the various aspects of the new legal framework for the formation of concession contracts as a result of a particular initiative or idea and not as a product of the needs defined by the Administration, with a particular emphasis on the requirements for the formation of public works concessions, but without forgetting how the mechanism of private initiative applies to public utilities when they require a concession contract to be provided.

  19. The Brazilian Public Health in Contemporary Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Virgínia; Mendes, Áquilas N

    2018-01-01

    This article examines some political and economic facts that led to an intensification of austerity measures by the Brazilian government, including ones against the Unified Health System (SUS) and its progressive dismantling. In a country where fundamental human rights were never fully respected, nowadays social and labor rights are under severe attacks. The deepening of the capital crisis and the rise of interest-bearing capital dominance have been causing unemployment, social insecurity growth, and resulting public fund appropriation by the private capital. The Brazilian governments in the 1990s and 2000s have implemented deeper cuts in social policy expenditure, freezing security benefits, privatizing services, and prioritizing the payment of public debt interests. The right wing's project involves the demoralization of not only the Workers' Party but also the left as a whole, so that the adoption of austerity measures could be achieved without popular resistance. It is the duty of the Brazilian left wing to denounce such a project and to provoke firm initiatives to rebuild its bonds with the working class.

  20. Public Capital, Congestion and Private Production in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lei Song

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that p...

  1. Optimal Public Infrastructure: Some Guideposts to Ensure we don’t Overspend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s time to consider a more economically efficient model for financing roads, bridges and other public infrastructure. It’s true that Canada has become one of the biggest spenders on infrastructure among OECD countries, at four per cent of GDP, but using GDP to measure the share the government should spend on infrastructure is an anachronistic and arbitrary measure. We all know it is important that Canada keep pace with maintaining and building the necessary infrastructure to maximise our productive capacity and economic prosperity. But how do we know if we are on the right track? How much investment is enough, and what is the optimal level of public investment in infrastructure? This paper proposes a framework for evaluating current and future levels of financing for public infrastructure. Rather than relying on arbitrary comparisons with Canadas post war ‘golden age’ of infrastructure investment (an all too common standby in political circles, we propose a standard that is based in economic efficiency and which aims to maximise the public benefits associated with infrastructure investment. We also take a historical look public capital spending in Canada, as well as the trend toward privatization of public infrastructure and core services that began some 30 years ago after the Mulroney government was elected. This trend has seen many core services and assets that were once publicly run transition to outright privatization. It is interesting to note that the most heavily privatized sectors (utilities and communications are also the sectors most often spared from the label of ‘inadequate’, a label that befalls so much of Canada’s public infrastructure. When infrastructure is financed through taxation, there is a tendency for spending to be discouraged to ease the burden on taxpayers; however, this inevitably leads to infrastructure maintenance and construction being deferred, with a significant deficit inevitably built up. A user

  2. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  3. The Influence of State Policies on Critical Infrastructure Resilience: An Approach for Analyzing Transportation and Capital Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.

  4. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTENERSHIP IN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT: ESSENCE, EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is of high importance for human society, so the state pay great attention to it. Characteristics inherent to infrastructure, its development, maintenance and consumption don’t always explain only the state involvement in the sector.The article considers preconditions and basis of private sector involvement in the process of infrastructure supply, experience of different countries, public and private sectors relationships in the matter and private sector effectiveness in infrastructure supply.

  5. The Impact of Public Capital Investments on the Revenue Growth of Medium Enterprise in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Tirtosuharto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Public capital investment represents the role of state and local governments in supporting greater capacity of private enterprises to gain success in a market economy measured by revenue growth. Medium enterprises are considered as the catalysts for economic growth and competitiveness particularly in developing countries due to efficiency and flexibility in an adverse economic environment. Using aggregate data of 30 states (provinces in Indonesia from 1997-2002, the impact of public capital investment on the revenue growth of medium enterprise is examined. The paper finds that only medium enterprises in the industrial and trading sector benefited from public capital investments and the most optimum capital investment is in transport infrastructure.

  6. Steering Capital: Optimizing Financial Support for Innovation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kim; Petersen, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the central question of how to improve the provision of capital for entrepreneurial change in public education, but emphasizes the innovation ecosystem that surrounds the capital markets. The authors consider capital as one of the most important levers individuals need to align in this innovation ecosystem, but as a force that…

  7. 77 FR 5750 - Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Transit... Capital Investments program (``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts''). During these sessions, FTA staff will... amend the regulations for Major Capital Investment Projects at 49 CFR 611. The docket for comments on...

  8. Economic assessment of strategies to deploy publicly accessible charging infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Madina, Carlos; Barlag, Heike; Coppola, Giovanni; Gómez-Arriola, Inés; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Raúl; Zabala, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    From the end user perspective, the main barriers for widespread electric vehicle (EV) adoption are high purchase cost and range anxiety, both regarding battery capacity and availability of accessible EV charging infrastructure. Governments and public bodies in general are taking steps towards overcoming these barriers by, among others, setting up regulatory requirements regarding standardisation, customer information and recommending objectives of publicly accessible charging infrastructure. ...

  9. Development of a public health nursing data infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Bekemeier, Betty; P Newhouse, Robin; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2012-01-01

    An invited group of national public health nursing (PHN) scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders met in October 2010 identifying a critical need for a national PHN data infrastructure to support PHN research. This article summarizes the strengths, limitations, and gaps specific to PHN data and proposes a research agenda for development of a PHN data infrastructure. Future implications are suggested, such as issues related to the development of the proposed PHN data infrastructure and future research possibilities enabled by the infrastructure. Such a data infrastructure has potential to improve accountability and measurement, to demonstrate the value of PHN services, and to improve population health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Will the short-term capital crisis have long-term effects on supply and infrastructure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theal, C.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas supply and infrastructure is influenced by market segmentation and capital crises. The dynamics of market segmentation was highlighted and the implications for growth in the pipeline business were outlined. It was noted that the strategy for growth must mirror exploration and production trends in frontier gas and in oil sands growth. Acquisitions will likely shift from traditional regulated companies to energy infrastructure companies such as non-regulated midstream assets, natural gas liquids facilities, and liquefied natural gas infrastructure. In 2001, U.S. companies had a significant influence on the Canadian market by acquiring several Canadian assets. Several graphs were included with this presentation depicting: evolving U.S. based presence; distribution of Canadian exploration and production assets; changing composition of acquirers in 2002; increased U.S. presence from 1999; Canadian consolidation trends; the American advantage; the capital crisis; year to year activity levels by the independents; impact on industry activity levels; capital spending trends; growth spending outside the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; Royalty Trusts as the new intermediate sub-sector; and, reshaping the landscape. A final section of the presentation described the impact on supply and infrastructure of both oil and natural gas with reference to gas storage and pipelines. In particular the economics of developing frontier gas and shipping it via the Alaska pipeline and the proposed Mackenzie Delta pipeline was discussed. 3 tabs., 28 figs

  11. Using a CRIS for e-Infrastructure: e-Infrastructure for Scholarly Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Dijk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly publications are a major part of the research infrastructure. One way to make output available is to store the publications in Open Access Repositories (OAR. A Current Research Information System (CRIS that conforms to the standard CERIF (Common European Research Information Format could be a key component in the e-infrastructure. A CRIS provides the structure and makes it possible to interoperate the CRIS metadata at every stage of the research cycle. The international DRIVER projects are creating a European repository infrastructure. Knowledge Exchange has launched a project to develop a metadata exchange format for publications between CRIS and OAR systems.

  12. Intellectual Capital and New Public Management: Reintroducing Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Thorbjornsen, Stefan; Bukh, Per N.; Johansen, Mette R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on public sector organisations'/institutions' work to develop knowledge management and intellectual capital statements. Building on experiences collected during 2001-2002 where 26 public sector institutions in Denmark sought to develop intellectual capital statements, this paper discusses their experiences and in particular, it…

  13. Capitalism and Public Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The United States democratic system includes characteristics of capitalism as well as socialism. Perhaps the most socialistic endeavor of the US is its K-12 public school system; in fact, US public schools are necessary for democracy to thrive and to create an educated and well-informed populace. However, capitalism and socialism are strange…

  14. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  15. The contribution of public capital towards economic growth: A KwaZulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The way provincial or regional growth depends on infrastructure is investigated in this article and it is applied to data from KwaZulu-Natal province, as an illustration. Setting: This study investigates the extent to which infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa leads towards economic growth of the province. Methods: From a theoretical framework, this article develops an endogenous growth model, which investigates the association between provincial public capital stock expenditure and economic growth. Data series for public capital formation are first developed to apply in this study and others to follow. Econometric techniques are then employed, using quarterly data between 2001 and 2015, to assess the set hypothesis that growth in expenditure on public capital leads to national economic growth. Results: The empirical results support the argument of a positive relationship between provincial capital stock and economic growth in the long-term. The findings also suggests that the long-term causality or effect fades over time, albeit slowly. Conclusion: The nature and statistical significance of the long-term equilibrium relationship seems to be ambiguous at best. Some evidence of an equilibrium relationship in the short-term was, however, also observed. In conclusion, there also seems to be some causality between provincial capital stock and provincial gross domestic product in the short-run.

  16. Strategic Policy Competition with Public Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Tang, P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Governments try to attract firms and jobs by investing in international infrastructure. We analyse this type of strategic policy competition in a three-country model of monopolistic competition. What governments compete for, is to obtain a so called ‘hub’ position. A hub is a relatively well

  17. Public Infrastructure in China : Explaining Growth and Spatial Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, N.

    2016-01-01

    Public infrastructure is often mentioned as a key to promoting economic growth and development. This belief has been supported by the observation of rich countries, such as the U.S., Japan and those in Western Europe, where plenty of infrastructures developed during times of rapid economic growth.

  18. 76 FR 48807 - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Infrastructure (PKI) technology to support electronic commerce between the USPTO and its customers. PKI is a set... security for its electronic commerce systems, the USPTO uses PKI technology to protect the integrity and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...

  19. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  20. Simple Public Key Infrastructure Protocol Analysis and Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidergar, Alexander G

    2005-01-01

    ...). This thesis aims at proving the applicability of the Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) as a means of PKC. The strand space approach of Guttman and Thayer is used to provide an appropriate model for analysis...

  1. Benefits to Minnesotans of communications infrastructure public-private partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the benefits of a communications infrastructure public-private partnership between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the team of International Communications Systems (ICS) and Stone & Webster.

  2. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF SPORTS INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moskvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current state of sports infrastructure in Russia and also explores the experience of using public-private partnership at Olympic facilities construction in Sochi.

  3. A Multifunctional Public Lighting Infrastructure, Design and Experimental Test

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Beccali; Valerio Lo Brano; Marina Bonomolo; Paolo Cicero; Giacomo Corvisieri; Marco Caruso; Francesco Gamberale

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the installation of efficient lighting sources and Information and Communications Technologies can provide economic benefits, energy efficiency, and visual comfort requirements. More advantages can be derived if the public lighting infrastructure integrates a smart grid. This study presents an experimental multifunctional infrastructure for public lighting, installed in Palermo. The system is able to provide smart lighting functions (hotspot Wi-Fi, video-surveillances, car and pedes...

  4. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  5. IPSAS versus National Norms on Public Institutions' Own Capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ecobici, Nicolae

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I have compared international standards on accounting for the public sector and those required by national norms on public institutions' own capitals, pointing out both convergences and divergences. Last, but not the least, I have compared IPSAS 1 (applied by public institutions) with IAS 1 (applied by commercial companies).

  6. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run

  7. Procurement of complex performance in public infrastructure: a process perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Roehrich, Jens; Davies, Andrew; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, J.; Harrington, T.; Kirkwood, D.; Holweg, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the process of transitioning from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance in public infrastructure. The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the transition process. Based on a multiple, longitudinal case study the paper proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity. These stag...

  8. Procuring complex performance:case: public infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, T. (Tero)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research studies procuring complex performance (PCP) in the case of public infrastructure projects. Focus of the research is on the interface between public clients and private sector contractors. Purpose of this research is to find out what are the main challenges of different project delivery methods according to literature (RQ1) and what are the practical challenges of public procurement (RQ2). As an end re...

  9. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  10. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  11. The Accounting Profession: Serving the Public Interest or Capital Interest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Kaidonis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.

  12. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  13. Sexual Capital in the Public Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Steppa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of Samuel Nowak—the author of Sexual Capital—is to define “what the mass media are for men labelling themselves as gay, taking into account various, although always treated collectively, contexts: economic, political and medial”(p. 9. The sub-title of the study, which defines the direction of the whole text, is Wyobrażone wspólnotysmaku i medialne tożsamości polskich gejów (“Imagined Communities of Taste and Medial Identities of Polish Gay Persons”. In the Nowak’s study, important is the evaluation from outside (as viewed by science and from within (as viewed by proponents of LGBT. The critical review of Sexual Capital is compatible with the structure of the original text: originally focuses on scientific theories in order to end with the examples from Polish medial realities.

  14. Effectiveness of infrastructure asset management: challenges for public agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraven, Daan; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to better understand the decisions in infrastructure asset management at public agencies and the challenges of these agencies to improve the effectiveness of their decision making. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review on asset management at

  15. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  16. Public Infrastructure and Regional growth: Evidence from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elburz, Z.; Nijkamp, P.; Pels, A.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of public transportation infrastructure investments on regional economic growth in Turkish NUTS 2 regions between 2004 and 2011. To offer an advanced statistical analysis, we employ an augmented production function model for measuring the effects of

  17. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  18. Homeland Security -- Reducing the Vulnerability of Public and Private Information Infrastructures to Terrorism: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seifert, Jeffrey W

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the impact of the September 11, 2001 attacks on public and private information infrastructures in the context of critical infrastructure protection, continuity of operations (COOP...

  19. A Multifunctional Public Lighting Infrastructure, Design and Experimental Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Beccali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the installation of efficient lighting sources and Information and Communications Technologies can provide economic benefits, energy efficiency, and visual comfort requirements. More advantages can be derived if the public lighting infrastructure integrates a smart grid. This study presents an experimental multifunctional infrastructure for public lighting, installed in Palermo. The system is able to provide smart lighting functions (hotspot Wi-Fi, video-surveillances, car and pedestrian access control, car parking monitoring and support for environmental monitoring. A remote control and monitoring platform called “Centro Servizi” processes the information coming from different installations as well as their status in real time, and sends commands to the devices (e.g. to control the luminous flux, each one provided with a machine to machine interface. Data can be reported either on the web or on a customised app. The study has shown the efficient operation of such new infrastructure and its capability to provide new functions and benefits to citizens, tourists, and public administration. Thus, this system represents a starting point for the implementation of many other lighting infrastructure features typical of a “smart city.”

  20. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  1. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc; Aguado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  2. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.pardo@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain); Political Science Department, University of California - Berkeley (United States); Aguado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.aguado@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  3. Evidence on the relation between public capital and Government efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relation between public capital stock and government efficiency. We present some objective indicators fo government efficiency and explore the mentioned relation. we find a positive and significant relation between both variables that survives the introduction of controls and robustness checking.

  4. Librarianship and Public Culture in the Age of Information Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Henry T.

    1996-01-01

    Contends that an entrepreneurial model of librarianship contradicts traditional ideals of free and equal access to information and argues that such a model threatens the future of the library as a vital public sphere of democratic culture. Discusses broad trends of advanced capitalism to provide a context for the critical interpretation of issues…

  5. Practical Implementation of Various Public Key Infrastructure Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Anatolievich Melnikov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short comparative analysis of the contemporary models of public key infrastructure (PKI and the issues of the PKI models real implementation. The Russian model of PKI is presented. Differences between the North American and West Europe models of PKI and Russian model of PKI are described. The problems of creation and main directions of further development and improvement of the Russian PKI and its integration into the global trust environment are defined.

  6. 77 FR 13619 - Notice of Proposed Information for Public Comment for: Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Agency form numbers, if... Information for Public Comment for: Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection...

  7. Public Participation Procedure in Integrated Transport and Green Infrastructure Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finka, Maroš; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Jamečný, Ľubomír; Husár, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries - Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps - spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration and

  8. [Social capital as a determinant of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Vallejos, N D

    The concept of Social Capital (SC), originally described by Durkheim (1893), is composed of dimensions related to cohesion and trust between members of a social group, and considered by the Word Health Organization (WHO) as part of the social determinants of public health for the decrease of inequities and inequalities in health provision. To contribute to the dissemination of the concept of SC related to the social determinants of Public Health, in order to offer the reader in-depth content to observe the potential applications and practices in this field. Literature search (Google Academics™, PubMed, Science direct™, Ebsco Host™). A total of 294 full-text publications were obtained, and those selected were the most influential sources on the evolution and application of the concept of Social Capital, socioeconomic development and health in the last decade. Although the current evidence shows that Social Capital is a determinant related to health, standards are still needed for its measurement. This could allow the concept to be measured, and facilitate its integration into the form of actions that exert positive influence and contribute to the implementation of institutional interventions planned for development and public health. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  10. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  11. A systematic framework for infrastructure development through public private partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Public–private partnerships (PPPs play an important role in bringing private sector competition to public monopolies in infrastructure development and service provision and in merging the resources of both public and private sectors to better serve the public needs. However, in worldwide practices, there are mixed results, substantial controversy, criticism and conflict over PPPs. This paper proposes a systematic framework for the delivery of public works and services through PPPs in general. Justified by public procurement principles, aimed at a public–private win–win solution, and based on worldwide best industrial practices and lessons from unsuccessful projects, this framework integrates the four broadly divided stages that repeat over time: (1 design of a workable concession, (2 competitive concessionaire selection, (3 financial regulation, and (4 periodic reconcession and rebidding. The four-stage framework takes into account the requirements of public services, realignment of responsibility and reward among multiple participants in PPPs, the monopolistic rights of the concessionaire, and the wide range of risks and uncertainties in the long concession period. Varying competition elements are incorporated in each of the four stages for continuous performance improvement in the delivery of public works and services. The design of the right concession forms the base on which other stages are implemented in addition to planning the project and allocating risks for enhanced efficiency. The financial regulation allows the government to address changing conditions and to regulate the concession for efficient operation with due discretion, whereas the competitive concessionaire selection and periodic reconcession and rebidding play critical roles in achieving innovation, efficiency and cost effectiveness through direct competition rather than government discretionary intervention.

  12. Intellectual Capital Disclosure at Czech Public Universities in Relation to the Stakeholder Information Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kuralová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been applied. The quality of disclosed information on intangible resources in public universities in the Czech Republic is in the middle level. In the highest quality is disclosed relational capital, followed by structural and human capital. Information need of students is highest for information falling under the relational capital followed by structural capital and human capital. This study opens new approach regarding intellectual capital disclosure including suggested recommendations for Czech public universities, as there was no research related to the issue conducted in the past.

  13. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Mock Securitization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rottman, Mary [Rottman-Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Borod, Ronald [DLA Piper, London (United Kingdom); Gabig, Nathan [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Henne, Stephen [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caplin, Conrad [KPMG, Knoxville, TN (United States); Notte, Quentin [Mercatus, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-12-21

    In late 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group. Backed by a three-year funding facility from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL set out to organize the solar, legal, banking, capital markets, engineering, and other relevant stakeholder communities in order to open lower-cost debt investment for solar asset deployment. SAPC engaged its members to standardize contracts, develop best practices, and comprehend how the rating agencies perceive solar project portfolios as an investment asset class. Rating agencies opine on the future creditworthiness of debt obligations. Issuers often seek investment-grade ratings from the rating agencies in order to satisfy the desires of their investors. Therefore, for the solar industry to access larger pools of capital at a favorable cost, it is critical to increase market participants' understanding of solar risk parameters. The process provided valuable information to address rating agency perceptions of risk that, without such information, could require costly credit enhancement or higher yields to attract institutional investors. Two different securities were developed--one for a hypothetical residential solar portfolio and one for a hypothetical commercial solar portfolio. Five rating agencies (Standard and Poor's, Moody's, KBRA, Fitch, and DBRS) participated and provided extensive feedback, some through conversations that extended several months. The findings represented in this report are a composite summary of that feedback and do not indicate any specific feedback from any single rating agency.

  14. Public private partnerships - risk management in engineering infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. Economic growth and the provision of adequate infrastructure are highly interrelated. Infrastructure- plays a critical role in promoting economic growth through enhancing productivity, improving competitiveness, reducing poverty, linking people and organisations together through telecommunications and contributing to environmental sustainability. Population growth and rapid urbanisation have placed enormous pressure on existing infrastructure, thus presenting a daunting challenge t...

  15. Conservation of biodiversity through taxonomy, data publication, and collaborative infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Vanhoorne, Bart; Appeltans, Ward

    2015-08-01

    Taxonomy is the foundation of biodiversity science because it furthers discovery of new species. Globally, there have never been so many people involved in naming species new to science. The number of new marine species described per decade has never been greater. Nevertheless, it is estimated that tens of thousands of marine species, and hundreds of thousands of terrestrial species, are yet to be discovered; many of which may already be in specimen collections. However, naming species is only a first step in documenting knowledge about their biology, biogeography, and ecology. Considering the threats to biodiversity, new knowledge of existing species and discovery of undescribed species and their subsequent study are urgently required. To accelerate this research, we recommend, and cite examples of, more and better communication: use of collaborative online databases; easier access to knowledge and specimens; production of taxonomic revisions and species identification guides; engagement of nonspecialists; and international collaboration. "Data-sharing" should be abandoned in favor of mandated data publication by the conservation science community. Such a step requires support from peer reviewers, editors, journals, and conservation organizations. Online data publication infrastructures (e.g., Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Ocean Biogeographic Information System) illustrate gaps in biodiversity sampling and may provide common ground for long-term international collaboration between scientists and conservation organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Saiful

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the structure of public infrastructure financing in Indonesia and examines whether financing based on Islamic principles is a feasible alternative to current financing mechanisms...

  17. Corporate governance, intellectual capital and performance: Evidence from the public sector in the GCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Braendle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This unique study tries to link corporate governance, intellectual capital and organizational performance in the public sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC. To do so we collected data from 371 managers in public entities within the GCC region. Our findings indicate the importance of corporate governance (in form of human, social and structural capital to enhance performance in the public sector. Not only have those, results showed that the examined forms of capital are interrelated. We therefore support earlier findings that attribute impact of intellectual capital variables on performance. These results are highly relevant within the context of the GCC public sector. The findings of the papers help both, scholars and practitioners: the findings of the paper help to better understand the links between corporate governance and intellectual capital. Further, the study provides – based on GCC public sector data - the unique opportunity to see the interrelationships between corporate governance, intellectual capital and performance within the GCC public sector

  18. Corporate governance, intellectual capital and performance: Evidence from the public sector in the GCC

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Braendle; Assaad Farah; Patrick Balian

    2017-01-01

    This unique study tries to link corporate governance, intellectual capital and organizational performance in the public sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). To do so we collected data from 371 managers in public entities within the GCC region. Our findings indicate the importance of corporate governance (in form of human, social and structural capital) to enhance performance in the public sector. Not only have those, results showed that the examined forms of capital are interrelated....

  19. Bank regulatory Capital Buffer and Liquidity: Evidence from US and European Publicly Traded Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Distinguin , Isabelle; Roulet , Caroline; Tarazi , Amine

    2012-01-01

    The theory of financial intermediation highlights various channels through which capital and liquidity are interrelated. Using a simultaneous equations framework, we investigate the relationship between bank regulatory capital buffer and liquidity for European and U.S. publicly traded commercial banks. Previous research studying the determinants of bank capital buffer has neglected the role of liquidity. On the whole, we find that banks do not strengthen their regulatory capital buffer when t...

  20. Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  4. The impact of intellectual capital on performance: Evidence from the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad Farah; Shadi Abouzeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of intellectual capital on organizational performance in the public sector and studies the interconnections between intellectual capital variables within the latter setting. It follows a quantitative research approach where data was collected from 371 employees in a public entity within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The findings highlight the importance of human, social and organizational capital in enhancing performance in the studied organi...

  5. Business Cases for Major Public Infrastructure Projects in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Iacobacci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When governments announce that they are going to spend vast sums of taxpayers’ money on a new public infrastructure project, you can be certain they will praise all the terrific new benefits that the project will bring to citizens, making everyone’s life easier, safer, greener and better. But this does not tell us whether we are better off as a society, after accounting for the cost of these projects borne by taxpayers today and well into the future. In reality, there is a meaningful risk that a project undertaken without a proper business case could end up making citizens’ lives worse. That new commuter train might look sleek and shiny and seem convenient for some, but a close business case analysis of recent transit projects in Canada’s three largest cities suggests that in as many as four cases out of 21 projects, the burden of paying for the projects does not justify the public investment. In a review of thirteen recent public transit projects in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA, at least three projects had benefits that fell short of the costs. Yet, all three projects went ahead (or have been funded. Only one project showed large net benefits for citizens once all considerations were accounted for. Three projects showed small net benefits – of a size that can be easily offset by a modest cost over-run. The six remaining projects did not have any publicly available business cases. In the Greater Montreal area, a review of three recent major transit projects turned up no evidence of a publicly available business case for any of them. As a result, Montrealers are in the dark as to how much benefit or value destruction the three projects are responsible for. Things are far more encouraging in Vancouver, however, where three out of the five major transit projects undertaken or funded in recent years were backed by business cases showing a net benefit. Only one project did not show a net benefit and one project did not have a

  6. Green Infrastructure in Context: Public Health and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using interdisciplinary approaches to urban water management strategies can yield benefits for sustainability. While green infrastructure (GI) has primarily been used to increase infiltration/redistribution and reduce runoff in urban areas, the physical siting of GI can provide o...

  7. Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Feldman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  10. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  11. Infrastructure procurement skills gap amongst procurement personnel in Nigeria’s public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Manu, P.; Booth, C.; Olomolaiye, P.; Coker, A.; Ibrahim, A. ed; Lamond, J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Procurement of public infrastructure that is fit for purpose partly depends on the competencies of procurement personnel. In many developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, there is a deficit in the quantity and quality of infrastructure and their procurement is further riddled with deficiencies in the capacity of public procuring entities. It is, however, unclear from the extant literature, what are the critical skills development needs of public personnel invol...

  12. 76 FR 6653 - Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... integrated utility management, capital planning, and other capital and management activities that maximize...; heating system replacements; wall insulation; site-based generation; advanced energy savings technologies... new and/or revised CFP forms, including the CFP Annual Statement/Performance and Evaluation Report...

  13. The Role of Public-Private Partnerships in Local Infrastructure: the Case of Carbon Offset Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    Investment in low carbon infrastructure is considered as an important component of the fight against climate change. The mechanisms of climate regulation (such as carbon offsets) transfer to project developers the risks associated with reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, i.e. operational and technological risk, or risks associated with the environmental monitoring and the regulatory mechanism itself. The success of projects - and thus their ability to attract private capital - depends importantly on the risk sharing arrangements between the private and public partners involved in the project. We show that the delegation of tasks between the partners can create risks that affect the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of the project. Contracts need to be well designed to mitigate those risks. For a sample of landfill gas flaring projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism, it is shown that the out-sourcing of the provision of technology creates additional risks. The out-sourcing of the development of the Project Design Documents as required by UNFCCC and the separation of the operation of the landfill and the CDM project appear to be manageable by risk sharing arrangements between partners. In the latter case, each partner should bear the risk associated with his own responsibility. In fact, if carbon revenues are the only income stream for the CDM project developer, the incentive to reduce GHG emissions is maintained. (author)

  14. Safeguarding public values in gas infrastructure expansion. A comparison of two investment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2007-02-01

    The realisation of new gas infrastructure projects affects overall gas market performance with respect to the public values of affordability and security of supply. However, the actual contribution of a gas infrastructure expansion project to system affordability and security of supply depends upon the institutional design of the market (legislation, regulatory codes and arrangements, market rules, etc.). In this paper we link the institutional design applicable to two specific gas infrastructure projects with the safeguarding of the aforementioned public values. We conclude that path dependencies can cause large differences in the contribution of the projects to the safeguarding of public values

  15. Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects : How neither public nor private actors really benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single private sector partners who design, build, finance and maintain infrastructure for a fixed

  16. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF FINANCING TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS REALIZED IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the basic approach to evaluating efficiency of financing transport infrastructure projects realized in the framework of public private partnership. The main ways of the project realization are identified, and their main advantages and disadvantages are described. Detailed elaboration and structuring of infrastructure projects are grounded.

  17. USE OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Viktorovich Linev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Need of research and introduction of innovative mechanisms of growth of economy of Russia in the conditions of the accruing crisis tendencies and external restrictions causes relevance of consideration of close interaction and mutually providing production and social infrastructures of the economic development forming additional eff ects in all variety of branches of industrial complex. Formation becomes the initiating factor of such interaction in modern conditions and eff ective use of domestic enterprise potential a necessary condition of which is state – private partnership (PPP. In this regard it is necessary to consider problems and problems of formation of conditions, forms and methods of use of PPP, for development of infrastructure as necessary complex of BasicElements of formation of advanced socially oriented market economy. As an object of research in article the organizational and economic relations assuming eff ective partnership of the government and private institutions for formation of complete and highly eff ective system of the production and social infrastructure causing an intensifi cation of synergetic and multiplicative eff ects of development of a civilized society are considered. Purposes/tasks. The main objective of a statement of materials in this article consists in theoretical justifi cation of basic provisions of realization of PPP in system of production and social infrastructure. The task to prove need of application of PPP for strengthening of multiplicative eff ect at development of this system is set. Methodology. In the methodological plan this work represents the state-of-the-art review of the social and economic processes happening in system of social and production infrastructure. When writing article the complex of general scientifi c methods of research including generalization, economical and statistical, system and analytical cluster and others was applied Results. As a result of performance of this

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  4. Public Capital and Regional Economic Growth: a SVAR Approach for the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. D. Hewings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a significant share of the empirical analysis on the impact of public capital on regional growth has used multivariate time-series frameworks based on vector autoregressive (VAR models. Nevertheless, not as much attention has been dedicated to the analysis of the long-run determinants of regional growth processes using multi-region panel data and applying panel integration and co-integration techniques. This paper estimates the dynamic domestic effects of public infrastructure using a structural vector autoregressive (S-VAR methodology for the Spanish regions. From a methodological point of view, the paper contains several features that can be viewed as a contribution to the existing empirical literature. First, the important issues of the stationarity of the data and the existence and estimation of cointegrating relationships in the long-run are addressed in the context of the analysis of panel data. Secondly, the long-run cointegrating production function is embedded within structural vector error correction (S-VEC shortrun models to produce consistent estimates of impulse responses, contrary to many researchers who have estimated unrestricted VAR models in levels or VAR models in first differences. The estimates reveal new results with respect to the previous empirical evidence.

  5. Framework for Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Public-Private Partnership Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Akande, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the framework for human capital development in Nigeria through a public-private partnership (PPP) approach. No doubt, population of a country determines the subsisted human capital resources and this in turn determines the economic status of such country. Therefore, human capital development becomes a mantra for economic development. Unfortunately, government spending on education and health is so negligible as to make any meaningful impact on Nigerian economy. It is...

  6. Unlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure : Land-Based Financing Options for Cities

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Raising capital to finance urban infrastructure is a challenge. One solution is to 'unlock' urban land values - such as by selling public lands to capture the gains in value created by investment in infrastructure projects. Land-based financing techniques are playing an increasingly important role in financing urban infrastructure in developing countries. They complement other capital fina...

  7. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Interoperability: A Security Services Approach to Support Transfer of Trust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Public key infrastructure (PKI) technology is at a primitive stage characterized by deployment of PKIs that are engineered to support the provision of security services within individual enterprises, and are not able to support...

  8. The impact of intellectual capital on performance: Evidence from the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Farah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of intellectual capital on organizational performance in the public sector and studies the interconnections between intellectual capital variables within the latter setting. It follows a quantitative research approach where data was collected from 371 employees in a public entity within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC region. The findings highlight the importance of human, social and organizational capital in enhancing performance in the studied organization. Furthermore, the results show that the examined forms of capital can be interconnected. These outcomes support the earlier findings on the positive impact of intellectual capital variables on performance and, provide valuable and rather rare insights on the latter interrelationships within the GCC public sector.

  9. Security audits of multi-tier virtual infrastructures in public infrastructure clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Schunter, Matthias; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has gained remarkable popularity in the recent years by a wide spectrum of consumers, ranging from small start-ups to governments. However, its benefits in terms of flexibility, scalability, and low upfront investments, are shadowed by security challenges which inhibit its adoption....... Managed through a web-services interface, users can configure highly flexible but complex cloud computing environments. Furthermore, users misconfiguring such cloud services poses a severe security risk that can lead to security incidents, e.g., erroneous exposure of services due to faulty network...... security configurations. In this article we present a novel approach in the security assessment of the end-user configuration of multi-tier architectures deployed on infrastructure clouds such as Amazon EC2. In order to perform this assessment for the currently deployed configuration, we automated...

  10. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  11. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  12. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series Cross-Section Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  13. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series CrossSection Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  14. The role of public communication in decision making for waste management infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Richard; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2017-12-01

    Modern waste management provision seeks to meet challenging objectives and strategies while reflecting community aspirations and ensuring cost-effective compliance with statutory obligations. Its social acceptability, which affects both what systems (infrastructure) can be put in place and to what extent their implementation will be successful, is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, often not well understood. In light of the growing evidence that decisions to build new infrastructure are often contested by the public, there is a clear need to understand the role of scientific evidence in public perception, particularly as environmental infrastructure delivery is often objected to by the public on environmental grounds. In this paper the need for waste management infrastructure is reviewed, and the way its delivery in the UK has evolved is used as an example of the role of public perception in the planning and delivery of waste facilities. Findings demonstrate the vital role of public communication in waste management infrastructure delivery. Public perception must be taken into account early in the decision making process, with the public informed and engaged from the start. There is a pressing need for people not simply to accept but to understand and appreciate the need for infrastructure, the nature of infrastructure investments and development, the costs and the benefits involved, and the technological aspects. Scientific evidence and literacy have a critical role to play, facilitating public engagement in a process that empowers people, allowing them to define and handle challenges and influence decisions that will impact their lives. Problem ownership, and an increased probability of any solutions proposed being selected and implemented successfully are potential benefits of such approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decision-Aiding Evaluation of Public Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Cities and Resorts of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the National Communication Development of 2014–2022 Program and Guidelines of the Development of the Public Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure confirmed by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, it is planned that, until the year of 2025, among newly registered vehicles, electric ones should make at least 10%. Analysis of the trend of electric vehicles makes evident that the target does not have a real chance to be achieved without targeted efforts. In order to improve the infrastructure of electric vehicles in major cities and resorts of Lithuania, we have carried out a comparative analysis of public infrastructure for electric vehicles in 18 Lithuanian cities and resorts. For the quantitative analysis, we proposed eight criteria describing such an infrastructure. As perception of the infrastructure by owners of electric cars depends on complex factors, we used multiple criteria evaluation methods (MCDM for evaluation of the current state of its development by four such methods: EDAS, SAW, TOPSIS, and PROMETHEE II. Based on the evaluation results, prominent and lagging factors were understood, and proposals for effective development of public infrastructure of electric vehicles were proposed for improvement of the infrastructure.

  16. The Impact of Public Capital Investments on the Revenue Growth of Medium Enterprise in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtosuharto, Darius

    2012-01-01

    Public capital investment represents the role of state and local governments in supporting greater capacity of private enterprises to gain success in a market economy measured by revenue growth. Medium enterprises are considered as the catalysts for economic growth and competitiveness particularly in developing countries due to efficiency and flexibility in an adverse economic environment. Using aggregate data of 30 states (provinces) in Indonesia from 1997-2002, the impact of public capital ...

  17. Generating social capital through public health leadership training: a six-year assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Suzanne R; St Romain, Theresa; Rempel, Scott L; Orr, Shirley A; Molgaard, Craig A

    2012-08-01

    Social capital, or a sense of partnership leading to shared goals, provides a means for addressing today's public health workforce challenges. This concept is particularly important in underserved rural areas, though efforts to intentionally generate social capital have been limited. Within the rural state of Kansas, the Kansas Public Health Leadership Institute (KPHLI) has implemented a social capital pre/post assessment to quantify the impact of KPHLI training on social capital within the state's decentralized public health system. This paper discusses 38 assessment items related to bonding, bridging and linking social capital. The assessment was completed pre and post training by 130 of 148 scholars (87.8%) in six KPHLI training cycles. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon paired t-tests in SPSS. Thirty-five of 38 items demonstrated statistically significant increases at post-test, across all 10 sub-domains. Leadership training by the KPHLI fosters quantifiable increases in characteristics of social capital, which are essential for public health systems to cope with increased workforce demands and prepare for accreditation. This study represents a key first step in examining the deliberate generation of social capital within a decentralized rural environment.

  18. Social capital in Japan: What characteristics do public health nurses see in their communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hikaru; Kawaharada, Mariko; Shindo, Yukari; Tanaka, Rie; Nakajima, Ayaka; Nimura, Yuki

    2018-04-01

    A concept of social capital that accounts for a community's cultural background and incorporates social capital into public health nursing practice are needed. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of social capital in the context of public health nursing in Japan. The study interviewed 11 veteran public health nurses from five municipalities across Japan and undertook a qualitative research analysis. A digital voice recorder was used to collect qualitative data by using a background data sheet and semistructured interviews. Trustworthiness in interpreting the data was ensured by conducting 13 additional interviews with residents and collating the two sets of results. All the participants were female: 10 were veterans with ≥15 years' experience. Nine worked in management. The methods yielded six categories: (i) the richness of the interactions among the residents; (ii) the community residents who showed concern for those in need; (iii) community civic activities; (iv) the residents' willingness to contribute to the community; (v) the health promotion volunteers who work alongside the public health nurses; and (vi) an enriched community environment. The results contribute to an understanding of social capital in the context of public health nursing activities and further research on social capital. It also is discussed how social capital can be incorporated into public health nursing activities in the future. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Prediction of necessary public charging infrastructure of electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Montfort, K.; Van Der Poel, G.; Visser, J.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed models in order to predict the need for public charging points. These models give municipalities an insight into various environmental and consumer related factors that determine the need for public charging points for electric vehicles in the neighbourhood. These factors

  20. Understanding Public-Private Collaboration Configurations for International Information Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    Collaboration between the public and the private sector is seen as an instrument to make governance smarter, more effective, and more efficient. However, whereas there is literature on public-private collaboration, very little of it addresses how these collaborations can be shaped to make use of the

  1. Understanding Public-Private Collaboration Configurations for International Information Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration between the public and the private sector is seen as an instrument to make governance smarter, more effective, and more efficient. However, whereas there is literature on public-private collaboration, very little of it addresses how these collaborations can be shaped to make use of the

  2. The role of public initiatives facilitating investments in broadband infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of a developmental approach to broadband policy. The policy approaches made in Denmark and Sweden are compared, and the scope for public intervention at the broadband market is discussed. The paper includes a case study on public intervention in the rural areas of th...

  3. Determinants of public capital spending in less-developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In a great majority of countries throughout the world productive government services have declined as percentage of GDP since the 1970s. In the macroeconomic literature this is often associated with the general productivity growth decline, suggesting an important role for infrastructure

  4. Geography and the costs of urban energy infrastructure: The case of electricity and natural gas capital investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyel, Muzeyyen Anil

    Investments in the urban energy infrastructure for distributing electricity and natural gas are analyzed using (1) property data measuring distribution plant value at the local/tax district level, and (2) system outputs such as sectoral numbers of customers and energy sales, input prices, company-specific characteristics such as average wages and load factor. Socio-economic and site-specific urban and geographic variables, however, often been neglected in past studies. The purpose of this research is to incorporate these site-specific characteristics of electricity and natural gas distribution into investment cost model estimations. These local characteristics include (1) socio-economic variables, such as income and wealth; (2) urban-related variables, such as density, land-use, street pattern, housing pattern; (3) geographic and environmental variables, such as soil, topography, and weather, and (4) company-specific characteristics such as average wages, and load factor. The classical output variables include residential and commercial-industrial customers and sales. In contrast to most previous research, only capital investments at the local level are considered. In addition to aggregate cost modeling, the analysis focuses on the investment costs for the system components: overhead conductors, underground conductors, conduits, poles, transformers, services, street lighting, and station equipment for electricity distribution; and mains, services, regular and industrial measurement and regulation stations for natural gas distribution. The Box-Cox, log-log and additive models are compared to determine the best fitting cost functions. The Box-Cox form turns out to be superior to the other forms at the aggregate level and for network components. However, a linear additive form provides a better fit for end-user related components. The results show that, in addition to output variables and company-specific variables, various site-specific variables are statistically

  5. Public-Private-Defense Partnering in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaksec, Gregory M

    2006-01-01

    .... The challenge for the DHS is in motivating partnerships across the public, private, and DoD domains, each with different organizational and cultural objectives governed under a federalist system...

  6. The power of symbolic capital in patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Snow, Rosamund; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Policy-makers and health research funders increasingly require researchers to demonstrate that they have involved patients in the design and conduct of research. However, the extent to which patients and public have the power to get involved on an equal footing is dependent on their economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. To explore power relations in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, particularly how patients may wield symbolic capital to develop a more equal relationship. Narrative interviews with a maximum variation sample of 38 people involved as patients, carers or public in health research, analysed thematically. Symbolic capital may be demonstrated in a range of ways (sometimes alongside or in the absence of other forms of capital): illness experience, technical illness knowledge and the challenging outsider. Symbolic capital is unstable and dependent on others for recognition and legitimacy. Nonetheless, participants identify a gradual shift in power relations over time. Research into PPI has been conceptually and theoretically poor, limiting our understanding of its mechanisms and wider contextual elements. Our findings demonstrate the importance of reflecting on the forms of power and capital wielded by the health research community, and of acknowledging the way in which PPI is challenging the status quo. As one of the first papers to conceptualize how different forms of symbolic capital operate and their critical role in challenging the balance of power, our findings may help researchers better plan their PPI activities and reflect on their own power. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Association Between Social Capital and Depression Among Chinese Older Adults Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J; Canham, Sarah L; Lam, Agnes Iok Fong

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a critical resource for physical and mental health among older adults, but few studies have investigated this relationship in Chinese populations, and specifically among those with low socioeconomic status. This study examined the association between depression and cognitive social capital (reciprocity and trust) and structural social capital (social participation) in a community sample of older adults living in public housing in Macau (SAR), China (N = 366). Multivariable linear regressions estimated the associations between dimensions of social capital and depression, while adjusting for potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between reciprocity and trust and depression. No association was found between social participation and depression. Poor self-reported health was a robust correlate of depression in all models tested. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether enhancing social capital may reduce depression among Chinese older adults living in poverty.

  8. Chain-computerisation for interorganisational public policy implementation : A new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve public policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In two articles the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures requires a new approach,

  9. Between Public - Private Partnerships and public finance in the public infrastructure sector: The water and sanitation sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.

  10. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider a nu...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy....

  11. Public Opinions and Use of Various Types of Recreational Infrastructure in Boreal Forest Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Gundersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.

  12. Developing and improving human capital and productivity in public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozipho Sithole

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the Assisted Education Programme (AEP in developing, improving human capital and productivity specifically for eThekwini Municipality employee human resource. This programme offers funding to employees to further their studies in higher learning institutions, which are in partnership with and recognized by eThekwini Municipality. The core function of this programme is to improve and develop employee capabilities in order to enhance municipal productivity. However, different factors have prohibited the programme from reaching required funding polity objectives. Participants filled in questionnaires and from them data were collected. The study used quantitative research as a method of research. The target population for this study consisted of 100 participants. The study sample size were 64 participants which were randomly selected out of the Durban Solid Waste Unit, specifically general assistants. The study analyzed data using SPSS (version 23.0. A significant percentage of respondents indicated to a lack of transparency and poor consistency in the process of awarding the funding and to insufficient information, which detailed the criteria for eligibility of applicants. Henceforth, the study concluded that municipal employee underutilized the AEP because of being ill informed about it. This resulted in the employee perception that the programme had little or no benefit to them and that it had no value in improving their human capital development. This finding is shown by a Chi-square goodness of fit test to be statistically significant (std=1.49150; mean=2.7500; p=.000

  13. Pricing initial public offerings in premature capital markets : the case of Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindele, I.; Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of underpricing at initial public offerings in theHungarian Initial Public Offerings (IPO) market in 1990-1998, a period of transition from socialist to market economy and immaturity of the domestic capital market. The evidence suggests that political issues

  14. Public Knowledge, Private Knowledge: The Intellectual Capital of Entrepreneurs. NBER Working Paper No. 14797

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert; Ruhm, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Using data collected by the National Research Council within the U.S. National Academies from their…

  15. The impact on social capital of mobility disability and weight status: the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbäck, Mattias; de Munter, Jeroen; Tynelius, Per; Ahlström, Gerd; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-04-01

    People with mobility disability are more often overweight or obese and have lower social capital than people without mobility disability. It is unclear whether having a combination of mobility disability and overweight or obesity furthers negative development of social capital over time. To explore whether there were differences in social capital between normal-weight, overweight and obese people with or without mobility disability over a period of 8 years. We included 14,481 individuals (18-64 at baseline) from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort that started in 2002. Mobility disability, weight status, and social capital (structural: social activities, voting; cognitive: trust in authorities, and trust in people) were identified from self-reports. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in multivariate longitudinal regression analyses. We found no significant differences in social activities and voting between the groups over time. However, when compared with the reference group, the groups with mobility disability had less trust in authorities and public institutions over time. Notably, obese people with mobility disability showed the largest decrease in trust in the police (RR = 2.29; 1.50-3.50), the parliament (RR = 2.00; 1.31-3.05), and local politicians (RR = 2.52; 1.61-3.94). People with mobility disability experience lower cognitive social capital over time than people without mobility disability. Being burdened by both mobility disability and obesity may be worse in terms of social capital than having just one of the conditions, especially regarding cognitive social capital. This finding is of public health importance, since social capital is related to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ad hoc public disclosure obligations of public companies on the capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the obligations of public companies regarding the provision of periodical (ad hoc information to the public on the capital market. Ad hoc disclosure is to achieve a number of aims. It is one of the devices to secure the market's functional abilities. By means of regularly fulfilling this obligation, the market is provided with all the relevant information necessary to form adequate prices of market materials - i.e. securities and other financial instruments (the function of market protection. Investors are thus being able to aptly respond to modified circumstances and deliver investment decisions whether to buy or sell market materials the price of which are being changed (the function of investor protection. Due to the fact that the duty of ad hoc disclosure encompasses the obligation to reveal insider information directly affecting the emitter, ad hoc disclosure serves as a preventive measure, i.e. as a protection against illicit trade with insider information (the function of prevention against the abuse of insider information.

  17. Cultural Economy, Capitalism and the Logic of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp.......Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp....

  18. Toekomstvaste fysieke toegangsystemen : Public Key Infrastructure als oplossing voor fysiek toegangbeheer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhuis, G.; Olk, J.G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Voor fysieke toegangssystemen wordt veelal gebruik gemaakt van toegangspassen met een contactlose chip. Soms zijn deze passen ook nog voorzien van een PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) contactchip voor toegang tot ICT en/of het plaatsen van een digitale handtekening. Ook voor fysieke toegang bied PKI

  19. Climate change damages to Alaska public infrastructure and the economics of proactive adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that increases the vulnerability of the built environment. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska’s public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenar...

  20. 75 FR 17407 - Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-11-000] Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public Conference March 31... Room on the second floor of the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street...

  1. Essays on the Impacts of Geography and Institutions on Access to Energy and Public Infrastructure Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Belinda

    While previous literature has emphasized the importance of energy and public infrastructure services for economic development, questions surrounding the implications of unequal spatial distribution in access to these resources remain, particularly in the developing country context. This dissertation provides evidence on the nature, origins and implications of this distribution uniting three strands of research from the development and political economy, regional science and energy economics fields. The dissertation unites three papers on the nature of spatial inequality of access to energy and infrastructure with further implications for conflict risk , the historical institutional and biogeographical determinants of current distribution of access to energy and public infrastructure services and the response of households to fuel price changes over time. Chapter 2 uses a novel survey dataset to provide evidence for spatial clustering of public infrastructure non-functionality at schools by geopolitical zone in Nigeria with further implications for armed conflict risk in the region. Chapter 3 investigates the drivers of the results in chapter 2, exploiting variation in the spatial distribution of precolonial institutions and geography in the region, to provide evidence for the long-term impacts of these factors on current heterogeneity of access to public services. Chapter 4 addresses the policy implications of energy access, providing the first multi-year evidence on firewood demand elasticities in India, using the spatial variation in prices for estimation.

  2. The governance of public-private partnerships in sports infrastructure: Interfering complexities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.; Verhoest, K.

    2015-01-01

    Although public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports

  3. Libraries as an infrastructure for a sustainable public sphere in a digital age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audunson, Ragnar; Svandhild, Aabø,; Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2017-01-01

    This session will focus upon challenges to upholding a sustainable public sphere in a digital age and the potential of libraries to contribute to an infrastructure that might help us cope with these challenges. The workshop can be seen as a continuationof last years worshop themed: Partnership...... with society: A social and cultural approach to Ischool research....

  4. Industry - Public knowledge infrastructure interaction: intra- and inter-organizational explanations of interactive learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, M.T.H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Hage, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper pursues the development and empirical exploration of a theoretical framework that explains the probabilities of interactive learning of innovating firms and actors in the public knowledge infrastructure. Our research question reads as follows: To what extent does the strength of innovator

  5. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  6. Alternative for the recovery of public space through green infrastructures in Tunja, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Estefanía Quintero González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global demographic explosion has impacted in an excessive growth of cities, with urban areas invading key environmental places and with it, reducing the possibility of keeping good public spaces. Tunja is one of the growing cities of Colombia and its central zone needs an alternative of recovery and generation of public green spaces to avoid densification. The research proposes: firstly, to determine the availability of existing public space in the urban area of Tunja through a characterization and availability diagnosis; and, secondly, to formulate specific types of green infrastructure. By considering the regular state conditions of the existing public space network and the inequality in the spatial connectivity of the places within the system, a proposal of types of vegetated infrastructures is given to improve both existing and potentially places.

  7. Government budget, public-sector wages and capital taxes in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, C.C.; Yu, E. S. H.; Yu, Wusheng

    This paper examines the welfare implications of adjustments in public-sector wages and capital tax rates for a small open economy in a general equilibrium setting. The individually and jointly optimal wage and tax policies are derived and interpreted. Facing reductions in land sales and falls...... in foreign interest rates, a cut in public workers’ pay is needed for making their wage comparable to the private sector and a hike in capital taxes is recommended for a budgetary consideration. Using a computable general equilibrium model for Hong Kong, we numerically evaluate the various optimal policies...

  8. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-05-12

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.

  9. Public Private Partnerships: A possible alternative for delivery of infrastructure projects in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bwanali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Africa needs $93 billion annually until 2020 in order to bridge its infrastructure deficit. It is through significant investment in infrastructure development that economic growth and poverty alleviation can be enhanced. However central to all construction projects is an effective and sustainable procurement system. There is a notable shift by some African governments to turn to the private sector to design, build, finance and operate infrastructure facilities previously provided by the public sector in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP’s. As an innovative financing model, PPPs present an opportunity to governments to improve service delivery. Accordingly, this paper focuses on assessing international best practices as to how some developing nations tap into the resources of the private sector in implementing their infrastructure projects. The study is a result of critical review, synthesis and contextualization of relevant academic literature, conference and journal publications. A thorough document review method was employed to assess how some developing countries have institutionalized PPP as part of their development strategy. The paper will be of significant value to senior government officials as understanding the concept and dynamics of PPP will result in accelerated and effective service delivery.

  10. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  11. Tennessee Public Infrastructure Needs Inventory Assessment for FY 1998. A Commission Report to the 101st General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harry A.; Norman, John F, .; McClure, C. Bennett, II

    This report represents the first effort by any public or private agency or organization to provide a comprehensive assessment of Tennessee's public infrastructure needs. Hundreds of local government officials and private citizens contributed information to this research. The main participants in the infrastructure inventory were the local…

  12. On the Impact of using Public Network Communication Infrastructure for Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    voltage controlled distribution system. A cost effective way to connect the ReGen plants to the control center is to consider the existing public network infrastructure. This paper, therefore, illustrates the impact of using the existing public network communication infrastructure for online voltage...

  13. Beyond public acceptance of energy infrastructure: How citizens make sense and form reactions by enacting networks of entities in infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaen, Sara Bjørn; Kerndrup, Søren; Lyhne, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the growing insight into public acceptance by presenting a novel approach to how citizens make sense of new energy infrastructure. We claim that to understand public acceptance, we need to go beyond the current thinking of citizens framed as passive respondents to proposed projects, and instead view infrastructure projects as enacted by citizens in their local settings. We propose a combination of sensemaking theory and actor–network theory that allows insight into how citizens enact entities from experiences and surroundings in order to create meaning and form a reaction to new infrastructure projects. Empirically, we analyze how four citizens make sense of an electricity cable project through a conversation process with a representative from the infrastructure developer. Interestingly, the formal participation process and the materiality of the cable play minor roles in citizens' sensemaking process. We conclude that insight into the way citizens are making sense of energy infrastructure processes can improve and help to overcome shortcomings in the current thinking about public acceptance and public participation. - Highlights: •Attention to citizens' sensemaking enables greater insight into the decision-making process. •A combination of sensemaking and actor-network theory (ANT) is relevant for studies of public acceptance. •Sensemaking explains why citizens facing similar situations act differently. •Complexity of citizens' sensemaking challenges the predictability of processes.

  14. Corporate Governance and Intellectual Capital: Evidence from Public and Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Akma Hidayu Dol Abdu; Abu, Nor Asyiqin; Latif, Wannoraini Abdul; Smith, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the perception of academics towards intellectual capital (IC) and governance practice at two Malaysian universities: University A (a Public University) and University B (a Private University). It also examines the factors which contribute to the retention of qualified academics and the relationship between…

  15. Governo eletrônico e capital intelectual nas organizações públicas Electronic government and human capital in public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Joia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a variação de capital intelectual em organizações públicas envolvidas em empreendimentos government-to-government (G2G. Para tanto, um frame heurístico foi desenvolvido a fim de avaliar o impacto de projetos G2G nos componentes do capital intelectual de agências públicas, isto é, em seus capitais humano, organizacional, de relacionamento e de inovação. Aplicando-se esse frame heurístico a 30 empreendimentos G2G no Brasil, ligando o Banco Central com os tribunais de justiça, detectou-se um impacto positivo no capital intelectual das organizações envolvidas nesses empreendimentos. Além disso, verificou-se que tais empreendimentos G2G influenciaram os componentes do capital intelectual de forma homogênea. A partir daí, o frame foi validado por meio de uma elevada e positiva correlação entre a variação do capital intelectual nas organizações públicas e a percepção de valor dos funcionários envolvidos nesses mesmos empreendimentos. Finalmente, adicionalmente às limitações da pesquisa, algumas conclusões são apresentadas a gestores públicos, practitioners e acadêmicos, para que seja entendido o potencial de uso da teoria do capital intelectual para avaliação de iniciativas de governo eletrônicoThis article shows the intellectual capital variation in public organizations involved in government-to-government (G2G enterprises. A heuristic frame was developed to measure the impact of G2G projects on the intellectual capital components of public agencies, i.e., on their human, organizational, relational and innovative capitals. This heuristic frame was applied to 30 G2G enterprises in Brazil connecting the Central Bank to the courts of justice and revealed a positive impact on the intellectual capital of the organizations involved. Furthermore, these G2G enterprises influenced the intellectual capital components uniformly. Then the frame was validated by means of a high and positive correlation

  16. The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Young

    2017-12-01

    This study was to verify the effect of public health nurse's (PHN's) social capital on the relationship between public health manager's (PHM's) transformational leadership and PHN's organizational empowerment in Korea public health. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 303 PHNs from public health centers in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do cities in South Korea. Data were collected from February 29, 2016 to April 8, 2016, using structured questionnaires which included general characteristics, transformational leadership, organizational empowerment, and social capital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, and structural equation model. PHM's transformational leadership has a positive effect on PHN's social capital and PHN's organizational empowerment. Social capital had a mediating effect between transformational leadership and organizational empowerment in PHNs. This study suggests that PHM's transformational leadership is a contributing factor to improve PHN's organizational empowerment, and transformational leadership can lead to improve PHN's organizational empowerment through PHN's social capital. So, an intervention program to promote organizational empowerment should include strategies to enhance PHM's transformational leadership as well as to improve PHN's social capital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Creating public value : Optimizing cooperation Between public and private Partners in infrastructure Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, L.S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Infrastructure projects - such as the construction of tunnels and bridges or the (re)construction of roads and highways – are always performed to add quality to society. In The Netherlands, these projects are most often financed by the government, from local to national level, and constructed by

  18. Venture capital and risk management: evidence from initial public offerings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Bamford

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze a sample of initial public offerings (IPOs to infer the sources of firm-specific risk associated with investment by venture capitalists. The results indicate that IPO backing by venture capitalists is associated with risk factors related to operating profit margins and ongoing sales generation, but not operational financing. The results also indicate that venture-backed IPOs are associated with greater reductions in firm-specific risk over the course of a year that includes the date of the IPO. In sum, the findings suggest venture capitalists are willing to accept higher levels of uncertainty in those instances where they have an advantage in terms of managerial skill, and are able to reduce firm-specific risk subsequent to investment in order to maximize returns when they cash out. Our study also makes use of proxies that are representative of the ex-ante nature of firm-specific risk at the time of a new issue

  19. Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructure for Inter-Domain Secure Routing

    OpenAIRE

    de la Rocha Gómez-Arevalillo , Alfonso; Papadimitratos , Panos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A gamut of secure inter-domain routing protocols has been proposed in the literature. They use traditional PGP-like and centralized Public Key Infrastructures for trust management. In this paper, we propose our alternative approach for managing security associations, Secure Blockchain Trust Management (SBTM), a trust management system that instantiates a blockchain-based PKI for the operation of securerouting protocols. A main motivation for SBTM is to facilitate gradu...

  20. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  1. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  2. Hospital Adoption of Health Information Technology to Support Public Health Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M; Diana, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the nation's public health infrastructure. In support of this belief, meaningful use incentives include criteria for hospitals to electronically report to immunization registries, as well as to public health agencies for reportable laboratory results and syndromic surveillance. Electronic reporting can facilitate faster and more appropriate public health response. However, it remains unclear the extent that hospitals have adopted IT for public health efforts. To examine hospital adoption of IT for public health and to compare hospitals capable of using and not using public health IT. Cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 American Hospital Association annual survey matched with data from the 2013 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare hospital characteristics. Inverse probability weights were applied to adjust for selection bias because of survey nonresponse. All acute care general hospitals in the United States that matched across the surveys and had complete data available were included in the analytic sample. Three separate outcome measures were used: whether the hospital could electronically report to immunization registries, whether the hospital could send electronic laboratory results, and whether the hospital can participate in syndromic surveillance. A total of 2841 hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Weighted results show that of these hospitals, 62.7% can electronically submit to immunization registries, 56.6% can electronically report laboratory results, and 54.4% can electronically report syndromic surveillance. Adjusted and weighted results from the multivariate analyses show that small, rural hospitals and hospitals without electronic health record systems lag in the adoption of public health IT capabilities. While a majority of hospitals are using public health IT, the infrastructure still has

  3. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed.

  4. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000–2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  5. Effective public resource allocation to escape lock-in: the case of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooren, A. van der; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-stage technological substitution model of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies is developed. This is used to examine how the allocation of public, financial resources to RD&D support and infrastructure development affects the replacement of a locked-in vehicle technology by more

  6. Going beyond The three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, C

    2007-12-01

    International research on the social determinants of health has increasingly started to integrate a welfare state regimes perspective. Although this is to be welcomed, to date there has been an over-reliance on Esping-Andersen's The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology (1990). This is despite the fact that it has been subjected to extensive criticism and that there are in fact a number of competing welfare state typologies within the comparative social policy literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide public health researchers with an up-to-date overview of the welfare state regime literature so that it can be reflected more accurately in future research. It outlines The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology, and it presents the criticisms it received and an overview of alternative welfare state typologies. It concludes by suggesting new avenues of study in public health that could be explored by drawing upon this broader welfare state regimes literature.

  7. Tax Incentive, Public Share Proportion, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierly Ananta Upa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government has changed the taxation law in 2007. The regulation revealed thatcompanies listed on capital market can obtain reduced income tax rate by 5 percent. Decrease inincome tax rates is granted to domestic corporate taxpayers listed on capital market that have publicownership over 40 percent of the total paid shares and the shares owned by at least 300 parties. Thepurpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of government regulation (PP No. 81 of 2007.This research used companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX which have right offeringin 2009-2010 as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method. Theresult indicates that government regulation related to tax incentives, which was aimed to increasethe proportion of public ownership, is still less effective. In addition, this study also showed that theproportion of public ownership has no significant effect on firm performance

  8. PHYSICAL CAPITAL, HUMAN AND SOCIAL AND RESPONSIBILITY PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT WITH POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Torres, Zelma; Salcedo Guzmán, Luisa Elena

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of research carried out in 2010, entitled, physical capital, human and social, and social responsibility of the Certified Public Accountant with Poverty. This article seeks to demonstrate the interest in settlement mechanisms to achieve equity and achieve a development strategy. In this perspective, the article insisted that social policy should be able to influence the structural determinants through which reproduce poverty and inequality, maldistribution of educat...

  9. The Public Collaboration Lab—Infrastructuring Redundancy with Communities-in-Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Thorpe

    Full Text Available In this article we share an example of challenge-driven learning in design education and consider the contribution of such approaches to the weaving of communities-in-place. We describe the research and practice of the Public Collaboration Lab (PCL, a prototype public social innovation lab developed and tested via a collaborative action research partnership between a London borough council and an art and design university. We make the case that this collaboration is an effective means of bringing capacity in design to public service innovation, granting the redundancy of resources necessary for the experimentation, reflection, and learning that leads to innovation—particularly at a time of financial austerity. We summarize three collaborative design experiments delivered by local government officers working with student designers and residents supported by design researchers and tutors. We identify particular qualities of participatory and collaborative design that foster the construction of meaningful connections among participants in the design process—connections that have the potential to catalyze or strengthen the relationships, experiences, and understandings that contribute to enrich communities-in-place, and infrastructure community resilience in the process. Keywords: Participatory design, Public social innovation, Redundancy, Infrastructuring, Local government

  10. Regional infrastructure and firm investment. Theory and empirical evidence for Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Francesco; Iona, Alfonsina; Leonida, Leone

    2009-01-01

    We model the channels through which public expenditure on infrastructure influences firm value and shapes its investment decisions via both adjustment costs and marginal profitability of capital. We test these hypotheses by using a large panel of Italian firms. Empirical results show that infrastructure interacts with revenues and costs in shaping firm's profitability of capital and influences its adjustment costs. Finally we find that infrastructure expenditure contributes to reduce the econ...

  11. 75 FR 66773 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities... 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities NOFA. OMB Control Number: 2577-0268...) enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) minimize the burden...

  12. Assessment of online public opinions on large infrastructure projects: A case study of the Three Gorges Project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Qiang, Maoshan; Lin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion becomes increasingly salient in the ex post evaluation stage of large infrastructure projects which have significant impacts to the environment and the society. However, traditional survey methods are inefficient in collection and assessment of the public opinion due to its large quantity and diversity. Recently, Social media platforms provide a rich data source for monitoring and assessing the public opinion on controversial infrastructure projects. This paper proposes an assessment framework to transform unstructured online public opinions on large infrastructure projects into sentimental and topical indicators for enhancing practices of ex post evaluation and public participation. The framework uses web crawlers to collect online comments related to a large infrastructure project and employs two natural language processing technologies, including sentiment analysis and topic modeling, with spatio-temporal analysis, to transform these comments into indicators for assessing online public opinion on the project. Based on the framework, we investigate the online public opinion of the Three Gorges Project on China's largest microblogging site, namely, Weibo. Assessment results present spatial-temporal distributions of post intensity and sentiment polarity, reveals major topics with different sentiments and summarizes managerial implications, for ex post evaluation of the world's largest hydropower project. The proposed assessment framework is expected to be widely applied as a methodological strategy to assess public opinion in the ex post evaluation stage of large infrastructure projects. - Highlights: • We developed a framework to assess online public opinion on large infrastructure projects with environmental impacts. • Indicators were built to assess post intensity, sentiment polarity and major topics of the public opinion. • We took the Three Gorges Project (TGP) as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness proposed framework.

  13. Assessment of online public opinions on large infrastructure projects: A case study of the Three Gorges Project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hanchen, E-mail: jhc13@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Qiang, Maoshan, E-mail: qiangms@tsinghua.edu.cn; Lin, Peng, E-mail: celinpe@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Public opinion becomes increasingly salient in the ex post evaluation stage of large infrastructure projects which have significant impacts to the environment and the society. However, traditional survey methods are inefficient in collection and assessment of the public opinion due to its large quantity and diversity. Recently, Social media platforms provide a rich data source for monitoring and assessing the public opinion on controversial infrastructure projects. This paper proposes an assessment framework to transform unstructured online public opinions on large infrastructure projects into sentimental and topical indicators for enhancing practices of ex post evaluation and public participation. The framework uses web crawlers to collect online comments related to a large infrastructure project and employs two natural language processing technologies, including sentiment analysis and topic modeling, with spatio-temporal analysis, to transform these comments into indicators for assessing online public opinion on the project. Based on the framework, we investigate the online public opinion of the Three Gorges Project on China's largest microblogging site, namely, Weibo. Assessment results present spatial-temporal distributions of post intensity and sentiment polarity, reveals major topics with different sentiments and summarizes managerial implications, for ex post evaluation of the world's largest hydropower project. The proposed assessment framework is expected to be widely applied as a methodological strategy to assess public opinion in the ex post evaluation stage of large infrastructure projects. - Highlights: • We developed a framework to assess online public opinion on large infrastructure projects with environmental impacts. • Indicators were built to assess post intensity, sentiment polarity and major topics of the public opinion. • We took the Three Gorges Project (TGP) as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness proposed framework.

  14. 76 FR 52363 - Tortoise Power and Energy Infrastructure Fund, Inc. and Tortoise Capital Advisors, L.L.C.; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... or terminate the Distribution Policy at any time without prior notice to Fund stockholders; and iv... permit a registered closed-end investment company to make periodic distributions of long-term capital... is a closed-end management investment company registered under the Act and organized [[Page 52364...

  15. Design of an innovative paediatric capitation payment approach for public sector dentistry: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conquest, Jennifer; Jacobi, Michael; Skinner, John; Tennant, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to trial the methodology and administration processes of a public paediatric capitation programme provided in the period 1 July 2011 to 31 December 2011 through a Bachelor of Oral Health programme in rural New South Wales (NSW), Australia, where access to public dental services is limited. The principal structure of the programme was the development of three diagnostic pathways: active caries and pain (Pathway A); active caries and no pain (Pathway B); and no active caries and no pain (Pathway C). In 2011, de-identified treatment data for NSW public dental services' patients under 18 years of age were analysed to identify the top 10 dental treatment items. These items were clustered according to the mean decayed and/or filled surface of patients under 18 years of age who had decayed, filled or missing teeth. Each treatment item was allocated 60% of the 2011 Australian Government Department of Veteran Affairs Schedule of Fees. The programme was trialled in Charles Sturt University dental facility in Wagga Wagga, NSW. The programme targeted patients in the following age groups: 0-5 years; 6-11 years; and 12-17 years. The 6-month trial provided 361 patients with a capitation pathway, at a total cost of $47,567.90, averaging $131.76 per capitation pathway. The total number of items provided (n=2,070) equated to an average of 5.7 items per capitation diagnostic pathway. This model offered an early entry point for paediatric patients to access dental care that addressed their needs, whilst being flexible enough to be fiscally attractive. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  17. Measuring the Benefits of Public Chargers and Improving Infrastructure Deployments Using Advanced Simulation Tools: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Neubauer. Jeremy; Burton, Evan

    2015-02-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V -- the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios. Discussion focuses on the estimated number of Level 2 stations necessary to substantially increase vehicle utility and how stations can be strategically sited to maximize their potential benefit to prospective electric vehicle owners.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System for America: A Case in Public Infrastructure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, industry stakeholders, and academia, have joined forces to pursue the NASA National General Aviation Roadmap leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This strategic undertaking has a 25-year goal to bring next-generation technologies and improve travel between remote communities and transportation centers in urban areas by utilizing the nation's 5,400 public-use general aviation airports. To facilitate this initiative, a comprehensive upgrade of public infrastructure must be planned, coordinated, and implemented within the framework of the national air transportation system. The Nebraska NASA EPSCoR Program has proposed to deliver research support in key public infrastructure areas in coordination with the General Aviation Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center. Ultimately, SATS may permit tripling aviation system throughput capacity by tapping the underutilized general aviation facilities to achieve the national goal of doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways for the nation's suburban, rural, and remote communities.

  19. Private–public partnerships: A mechanism for freight transport infrastructure delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Ittmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors. Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa. Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa. Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable. Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.

  20. Spatial data infrastructures at work analysing the spatial enablement of public sector processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dessers, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    In 'Spatial Data Infrastructures at Work', Ezra Dessers introduces spatial enablement as a key concept to describe the realisation of SDI objectives in the context of individual public sector processes. Drawing on four years of research, Dessers argues that it has become essential, even unavoidable, to manage and (re)design inter-organisational process chains in order to further advance the role of SDIs as an enabling platform for a spatially enabled society. Detailed case studies illustrate that the process he describes is the setting in which one can see the SDI at work.

  1. Infrastructure Development: Public Private Partnership Path for Developing Rural Telecommunications in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idongesit William Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper

  2. SOA-based RFID public services infrastructure: architecture and its core services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Junfang; Li Ran; Luo Jin; Liu Yu

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) has prominent advantages compared with other auto-identification technologies. Combining RFID with network technology, physical object tracking and information sharing can possibly be carried out in an innovative way. Regarding open-loop RFID applications, RFID public services infrastructure (PSI) is presented, PSI architecture is designed, and service modules are implemented, and a demonstrative application system, blood management and traceability system, is studied to verify PSI. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed architecture and the usability of PSI framework software.

  3. Towards an affordable public health estate: a review of the 2008 health infrastructure barometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available namely, context and need for health care infrastructure; budget allocations to health infrastructure; health infrastructure delivery, constraints and enabling mechanisms; and lastly, consolidation and recommendations of the future....

  4. Historical variation in the capital costs of natural gas, carbon dioxide and hydrogen pipelines and implications for future infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, K.; Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Zwaan, van der B.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of large pipeline infrastructures for CH4, CO2and H2transportation usually constitutes a major and time-consuming undertaking, because of safety and environmental issues, legal and (geo)political siting arguments, technically un-trivial installation processes, and/or high investment

  5. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  6. Virtual-optical information security system based on public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong; Niu, Hanben

    2005-01-01

    A virtual-optical based encryption model with the aid of public key infrastructure (PKI) is presented in this paper. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption method based on virtual-optics scheme (VOS) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). The whole information security model is run under the framework of international standard ITU-T X.509 PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOS security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network. Numerical experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. The security of proposed model is briefly analyzed by examining some possible attacks from the viewpoint of a cryptanalysis.

  7. Information security system based on virtual-optics imaging methodology and public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong

    In this paper, we present a virtual-optical based information security system model with the aid of public-key-infrastructure (PKI) techniques. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption algorithm based on virtual-optics imaging methodology (VOIM) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). For an asymmetric system, given an encryption key, it is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key and vice versa. The whole information security model is run under the framework of PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOIM security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network.

  8. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, B.; Kaemmerer, M.; Klos, G.; Mildenberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law

  9. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: schuetze@medizin-informatik.org; Kaemmerer, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Klos, G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Mildenberger, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law.

  10. 76 FR 54770 - Public Meeting: Notification by Capital One Financial Corporation, McLean, VA, To Acquire ING...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Public Meeting: Notification by Capital One Financial Corporation, McLean, VA, To Acquire ING Bank, FSB, Wilmington, DE, and Indirectly To Acquire Shares of Sharebuilder... Reserve System. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: Three public meetings will be held regarding...

  11. 77 FR 33760 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. DATES: Comments Due... numerous PHAs that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Number of... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief...

  12. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  13. Public financial institutions and the low carbon transition: five case studies on low-carbon infrastructure and project investment. Environment working paper No. 72:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian; Hubert, Romain; Marchal, Virginie; Youngman, Robert; Rus, Katerina; Baker, Jade; Kynaston, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Public financial institutions (PFIs) are well-positioned to act as a key leverage point for governments' efforts to mobilise private investment in low-carbon projects and infrastructure. The study identifies the tools, instruments and approaches used by five PFIs to directly support and scale-up domestic private sector investment in sustainable transport, energy-efficiency and renewable energy in OECD countries. Between 2010-2012, these five institutions - Group Caisse des Depots in France, KfW Bankengruppe in Germany, the UK Green Investment Bank, the European Investment Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - have provided over 100 billion euros of equity investment and financing for energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable transport projects. They use both traditional and innovative approaches to link low-carbon projects with finance through enhancing access to capital; facilitating risk reduction and sharing; improving the capacity of market actors; and shaping broader market practices and conditions. (authors)

  14. Conceptual framework for public-private partnerships model for water services infrastructure assets: case studies from municipalities in the Limpopo and Gauteng provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for public-private partnerships PPP) in local government water services infrastructure. Water services infrastructure assets are key to the provision of basic services. Data were collected from various stakeholders, i...

  15. Scaling of an information system in a public healthcare market--infrastructuring from the vendor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Liv Karen; Obstfelder, Aud; Lotherington, Ann Therese

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the making and scaling of information infrastructures, as well as how the conditions for scaling a component may change for the vendor. The first research question is how the making and scaling of a healthcare information infrastructure can be done and by whom. The second question is what scope for manoeuvre there might be for vendors aiming to expand their market. This case study is based on an interpretive approach, whereby data is gathered through participant observation and semi-structured interviews. A case study of the making and scaling of an electronic system for general practitioners ordering laboratory services from hospitals is described as comprising two distinct phases. The first may be characterized as an evolving phase, when development, integration and implementation were achieved in small steps, and the vendor, together with end users, had considerable freedom to create the solution according to the users' needs. The second phase was characterized by a large-scale procurement process over which regional healthcare authorities exercised much more control and the needs of groups other than the end users influenced the design. The making and scaling of healthcare information infrastructures is not simply a process of evolution, in which the end users use and change the technology. It also consists of large steps, during which different actors, including vendors and healthcare authorities, may make substantial contributions. This process requires work, negotiation and strategies. The conditions for the vendor may change dramatically, from considerable freedom and close relationships with users and customers in the small-scale development, to losing control of the product and being required to engage in more formal relations with customers in the wider public healthcare market. Onerous procurement processes may be one of the reasons why large-scale implementation of information projects in healthcare is difficult

  16. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Auditing in Large-scale Public Infrastructure Construction: the case of Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however,

  17. Family Ownership, Firm’s Financial Characteristics and Capital Structure: Evidence from Public Listed Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharaja NADARAJA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is identified as one of focal facet in corporate finance branch of learning. It provides comprehension on how firms choose to finance their operations and expansion. The objective of this study is to explore the determinants of capital structure of Malaysian public listed companies. The period of 2001-2006 was selected in this study, which reflected the post Asian financial crisis period. Firm’s financial characteristics consist of size, growth, profitability, liquidity and ability to service debt. Family ownership which was identified as a unique feature in the Malaysian corporate sector was used to measure the effect of corporate governance in capital structure decision. Using panel data approach, this study infers that the role of ownership structure in the form of family ownership though is not significantly related to capital structure, its inclusion in the empirical equation changes the significance of other variables. Except for growth, all other financial characteristics have significant relationships with capital structure.

  18. Tracking the Evolution of Infrastructure Systems and Mass Responses Using Publically Available Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Guan

    Full Text Available Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis. We show that both networks-the infrastructure network and social network-are able to demonstrate evolutionary dynamics at the system level even in the short-term, characterized by shifting between different phases as predicted in network science. We develop a methodology of tracking the evolutionary dynamics of the two networks by incorporating flows and the microstructure of networks such as motifs. This approach is applied to the human interaction network and two transportation networks (subway and taxi in the context of Hurricane Sandy, using publically available Twitter data and transportation data. Our result shows that significant changes in the system-level structure of networks can be detected on a continuous basis. This result provides a promising channel for real-time tracking in the future.

  19. Work engagement and psychological capital in the Italian public administration: A new resource-based intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Costantini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations need energetic and dedicated employees to enhance the quality of their services and products continuously. According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, it is possible to increase work engagement of employees by improving their personal resources. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an improvement in psychological capital, as a personal resource, might enhance work engagement of employees in the public sector. Motivation for the study: This study was developed to investigate how and to what extent interventions aiming at fostering higher work engagement through the enhancement of psychological capital were certainly effective. Research design, approach and method: To improve psychological capital, a new resource-based intervention programme (FAMILY intervention was developed and applied, in which six dimensions – namely framing, attitudes, meaningfulness, identity, leading self and yoked together – were improved. A semi-experimental research design (pre-test and post-test was used to conduct this study. Participants were 54 employees working in an Italian public health administration. In the pre-test and post-test stages, data were collected by using the psychological capital and work engagement scales. Main findings: Results showed that there is a positive relationship between psychological capital and work engagement in the pre-test and post-test stages, considered separately. In addition, comparing pre-test and post-test results revealed that the intervention programme significantly improved both psychological capital and work engagement. This shows that an improvement in psychological capital is consistent with an increase in work engagement. Conclusion: Together, these findings prove that psychological capital can be considered as a set of personal resources which lead to increased work engagement. Contribution/value-add: This study bridged the gap found in the

  20. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  1. The Public Good and Academic Capitalism: Science and Engineering Doctoral Students and Faculty on the Boundary of Knowledge Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…

  2. Beacon Charter School Needs a School: A Case of Capital Outlay of Charters in a Public District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronowski, Meredith L.

    2017-01-01

    The case study presented below is a representation of a real-world, ongoing situation involving a public school district's capital outlay for charter schools within its boundaries. One particular charter, Beacon Charter School, was promised a permanent building by the public school district that also acts as its authorizer. However, recent events…

  3. 77 FR 14514 - TGP Granada, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Tortoise Capital Resources Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...] TGP Granada, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Tortoise Capital Resources Corp.: Notice of...), and 385.212 (2012), TGP Granada, LLC (Complainant) filed (1) a formal complaint against the Public... waives sections 22.2 and 23.2 of the PNM tariff, to allow TGP to change the POR without losing its...

  4. A comparison of private and public sector intensive care unit infrastructure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, S; Sturm, A W; Moodley, P

    2017-11-27

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to govern the building and registration of private hospitals, and until recently equivalent regulations were not available for public hospitals. To assess and compare the compliance of ICUs in the private and public sectors with the R158 regulations. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the infrastructure of 25 private sector and 6 public sector ICUs in eThekwini Health District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We used the R158 checklist, which was developed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health Private Licensing Unit and Infection Prevention and Control Unit. The aspects covered in the R158 checklist were categorised into the design, general safety and patient services of the ICUs. Most of the ICUs in both sectors met the general safety requirements. There were varying levels of compliance with the design criteria. Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had clinical hand-wash basins in the nurse stations and dirty utility rooms. The majority of the ICUs had the required number of oxygen and electric outlets at the bedside. None of the public ICUs met the light intensity requirement over the bed area. Adequate spacing in ICUs is an issue in many cases. Interventions need to be put in place to ensure that ICUs meet the relevant design standards. There is an urgent need to revise the R158 regulations to reflect current best practices, particularly

  5. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-09-01

    To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.

  6. Transition to an aging Japan: public pension, savings, and capital taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, R

    1998-09-01

    This study examined options for compensating for the shortages of money for public pensions due to population aging in Japan: increases in pension contributions, consumption pension taxes, interest income pension taxes, and inheritance pension taxes. The analysis relied on simulation in an expanded life cycle growth model. Data were obtained from 1992 estimations of population by the Institute of Population Problems of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study is unique in its use of real population data for the simulations and in its use of transition states. The analysis begins with a description of the altered Overlapping Generations Model by Auerback and Kotlikoff (1983). The model accounts for the inaccuracy of lifetime and liquidity constraints and ordinary budget constraints and reproduces the consumption-savings profiles of older people and incorporates wage income taxation and other forms of taxation. Income includes wage and interest income. The analysis includes a description of the method of simulation, assumptions, and evaluation of the effects of population aging. It is assumed that narrower government sector spending on general expenditures per worker will increase by 1% every year. It is concluded that national saving rates will probably decrease due to population aging. The lowest levels of capital stock and savings will result from higher pension contributions. The highest level of capital stock will result from higher consumption pension taxes during 1990-2015. Preferred policies should focus on increasing interest income rates.

  7. Intangible Capital: Four years of growth as an open-access scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pep Simo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue opens the fourth volume of the Intangible Capital journal, which makes its way towards the fifth year of publication. As usually, we start this volume by evaluating the previous one and tracing new directions. Among the main contributions during the year 2007, we consider important to highlight the following aspects: the renewal of the scientific indexation agreements, the platform change to OJS, the appointment of a new editor, new members included in the editorial board, the board of reviewers, the change towards a bilingual model, the new financing obtained and, the last but not the least, the work undertaken together with many scientific editors of open access Spanish journals for obtaining the positive evaluation of the CNEAI (National Commission for the Evaluation of the Research Activity and thus, being a proof of scientific excellence.

  8. Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Léonce Ndikumana; James K. Boyce

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan African countries, including 24 countries classified as severely indebted low-income countries, for the period 1970-1996. The econometric analysis reveals that external borrowing is positively and significantly related to capital flight, suggesting that to a large extent capital flight is debt-fueled. We estimate that for every dollar of external borrowing in the region, roughly 80 cents flowed back as capital flight in the...

  9. Financial effect of quality management system on intellectual capital : an analysis application on firms that quoted to construction and public works sector in Istanbul stock exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Osman; Gumus, Fatih Burak

    2015-01-01

    Today in the finance literature, structural capital is one of the three elements of intellectual capital and the Quality Management System is defined in the structural capital. In this study the impact levels of Quality Management System on the intellectual capital of the companies are analyzed. In this context, 10 companies which are quoted as date 09.14.2014 in the Istanbul Stock Exchange “construction & public works” sector are analyzed. As a result, the inference that investors of the com...

  10. Public Private Partnerships: A possible alternative for delivery of infrastructure projects in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Bwanali; Pantaleo Rwelamila

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that Africa needs $93 billion annually until 2020 in order to bridge its infrastructure deficit. It is through significant investment in infrastructure development that economic growth and poverty alleviation can be enhanced. However central to all construction projects is an effective and sustainable procurement system. There is a notable shift by some African governments to turn to the private sector to design, build, finance and operate infrastructure facilities previously ...

  11. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE HEATING SYSTEM FOR PUBLIC BUILDINGS INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF DNURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper analyses the possibility and terms of increasing the efficiency of heating and ventilation systems of public buildings at the present stage of development and the specific climatic conditions of Ukraine. The main purpose is to develop specific measures for public buildings, which will lead to a significant reduction in energy costs for heating and air conditioning system. The example is similar system of DNURT compact campus, which is heated with its own autonomous boiler that uses natural gas. Methodology. The statistical heat loss analysis for the last 5 years allows defining the types and calculating the heat loss values for specific conditions. These losses are compared with those in the world practice and based on the comparison and analysis of the current system there are offered the ways to reduce the heat loss values through the use of various technical and organizational methods.The paper also proposes involvement for this purpose of secondary and alternative energy sources. The secondary energy resources include the heat that is emitted by people and that coming out with the air during ventilation of buildings. The renewable sources include solar and geothermal energy. To enhance the heat transfer medium temperature capacity it is proposed to use the heat pumps. Findings. The maximum possible use of the proposed measures and implementation of rational schematic and engineering solutions for heat and hot water supply systems cam reduce the energy loss for heating and hot water by 30-35%. Originality. The paper for the first time proposed the use of new integrated approaches to maintain the desired heat balance in the winter period, as well as the new schematic solutions for heating and ventilation systems, both in winter and in summer, based on the use of heat pumps and secondary energy resources. Practical value. The introduction of the proposed schematic solutions and approaches demand relatively small capital

  12. Theory for the Public Good? Social Capital Theory in Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Overcamp-Martini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available As a concept, social capital is both relatively recent and highly controversial. This analysis overviews the history of social capital theory and the three main theoretical frameworks related to the concept. The components of social capital are discussed, as well as the controversy over its conceptualization. A review of recent studies is provided, particularly in the relationship between social capital and mental health. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the heuristic usefulness of social capital theory in the human behavior and social environment sequence in social work education, opening discourse in civic engagement and participation, collectivity, and the value of social networking.

  13. Trust Management for Public Key Infrastructures: Implementing the X.509 Trust Broker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Samer Wazan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI is considered one of the most important techniques used to propagate trust in authentication over the Internet. This technology is based on a trust model defined by the original X.509 (1988 standard and is composed of three entities: the certification authority (CA, the certificate holder (or subject, and the Relying Party (RP. The CA plays the role of a trusted third party between the certificate holder and the RP. In many use cases, this trust model has worked successfully. However, we argue that the application of this model on the Internet implies that web users need to depend on almost anyone in the world in order to use PKI technology. Thus, we believe that the current TLS system is not fit for purpose and must be revisited as a whole. In response, the latest draft edition of X.509 has proposed a new trust model by adding new entity called the Trust Broker (TB. In this paper, we present an implementation approach that a Trust Broker could follow in order to give RPs trust information about a CA by assessing the quality of its issued certificates. This is related to the quality of the CA’s policies and procedures and its commitment to them. Finally, we present our Trust Broker implementation that demonstrates how RPs can make informed decisions about certificate holders in the context of the global web, without requiring large processing resources themselves.

  14. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  15. A Survey of Public Key Infrastructure-Based Security for Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ramadan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication security techniques are employed to guard the communication between the network entities. Mobile communication cellular systems have become one of the most important communication systems in recent times and are used by millions of people around the world. Since the 1990s, considerable efforts have been taken to improve both the communication and security features of the mobile communications systems. However, these improvements divide the mobile communications field into different generations according to the communication and security techniques such as A3, A5 and A8 algorithms for 2G-GSM cellular system, 3G-authentication and key agreement (AKA, evolved packet system-authentication and key agreement (EPS-AKA, and long term evolution-authentication and key agreement (LTE-AKA algorithms for 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP systems. Furthermore, these generations have many vulnerabilities, and huge security work is involved to solve such problems. Some of them are in the field of the public key cryptography (PKC which requires a high computational cost and more network flexibility to be achieved. As such, the public key infrastructure (PKI is more compatible with the modern generations due to the superior communications features. This paper surveys the latest proposed works on the security of GSM, CDMA, and LTE cellular systems using PKI. Firstly, we present the security issues for each generation of mobile communication systems, then we study and analyze the latest proposed schemes and give some comparisons. Finally, we introduce some new directions for the future scope. This paper classifies the mobile communication security schemes according to the techniques used for each cellular system and covers some of the PKI-based security techniques such as authentication, key agreement, and privacy preserving.

  16. A Distributed Public Key Infrastructure Based on Threshold Cryptography for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a security extension for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture is presented. We regard a public key infrastructure which is integrated into the mapping infrastructure of the locator/identifier-split addressing scheme. The security approach is based on Threshold Cryptography which enables a sharing of keys among the mapping servers. Hence, a more trustworthy and fair approach for a Next Generation Internet Architecture as compared to the state of the art approach is fostered. Additionally, we give an evaluation based on IETF AAA recommendations for security-related systems.

  17. Trans-Regional Logistics in Carinthia: Perspectives and Vision on the Transport Infrastructure Development on the Business and Public Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plasch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional logistics development plans have become a key element for an effective – regional economy in Austria. Efforts to develop the region of Carinthia – which represents a substantial transport hub on the Baltic–Adriatic Axis – depend on targeted infrastructure investments combined with well-utilized and accessible modes of transport. As decisions on transport mode choice are made within companies, their involvement in planning processes is crucial. Therefore a more consistent approach to Carinthia’s logistics infrastructure developments is required. The view of regional businesses is considered a significant basis for further public and managerial decision making with regard to the importance of future logistics developments.

  18. Data analysis on the public charge infrastructure in the city of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Hoed, R.; Helmus, J. R.; De Vries, R.; Bardok, D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years electric mobility has gained a great deal of attention, leading to electric vehicles on the market and development of necessary charging infrastructure. Charging infrastructure is mostly enabled through subsidies by local or national governments to overcome the chicken and egg

  19. Public awareness of and support for infrastructure changes designed to increase walking and biking in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Simon, Paul A; Jackson, Richard J; Kuo, Tony

    2015-03-01

    Policies to promote active transportation are emerging as a best practice to increase physical activity, yet relatively little is known about public opinion on utilizing transportation funds for such investments. This study sought to assess public awareness of and support for investments in walking and biking infrastructure in Los Angeles County. In the fall of 2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted a telephone survey with a random sample of registered voters in the region. The survey asked respondents to report on the presence and importance of walking and biking infrastructure in their community, travel behaviors and preferences, and demographics. One thousand and five interviews were completed (response rate 20%, cooperation rate 54%). The majority of participants reported walking, biking, and bus/rail transportation investments as being important. In addition, participants reported a high level of support for redirecting transportation funds to active transportation investment - the population average was 3.28 (between 'strongly' and 'somewhat' support) on a 4 point Likert scale. Voters see active transportation infrastructure as being very important and support redirecting funding to improve the infrastructure. These findings can inform policy-decisions and planning efforts in the jurisdiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2009-02-27

    Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services - interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India--Gujarat and Tamil Nadu--have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

  1. Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhivanan Purnima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services – interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India – Gujarat and Tamil Nadu – have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

  2. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  3. RETRACTED: The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Young Jun, MPH, RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.The Editor-in-Chief and ANR editorial board have decided to retract this article because the scientific integrity of the content cannot be guaranteed. The article shows evidence of redundant publication and falsification of instruments.This article was a duplicate of a paper that had already been published in Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society Vol 29, No. 3, May 2017. doi 10.7465/jkdi.2017.28.3.585 The identical data collection period, study sample, variables, and instruments between these two papers show strong evidence of plagiarism. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited.This article is published based on a master’s thesis (Kim YE. The effects of the transformational leadership of managers perceived by public health nurses and their social capital on empowerment [master’s thesis]. Dague (Korea: Kyungpook National University; 2016. p. 1-57. and the author of this dissertation is deleted. Inappropriate use of master’s thesis without appropriate disclosure and/or citation was made.The instruments [Multifactor leadership questionnaire (Kim DW. The relationship between transformational leadership and quality of nurses' care Service with nurses' organization citizenship behavior as a moderator. Health Soc Welf Rev. 2011;31(2:206e36. Korean, social capital (Han JW, Woo HY, Ju ES, Lim SH, Han SS. Effects of nurses' social capital on turnover intention: focused on the mediating effects organizational commitment and organizational cynicism. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2013;43(4:517e25. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2013.43.4.517. Korean, and Organizational empowerment (Oh EH, Chung BY. The effect of

  4. Islamic Public Infrastructure Financing: An Analysis of Alternative Financing Instruments with Application in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Saiful

    2004-01-01

    .... This financing mixture, however, may lead to fiscal constraints when debt service occurs. If the investment funds are unproductive, then the infrastructure project may not generate sufficient revenue to offset debt service obligations...

  5. Sustentabilidade empresarial e o impacto no custo de capital próprio das empresas de capital aberto Sustainable development and consequences for equity costs in public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Simone Aguiar da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o impacto no custo de capital próprio para as empresas brasileiras de capital aberto face à adoção dos princípios de sustentabilidade. O conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável tem se aprimorado num processo contínuo de reavaliação da relação existente entre: crescimento econômico, a sociedade civil e o meio ambiente. O triple-bottom-line das dimensões econômica, ambiental e social da sustentabilidade tem emergido como um modelo de interpretação pelas empresas, embora cada uma dessas dimensões represente um grande desafio. O segmento corporativo vem atendendo às demandas cada vez maiores da sociedade frente a essas questões, ficando a dúvida quanto à legitimidade dessas ações e o questionamento relativo ao papel das empresas na economia e na sociedade. Para avaliar o impacto no custo de capital próprio, foi implementado um modelo de decomposição do beta em medidas contábeis de risco, incluindo uma variável referente à sustentabilidade. O resultado confirma a expectativa de que ao aderir aos padrões de sustentabilidade a empresa reduz o risco corporativo medido pelo risco sistemático, determinando a redução do custo de capital e aumento do valor econômico.This article provides an analysis of equity costs in Brazilian public companies regarding the adoption of sustainability principles. The concept of sustainable development has evolved considering the relation among economic growth, the society and the environment. The triple-bottom-line of economic, environmental, and social dimensions has emerged as an interpretation model by companies, although each of these dimensions may present a challenge. The corporate sector has faced an increasing demand from society regarding these sustainability concepts, though the actions and the role to be played by companies within this context are still being questioned. Equity costs were analyzed by a multivariate regression of beta on accounting measures

  6. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  7. Making Better Re/Insurance Underwriting and Capital Management Decisions with Public-Private-Academic Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, G.; Gunasekera, R.; Werner, A.; Galy, H.

    2012-04-01

    Similar to 2001, 2004, and 2005, 2011 was another year of unexpected international catastrophe events, in which insured losses were more than twice the expected long-term annual average catastrophe losses of USD 30 to 40bn. Key catastrophe events that significantly contributed these losses included the Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, the Jan. 2011 floods in Queensland, the October 2011 floods in Thailand, the Mw 6.1 Christchurch earthquake and Convective system (Tornado) in United States. However, despite considerable progress in catastrophe modelling, the advent of global catastrophe models, increasing risk model coverage and skill in the detailed modelling, the above mentioned events were not satisfactorily modelled by the current mainstream Re/Insurance catastrophe models. This presentation therefore address problems in models and incomplete understanding identified from recent catastrophic events by considering: i) the current modelling environment, and ii) how the current processes could be improved via: a) the understanding of risk within science networks such as the Willis Research Network, and b) the integration of risk model results from available insurance catastrophe models and tools. This presentation aims to highlight the needed improvements in decision making and market practices, thereby advancing the current management of risk in the Re/Insurance industry. This also increases the need for better integration of Public-Private-Academic partnerships and tools to provide better estimates of not only financial loss but also humanitarian and infrastructural losses as well.

  8. Exogenous factors and market value: an appraisal model of capital gains in urban redevelopment programs in public/ private partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calabrò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article aims to illustrate an experimental model applicable, in the planning stage, to an appraisal of the capital gains in a residential requalification in public/ private partnership. The model develops a method using a conventional cost value through a multicriteria model which evaluates the influence of qualitative exogenous variables to the market value of the property. The aim is to develop a synthetic procedure, transparent, shared and easy to use by the public authorities, in determining the total benefits associated with urban transformations, in order to achieve a fair sharing of profits between public and private entities.

  9. Electronic signature for medical documents--integration and evaluation of a public key infrastructure in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, R; van der Haak, M; Hartmann, M; Haux, R; Schmücker, P

    2002-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine the user-oriented and legal requirements for a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for electronic signatures for medical documents, and to translate these requirements into a general model for a signature system. A prototype of this model was then implemented and evaluated in clinical routine use. Analyses of documents, processes, interviews, observations, and of the available literature supplied the foundations for the development of the signature system model. Eight participants of the Department of Dermatology of the Heidelberg University Medical Center evaluated the implemented prototype from December 2000 to January 2001, during the course of an intervention study. By means of questionnaires, interviews, observations and database analyses, the usefulness and user acceptance of the electronic signature and its integration into electronic discharge letters were established. Since the major part of medical documents generated in a hospital are signature-relevant, they will require electronic signatures in the future. A PKI must meet the multitude of responsibilities and security needs required in a hospital. Also, the signature functionality must be integrated directly into the workflow surrounding document creation. A developed signature model, fulfilling user-oriented and legal requirements, was implemented using hard and software components that conform to the German Signature Law. It was integrated into the existing hospital information system of the Heidelberg University Medical Center. At the end of the intervention study, the average acceptance scores achieved were mean = 3.90; SD = 0.42 on a scale of 1 (very negative attitude) to 5 (very positive attitude) for the electronic signature procedure. Acceptance of the integration into computer-supported discharge letter writing reached mean = 3.91; SD = 0.47. On average, the discharge letters were completed 7.18 days earlier. The electronic signature is indispensable for the

  10. Evaluating the Intellectual Capital of Technology Transfer and Learning Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grimaldi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the rise of the knowledge‐based economy, many worldwide companies have begun to deal with different frameworks to manage and evaluate the performance of intellectual capital, especially in the area of knowledge management services. This paper presents a novel conceptual model aiming to support management in evaluating and prioritizing their intellectual capital competitive core competences. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, the model analyses interdependences among intellectual capital elements and determines the impacts of core competences on organizational performance. To validate the model, it is empirically applied in the Technology Transfer Unit of the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and economic development.

  11. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form...... of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices...

  12. PERCEPTION OF CAPITAL, PROFIT AND DIVIDENDS AFFECT THE STOCK PURCHASE INTENTION IN INDONESIA PUBLIC COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Muda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence perception of Capital Gains and Dividends on Stock Purchase Intention in Indonesian companies. Variables used in this research are the capital, profit and dividends (independent variables and Stock Purchase Intention (dependent variable and to show their relationship, it was used multiple linear regression. This research included Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and there were taken into account a number of 38 societies Data of this research are secondary data, obtained from the financial statements of the investigated companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that simultaneous independent variables have a significant influence on the capital structure, while partially effect on the Capital Shares Purchase Intentions. It was also shown that Profit and Dividends do not affect the Stock Purchase Intention.

  13. Negotiating the 'trading zone'. Creating a shared information infrastructure in the Dutch public safety sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Wagenaar, F.P.; Wolbers, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Our main concern in this article is whether nation-wide information technology (IT) infrastructures or systems in emergency response and disaster management are the solution to the communication problems the safety sector suffers from. It has been argued that implementing nation-wide IT systems will

  14. Assessing landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in public infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magnussen, Kristin

    Undesirable landscape changes, especially from large infrastructure projects, may give rise to large welfare losses due to degraded landscape experiences. These losses are largely unaccounted for in Nordic countries’ planning processes. There is a need to develop practical methods of including...

  15. Analysis of Public Private Interplay Frameworks in the Development of Rural Telecommunications Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    was the development of PPI models that can facilitate the facilitation of rural Broadband internet infrastructure in rural areas globally and in the specific potential deployment cases - Ghana and Nigeria. This report is relevant to National policy makers, International Donor Agencies, Telecom Network operators...

  16. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Work Motivation as Correlates of Psychological Capital among Public and Private School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazirul Hasnain; Zuby Hasan; Sehal Chorath

    2017-01-01

    Background: The components of Psychological capital as well as Organizational citizenship behavior and Work motivation are so influential for an individual especially for their performance in organizational setting. Aims: The main objectives of the study were: (1) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of public school teachers; (2) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of privat...

  17. Work-place social capital and smoking cessation: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Väänänen, Ari; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-11-01

    To examine whether high social capital at work is associated with an increased likelihood of smoking cessation in baseline smokers. Prospective cohort study. Finland. A total of 4853 employees who reported to be smokers in the baseline survey in 2000-2002 (response rate 68%) and responded to a follow-up survey on smoking status in 2004-2005 (response rate 77%). Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. Control variables included sex, age, socio-economic position, marital status, place of work, heavy drinking, physical activity, body mass index and physician-diagnosed depression. In multi-level logistic regression models adjusted for all the covariates, the odds for being a non-smoker at follow-up were 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.55] times higher for baseline smokers who reported high individual-level social capital than for their counterparts with low social capital. In an analysis stratified by socio-economic position, a significant association between individual-level social capital and smoking cessation was observed in the high socio-economic group [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI)=1.63 (1.01-2.63)], but not in intermediate [(OR=1.10 (0.83-1.47)] or low socio-economic groups [(OR=1.28 (0.86-1.91)]. Work unit-level social capital was not associated with smoking cessation. If the observed associations are causal, these findings suggest that high perceived social capital at work may facilitate smoking cessation among smokers in higher-status jobs.

  18. Playing the triangle: Cosmopolitanism, Cultural Capital and Social Capital as intersecting scholarly discourses about social inclusion and marginalisation in Australian public policy debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jakubowicz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A constant challenge for scholarly research relates to its impact on and integration into public policy. Where the policy issues are ‘wicked’, as are those concerning intercultural relations and social cohesion, social science research often becomes implicated in real-world problem solving which occurs within everyday political manoeuvring. This paper takes three empirical problems, and three conceptual approaches, and explores what happens when they are pressed together. In particular the paper explores how together they can enhance the social value of the concept of ‘social inclusion’. Cosmopolitanism has a myriad of possible definitions, but is perhaps best addressed in anthropological fashion, by trying to capture the space formed by its presumptive antagonists: nationalism, prejudice, localism, parochialism, and ‘rootedness’ (as in ‘rootless cosmopolitan’. Cultural capital, as developed by Bourdieu, concerns a disposition of mind and body that empowers members of those particular groups that have the resource in socially–approved abundance to operate the cultural apparatus of a society and therefore the power system, to their mutual and individual benefit. Social capital, removed of the vestiges of Marxist class analysis that lurk in Bourdieu’s explorations of education and social power, harks back to another sociological forebear. Emile Durkheim, whose vision of modernity as a constantly incipient catastrophe that could only be held off by a reinvigoration of collective consciousness, has influenced through the Talcott Parsons school of social systemics Robert Putnam (and Australian politician and academic Andrew Leigh’s focus on ‘bonding’ and ‘bridging’ social capital. Having examined these concepts the paper applies them sequentially to three cases of state/civil society relations, through the February 2011 People of Australia multiculturalism policy, the place of young Muslims in Australian society, and the

  19. Modelos de Capital Intelectual y sus indicadores en la universidad pública Models of intellectual capital and indicators in the public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. González Millán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la gestión del conocimiento se encuentra inmerso un aspecto de alta relevancia, no solo contable, sino también productivo y competitivo, el cual es denominado hoy día Capital Intelectual (C.I, se identificara con esta abreviatura. Dicho elemento ha traspasado la barrera de lo financiero para convertirse en una herramienta altamente utilizada en el medio empresarial y académico de las organizaciones modernas. El presente documento hace un recuento, mediante un constructo teórico y bibliográfico de las definiciones y modelos más conocidos sobre el tema, por medio de la síntesis, la compilación y la recopilación documental, para establecer algunos indicadores relevantes en la función de la universidad pública colombiana y, de esta forma, plantear un avance en el diseño de indicadores de gestión en la función social de la educación de tercer ciclo o superior, como es llamada en la sociedad.In the context of knowledge management is immersed a highly relevant aspect, not just accounting, but also productive and competitive, which is today called Intellectual Capital (IC. This item has crossed the barrier of finance to become a valuable tool used in business and academic environment of modern organizations. This document recounts, through a theoretical construct and bibliography of the definitions and known models on the subject, through synthesis, compilation and documentary collection, ultimately establishing relevant indicators on the role of public universities Colombian and, thus, by outlining a step in the design of performance indicators in the social role of postgraduate education or higher, as it is called in our society.

  20. Determinants of Working Capital Investment: A Study of Malaysian Public Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista Wasiuzzaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the determinants of the level of investment in net operating working capital by firms in Malaysia. Data from 192 companies spanning a period of 8 years (2000- 2007 are analysed using the OLS regression technique for this purpose. The study finds that in times of economic expansion, younger and smaller firms with less tangible assets, low leverage, high immediate sales growth, high operating cash flows, less volatile revenues and low levels of asymmetric information are likely to have the highest investments inoperating working capital. Board characteristics, namely size and the independence of the board, are not found to have any significant influence on the working capital investment of firms.

  1. A simulation study of the impact of the public-private partnership strategy on the performance of transport infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Pengjun; Ma, Yanqiang; Li, Xuan; Xu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wanlu

    2016-01-01

    The choice of investment strategy has a great impact on the performance of transport infrastructure. Positive projects such as the "Subway plus Property" model in Hong Kong have created sustainable financial profits for the public transport projects. Owing to a series of public debt and other constraints, public-private partnership (PPP) was introduced as an innovative investment model to address this issue and help develop transport infrastructure. Yet, few studies provide a deeper understanding of relationships between PPP strategy and the performance of such transport projects (particularly the whole transport system). This paper defines the research scope as a regional network of freeway. With a popular PPP model, travel demand prediction method, and relevant parameters as input, agents in a simulation framework can simulate the choice of PPP freeway over time. The simulation framework can be used to analyze the relationship between the PPP strategy and performance of the regional freeway network. This study uses the Freeway Network of Yangtze River Delta (FN-YRD) in China as the context. The results demonstrate the value of using simulation models of complex transportation systems to help decision makers choose the right PPP projects. Such a tool is viewed as particularly important given the ongoing transformation of functions of the Chinese transportation sector, including franchise rights of transport projects, and freeway charging mechanism.

  2. Valuing the benefits of creek rehabilitation: building a business case for public investments in urban green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Jones, Roger N; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to increase the livability of its cities, public agencies in Australia are investing in green infrastructure to improve public health, reduce heat island effects and transition toward water sensitive urban design. In this paper, we present a simple and replicable approach to building a business case for green infrastructure. This approach requires much less time and resources compared to other methods for estimating the social and economic returns to society from such investments. It is a pragmatic, reasonably comprehensive approach that includes socio-demographic profile of potential users and catchment analysis to assess the economic value of community benefits of the investment. The approach has been applied to a case study area in the City of Brimbank, a western suburb of Greater Melbourne. We find that subject to a set of assumptions, a reasonable business case can be made. We estimate potential public benefits of avoided health costs of about AU$75,049 per annum and potential private benefits of AU$3.9 million. The project area is one of the most poorly serviced areas in the municipality in terms of quality open spaces and the potential beneficiaries are from relatively low income households with less than average health status and education levels. The values of cultural (recreational benefits, avoided health costs, and increased property values) and regulating (reduction in heat island effect and carbon sequestration) ecosystem services were quantified that can potentially offset annual maintenance costs.

  3. Valuing the Benefits of Creek Rehabilitation: Building a Business Case for Public Investments in Urban Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Jones, Roger N.; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to increase the livability of its cities, public agencies in Australia are investing in green infrastructure to improve public health, reduce heat island effects and transition toward water sensitive urban design. In this paper, we present a simple and replicable approach to building a business case for green infrastructure. This approach requires much less time and resources compared to other methods for estimating the social and economic returns to society from such investments. It is a pragmatic, reasonably comprehensive approach that includes socio-demographic profile of potential users and catchment analysis to assess the economic value of community benefits of the investment. The approach has been applied to a case study area in the City of Brimbank, a western suburb of Greater Melbourne. We find that subject to a set of assumptions, a reasonable business case can be made. We estimate potential public benefits of avoided health costs of about AU75,049 per annum and potential private benefits of AU3.9 million. The project area is one of the most poorly serviced areas in the municipality in terms of quality open spaces and the potential beneficiaries are from relatively low income households with less than average health status and education levels. The values of cultural (recreational benefits, avoided health costs, and increased property values) and regulating (reduction in heat island effect and carbon sequestration) ecosystem services were quantified that can potentially offset annual maintenance costs.

  4. Privatization Financing Alternatives: Blending Private Capital and Public Resources for a Successful Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BT Oakley; JH Holbrook; L Scully; MR Weimar; PK Kearns; R DiPrinzio

    1998-10-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Contract Reform Initiative in 1994 in order to improve the effectiveness and effkiency of managing major projects and programs. The intent of this initiative is to help DOE harness both technical and market forces to reduce the overall cost of accomplishing DOE's program goals. The new approach transfers greater risk to private contractors in order to develop incentives that align contractor performance with DOE's objectives. In some cases, this goal can be achieved through public-private partnerships wherein the govermhent and the contractor share risks associated with a project in a way that optimizes its economics. Generally, this requires that project risks are allocated to the party best equipped to manage and/or underwrite them. While the merits of privatization are well documented, the question of how privatized services should be financed is often debated. Given the cost of private sector equity and debt, it is difficult to ignore the lure of the government's "risk free" cost of capital. However, the source of financing for a project is an integral part of its overall risk allocation, and therefore, participation by the government as a financing source could alter the allocation of risks in the project, diminishing the incentive structure. Since the government's participation in the project's financing often can be a requirement for financial feasibility, the dilemma of structuring a role for the government without undermining the success of the project is a common and difficult challenge faced by policymakers around the world. However, before reverting to a traditional procurement approach where the government enters into a cost-plus risk profile, the government should exhaust all options that keep the private entity at risk for important aspects of the project. Government participation in a project can include a broad range of options and can be applied with precision to bridge a

  5. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  6. [Risk factors associated among anemia in pregnancy women of network public health of a capital of Brazil Northeastern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; De Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women receiving public health care in a capital city in Northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 428 patients obtained on the basis of the estimated prevalence of anemia during pregnancy (50%), a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), an error of 5% and a sample loss of 20%. Pregnant women who lived in the city and were served by the municipal public health network were considered to be eligible for the study. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data and dietary iron intake were obtained, and capillary hemoglobin was determined. Anemia was identified as a hemoglobin level public health system of the city is a moderate public health problem, requiring the planning of effective measures for its control.

  7. Success nonetheless : Making public utilities work in small-scale democracies despite difficult capital conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the study of politics is dedicated to identifying the circumstances under which democracy will flourish. Putnam made a major contribution to this field through his concept of social capital as developed in Making Democracy Work. Putnam found that communities with a high number of

  8. Public Opinion and Capital Punishment: A Close Examination of the Views of Abolitionists and Retentionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Phoebe C.; Ross, Lee

    1983-01-01

    Examined the attitudinal and informational bases of people's (N=500) opinions about the death penalty. Results showed 58.8 percent were proponents of capital punishment, 30.8 percent were opponents, and 10.4 percent were undecided. Respondents were generally ignorant on factual issues. Opponents favored due process guarantees more than did…

  9. 78 FR 76160 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of Five Points for Occupancy Sub... intended to help lessen the impact of decreases in funding in recent appropriations acts. Adding automatic... to adjust their systems and procedures to the new scoring regime. As a result of automatic across-the...

  10. Proposal for a Venture Capital Grant: A Programmatic Approach to Excellence in Illinois Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickrod, G. Alan; And Others

    A new formula proposed for categorically funding local education programs in Illinois can channel more money into programs for excellence than can general purpose grants. The formula, which would provide venture capital to stimulate local initiatives, would depend on district plans for using the money to improve instruction and on distribution of…

  11. Public Private Partnerships, Corporate Welfare or Building the Nation's Scientific Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, C. V.

    1996-03-01

    A debate is taking place in the U.S. concerning the investment of scarce Federal funds in science and technology research. Clouding this discussion is the proliferation of extreme views illustrated in the title of this talk. The impacts of the end of the cold war, the globalization of the economy and the realities of the budget deficit create a situation that cries out for a new social contract between scientists and taxpayers. We need to examine the successes and failures of the last 50 years to form the basis for a set of principles to enable the creation of a new consensus to define the roles of industry, government, universities and national laboratories in the research enterprise. The scientific infrastructure, and by extension, the economic vitality of the U.S., are at risk.

  12. Using tracking infrastructure to support public health programs, policies, and emergency response in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nancy Loder; McKelvey, Wendy; Matte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To describe how the New York City (NYC) Tracking Program has used nationally mandated Secure Portal infrastructure and staff analytical expertise to support programs and inform policy. The NYC Health Department assesses, investigates, and acts on a wide range of environmental concerns to protect the health of New Yorkers. Specific examples of highly effective policies or initiatives that relied on the NYC Tracking Program are described, including restaurant sanitary grade posting, rat indexing, converting boilers to cleaner-burning fuels, reducing exposure to mercury from fish and contaminated products, and responding to Superstorm Sandy. The NYC Tracking Program supports the Health Department in using inspectional, administrative, and health data to guide operations. Tracking has also allowed internal and external partners to use these data to guide policy development.

  13. Life-cycle energy implications of different residential settings: Recognizing buildings, travel, and public infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brice G.; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment can be used to influence travel demand, but very few studies consider the relative energy savings of such policies in context of a complex urban system. This analysis quantifies the day-to-day and embodied energy consumption of four different neighborhoods in Austin, Texas, to examine how built environment variations influence various sources of urban energy consumption. A microsimulation combines models for petroleum use (from driving) and residential and commercial power and natural gas use with rigorously measured building stock and infrastructure materials quantities (to arrive at embodied energy). Results indicate that the more suburban neighborhoods, with mostly detached single-family homes, consume up to 320% more embodied energy, 150% more operational energy, and about 160% more total life-cycle energy (per capita) than a densely developed neighborhood with mostly low-rise-apartments and duplexes. Across all neighborhoods, operational energy use comprised 83 to 92% of total energy use, and transportation sources (including personal vehicles and transit, plus street, parking structure, and sidewalk infrastructure) made up 44 to 47% of the life-cycle energy demands tallied. Energy elasticity calculations across the neighborhoods suggest that increased population density and reduced residential unit size offer greatest life-cycle energy savings per capita, by reducing both operational demands from driving and home energy use, and from less embodied energy from construction. These results provide measurable metrics for comparing different neighborhood styles and develop a framework to anticipate energy-savings from changes in the built environment versus household energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Total energy demands (operational and embodied) of 5 Austin settings were studied here. • Suburban settings consume much more energy than densely developed neighborhoods. • Transportation sources make up 44 to 47% of the total energy

  14. Public libraries, as an infrastructure for a sustainable public sphere: A systematic review of research: A preliminary paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audunson, Ragnar; Svandhild, Aabø,; Blomgren, Roger

    of the major findings are: Research on libraries as public sphere institutions cover a wide range of topics the dominating being freedom of access to information, often related to social inclusion, empowerment and justice. Contributions are often normative and non-empirical, but the proportion of empirically...... based research is increasing. This paper focuses on contributions related to public libraries.......This paper is based on a systematic literature search aiming at identifying research on the role of libraries as institutions underpinning a sustainable public sphere in a digital age. The major research questions are: 1. Is systematic literature search a fruitful method when it comes to a social...

  15. Implementation of DoD Public Key Infrastructure Policy and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Federal agencies, including DoD, are increasingly using the World Wide Web and other Internet-based applications to provide on-line public access to information and services as well as to improve...

  16. Real-Time Change and Damage Detection of Landslides and Other Earth Movements Threatening Public Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Geologic hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, seismic loading, etc. constantly threaten public highway construction and maintenance. Repeat surveys using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, ground-based LiDAR) enable rapid 3D data acquisition to...

  17. The misleading of public participation in environmental assessment - exploring four infrastructure cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Bo; Nielsen, Helle Nedergaard

    2018-01-01

    The article analyses the recent development of public participation in environmental assessment and indicates some unfortunate and unintended results. A number of Danish cases show how the tools involved are employed for a kind of ‘acceptance planning’, instead of actual environmental protection......, and that the legitimacy which public inclusion was supposed to bring to environmental assessment has instead been replaced by considerations of legality, which frees entrepreneurs and authorities from including real environmental considerations in their planning. Thus, the undesirable handling of public participation...... that the article analyses is not only due to the actual difficulties of practising inclusion and the indisputable complexity of the environmental issues but also to a very large extent due to considerations of economic efficiency and an unwillingness among investors – public as well as private – to take account...

  18. Examining the Interrelationship among Critical Success Factors of Public Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.

  19. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Chen, Liangzhe [ORNL; Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Prakash, B. Aditya [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  20. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  1. The collaborative realization of public values and business goals : Governance and infrastructure of public-private information platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Bharosa, N.; Tan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The scale of society's evolving challenges gradually surpasses the capacity of the public sector to address them. Coping with these challenges requires budget-short governments to look for innovative ways to transform and improve their operations and service provisioning models. While in many cases

  2. Freedom and Information. Assessing Publicly Available Data Regarding U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    know or can learn may be advantageous to defenders. If defend- ers are unaware that a terrorist group knows about a particular vulnerability, that...cases, this information is necessarily in the public domain because it provides an important service. For instance, as noted above, ecommerce sites for

  3. Considerations on Optimal Financial Invest ment into Infrastructural Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The enlargement of government's investment into infrastructural construction is both a help medicine curing economic contraction and an effective measure to accumulate long-term economic growth.. However, the investment by finance into infrastructure also has a problem of optimization and reasonable selection. In view of market economic requirements, the policy direction of financial investment into infrastructural industries must be doing something at the expense of some other things. In the process of the adjustment and optimization of economic structure, state financial investment into infrastructural facilities has to first of all solve the problem of delimitating the best fields and selecting trades. As to the infrastructure facilities producing and selling pure public products, the development must be made by financial investment;As to the production fields of subpublic products, finance should ensure reasonable investment; As to the infrastructural facilities of pure privite production, finance should completely, in principle, pull out and let market supply. On this basis, selections should be made on best capital soureces and investment ways. The capital sources should be mainly from tax and regulational income and direct investment may be made. As to the production fields of most subpublic production, the best capital sources are national debt income and indirect investment may be made. In addition, the optimization of financial investment into infrastructural facilities must reform the managerial system of infrastructural facilities and raise investment efficiency. Only by scientifically selecting and arranging the financing ways and managerial system in investment fields,can the maximum economic efficiency and social welfare results be realized in carrying out financial investment into infrastructural facilities.

  4. Exploring the Role of Human Capital Management on Organizational Success: Evidence from Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odunayo Paul SALAU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher education in Nigeria has been considered as not only an investment in human capital, but also a pre-requisite for economic development. Consequent upon the expansion of higher education in Nigeria, quite a number of institutions have suffered decay due to poor work environments, inadequate educational facilities and poor funding which have resulted into unabated brain drain, strike and turnover. However, the need to develop talents is no longer hidden, what remains controversial is knowing the best method for managing human capacity especially in Nigerian State owned universities. Thus, this study examined the relationship between human capital management and organizational success using three State owned universities in Southwest, Nigeria. These universities (Ekiti State University (EKSU, Lagos State University (LASU, Tai Solarin University of Education (TASUED were chosen for their uniqueness. Survey research design was adopted with 398 respondents (staff. Self-administered questionnaire was adopted and analyzed with the adoption of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. However, the results indicated that adequate leadership practices; learning capacity; workforce optimization; knowledge accessibility; workplace culture and; mentorship are significant predictors of organizational success in higher education.

  5. Trust and its ramification for the DoD public key infrastructure (PKI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Carl M.

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Researchers have used a wide variety of trust definitions, leading to a plethora of meanings of the concept. But what does the word trust' mean? While most scholars provide their own definition of trust, they are dissatisfied regarding their own lack of consensus about what trust is. Trust is a cognitive function and modeling trust is an attempt to emulate the way a human assesses trust. Models of trust have been developed in an attemp...

  6. Social capital practices as adaptive drivers for local adjustment of new public management in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    local adjustments of the reform initiatives, while also revealing some ambiguities. The results demonstrate that some reform initiatives can lead to new collaborative leadership and management practices in schools that solve the central school leadership and management tasks of coordination and planning....... This indicates that collaborative leadership and management practices may emerge from NPM reforms, and that such practices can prevent negative outcomes of such reforms....... on empirical case studies from two Danish municipal schools and the concept of organisational social capital, we investigate how two reform initiatives – ‘student plan-based school–home collaboration’ and ‘teamwork’ – were locally adjusted into collaborative practices. The analysis demonstrates surprising...

  7. Investigation of Public Charging Infrastructure : Case study Gränby sportfält

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Emma; Hedström, Andreas; Lindgren, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The municipal company Sportfastigheter AB is currently renovating and developing Gränby sportfält, a sports field in Uppsala. Adjacent to the sports field, a parking lot for 700 vehicles is located, where Sportfastigheter AB is preparing to install charging points for electric vehicles (EVs) at some of the places. This bachelor thesis aims to investigate how a public charging solution should be modeled, with the parking lot at Gränby sportfält as a case study. The investigation involves estim...

  8. The challenges of commercializing second-generation transgenic crop traits necessitate the development of international public sector research infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J; Bi, Yong-Mei; Coneva, Viktoriya; Han, Mei; Good, Allen

    2014-10-01

    It has been 30 years since the first transformation of a gene into a plant species, and since that time a number of biotechnology products have been developed, with the most important being insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The development of second-generation products, including nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to important environmental stressors such as drought, has, up to this time, been less successful. This is in part due to the inherent complexities of these traits and in part due to limitations in research infrastructure necessary for public sector researchers to test their best ideas. Here we discuss lessons from previous work in the generation of the first-generation traits, as well as work from our labs and others on identifying genes for nitrogen use efficiency. We then describe some of the issues that have impeded rapid progress in this area. Finally, we propose the type of public sector organization that we feel is necessary to make advances in important second-generation traits such as nitrogen use efficiency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Contribution of the Publicly Funded R&D Capital to Productivity Growth and an application to the Greek food and beverages industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mamatzakis, E

    2009-01-01

    This paper follows the dual cost function methodology and develops a theoretical specification that assesses the contribution of public R&D capital to the productivity growth. The empirical application focuses on Greek food and beverages industry. For this purpose it employs a micro-aggregated annual data set over the period 1976-2002. The regression analysis shows that publicly funded R&D capital is a productive input as 8.7 percent and 7.3 percent of the total factor productivity growth in...

  10. Public Mass Modern Education and Inter-Religious Human Capital Differentials in Twentieth-Century Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Public mass modern education was a major pillar of state-led development in the post-Colonial developing world. I examine the impact of Egypt’s transformation in 1953 of traditional elementary schools (kuttabs), which served the masses, into public modern primary schools on the Christian-Muslim educational and occupational differentials, which were in favor of Christians. The reform allowed kuttabs’ graduates access to higher stages of education, which were confined to modern primary schools’...

  11. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  12. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotti, A.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Alveal, C.

    2006-01-01

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  13. An infrastructure for telecommunications power in a new era in public networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifchin, N. [International Power Strategies (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new era in networking is on the horizon as we enter the 21{sup st} century. It is based on a seamless circuit and packet public network (PN) with the potential to transport and process voice, video, data and Internet traffic at higher speeds and lower costs than today's PSTN. Worldwide divestitures and subsequent deregulation and the dramatic growth of the Internet have given rise to a growing number of competitive carriers and service providers. This has accelerated the deployment of packet networks and inspired government mandates that let competitors co-locate their equipment in incumbents COs and POPs. Customer's perceived the cost of co-location in incumbent's space to be expensive and restricting. This gave rise to a new industry that rents equipment space in buildings refurbished to replicate CO environments termed carrier hotels or telehousing. These events have impacted network power in two ways. It increased the demand for higher capacity CO power plants to support growth in Internet, DSLs and second lines and energized the debate over AC verses DC as the preferred power for telecommunications. Quality of service, which is a looming issue as the PSTN transitions to the PN, can be translated to mean dependable and reliable non-stop power. The trend to outsourcing equipment space needs presents ILECs a timely opportunity to consolidate their huge inventories of COs and POPs into business units that would lease equipment space to incumbents and competitors and convert a cost center into a profit center. (orig.)

  14. Taking Human Capital Seriously: Talented Teachers in Every Classroom, Talented Principals in Every School. Principles and Recommendations for the Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education Project was founded in 2008 with one goal: to improve student achievement dramatically in the 100 largest urban school districts. Unless teaching quality and principal leadership improve significantly, lasting education improvement is impossible. In policy terms, without "strategic management"…

  15. Contemporary forms of international movement of capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Šovran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available International movement of capital is one of the most important forms of international economic cooperation and achievement of strategic goals of enterprises. It leads to international diversification of business activities, strengthening of competitive advantage, changes in economic structures, employment rates and economic stability of participating countries. The present research addresses the contemporary forms of international movement of capital, with an emphasis on the public-private partnerships and concessions. The creation of different forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs in Serbia gained in importance in the early ‘90s of the 20th century. PPP implies joint activities within the framework of which the public and private sector pool resources, especially financial capital and expertise in order to meet the public needs of local, regional or national significance for adequate resource allocation. This type of partnership between the public and private sector has become an effective way towards a more rational use of limited resources and development of business entities from different sectors. The partnership of the public and private sector is particularly important in the construction and maintenance of transportation and other infrastructure facilities. Concessions represent a special form of public-private partnerships.

  16. Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Transactions : April 2012 Public Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    This report provides a summary and overview of the Public Workshop entitled, Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions, presented by USDOT. The workshop took place on April 19-20, 2012 at th...

  17. Once the shovel hits the ground : Evaluating the management of complex implementation processes of public-private partnership infrastructure projects with qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verweij (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Much attention is being paid to the planning of public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects. The subsequent implementation phase – when the contract has been signed and the project ‘starts rolling’ – has received less attention. However, sound agreements

  18. Real estate capitalization of Public Administration Institutions - a chance to stimulate investment and increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Constantin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The divide in the development of the different European space regions, is exemplified by the different ability to attract investments between rural and urban areas. Urban areas usually assure to investors a broad availability of structures and services that rural areas cannot offer. Another limiting factor for rural areas is the difficulty the enterprises which want to localize their structures outside the urban area meet when they try to find information about the quantity and the quality of the available structures. This penalization affects also the unused real estates of the public administration institutions; these real estates could represent for the investors an important opportunity to improve area’s resources, meeting some forms of converging collaboration with the public administration institutions. POLYINVEST project aims at improving conditions for investment in the rural areas, directly tackling the development gap between the regions of the South East Europe and to develop an information system useful for those public administration institutions.

  19. Social capital and the networked public sphere: Implications for political social media sites

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Marius Rohde

    2012-01-01

    Submitted version of a paper from the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), 2012. Published version available from IEEE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2012.535 This paper presents a theoretical lens for research on social media use in eParticipation, along with an example case study. The idea of the public sphere and how it can be applied to eParticipation research is presented. The public sphere is discussed in relation to Castell's notion of the network societ...

  20. Public Capital and Regional Economic Growth: a SVAR Approach for the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Márquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, un porcentaje significativo de los estudios empíricos que analizan el impacto del capital público sobre el crecimiento económico regional ha utilizado series temporales multivariantes basadas en modelos de vectores autoregresivos (VAR. En este contexto, no se ha prestado demasiada atención al análisis de los determinantes a largo plazo de los procesos de crecimiento regional utilizando paneles de datos multi-regionales y aplicando técnicas de integración y cointegración para paneles. Este trabajo estima los efectos domésticos dinámicos de las infraestructuras públicas utilizando una metodología de vectores autorregresivos estructurales (S-VAR para las regiones españolas. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, el trabajo contiene distintas características que pueden ser vistas como una contribución a la literatura empírica existente. Primero, las importantes cuestiones de la estacionaridad de los datos y de la existencia y estimación de relaciones de cointegración en el largo plazo son abordadas en el contexto del análisis de los datos de panel. En segundo lugar, en los modelos de corto plazo de vectores de corrección de error estructurales (S-VEC se tiene en cuenta la función de producción de cointegración en el largo plazo para producir estimaciones consistentes de las respuestas a impulsos; esto es contrario a lo que hasta ahora han hecho muchos investigadores, que han estimado modelos VAR sin restringir en niveles, o modelos VAR en primeras diferencias. Las estimaciones muestran resultados nuevos con respecto a la evidencia empírica previa.

  1. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  2. Public-private partnership conceptual framework and models for the funding and financing of water services infrastructure in municipalities from selected provinces in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...

  3. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  4. Public-private collaboration in spatial data infrastructure: Overview of exposure, acceptance and sharing platform in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Raha binti; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Mahamud, Ku Ruhana Ku

    2017-10-01

    While Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) has been established in Malaysia, the full potential can be further realized. To a large degree, geospatial industry users are hopeful that they can easily get access to the system and start utilizing the data. Some users expect SDI to provide them with readily available data without the necessary steps of requesting the data from the data providers as well as the steps for them to process and to prepare the data for their use. Some further argued that the usability of the system can be improved if appropriate combination between data sharing and focused application is found within the services. In order to address the current challenges and to enhance the effectiveness of the SDI in Malaysia, there is possibility of establishing a collaborative business venture between public and private entities; thus can help addressing the issues and expectations. In this paper, we discussed the possibility of collaboration between these two entities. Interviews with seven entities are held to collect information on the exposure, acceptance and sharing of platform. The outcomes indicate that though the growth of GIS technology and the high level of technology acceptance provides a solid based for utilizing the geospatial data, the absence of concrete policy on data sharing, a quality geospatial data, an authority for coordinator agency, leaves a vacuum for the successful implementation of the SDI initiative.

  5. Mass vaccination with a new, less expensive oral cholera vaccine using public health infrastructure in India: the Odisha model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantanu K; Sah, Binod; Patnaik, Bikash; Kim, Yang Hee; Kerketta, Anna S; Shin, Sunheang; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Ali, Mohammad; Mogasale, Vittal; Khuntia, Hemant K; Bhattachan, Anuj; You, Young Ae; Puri, Mahesh K; Lopez, Anna Lena; Maskery, Brian; Nair, Gopinath B; Clemens, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-02-01

    The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for supplementary cholera control measures in addition to existing interventions. Clinical trials conducted in Kolkata, India, have led to World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalification of Shanchol, an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) with a demonstrated 65% efficacy at 5 years post-vaccination. However, before this vaccine is widely used in endemic areas or in areas at risk of outbreaks, as recommended by the WHO, policymakers will require empirical evidence on its implementation and delivery costs in public health programs. The objective of the present report is to describe the organization, vaccine coverage, and delivery costs of mass vaccination with a new, less expensive OCV (Shanchol) using existing public health infrastructure in Odisha, India, as a model. All healthy, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year and above residing in selected villages of the Satyabadi block (Puri district, Odisha, India) were invited to participate in a mass vaccination campaign using two doses of OCV. Prior to the campaign, a de jure census, micro-planning for vaccination and social mobilization activities were implemented. Vaccine coverage for each dose was ascertained as a percentage of the censused population. The direct vaccine delivery costs were estimated by reviewing project expenditure records and by interviewing key personnel. The mass vaccination was conducted during May and June, 2011, in two phases. In each phase, two vaccine doses were given 14 days apart. Sixty-two vaccination booths, staffed by 395 health workers/volunteers, were established in the community. For the censused population, 31,552 persons (61% of the target population) received the first dose and 23,751 (46%) of these completed their second dose, with a drop-out rate of 25% between the two doses. Higher

  6. Epidemiological profile of care for violence in public urgency and emergency services in Brazilian capital, Viva 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Nico, Lucélia Silva; Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de

    2017-09-01

    Injuries and deaths resulting from violence constitute a major public health problem in Brazil. The article aims to describe the profile of calls for violence in emergency departments and emergency Brazilian capitals. This is a descriptive study of Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA), carried out in public emergencies Brazilian cities, from September to November 2014, a total of 4406 calls for aggression. We considered the following categories of analysis: 1) sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, race / skin color, education, place of residence, vulnerability, alcohol intake); 2) Event feature (probable author, nature and means of aggression); and characteristics of care (getting to the hospital, prior service, evolution). Of the total calls for violence (n = 4406), the highest prevalence was among young people 20-39 years (50.2%), male, black and low education. As for the event characteristics it stands out that 87.8% were physical assaults; 46.3% cut/laceration and 13.7% involved a firearm. The results point to the need to strengthen intersectoral actions to expand the network of care and protection.

  7. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  8. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  9. PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE (PKI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Common Access Card (CAC)Enterprise Testing Overview:Established in 2003Performs test and evaluations of the DOD PKI CAC issuance systems from an enterprise level all...

  10. Social capital, neighbourhood characteristics and utilisation of local public health services among domestic migrants in China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Senlin; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between structural social capital and public health services use, and explored the modifiable effect of neighbourhood factors on this association among domestic migrants in China. Methods Data were from a 2014 nationally representative cross-sectional sample of domestic migrants aged 15–59 years in China. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between structural social capital, measured by participation in social organisations and social activities, and use of public health services. Interaction terms between neighbourhood urban status, neighbourhood composition and social capital were further assessed in the models. Results Migrants who participated in social organisations were more likely to establish health records (OR 1.467, 95% CI 1.201 to 1.793) and receive health education information (OR 1.729, 95% CI 1.484 to 2.016) than those who did not. Participation in social activities was positively associated with establishing health records only in urban communities (OR 1.853, 95% CI 1.060 to 3.239), and it was positively linked to receiving health education information among those living with a higher percentage of local neighbours (OR 1.451, 95% CI 1.044 to 2.017). Conclusions Structural social capital was related to an increased utilisation of local public health services among migrants. The findings of this study provided new evidence for the differential influences of social capital by neighbourhood characteristics in China, which suggested the importance to enhance social capital in rural/suburban communities and communities where the majority of the residents were migrants. PMID:28821507

  11. Social capital, neighbourhood characteristics and utilisation of local public health services among domestic migrants in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Senlin; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-08-18

    We examined the association between structural social capital and public health services use, and explored the modifiable effect of neighbourhood factors on this association among domestic migrants in China. Data were from a 2014 nationally representative cross-sectional sample of domestic migrants aged 15-59 years in China. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between structural social capital, measured by participation in social organisations and social activities, and use of public health services. Interaction terms between neighbourhood urban status, neighbourhood composition and social capital were further assessed in the models. Migrants who participated in social organisations were more likely to establish health records (OR 1.467, 95% CI 1.201 to 1.793) and receive health education information (OR 1.729, 95% CI 1.484 to 2.016) than those who did not. Participation in social activities was positively associated with establishing health records only in urban communities (OR 1.853, 95% CI 1.060 to 3.239), and it was positively linked to receiving health education information among those living with a higher percentage of local neighbours (OR 1.451, 95% CI 1.044 to 2.017). Structural social capital was related to an increased utilisation of local public health services among migrants. The findings of this study provided new evidence for the differential influences of social capital by neighbourhood characteristics in China, which suggested the importance to enhance social capital in rural/suburban communities and communities where the majority of the residents were migrants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  13. Structural dependency of capitalism on the ideology of ageism: dismantling public pension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Burcar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of ageism was first institutionalized in the West in the 1980s as a result of the neoliberal onslaught against the capitalist types of (minimal or moderate welfare state. The article argues that the emergence and the spreading of the ideology of ageism in postsocialist countries such as Slovenia is structurally intertwined with the imposition of capitalist social relations after 1991, and with the dismantling of the last vestiges of the socialist welfare system, followed by its privatization at the turn of the 21st century. The declining rate of employers’ contributions and the flexibilizing of labour are two key elements that have steadily contributed to the depletion of the public pension coffers since the early 1990s. The article demonstrates that the demographic scare acts as a diversionary tactic, intended to obscure these processes. The article argues against the academic mainstream’s superficial dealing with the ideology of ageism as a mere reflection of individual prejudice, and calls instead for a systemic analysis and contextual understanding of the origin and the workings of institutionally sanctioned ageism.

  14. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  15. Design and study of parallel computing environment of Monte Carlo simulation for particle therapy planning using a public cloud-computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohama, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    This report was aimed at structuring the design of architectures and studying performance measurement of a parallel computing environment using a Monte Carlo simulation for particle therapy using a high performance computing (HPC) instance within a public cloud-computing infrastructure. Performance measurements showed an approximately 28 times faster speed than seen with single-thread architecture, combined with improved stability. A study of methods of optimizing the system operations also indicated lower cost. (author)

  16. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of infrastructure is crucial to improving economic growth and quality of life (WEF 2013). Urban infrastructure typically includes bulk services such as water, sanitation and energy (typically electricity and gas...

  17. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  18. Internationalization of infrastructure companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Araujo Turolla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The decision of infrastructure firms to go international is not a simple one. Differently from firms from most of the sectors, investment requires large amounts of capital, there are significant transaction costs and also involves issues that are specific to the destiny country. In spite of the risks, several infrastructure groups have been investing abroad and have widened the foreign part in the share of the receipts. The study herein proposed is a refinement of the established theory of international business, with support from the industrial organization theory, namely on infrastructure economics. The methodology is theoretical empirical since it starts from two existing theories. Hypotheses relate the degree of internationalization (GI to a set of determinants of internationalization. As of conclusions, with the exception of the economies of density and scale, which did not show as relevant, all other variables behaved as expected.

  19. The Social Construction of Public Infrastructure: The Case of the Dutch National Geo-information Clearinghouse Project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, Henk; Veenswijk, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Disclosure of governmental map related information is increasingly being conceptualized as management of inter-organizational National Spatial Data Infrastructures (NSDIs). Until now, studies have been published on how NSDI projects should be designed, set up and monitored. While these approaches

  20. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  1. Public Spending On Human Capital In Major Industrialized Countries = Endüstrileşmenin En Yüksek Olduğu Ülkelerde Beşeri Sermayeye Yönelik Kamu Harcamalari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriç Subaşı ERTEKİN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is important for firms and nations in the knowledge based economy that needs skills. Thus, investment in education is a public policy to support human capital formation and offset the magnitude of capital looses. Policies and reforms designed to foster early learning which are determined as a high quality of education, early intervention and job training programs and promote skill formation. The public sector plays an important role in the funding of all education in major industrialized countries. Public spending on primary, secondary, post-secondary and tertiary educational institutions is higher than private spending.

  2. Prioritization of Capital Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaVielle, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Public works capital projects in the U,S, naval forces are not prioritized and funded in a way that best uses limited operations resources and maintenance dollars, This thesis develops a linear model...

  3. Capturing value increase in urban redevelopment : a study of how the economic value increase in urban redevelopment can be used to finance the necessary public infrastructure and other facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Gielen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Everyone would agree that urban development, especially when involving the building of residential areas, should be accompanied by sufficient and good public infrastructure and facilities. We all want neighborhoods with the necessary roads, green areas, social facilities, affordable housing and

  4. LEGAL ASPECTS OF A MANAGEMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC INVESTMENTS IN REGIONS. DILEMMAS OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryk Kosiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides for an analysis of legal aspects of certain particular investment processes within technical infrastructure in the Polish regions (voivodeships, but in the counties and communes as well. Those mentioned investments are undertaken in the areas of roads, railroads, airports and telecommunication. The impact of the investments is crucial in terms of the socio-economic development of the modern state and society. All dilemmas in terms of the mentioned investments’ management are related to legal regulations imposed by the state. It is noteworthy that those special regulations are aimed at organising the investment process in an efficient and adequately speedy way. Those regulations provide for a broad legal environment of business within the infrastructure investments. All of those regulations are necessary in order to push the continuous progress of the Polish regions targeting at reacting the level of socio-economic development of the so-called western countries (old, early members of the EU.

  5. An Analysis of the Social Capital, Organizational Commitment and Performance in the Public Sector of Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim EMHAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and organizational commitment and performance have long been the subjects of many studies as these concepts drive organizational outputs. This study aims to investigate the relationships between these concepts. The study collected data using a questionnaire survey comprising 26 questions conducted with 308 offi cers working in the tax offi ces of the provinces of Diyarbakır, Batman and Mardin in Southeastern Turkey. A separate form was used to collect some demographic variables from the respondents. The fi ndings indicate a positive and signifi cant relationship between social capital and performance. This study also confi rmed that organizational commitment has a mediating effect between social capital and performance.

  6. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  7. National Capital Planning Commission Library contents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — The National Capital Planning Commission library catalog is a compilation of titles, authors, years of publication and topics of books, reports and NCPC publications.

  8. Promising Data for Public Empowerment: The Making of Data Culture and Water Monitoring Infrastructures in the Marcellus Shale Gas Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Kirk

    A recent wave of advanced technologies for collecting and interpreting data offer new opportunities for laypeople to contribute to environmental monitoring science. This dissertation examines the conditions in which building knowledge infrastructures and embracing data "cultures" empowers and disempowers communities to challenge polluting industries. The processes and technologies of data cultures give people new capacities to understand their world, and to formulate powerful scientific arguments. However, data cultures also make many aspects of social life invisible, and elevate quantitative objective analysis over situated, subjective observation. This study finds that data cultures can empower communities when concerned citizens are equal contributors to research partnerships; ones that enable them to advocate for more nuanced data cultures permitting of structural critiques of status-quo environmental governance. These arguments are developed through an ethnographic study of participatory watershed monitoring projects that seek to document the impacts of shale gas extraction in Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Energy companies are drilling for natural gas using highly controversial methods of extraction known as hydraulic fracturing. Growing evidence suggests that nearby watersheds can be impacted by a myriad of extraction related problems including seepage from damaged gas well casing, improper waste disposal, trucking accidents, and the underground migration of hydraulic fracking fluids. In response to these risks, numerous organizations are coordinating and carrying out participatory water monitoring efforts. All of these projects embrace data culture in different ways. Each monitoring project has furthermore constructed its own unique infrastructure to support the sharing, aggregation, and analysis of environmental data. Differences in data culture investments and infrastructure building make some projects more effective than others in empowering

  9. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  10. Mobile metering. Efficient charging infrastructure. Charging stations in the public, semi-public and private room; Mobile Metering. Effiziente Ladeinfrastruktur. Ladepunkte im oeffentlichen, halboeffentlichen und privaten Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, Marcus; Zayer, Peter [Voltaris GmbH, Merzig (Germany); Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [Ubitricity Gesellschaft fuer Verteilte Energiesysteme mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-28

    Mobile metering shifts the power metering and data communication from the stationary charging stationary into the charger cable or into the vehicle - and thus creates a mobile metering point. Thus, the charging stations are reduced to technically simple system sockets. These system sockets do not cause current expenses and make the charging infrastructure affordable and economically viable.

  11. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB—An Infrastructure for the Curation and Publication of File-Based Datasets for GFZ Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ulbricht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences is the national laboratory for Geosciences in Germany. As part of the Helmholtz Association, providing and maintaining large-scale scientific infrastructures are an essential part of GFZ activities. This includes the generation of significant volumes and numbers of research data, which subsequently become source materials for data publications. The development and maintenance of data systems is a key component of GFZ Data Services to support state-of-the-art research. A challenge lies not only in the diversity of scientific subjects and communities, but also in different types and manifestations of how data are managed by research groups and individual scientists. The data repository of GFZ Data Services provides a flexible IT infrastructure for data storage and publication, including minting of digital object identifiers (DOI. It was built as a modular system of several independent software components linked together through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs provided by the eSciDoc framework. Principal application software are panMetaDocs for data management and DOIDB for logging and moderating data publications activities. Wherever possible, existing software solutions were integrated or adapted. A summary of our experiences made in operating this service is given. Data are described through comprehensive landing pages and supplementary documents, like journal articles or data reports, thus augmenting the scientific usability of the service.

  12. Why the Boys Are Missing: Using Social Capital to Explain Gender Differences in College Enrollment for Public High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevan, Sarah; Weinberg, Sharon L.; Middleton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1960, over 60 % of bachelor degrees were awarded to men. However, the rate of women's college completion has steadily risen and, by 2004, women received nearly 60 % of bachelor degrees. Drawing on the theoretical contributions of James Coleman, this paper examines the ability of social capital to explain observed differences in college…

  13. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  14. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  15. Fundo público e políticas sociais na crise do capitalismo Public fund and social policies in the crisis of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evilasio Salvador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A característica comum a todas as crises financeiras dos últimos trinta anos é o comparecimento do fundo público para socorrer instituições financeiras falidas durante as crises bancárias, à custa dos impostos pagos pelos cidadãos. Com a financeirização da riqueza, os mercados financeiros passam a disputar cada vez mais recursos do fundo público, impedindo a expansão dos direitos sociais. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a crise do capital a partir do papel exercido pelo fundo público e seus rebatimentos no financiamento da seguridade social no Brasil.The characteristic that has been common to all financial crises in the last 30 years is the appearance of the public fund to bail out bankrupt financial institutions during the banking crises, at the expense of taxes paid by the citizens. Financing wealth, financial markets dispute resources from the public fund more and more, which impedes the expansion of social rights. This article aims to discuss the crisis of the capital from the role played by public funds and their impact on the financing of social security in Brazil.

  16. Cultural Capital: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Capital renewal as a real option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reindorp, M.J.; Fu, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the timing of replacement of obsolete subsystems within an extensive, complex infrastructure. Such replacement action, known as capital renewal, must balance uncertainty about future profitability against uncertainty about future renewal costs. Treating renewal investments as real

  18. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  19. Successful introduction of an underutilized elderly pneumococcal vaccine in a national immunization program by integrating the pre-existing public health infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kim, Eunsung; Park, Young-Joon; Kim, Dongwook; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Shin, Jae Kyong; Park, Ok

    2016-03-18

    Although pneumococcal vaccines had been recommended for the elderly population in South Korea for a considerable period of time, the coverage has been well below the optimal level. To increase the vaccination rate with integrating the pre-existing public health infrastructure and governmental funding, the Korean government introduced an elderly pneumococcal vaccination into the national immunization program with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in May 2013. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the program in increasing the vaccine coverage rate and maintaining stable vaccine supply and safe vaccination during the 20 months of the program. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the process of introducing and the outcomes of the program in terms of the systematic organization, efficiency, and stability at the national level. A staggered introduction during the first year utilizing the public sector, with a target coverage of 60%, was implemented based on the public demand for an elderly pneumococcal vaccination, vaccine supply capacity, vaccine delivery capacity, safety, and sustainability. During the 20-month program period, the pneumococcal vaccine coverage rate among the population aged ≥65 years increased from 5.0% to 57.3% without a noticeable vaccine shortage or safety issues. A web-based integrated immunization information system, which includes the immunization registry, vaccine supply chain management, and surveillance of adverse events following immunization, reduced programmatic errors and harmonized the overall performance of the program. Introduction of an elderly pneumococcal vaccination in the national immunization program based on strong government commitment, meticulous preparation, financial support, and the pre-existing public health infrastructure resulted in an efficient, stable, and sustainable increase in vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessing Storm Vulnerabilities and Resilience Strategies: A Scenario-Method for Engaging Stakeholders of Public/Private Maritime Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Burroughs, R.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses a new method to assess vulnerability and resilience strategies for stakeholders of coastal-dependent transportation infrastructure, such as seaports. Much coastal infrastructure faces increasing risk to extreme events resulting from sea level rise and tropical storms. As seen after Hurricane Sandy, natural disasters result in economic costs, damages to the environment, and negative consequences on resident's quality of life. In the coming decades, tough decisions will need to be made about investment measures to protect critical infrastructure. Coastal communities will need to weigh the costs and benefits of a new storm barrier, for example, against those of retrofitting, elevating or simply doing nothing. These decisions require understanding the priorities and concerns of stakeholders. For ports, these include shippers, insurers, tenants, and ultimate consumers of the port cargo on a local and global scale, all of whom have a stake in addressing port vulnerabilities.Decision-makers in exposed coastal areas need tools to understand stakeholders concerns and perceptions of potential resilience strategies. For ports, they need answers to: 1) How will stakeholders be affected? 2) What strategies could be implemented to build resilience? 3) How effectively would the strategies mitigate stakeholder concerns? 4) What level of time and investment would strategies require? 5) Which stakeholders could/should take responsibility? Our stakeholder-based method provides answers to questions 1-3 and forms the basis for further work to address 4 and 5.Together with an expert group, we developed a pilot study for stakeholders of Rhode Island's critical energy port, the Port of Providence. Our method uses a plausible extreme storm scenario with localized visualizations and a portfolio of potential resilience strategies. We tailor a multi-criteria decision analysis tool and, through a series of workshops, we use the storm scenario, resilience strategies

  1. A High-Value Best-Value Approach to Public Shipyard Human Capital Management to Improve Ship Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capital. Additionally, the National Center on Educational Quality of the Workforce (EQW) studied 3,100 U.S. workplaces and the relationship between...appointments, recover quicker from illness, and prevent the spread of disease in the workplace if sick leave is properly utilized (Ehlinger 2015...regardless of years in service. The sick leave is typically used for illness, injury, and pregnancy as well as for medical, optical, or dental

  2. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  3. The role of negotiated developer obligations in financing large public infrastructure after the economic crisis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Demetrio Munoz; Lenferink, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The economic crisis that started in 2009 has negatively impacted in the Netherlands the available financial resources for urban development. Dutch municipalities struggle since then with falling local financial sources, especially since active public land policy, traditionally an important

  4. Limiting the financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints: Applications and opportunities for public policies and private investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam

    Increasing demand for electricity and an aging fleet of generators are the principal drivers behind an increasing need for a large amount of capital investments in the US electric power sector in the near term. The decisions (or lack thereof) by firms, regulators and policy makers in response to this challenge have long lasting consequences, incur large economic and environmental risks, and must be made despite large uncertainties about the future operating and business environment. Capital investment decisions are complex: rates of return are not guaranteed; significant uncertainties about future environmental legislation and regulations exist at both the state and national levels---particularly about carbon dioxide emissions; there is an increasing number of shareholder mandates requiring public utilities to reduce their exposure to potentially large losses from stricter environmental regulations; and there are significant concerns about electricity and fuel price levels, supplies, and security. Large scale, low carbon electricity generation facilities using coal, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facilities coupled with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, have been technically proven but are unprofitable in the current regulatory and business environment where there is no explicit or implicit price on carbon dioxide emissions. The paper examines two separate scenarios that are actively discussed by policy and decision makers at corporate, state and national levels: a future US electricity system where coal plays a role; and one where the role of coal is limited or nonexistent. The thesis intends to provide guidance for firms and policy makers and outline applications and opportunities for public policies and for private investment decisions to limit financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints.

  5. The impact of crime and the fear thereof on the nature and use of public space in the capital city of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Landman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of insecurity, crime and inequality remain very high in Brazilian and South African cities. Consequently, wealthier residents retreat to protected common spaces behind walls and fences. As a result, there has been a growth of many quasi-public spaces in shopping malls and gated communities. This raises questions regarding the change of public space and the impact of crime and the fear thereof on the use of these spaces. The discussion shows how the form and function of different spaces in the capital city of South Africa, Pretoria, have changed in various parts of the city through neglect, revitalization and privatization and how this have shaped the experience of users in relation to crime and the fear thereof. The paper argues for a more nuanced reading of the transformation of public space. Firstly, it recognizes that in rapidly changing cities of transitional countries there may still be a need for different types of public spaces, including those in gated communities. Secondly, although safety is a major concern among users of public space, it does not imply that gated communities offers the only solution to safe public space. Therefore, alternatives approaches should be considered.

  6. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  7. NIMBY headlock on infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, B.

    2006-01-01

    Pipelines are a critical component in accessing Canada's abundant natural gas resources. As one of the world's leading petroleum producers, Canada plays an increasingly important role in meeting global energy demand. Open markets and enforceable trade rules have made Canada internationally competitive, and have attracted significant capital from investors. However, Canada does not have enough pipeline capacity to move the energy resources to market. Transmission constraints must be addressed in a timely manner in order to continue to meet energy needs. This presentation identified the benefits of achieving Canada's true energy potential as well as the costs that Canadians will pay if the true energy potential is not reached. The members of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) operate $20 billion worth of pipeline infrastructure to move more than 95 per cent of Canada's natural gas and oil to markets across North America. The value of the combined assets is expected to double to $40 billion in the next 15 years as CEPA continues to build a pipeline network that is reliable, cost-effective, safe and secure. CEPA claims that Canada's true energy potential can be accomplished by improved efficiency of regulatory processes that protect the public interest but which also provide project proponents with certainty that decisions will be made in a timely manner; ensuring competitive financial regimes; and, building capacity in communities that are not familiar with energy development and which have questions about local impacts and benefits. In order for CEPA members to expand their pipeline systems, they must attract investment capital and compete against energy projects from around the world. In order to create the favourable circumstances that are needed to attract the required level of investment, roadblocks that stand in the way of efficient and timely energy resource development must be removed. The demand for labour and materials must also be satisfied and

  8. Applying a private sector capitation model to the management of type 2 diabetes in the South African public sector: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmink, Heinrich C; Bertram, Melanie Y; Jina, Ruxana; Wade, Alisha N; Hofman, Karen J

    2014-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease burden in South Africa. The proposed National Health Insurance system provides an opportunity to consider the development of a cost-effective capitation model of care for patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to determine the potential cost-effectiveness of adapting a private sector diabetes management programme (DMP) to the South African public sector. Cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken with a public sector model of the DMP as the intervention and a usual practice model as the comparator. Probabilistic modelling was utilized for incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis with life years gained selected as the outcome. Secondary data were used to design the model while cost information was obtained from various sources, taking into account public sector billing. Modelling found an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per life year gained (LYG) for the DMP against the usual practice model. This fell substantially below the Willingness-to-Pay threshold with bootstrapping analysis. Furthermore, a national implementation of the intervention could potentially result in an estimated cumulative gain of 96 997 years of life (95% CI 71 073 years - 113 994 years). Probabilistic modelling found the capitation intervention to be cost-effective, with an ICER of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per LYG. Piloting the service within the public sector is recommended as an initial step, as this would provide data for more accurate economic evaluation, and would also allow for qualitative analysis of the programme.

  9. From Natural Monopoly to Public Utility: Technological Determinism and the Political Economy of Infrastructure in Progressive-Era America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaiss, Adam

    In present-day debates regarding telecommunication policy, one frequently hears the terms natural monopoly and public utility. This article investigates the origins of these ideas, finding that Richard T. Ely-a celebrated American economist of the late nineteenth century-embedded in the term "natural monopoly" a narrative of technological determinism. By arguing that certain services had monopolizing tendencies hardwired into them, Ely argued for their regulation. Ely's theory of natural monopoly formed the basis of Wisconsin's 1907 public utilities law, which served as a model for many other states' regulatory policies. The modern notion of public utility thus carries with it the technological determinism of Ely's natural monopoly idea. By tracing the lineage of these two terms, this article recaptures the influence that activists and progressive politicians exercised over the formation of large technological systems during the Second Industrial Revolution.

  10. Measuring Capital

    OpenAIRE

    W. Erwin Diewert

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...

  11. Capitation of public mental health services in Colorado: a five-year follow-up of system-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joan R; Wang, Huihui; Kang, Soo Hyang; Wallace, Neal T; Hyun, Jenny K; Hu, Teh-wei

    2011-02-01

    Capitated Medicaid mental health programs have reduced costs over the short term by lowering the utilization of high-cost inpatient services. This study examined the five-year effects of capitated financing in community mental health centers (CMHCs) by comparing not-for-profit with for-profit programs. Data were from the Medicaid billing system in Colorado for the precapitation year (1994) and a shadow billing system for the postcapitation years (1995-1999). In a panel design, a random-effect approach estimated the impact of two financing systems on service utilization and cost while adjusting for all the covariates. Consistent with predictions, in both the for-profit and the not-for-profit CMHCs, relative to the precapitation year, there were significant reductions in each postcapitation year in high-cost treatments (inpatient treatment) for all but one comparison (not-for-profit CMHCs in 1999). Also consistent with predictions, the for-profit programs realized significant reductions in cost per user for both outpatient services and total services. In the not-for-profit programs, there were no significant changes in cost per user for total services; a significant reduction in cost per user for outpatient services was found only in the first two years, 1995 and 1996). The evidence suggests that different strategies were used by the not-for-profit and for-profit programs to control expenditures and utilization and that the for-profit programs were more successful in reducing cost per user.

  12. BUILDING A COMPLETE FREE AND OPEN SOURCE GIS INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HYDROLOGICAL COMPUTING AND DATA PUBLICATION USING GIS.LAB AND GISQUICK PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Landa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a complete free and open source GIS computing and data publication platform can be a relatively easy task. This paper describes an automated deployment of such platform using two open source software projects – GIS.lab and Gisquick. GIS.lab (http: //web.gislab.io is a project for rapid deployment of a complete, centrally managed and horizontally scalable GIS infrastructure in the local area network, data center or cloud. It provides a comprehensive set of free geospatial software seamlessly integrated into one, easy-to-use system. A platform for GIS computing (in our case demonstrated on hydrological data processing requires core components as a geoprocessing server, map server, and a computation engine as eg. GRASS GIS, SAGA, or other similar GIS software. All these components can be rapidly, and automatically deployed by GIS.lab platform. In our demonstrated solution PyWPS is used for serving WPS processes built on the top of GRASS GIS computation platform. GIS.lab can be easily extended by other components running in Docker containers. This approach is shown on Gisquick seamless integration. Gisquick (http://gisquick.org is an open source platform for publishing geospatial data in the sense of rapid sharing of QGIS projects on the web. The platform consists of QGIS plugin, Django-based server application, QGIS server, and web/mobile clients. In this paper is shown how to easily deploy complete open source GIS infrastructure allowing all required operations as data preparation on desktop, data sharing, and geospatial computation as the service. It also includes data publication in the sense of OGC Web Services and importantly also as interactive web mapping applications.

  13. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  14. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  15. National plan of eviction? The figure of public utility and infrastructure Sector as a means to dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Castillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The figure of public utility, which has constitutional status, it is extremely important for the realization of projects of national and strategic interest, because it is what allows the expropriation of property rights over land that are necessary to develop such projects. The current government and the previous ones are aware of this, so have long been promoting the use of this figure of light and unlimited to favor big business interests that are behind these businesses and not citizenship.

  16. Credit Enhancements and Capital Markets to Fund Solar Deployment: Leveraging Public Funds to Open Private Sector Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Urdanick, Marley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Joshi, John [Capital Fusion Markets, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Credit enhancements represent a variety of financial support structures that are designed to reduce risk to those holding the debt, including debt raised via a securitization process, and thus lower the required yield associated with the security. The purpose of all forms of credit enhancement is to increase the collateral against which notes are secured (Lin,1999). The following section evaluates is not guaranteed. Perceived risks of the solar asset class--including those related to technology, offtaker creditworthiness, and regulatory policy--can increase the required yield, increase probability of investor loss of interest and/or principal, or both. In many cases, this is a cyclical phenomenon: risk perception is fed by lack of historical knowledge, which is in turn fed by risk perception. Therefore, successful access to capital market investment in order to spur low-cost solar deployment depends on the success of this initial fledgling period.

  17. Capital gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blishen, C.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  18. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state expend...

  19. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  20. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases--also among pre-ban sceptics. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were explored in workplaces, restaurants and bars using logistic regression models. The prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans increased significantly in all arenas from 2007 to 2010. Positive temporal changes in supportive attitude towards smoking bans were seen across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. This change in attitude can support implementation of future legislation on smoking and may lead to positive changes in smoking norms. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Private investments in new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.P.; Teulings, C.N.; de Nooij, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Lisbon Strategy demands large investments in transport projects, broadband networks and energy infrastructure. Despite the widely-acknowledged need for investments in new infrastructures, European and national public funds are scarce in the current economic climate. Moreover, both policy-makers

  2. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New capital... revision of the debt instrument. (iii) If short-term financing was used to acquire old capital assets and...

  3. Infrastructural Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2007-01-01

    . Instead, I outline a fractal approach to the study of space, society, and infrastructure. A fractal orientation requires a number of related conceptual reorientations. It has implications for thinking about scale and perspective, and (sociotechnical) relations, and for considering the role of the social...... and a fractal social theory....

  4. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Aerts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  5. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  6. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  7. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...

  8. Venture Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, M. J; Andreassen, A; Bales, Shanda; Biddle, J. G; Chang, M. M; McCormick, R; Packard, W. J; Sun, T

    2006-01-01

    Leveraging venture capital to the advantage of the Naval Services should be viewed as part of the larger project of reforming the acquisition system to permit rapid introduction of new technologies...

  9. The EU Capital Markets Union and Financial Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Igor S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the processes of formation of the EU Capital Markets Union in the context of their influence on stability of the markets and the financial system as a whole. In the course of analyzing the project for the building of a single capital market with respect to financial stability, there determined its positive aspects as well as threats and challenges associated with simplification of information requirements to the prospectus of public offering of securities, low liquidity and higher volatility of the equity markets of small and medium-sized businesses, reduction of the regulatory requirements to investment firms (securities traders, correction of prudential norms for infrastructure investments of banking institutions and insurance companies, introduction of a simple, transparent and standard securitization, a secondary market for distressed banking assets, and a potential spread of financial instability at cross-border investments in securities.

  10. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible considering

  11. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Patel

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08 data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and

  12. Research on the Mechanism of Science and Technology Infrastructure Resource Sharing Service Based on PPP (Public-Private Partnership) Mode Selection: Taking Chongqing as an Example%基于PPP(公私合作)视角的科技资源共享服务机制研究——以重庆为例的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琼; 张小波

    2017-01-01

    The study found that the root cause of the problems of the existing sharing service management lies in the failure to properly deal with the contradiction between the dual value attributes of public goods and private goodsof science and technology resource.Accordingly,based on the dual value attributesof science and technology infrastructure resource and national policies to encourage social capital to involve in public services,taking Chongqing as a case study,the thesisputs forward the suggestions includingconstructing the management model of sharing service of science and technology infrastructure resourcebased on PPP (public-private partnership) perspective,and setting up the cost-benefit distribution mechanism,coordination management mechanism,resource integration mechanism,reward mechanism,incentive and constraint mechanism and corresponding system to ensure the successful operation of this model.%研究发现,现有科技资源共享服务管理出现问题的根源在于未正确处理好科技资源“公共品”和“私人品”的双重价值属性矛盾.基于此,以重庆为例,充分考虑科技基础资源双重价值属性,结合国家鼓励社会资本参与科研基础设施社会化服务的政策要求,从PPP(公私合作)的视角,构建科技资源共享服务管理模式,建立保证该模式成功运行的成本收益分配机制、协调管理机制、资源整合机制、回报机制、激励与约束机制和相应制度.

  13. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB - an infrastructure for the curation and publication of file-based datasets for 'GFZ Data Services'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    With the foundation of DataCite in 2009 and the technical infrastructure installed in the last six years it has become very easy to create citable dataset DOIs. Nowadays, dataset DOIs are increasingly accepted and required by journals in reference lists of manuscripts. In addition, DataCite provides usage statistics [1] of assigned DOIs and offers a public search API to make research data count. By linking related information to the data, they become more useful for future generations of scientists. For this purpose, several identifier systems, as ISBN for books, ISSN for journals, DOI for articles or related data, Orcid for authors, and IGSN for physical samples can be attached to DOIs using the DataCite metadata schema [2]. While these are good preconditions to publish data, free and open solutions that help with the curation of data, the publication of research data, and the assignment of DOIs in one software seem to be rare. At GFZ Potsdam we built a modular software stack that is made of several free and open software solutions and we established 'GFZ Data Services'. 'GFZ Data Services' provides storage, a metadata editor for publication and a facility to moderate minted DOIs. All software solutions are connected through web APIs, which makes it possible to reuse and integrate established software. Core component of 'GFZ Data Services' is an eSciDoc [3] middleware that is used as central storage, and has been designed along the OAIS reference model for digital preservation. Thus, data are stored in self-contained packages that are made of binary file-based data and XML-based metadata. The eSciDoc infrastructure provides access control to data and it is able to handle half-open datasets, which is useful in embargo situations when a subset of the research data are released after an adequate period. The data exchange platform panMetaDocs [4] makes use of eSciDoc's REST API to upload file-based data into eSciDoc and uses a metadata editor [5] to annotate the files

  14. Exploring public sector physicians' resilience, reactions and coping strategies in times of economic crisis; findings from a survey in Portugal's capital city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Pires, Carlos André; Perelman, Julian; Gonçalves, Luzia; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-03-15

    Evidence is accumulating on the impact of the recent economic crisis on health and health systems across Europe. However, little is known about the effect this is having on physicians - a crucial resource for the delivery of healthcare services. This paper explores the adaptation to the crisis of public sector physicians and their ability to keep performing their functions, with the objective of gaining a better understanding of health workers' resilience under deteriorating conditions. We conducted a survey among 484 public primary care and hospital physicians in Portugal's capital city area and explored their perceptions of the crisis, adaptation and coping strategies. We used ordinal and logistic regression models to link changes in hours worked and intentions to migrate with physicians' characteristics and specific answers. We found little evidence of physicians changing their overall allocation of working time before and after the crisis, with their age, types of specialisation, valuation of job flexibility and independence significantly associated with changes in public sector hours between 2010 and 2015. Being divorced, not Portuguese, of younger age, and working a high number of hours per week, were found to increase the probability of physicians considering migration, the same as having a poor opinion of recent government health policies. On the other hand, enjoying their current working environment, not wanting to disrupt provision of service, and leisure time were found to protect against scaling down public sector hours or considering migration. Our work on Portuguese physicians contributes to the debate on health workers' resilience, showing the value of understanding the influence of personal characteristics and opinions on their adaptation to changing circumstances, before designing policies to improve their working conditions and retention.

  15. The Human Capital of Knowledge Brokers: An analysis of attributes, capacities and skills of academic teaching and research faculty at Kenyan schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen; Kennedy, Caitlin; Bennett, Sara

    2016-08-02

    enhance their collective human capital and influence on public health policy and practice. Capacity strengthening of tangible skills and recognition of less tangible personality characteristics could contribute to enhanced academic-policymaker networks. These, in turn, could contribute to the relevance of SPH research and teaching programs as well as evidence-informed public health policies.

  16. Infrastructure and Agricultural Growth in Nigeria | Ighodaro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of infrastructure in Nigeria, particularly physical infrastructure is characterized by the predominance of public enterprises except for telecommunications sector in recent time. The empirical part of the study revealed different relative response rates of the different component of infrastructure used in the study to ...

  17. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  18. Sedentary lifestyle and its associated factors among adolescents from public and private schools of a Brazilian state capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2016-11-21

    Adolescence is a transition stage between childhood and adulthood and is an important phase for the acquisition of future lifestyles, including the practice of physical activity (PA). The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in adolescents is often high, creating the need for studies addressing the practice of PA and its associated factors for a better understanding of the phenomenon and possible interventions that would encourage positive changes. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students aged 14-18 years enrolled in both public and private schools of a large Brazilian city to determine the level of physical activity (PA) and its associated factors. Sedentary lifestyle was measured by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The independent variables were gender, age, race, tobacco use and alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, socioeconomic status, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. The crude prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association and was estimated from a Poisson regression. The sample consisted of 862 adolescents with a mean age of 15.4 ± 1.1 years. Females were predominant (52.8%), and the age between 14 and 15 years was the most frequent (52.2%). The majority of the group reported themselves as Caucasians (51.2%), belonging to socioeconomic class C (52.5%) and were attending to public schools (69.1%). The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 66.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.5-69.9), where values of 65.4% and 69.9% were observed among students from public and private schools, respectively (p = 0.196). Sedentary lifestyle was more frequent in females (78.0% vs 54.3%; p sedentary lifestyle was female gender both in public and private schools and the only independent variable related to sedentarism was also female gender. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was extremely high in the population of adolescents studied both in public and private schools. Female sex was

  19. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  20. Perception of Urban Environmental Risks and the Effects of Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs) on Human Well-being in Four Public Green Spaces of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf

    2018-05-28

    Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.

  1. Preliminary Study Intended for the Application of the INPRO Methodology in the area of Infrastructure (Public Acceptance) for the Case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, R.; Puente Espel, F.

    2016-01-01

    The pronounced concern about climate change as seen in the past COP21 Conference, the increasing energy demand worldwide, and the importance of energy security are among the main issues within the pursuit of a sustainable development. In a sustainable and diverse energy portfolio, the goals focus on providing clean, carbon free, reliable and affordable electricity. Nuclear energy is one of the most efficient energy sources; considering the energy produced per amount of fuel, one of the least climate dependent sources and a clean energy source. Nuclear energy is a sustainable energy source. But the sustainability of nuclear energy systems is questioned by the public, as well as by some decision makers, mainly due to concerns related to safety, nuclear waste disposal, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was established to assist and guarantee that in order to meet the energy needs of the 21st century through a sustainable approach, nuclear energy is available. In this line, INPRO in close cooperation with Member States work to understand the future development of nuclear energy systems from a national, regional and global perspective, as well as to comprehend the role of innovation in technologies and institutional arrangements in support of this development. Through one of INPRO's main areas, Sustainability Assessment and Strategies, INPRO supports Member States in developing national long-range sustainable nuclear energy strategies and related deployment decision-making throughout the application of the INPRO Methodology. This paper presents a preliminary study intended for the application of the INPRO Methodology in the area of Infrastructure, Public Acceptance, for the case of Mexico. Mexico's current nuclear power programme is small; integrated by a nuclear power plant (NPP) with two reactors. In the scenario of a

  2. Ritual Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørslev, Inger

    2017-01-01

    within urban life. There is a certain parallel between these different locations and the difference in ritual roads to certainty in the two religions. The article draws out connections between different levels of infrastructure – material, spatial and ritual. The comparison between the two religions......This article compares the ways in which two different religions in Brazil generate roads to certainty through objectification, one through gods, the other through banknotes. The Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé provides a road to certainty based on cosmological ideas about gods whose presence...

  3. The cost risk implementation on design-build project of integrated public spaces child friendly in capital of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiaman, Mubarok, Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Jakarta area of 662.33 km2 with a population of 10,075,030 inhabitants and green open spaces 9.98%. The Jakarta government built a child-friendly integrated open space as facilities for playing. Providing of facilities was hoped suitable with time, cost, quality, accountability and proper financial governance. Based on the PU ministerial regulation number 19/PRT/M/2015 on the standards and guidelines for procurement the design and construction work on the integrated build and the PU ministerial regulation No. 07/PRT/M/2011 on standards and guidelines for procurement of construction works and consulting services of public works and the ministry of housing. RPTRA development at 123 locations in Jakarta was implemented base on the contract of design and build. The design study was influenced by the cost elements; the main strength (expert), skilled personnel, support personnel, major equipment and support. The construction fee relies on; expert implementation, hardware implementation, preparation work, land, buildings, courtyards, fences, complementary and governance capabilities for human resources in completing the construction activities to minimize the cost risk. Montecarlo simulations was conducted to determine the average unit price, model and analyze systems. In the cost contract, the percentage of design work stipulated 2.5%, build 97.5%. Base on regulation the minister of public work for design work cost 2.72%, build 97.28%. Then, actual cost for design 2.67% and build 97.33%. From the three reference was shown that there are differentiation one another. The acceleration of planning able to make the cost and time more efficient that impact on the implementation margin.

  4. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Connecting Capital and Catastrophe in a Modeled World - How re/insurance and public science interact to manage risk for societal benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R.

    2010-12-01

    Society, at local and global scales, seeks improved ways of managing the impact and sharing the costs of extreme natural events across populations via public and private mechanisms. Concerns over potential climate change and climate variability are amplifying the importance of these questions among public policy, business and regulatory communities. Through its financial obligations to exposed populations, the international insurance and reinsurance sector is directly affected by the frequency, severity and impact of extreme events. In many jurisdictions insurance contracts are regulated to tolerate the maximum probable loss events which are expected at 1 in 200 year return periods. This risk tolerance requirement renders re/insurers to undertake distinctive risk analysis among financial sector institutions. Natural catastrophe risk is a major component of re/insurer risk at the 1:200 year return period and a significant driver of the minimum capital requirements imposed on re/insurers. Historic claims records are insufficient on their own to evaluate potential losses at these return periods and over the last twenty years a significant sub-sector of the re/insurance industry has emerged known as catastrophe risk modelling. This has brought a progress and influential approach in applying science to gain a great handle of the expected losses to portfolios by developing increasingly robust analysis of hazards, exposures, vulnerabilities and impacts. As a result of these innovations the re/insurance sector has become more resilient to natural catastrophes. In recent years there has been an accelerated and deepening interaction between the re/insurance sector and public science across natural hazards risk research. The medium of modelling is providing a common vehicle for science and industry communities to collaborate and new supply chains are emerging from blue sky public science, through to applied research and operation modelling. Increasingly both sides are sharing

  6. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...

  7. Capital Unchained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    on measuring (by accountants), managing (by corporations) and monitoring (by International Political Economy scholars and regulators), this article explores the longer term implications of accumulation of internationalised capital in intangible and abstract forms, and the prominent role of finance and offshore...

  8. Public health intervention over four decades for the children in the Australian Capital Territory: Have we reached the point of diminishing returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, I; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2017-06-01

    Most of the developed world has seen some substantial improvements in the dental health of children over the past four decades owing to advances in service access, fluoride exposure, socio-economic development and improved diets, with the DMFT score of 12 year-olds dropping from well over 10 down to around one. To examine the question of advancing dental health for children even further using the same set of tools as we have to date by asking the question: Have we come to a point of diminishing returns? The study examines the long-term, near optimum settings of the known public dental health variables in the Australian Capital Territory. Despite having the most ideal and persistent dental health optimised situation, there remains underlying dental caries at a severity level of just below 1 DMFT (12 year olds), and over the last decade the rate of diminishing incidence and prevalence of decay has slowed and arguably stopped. This suggests that rather than toiling to eliminate dental decay completely, the focus might usefully be reoriented towards those small known pockets of society with persistent higher levels of disease and looking for new ways to address these difficult clusters, while simultaneously advancing the understanding that a small residual level of decay will always exist in society. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  9. U.S. Infrastructure : funding trends and Federal agencies investment estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This is the statement of Peter F. Guerrero, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate regarding public infrastructure. The testimony d...

  10. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  11. Quantifying the conservation gains from shared access to linear infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Gordon, Ascelin; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2017-12-01

    The proliferation of linear infrastructure such as roads and railways is a major global driver of cumulative biodiversity loss. One strategy for reducing habitat loss associated with development is to encourage linear infrastructure providers and users to share infrastructure networks. We quantified the reductions in biodiversity impact and capital costs under linear infrastructure sharing of a range of potential mine to port transportation links for 47 mine locations operated by 28 separate companies in the Upper Spencer Gulf Region of South Australia. We mapped transport links based on least-cost pathways for different levels of linear-infrastructure sharing and used expert-elicited impacts of linear infrastructure to estimate the consequences for biodiversity. Capital costs were calculated based on estimates of construction costs, compensation payments, and transaction costs. We evaluated proposed mine-port links by comparing biodiversity impacts and capital costs across 3 scenarios: an independent scenario, where no infrastructure is shared; a restricted-access scenario, where the largest mining companies share infrastructure but exclude smaller mining companies from sharing; and a shared scenario where all mining companies share linear infrastructure. Fully shared development of linear infrastructure reduced overall biodiversity impacts by 76% and reduced capital costs by 64% compared with the independent scenario. However, there was considerable variation among companies. Our restricted-access scenario showed only modest biodiversity benefits relative to the independent scenario, indicating that reductions are likely to be limited if the dominant mining companies restrict access to infrastructure, which often occurs without policies that promote sharing of infrastructure. Our research helps illuminate the circumstances under which infrastructure sharing can minimize the biodiversity impacts of development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  12. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  13. Infrastructure Management Information System User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This publication describes and explains the user interface for the Infrastructure Management Information System (IMIS). The IMIS is designed to answer questions regarding public water supply, wastewater treatment, and census information. This publica...

  14. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  15. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  16. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  17. Squeezing the funding you need from today's capital sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Deborah C

    2010-04-01

    Healthcare providers need to understand traditional and nontraditional financing options and other potential strategies for accessing capital. Common financing options include bonds, commercial lending, acquisition financing, and financing through the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Section 232 program. Alternative strategies for accessing capital include joint ventures, equity, sale of assets, fund-raising, capital leases, internal capital, public grants, and grants from foundations.

  18. partial capitalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    A world away, in the Cape Winelands, architects of Stellenbosch struggle for the identity of the city, the capital of the unique cultural landscape. Here the traditional African culture is mixed with three century-long tradition of winegrowing and winemaking. This wonderful mixture was placed on the UNESCO Tentative List of World Heritage Sites. The authors of the project use cultural heritage protection laws to protect their city from chaotic development.

  19. Defense Management: Further Analysis Needed to Identify Guam’s Public Infrastructure Requirements and Costs for DOD’s Realignment Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    47U.S. Department of the Interior Office of Inspector General, Tax Collection Activities Government of Guam: Revitalized Tax...A-11: Planning, Budgeting, and Acquisition of Capital Assets, app . 8 (ver. 3.0 (July 2013). 62GAO-09-3SP, pp. i and 182. DOD’s Cost Estimate to...Capital Assets, app . 8 (V 3.0 July 2013). According to our cost estimating guide, a reliable cost estimate is critical to successfully 64GAO-09-3SP

  20. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  1. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...

  2. Precarity in the Brussels-Capital Region: The Issues at Stake for Public Policy in Response to the Precarization of Single-parent Families in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of precarization is analysed in different manners in most literature concerning contemporary stakes of western welfare states. In comparison to other countries, Belgium has known a rather specific and delimited effect of the economic crisis from 2008, but certain groups face rather an ongoing effect of precarization on multiple and intertwined aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the situation of precarity of single-parent families in the Brussels-Capital Region. The attention to that group is related to its higher risk of precarity and poverty. Furthermore it allows analysing the limits of public policies in the fight against poverty and precarity, that are clearly inadequate. Various options in terms of public policies and legal measures in the fight against poverty are discussed from three different angles of perspective: socioeconomic positions, social integration and the subjective experience (Dubet 1994. The tension between recognition and redistribution measures is central (Fraser 2011 in the argumentation for a balanced vision of policy measures to address single-parent poverty. La literatura científica sobre las apuestas contemporáneas de los estados de bienestar occidentales analiza de forma diferente el proceso de precarización. En comparación con otros países, Bélgica ha vivido desde 2008 un efecto de la crisis económica bastante específico y delimitado. Sin embargo, algunos grupos se enfrentan a un proceso de precarización continuo en numerosos aspectos, interrelacionados entre sí. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la situación de precariedad de las familias monoparentales de la región de Bruselas capital. La atención a ese grupo está relacionada con su mayor riesgo de precariedad y pobreza. Además, permite analizar los límites de las políticas públicas en la lucha contra la pobreza y la precariedad, que son claramente insuficientes. Se analizan desde tres puntos de vista diversas

  3. Forms of international movement of capital with special emphasis on the PPP and concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovran Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state has always cooperated with the private sector in order to implement various activities in the best interest of public. The first models of public-private partnerships (PPP appeared at the time of the Roman Empire in the context of public works in construction of public baths, markets and ports. Contemporary international movement of capital is a phenomenon that has existed for over a century. When discussing the PPP in modern day terms, the expansion of private involvement in the public sector starts in the 1970s and the 1980s of the previous century, in public infrastructure projects and in most developed economies. The primary purpose of these arrangements is to reduce expenditures in state budgets, but also to achieve faster and better execution of work, reduce risk and efficiently manage the projects. This paper will briefly present the evolution of PPPs and concessions, with an emphasis on understanding money and capital throughout the evolution of PPP, contemporary forms of movement of capital, as well as equity in terms of globalization. The subject of this paper are also examples of the important PPPs and concessions from the construction of the Suez Canal until today.

  4. [Special Issue on Hmong Newcomers to Saint Paul Public Schools] The Affective Consequences of Cultural Capital: Feelings of Powerlessness, Gratitude, and Faith among Hmong Refugee Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bic Ngo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In education research, the analysis of the role of cultural capital has focused primarily on its role in parent involvement. Little attention has been paid to how cultural capital affects the attitudes or feelings of parents about their worth and roles as parents. In this article I examine the impact of the exclusionary characteristic of cultural capital on refugee Hmong parents from Wat Tham Krabok. I highlight themes of uncertainty, powerlessness, gratitude and faith that parents repeatedly raised when speaking about their children's education. I suggest that paying attention to the affective emotional consequences of cultural capital is critical for understanding the outlook of refugee Hmong parents on their children's education.

  5. [Special Issue on Hmong Newcomers to Saint Paul Public Schools] The Affective Consequences of Cultural Capital: Feelings of Powerlessness, Gratitude, and Faith among Hmong Refugee Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bic Ngo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In education research, the analysis of the role of cultural capital has focused primarily on its role in parent involvement. Little attention has been paid to how cultural capital affects the attitudes or feelings of parents about their worth and roles as parents. In this article I examine the impact of the exclusionary characteristic of cultural capital on refugee Hmong parents from Wat Tham Krabok. I highlight themes of uncertainty, powerlessness, gratitude and faith that parents repeatedly raised when speaking about their children’s education. I suggest that paying attention to the affective—emotional—consequences of cultural capital is critical for understanding the outlook of refugee Hmong parents on their children’s education.

  6. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  7. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar...... broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...

  8. Natural Assurance Scheme: A level playing field framework for Green-Grey infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Benjamin; Altamirano, Mónica A; Graveline, Nina; Giordano, Raffaele; van der Keur, Peter; Moncoulon, David; Weinberg, Josh; Máñez Costa, María; Kozinc, Zdravko; Mulligan, Mark; Pengal, Polona; Matthews, John; van Cauwenbergh, Nora; López Gunn, Elena; Bresch, David N

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to systematize the use of Nature-based solutions (NBS) by integrating their resilience potential into Natural Assurance Scheme (NAS), focusing on insurance value as corner stone for both awareness-raising and valuation. As such one of its core goal is to align research and pilot projects with infrastructure development constraints and priorities. Under NAS, the integrated contribution of natural infrastructure to Disaster Risk Reduction is valued in the context of an identified growing need for climate robust infrastructure. The potential of NAS benefits and trade-off are explored by through the alternative lens of Disaster Resilience Enhancement (DRE). Such a system requires a joint effort of specific knowledge transfer from research groups and stakeholders to potential future NAS developers and investors. We therefore match the knowledge gaps with operational stages of the development of NAS from a project designer perspective. We start by highlighting the key role of the insurance industry in incentivizing and assessing disaster and slow onset resilience enhancement strategies. In parallel we place the public sector as potential kick-starters in DRE initiatives through the existing initiatives and constraints of infrastructure procurement. Under this perspective the paper explores the required alignment of Integrated Water resources planning and Public investment systems. Ultimately this will provide the possibility for both planners and investors to design no regret NBS and mixed Grey-Green infrastructures systems. As resources and constraints are widely different between infrastructure development contexts, the framework does not provide explicit methodological choices but presents current limits of knowledge and know-how. In conclusion the paper underlines the potential of NAS to ease the infrastructure gap in water globally by stressing the advantages of investment in the protection, enhancement and restoration of

  9. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  10. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  11. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  12. Private Sector Investment in Pakistani Agriculture: The Role of Infrastructural Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    private sector will be expected to play the major role in providing capital to the agricultural sector, with the government’s remaining involvement being largely one of furnishing basic infrastructure. The critical question of course is how willing is the private sector to commit capital to agricultural activities in this new policy environment? Has the private sector responded in the past to the increases in profitability provided by an expansion in infrastructure? If so, what types of infrastructure are most conducive in

  13. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  14. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  15. Understanding the infrastructure of European Research Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ER....... It is also a promising theoretical framework for addressing the relationship between the ERIC construct and the large diversity of European Research Infrastructures.......European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ERIC...... became an ERIC using the Bowker and Star’s sociology of infrastructures. We conclude that focusing on ERICs as a European standard for organising and funding research collaboration gives new insights into the problems of membership, durability, and standardisation faced by research infrastructures...

  16. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....

  17. Sovereign cat bonds and infrastructure project financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croson, David; Richter, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    We examine the opportunities for using catastrophe-linked securities (or equivalent forms of nondebt contingent capital) to reduce the total costs of funding infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Our objective is to elaborate on methods to reduce the necessity for unanticipated (emergency) project funding immediately after a natural disaster. We also place the existing explanations of sovereign-level contingent capital into a catastrophic risk management framework. In doing so, we address the following questions. (1) Why might catastrophe-linked securities be useful to a sovereign nation, over and above their usefulness for insurers and reinsurers? (2) Why are such financial instruments ideally suited for protecting infrastructure projects in emerging economies, under third-party sponsorship, from low-probability, high-consequence events that occur as a result of natural disasters? (3) How can the willingness to pay of a sovereign government in an emerging economy (or its external project sponsor), who values timely completion of infrastructure projects, for such instruments be calculated? To supplement our treatment of these questions, we use a multilayer spreadsheet-based model (in Microsoft Excel format) to calculate the overall cost reductions possible through the judicious use of catastrophe-based financial tools. We also report on numerical comparative statics on the value of contingent-capital financing to avoid project disruption based on varying costs of capital, probability and consequences of disasters, the feasibility of strategies for mid-stage project abandonment, and the timing of capital commitments to the infrastructure investment. We use these results to identify high-priority applications of catastrophe-linked securities so that maximal protection can be realized if the total number of catastrophe instruments is initially limited. The article concludes with potential extensions to our model and opportunities for future research.

  18. Development of Optimization method about Capital Structure and Senior-Sub Structure by considering Project-Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yuichi; Fukui, Chihiro; Tateshita, Fumihiko

    Private finance initiative is a business scheme that materializes social infrastructure and public services by utilizing private-sector resources. In this paper we propose a new method to optimize capital structure, which is the ratio of capital to debt, and senior-sub structure, which is the ratio of senior loan to subordinated loan, for private finance initiative. We make the quantitative analysis of a private finance initiative's project using the proposed method. We analyze trade-off structure between risk and return in the project, and optimize capital structure and senior-sub structure. The method we propose helps to improve financial stability of the project, and to make a fund raising plan that is expected to be reasonable for project sponsor and moneylender.

  19. Financing and Managing Infrastructure in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthuli Ncube

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses various ways of financing infrastructure under public private partnership (PPP) arrangements in Africa. The paper presents the standard literature on the relationship between infrastructure investment and economic growth, highlighting the contradictory findings in the literature. Stylised facts about the state of infrastructure in Africa, compared with other regions such as Asia and Latin America, are also presented. Examples of how PPPs structures work are discussed incl...

  20. Security infrastructures: towards the INDECT system security

    OpenAIRE

    Stoianov, Nikolai; Urueña, Manuel; Niemiec, Marcin; Machník, Petr; Maestro, Gema

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the security infrastructures being deployed inside the INDECT project. These security infrastructures can be organized in five main areas: Public Key Infrastructure, Communication security, Cryptography security, Application security and Access control, based on certificates and smartcards. This paper presents the new ideas and deployed testbeds for these five areas. In particular, it explains the hierarchical architecture of the INDECT PKI...

  1. Uma análise da correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA® no contexto das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto Correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added for publicly owned Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odálio dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do tema da criação de valor, da forma como é medida pelo EVA® (Valor Econômico Adicionado e pelo MVA® (Valor de Mercado Agregado, duas metodologias desenvolvidas no final dos anos 80 pela empresa americana de consultoria Stern Stewart & Co. O EVA® é definido como a diferença entre o lucro operacional líquido depois de impostos e o custo do capital investido na empresa, enquanto o MVA® é determinado pela diferença entre o valor de mercado da empresa e o capital total nela investido. Um estudo realizado por G. Bennett Stewart III, que idealizou essas metodologias juntamente com o seu sócio Joel M. Stern, encontrou uma forte correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA®. Visando averiguar se tal resultado se aplica também ao caso das empresas brasileiras, os autores deste artigo realizaram uma pesquisa semelhante, baseada numa amostra formada por empresas de capital aberto cujas ações foram negociadas na Bovespa (Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo durante o período de 1996 a 2001.This article deals with value creation as measured by Economic Value Added (EVA® and Market Value (MVA® which are methods developed by an American consultant, Stern Stewart & Co, in the late l980's. Economic Value Added is defined as the difference between net operating profit after taxes and the cost of capital invested in a company, while Market Value Added is the difference between market value and the total capital invested in a company. G. Bennett Stewart III, who conceived this approach together with his partner Joel M. Stern, found a strong correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added. Our research investigated whether this also applies to a sample of publicly owned Brazilian companies traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange between 1996 and 2001.

  2. Impact of public programs on fertility and gender specific investment in human capital of children in rural India: cross sectional and time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, P; Malathy, R

    1991-01-01

    Cross sectional and time series analyses are conducted with 1971 and 1981 rural district level data for India in order to estimate variations in program impacts on household decisionmaking concerning fertility, child mortality, and schooling; to analyze how the variation in public program subsidies and services influences sex specific investments in schooling; and to examine the bias in cross sectional estimates by employing fixed effects methodology. The theory of household production uses the framework development by Rosenzweig and Wolpin. The utility function is expressed as a function of families' desired number of children, sex specific investment in human capital of children measured by schooling of males and females, and a composite consumption good. Budget constraints are characterized in terms of the biological supply of births or natural fertility, the number of births averted by fertility control, exogenous money income, the prices of number of children, contraceptives, child schooling, and consumption of goods. Demand functions are constructed from maximizing the utility function subject to the budget constraint. Data constitute 40% of the total districts and 50% of the rural population. The empirical specification of the linear model and variable description are provided. Other explanatory variables included are adult educational attainment; % of scheduled castes and tribes and % Muslim; and % rural population. Estimation methods are described and justification is provided for the use of ordinary least squares and fixed effects methods. The results of the cross sectional analysis reveal that own-program effects of family planning and primary health centers reduced family size in 1971 and 81. The increase in secondary school enrollment is evidenced in only 1971. There is a significant effect of family planning (FP) clinics on the demand for surviving children only in 1971. The presence of a seconary school in a village reduces the demand for children in

  3. Productivity-based approach to valuation of transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Transportation infrastructure, a vital component to sustain economic prosperity, represents the largest public-owned : infrastructure asset in the U.S. With over a trillion invested dollars invested into long-lived physical assets such as : roads and...

  4. 75 FR 75611 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...; and the public--to identify and protect our infrastructure from hazards or attack. These critical... cyber infrastructure more resilient. Working together, we can raise awareness of the important role our...

  5. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  6. The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

  7. Key performance indicators of charging infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmus, J.; van den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands are one of the frontrunners in stimulating electric mobility in Europe when it comes to the charging infrastructure density and electric vehicle adoption. Municipalities play an instrumental role in the rollout of public charging infrastructure while they have little insight in the

  8. Bangladesh : Fiscal Costs of Non-Financial Public Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Kojo, Naoko C.

    2010-01-01

    The overall fiscal position of Bangladesh looks sustainable, but there are concerns that the country may be trapped in a low revenue-low capital spending equilibrium, which is holding back Bangladesh’s growth potential. Eliminating wasteful spending and halting fiscal drains through inefficient non-financial public corporations (NFPCs) are important ways to create fiscal space, particularly in the area of infrastructure. This paper reviews the financial performance of the NFPC ...

  9. Why has productivity growth declined? Productivity and public investment

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia H. Munnell

    1990-01-01

    The decline in United States productivity has been widely identified as one of the major economic problems facing the nation. This concern is understandable; productivity growth is the major determinant of the future standard of living. Economists have gone to great lengths to try to identify the reasons for the slowdown, and David Aschauer recently introduced the notion that the stock of public infrastructure, as well as the stock of private capital, may be a key to explaining changes in out...

  10. O CAPITAL COMUNITÁTIO E O PPC: A PARTICIPAÇÃO PÚBLICA, PRIVADA E COMUNITÁRIA NA CONSTRUÇÃO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL / THE COMMUNITARIAN CAPITAL AND THE PPCP: THE PUBLIC, PRIVATE AND COMMUNITARIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Sibá Machado Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The peasant struggle has as its major feature the battle for control of the main means of production in the rural economy: the land. This struggle, in general, is characterized by subsistence production and its connection to capital is very conflicted and it only happens when rural communities become suppliers of inputs and raw materials for agro-industrial complex. When all the productive rural communitarian organizations move to the stage of medium and high complexity of the production process, they form the "Communitarian Capital" and "PPCP" (Public, Private and Communitarian Participation that is, the method of local development in which community appropriates the means of production in whole or in part considering all links of agricultural and forestry supply chains promoted by the state. Our study is an evaluation of the trajectory of peasant struggle in Acre in three phases: a the struggle for land tenure, which began in the 1970s, b rural social movements and the struggle in the land, and c the current moment of the industrialization of Acre and the new version of the capital.

  11. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  12. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, Joana; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship capital has frequently been characterized as an important determinant of regional economic growth. Yet, we have limited knowledge about what explains why certain regions are more successful in creating entrepreneurship capital in general and in particular in technology......- and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...... on differences in the institutional infrastructures for entrepreneurship in two European countries: Germany and Portugal. Based on harmonized datasets, our results indicate important differences between the countries. Specifically, our results suggest that both specialization and diversity theories hold...

  13. Financial innovation in the public real estate market : How to exploit arbitrage opportunities in public real estate pricing due to investment approach differences between the real estate market and the capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Gejler, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    As the stock market is volatile and often short-term, there is a high demand for safe investments outside the stock market and institutional investors like pension funds, insurance companies and asset managers are increasingly searching for low-risk investments that can deliver safe returns.   Alternative investments, like real estate, are a popular way to invest institutional capital. However, debates whether pension savers should have the right to transfer their pension capital without rest...

  14. Successful Strategies for Capital Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stuart R.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, few community or technical colleges considered launching capital campaigns. They lacked community standing, professional fundraising staff, and the related institutional foundation structure to manage charitable efforts. Gradually, as public funding eroded, bond issues became harder to pass, and colleges recognized the need…

  15. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeli, Norsyakilah; Muhamad Halil, Faridah; Ismail, Faridah; Sufian Hasim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  16. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeli Norsyakilah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  17. Managing infrastructure and underpinning the planned environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Planning the built environment is, or should be, also about providing and managing (i.e. operating and maintaining) this environment, viz. the engineering infrastructure (much of which is underground), structures and public amenities. However, never...

  18. Cloud computing can simplify HIT infrastructure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-08-01

    Software as a Service (SaaS), built on cloud computing technology, is emerging as the forerunner in IT infrastructure because it helps healthcare providers reduce capital investments. Cloud computing leads to predictable, monthly, fixed operating expenses for hospital IT staff. Outsourced cloud computing facilities are state-of-the-art data centers boasting some of the most sophisticated networking equipment on the market. The SaaS model helps hospitals safeguard against technology obsolescence, minimizes maintenance requirements, and simplifies management.

  19. Event and Community Development: Planning Legacy for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, Liverpool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-De Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Event legacy has become a major topic of discussion in recent years. Especially, European Capital of Culture is emerging as a means of facilitating community development in Europe. Based on a case study of the 2008 European Capital of Culture Liverpool, this article aims to conceptualise the relationship between an event and its sustained effects on community development. Methodologically, adopting case study as approach, both primary and secondary were collected and analysed, including four times neighborhood surveys, official evaluation reports and academic publications. The study period is from 2007 to 2015 to monitor changes in an event’s impacts. The results reveal four dimensions of effects, including: cultural access and engagement, volunteering, governance and infrastructure, and sense of place. Overall, the study stresses the importance of integrating the event into a long-term development strategy of the city, through synergies between culture and urban regeneration and community renewal.

  20. Public project success as seen in a broad perspective.: Lessons from a meta-evaluation of 20 infrastructure projects in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Gro Holst

    2018-08-01

    Infrastructure projects in developed countries are rarely evaluated ex-post. Despite their number and scope, our knowledge about their various impacts is surprisingly limited. The paper argues that such projects must be assessed in a broad perspective that includes both operational, tactical and strategic aspects, and unintended as well as intended effects. A generic six-criteria evaluation framework is suggested, inspired by a framework frequently used to evaluate development assistance projects. It is tested on 20 Norwegian projects from various sectors (transport, defence, ICT, buildings). The results indicate that the majority of projects were successful, especially in operational terms, possibly because they underwent external quality assurance up-front. It is argued that applying this type of standardized framework provides a good basis for comparison and learning across sectors. It is suggested that evaluations should be conducted with the aim of promoting accountability, building knowledge about infrastructure projects, and continuously improve the tools, methods and governance arrangements used in the front-end of project development. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND CIVIC PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike ERDOGAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has a long intellectual history in the fie ld of social sciences. In recent years, interest of scholars from sociology, po litical science, economics and public administration is rapidly increasing. The reason for this increasing interest is that it has been aware of the importance of social capital in communities’ administrative, social, economic and political development. In this sense, the concept of social ca pital is an issue to be discussed with solution of current problems of public administration, subjects of governance, civil society, and participation. Social capital has a lot of definitions which are completely different from each other. Common point of these different definitions is that social capital is a resource at both individual and community level. We will use Robert Putnam’s defi nition about social cap ital in this paper. Putnam (1993 defines social capital as “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action”. In his book; Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, Putnam describes declining social capital in America. He analyzes relationship between social capital and civic participation and assumes that there is a positive relationship between social capital and civic participation. The paper aims to reveal how there is a relationshi p between social capital and civic participation in Central Florida. We will use “The Central Florida Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey that is made by The Survey Research Labora tory in the Ins titute for Social and Behavior Sciences at the University of Central Florida among central Florida residents. We use notion of civic participation not only as voting but also as concern of politics, volunteering, attending a political meeting, participating in any demonstrations, protests or boycotts, cooperating to solve problems and

  2. Financial capital and intellectual capital in physician practice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1998-01-01

    Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.

  3. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  4. Uma análise sobre a evidenciação das contas públicas das Capitais brasileiras = An analysis on the disclosure of public accounts of the brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dionísio Gomes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A transparência exigida para os atos de gestão da administração pública é uma ferramenta importante decontrole, que deve ser utilizada pelos cidadãos, para fiscalizar as ações dos governantes das três esferasdo governo: federal, estadual e municipal. A evidenciação das contas públicas está prevista na Lei nº 4.320,de 17 de março de 1964 e na Lei Complementar 101, de 04 de maio de 2000 (LRF. Esta pesquisa temcomo objetivo geral analisar se todas as capitais brasileiras estão evidenciando suas contas públicas, naInternet, em conformidade com o estabelecido na Lei n° 9.755/98 e no Art. 48 da LRF. Foram utilizadas aspesquisas descritiva, bibliográfica e qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada no sítio denominado deContas Públicas mantido pelo Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU e nos sítios das capitais brasileiras,incluindo a capital federal. Os resultados revelaram que das 27 capitais brasileiras, 13 não fizeram nenhumregistro de contas públicas no sítio de mesmo nome de responsabilidade do Tribunal de Contas da União(TCU, sendo que as demais (14 fizeram registros, mas faltam dados exigidos pela Lei 9755/98 e quenenhuma capital atende as exigências do Art. 48 da LRF.The transparency required for the acts of public administration management is an important tool of control,which should be used by citizens to oversee the actions of the rulers of the three spheres of government:federal, state and municipal levels. The disclosure of public accounts is provided in Law No. 4320 of March17, 1964 and the Complementary Law 101 of May 4, 2000 (LRF. This research aims at analyzing whetherall capital cities are showing their public accounts, the Internet, in accordance with the provisions of Law No.9.755/98 and Art 48 of the LRF. We used the exploratory research, literature and qualitative. Data collectionwas performed at the site known as the Public Accounts maintained by the Court of Audit (TCU and thesites of the Brazilian

  5. On the Construction Project Finance Control Management of Municipal Public Infrastructure%探析市政公用基础设施建设项目财务控制管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖壮

    2014-01-01

    The progress of urbanization in our country, prov- ides good opportunities to the construction of municipal public infrastructure construction, but from the current situation to see, there is contradictory phenomenon, and has a very close rela- tionship to the financial control of municipal public infrastru- cture construction project.%我国城市化进程的加快,给市政公用基础设施的建设提供了良好的发展机遇,但是从目前的建设现状来看,却出现了较为矛盾的现象,这与市政公用基础设施建设项目的财务控制具有很大的关系。

  6. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  7. Social capital and health during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinlaender, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature.This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of ruralSri Lankan pregnant women.Methods: An exploratory qualitative study......-diary interviews.Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers.We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domesticand neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs....... Social support was limited to supportfrom close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in themicro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by whichsocial capital could influence health...

  8. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  9. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  10. Working Capital Management and Firm Listing Status

    OpenAIRE

    Seraina Anagnostopoulou

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively examines the determinants of working capital management for listed vs. unlisted firms, and assesses the impact of this policy on profitability by focusing on the cash conversion cycle, a commonly used measure of working capital management. By using a large UK public and private firm sample, it is found that private firms have significantly lower cash conversion cycles than their public counterparts, and that traditional determinants of the cycle significantly differ b...

  11. 38 CFR 61.10 - Capital grants-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.10 Capital grants—general. (a) VA provides capital grants to public or nonprofit private entities so they can assist homeless veterans by helping to... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capital grants-general...

  12. A watershed-scale goals approach to assessing and funding wastewater infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Brian G; Vedachalam, Sridhar; Shen, Jerry; Woodbury, Peter B; Riha, Susan J

    2013-11-15

    Capital needs during the next twenty years for public wastewater treatment, piping, combined sewer overflow correction, and storm-water management are estimated to be approximately $300 billion for the USA. Financing these needs is a significant challenge, as Federal funding for the Clean Water Act has been reduced by 70% during the last twenty years. There is an urgent need for new approaches to assist states and other decision makers to prioritize wastewater maintenance and improvements. We present a methodology for performing an integrated quantitative watershed-scale goals assessment for sustaining wastewater infrastructure. We applied this methodology to ten watersheds of the Hudson-Mohawk basin in New York State, USA that together are home to more than 2.7 million people, cover 3.5 million hectares, and contain more than 36,000 km of streams. We assembled data on 183 POTWs treating approximately 1.5 million m(3) of wastewater per day. For each watershed, we analyzed eight metrics: Growth Capacity, Capacity Density, Soil Suitability, Violations, Tributary Length Impacted, Tributary Capital Cost, Volume Capital Cost, and Population Capital Cost. These metrics were integrated into three goals for watershed-scale management: Tributary Protection, Urban Development, and Urban-Rural Integration. Our results demonstrate that the methodology can be implemented using widely available data, although some verification of data is required. Furthermore, we demonstrate substantial differences in character, need, and the appropriateness of different management strategies among the ten watersheds. These results suggest that it is feasible to perform watershed-scale goals assessment to augment existing approaches to wastewater infrastructure analysis and planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time-varying Capital Requirements and Disclosure Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jonas; Rangvid, Jesper

    , implying that resilience in the banking system is also increased. The increase in capital ratios is partly due to a modest reduction in lending. Using a policy changes, we show that banks react stronger to changes in capital requirements when these are public. Our results further suggest that the impact......Unique and confidential Danish data allow us to identify how changes in disclosure requirements and bank-specific time-varying capital requirements affect banks' lending and capital accumu-lation decisions. We find that banks increase their capital ratios after capital requirements are increased...... of capital requirements differ for small and large banks. Large banks raise their capital ratios more, reduce lending less, and accumulate more new capital compared to small banks....

  14. Critical analysis of mechanisms of incentive regulation operators of electricity and natural gas networks and infrastructures. Final report. Public version, 23 November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As the first mechanisms of incentive regulation of electricity and gas network operators have been introduced by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) since 2008 (the report recalls the main objectives of these mechanisms and their consequences), this report proposes a critical analysis of such mechanisms related to investments and to exploitation expenses of operators and which have been implemented in Germany, Spain, Ireland and in the United Kingdom. For each country, the report proposes a detailed description of these mechanisms for the electric power sector and the gas sector (general overview of the regulation framework, objectives, determination of the authorised income, shift processing, specific incentive mechanisms, modalities of management by the regulator), and a feedback of the different concerned actors (operators and regulators). The last part proposes a description of the status of the French regulation, and an analysis of transposition of the four foreign regulations, and states some propositions for evolutions (objectives, overview of recommended evolutions, focus on three types of regulation evolution: processing of arbitral charges, processing of other incited capital charges, processing of arbitral charges)

  15. Prioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama : Pilot Application of the World Bank Infrastructure Prioritization Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 ...

  16. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  17. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in Namibian public sector employees in capital and regional settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Til R Kiderlen

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi. Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male. Nearly 90% of participants reported to have been tested for HIV before. Knowledge about HIV transmission ranged from 67% to 95% of correct answers, with few differences between the capital and regions. However, a knowledge gap regarding HIV transmission and prevention was seen. In particular, we found significantly lower knowledge regarding transmission from mother-to-child during pregnancy and higher rate of belief in a supernatural role in HIV transmission. In addition, despite many years of HIV prevention activities, a substantial proportion of employees had well-known HIV risk factors including multiple concurrent partnership rates (21%, intergenerational sex (19%, and lower testing rates for men (82% compared to women with 91%.

  18. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS IN THE VENTURE CAPITAL MARKET HOW JEREMIE AFFECTS THE HUNGARIAN VENTURE CAPITAL MARKET?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Balazs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available JEREMIE (Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises program was implemented as a part of the EU cohesion policy in the framework of 2007-2013 programming period. The primary objective of the program was to enhance the financing prospects of SME’s through structural funds that provide financial engineering instruments like loan, guarantee and venture capital. This paper focuses on the effects of JEREMIE on Hungary’s venture capital market. Since 2010, 28 JEREMIE backed venture capital funds were founded in four rounds and 130 billion HUF capital was allocated into these funds with the contribution of Hungarian government. A well-established venture capital market can boost entrepreneurship and innovation, therefore economic growth which is the foundation of government involvement. On the other hand, there is an extensive literature highlighting the limits and possible drawbacks of the active role of public sector in the venture capital market. There is a consensus in the literature that in the long run the extensive role of government in venture capital industry is counterproductive. Substituting market participants by government agencies will hardly result in a competitive and efficient market. However, temporarily as a catalyst public sector can contribute to the development of venture capital market. Direct government intervention supportable temporarily only in the infancy of the industry. The primary objective of every program must be to develop the market to the level where it becomes self-sustaining. This way the success of these programs must not be measured only by the amount of invested capital, financial performance of venture capital funds and venture capital backed companies. Raising private sector awareness and the progress of necessary institutions are also the criteria of a successful program. During the design and implementation of venture capital agendas these aspects must be taken into consideration. This

  19. MANDATORY TAKEOVER BIDS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Capital Market Law (Law no 297/2004 lays down rules regarding public offers (to buy or sell of securities admitted to trading on a regulated market. Such offers are not unknown in the general framework of companies’ regulations, i.e. Company Law no 31/1990. Actually a public limited liability company (joint stock company can use a public subscriptions (offering shares for sale to raise the registered capital for incorporation of the company or to increase the company’s share capital already established. But all such operations are voluntary decisions. The founders or the shareholders of the company are those who decide to launch a public subscriptions. Capital Market Law comes with something new and at least peculiar at first sight: mandatory takeover bid, meaning a mandatory public offer made by an offeror to the holders of the securities of a company (offeree to acquire all or some of those securities. Can someone be forced to buy securities on the regulated market? The Capital Market Law responds affirmatively, but only if such takeover bid follows or has as its objective the acquisition of control of the offeree company in accordance with national law. The takeover bid remains under supervision and authorization of the national authority of the Capital Market (FSA – Financial Supervisory Authority.

  20. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  1. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  2. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  3. Efficiency improvement of the investment and innovation activities in the transport facility construction field with public-private partnership involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.

  4. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As

  5. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....

  6. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  7. Creating Community Resilience Through Elder-Led Physical and Social Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel P; Kyota, Emi

    2017-02-01

    Natural disasters and rapidly aging populations are chronic problems for societies worldwide. We investigated the effects of an intervention in Japan known as Ibasho, which embeds elderly residents in vulnerable areas within larger social networks and encourages them to participate in leadership activities. This project sought to deepen the connections of these elderly residents to society and to build elderly leadership and community capacity for future crises. We carried out surveys of participants and nonparticipant residents across the city of Ofunato in Tohoku, Japan, 1 year after the intervention began. Our surveys included questions assessing participation levels in Ibasho, demographic characteristics, efficacy, social networks, and a sense of belonging. Regression analysis and propensity score matching of more than 1100 respondents showed that regular participation in the Ibasho project had a statistically significant and positive connection with various measures of social capital. Given its relatively low cost and focus on deepening cohesion, we suggest that this community-based project could be replicated and scaled up in other countries to deepen resilience, elder health, and social capital. Moving away from an emphasis on investing in physical infrastructure, we believe that disaster risk reduction strategies should center on social infrastructure. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:120-126).

  8. «Life Cycle Contract» in the field of Transport Infrastructure – the New Public-Private Partnership Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica V. Turgeneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to analyze the Russian experience in using public-private partnership mechanism (further – PPP for the supply and maintenance of rolling stock for Moscow public transport vehicle fleet under the «Life Сycle Сontract» (further – LLC. Overview of LLC, benefits, strengths and weakness identification are needed to achieve the objectives. Methods: methodological and theoretical background of the article based on feasibility study of LCC implementation projects as well as practical experience of LCC in CUE «Mosgortrans» and CUE «Moscow Metro». Information based on official data from Ministry of Economic development of the RF, Moscow Mayor official website, Moscow City Investment Agency. Results: research into LCC in PPP system, strengths and weaknesses identification will allow to minimize risks and to improve system. Conclusions and Relevance: this article proves that LCC model under the tready of of rolling stock procurement and maintenance contracts for Moscow public transport can provide a city with the new generation rolling stock, increase comfort and safety, obtain additional reliability assurance and timekeeping, remain high properties of rolling stock during exploitation period. 

  9. Ciemat Relational Capital: Institutional Presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; González Pineda, L. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The resources in any organization for its activity development can be divided into two main groups: tangible assets and intangible assets. In recent decades there has been a recognition of the importance of the intangible assets as value generators for the development and growth of organizations. And the so called Relational Capital is among them Relational Capital arises from the relationship processes that an organization maintains with external agents. Thus, in the case of a public research institution, such as CIEMAT, it includes the relations with projects financing organizations, with partners and with customers (both public and private entities which are serviced), as well as the institutional presence understood as the participation in discussion and coordination forums (foundations, associations, committees…). This report presents a study of CIEMAT institutional presence in the year 2015.

  10. Structures and infrastructures series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    "Research, developments, and applications...on the most advanced techonologies for analyzing, predicting, and optimizing the performance of structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, dams...

  11. Natural Capital Management: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Sustainable Restoration Investment - 13455

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetz, Maureen T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other forms of capital assets (built infrastructure, labor, financial capital), the supply of usable or accessible air, land, and water elements (termed Natural Capital Assets or NCA) available to enterprise processes is structurally shrinking due to increased demand and regulatory restriction. This supply/demand imbalance is affecting all forms of public and private enterprise (including Federal Facilities) in the form of encroachment, production limits, cost increases, and reduced competitiveness. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are comprised of significant stocks of NCA that function as both conserved capital (providing ecosystem services and other reserve capacity), and as natural infrastructure (supporting major Federal enterprise programs). The current rubric of 'Environmental Stewardship' provides an unduly constrained management paradigm that is focused largely on compliance process metrics, and lacks a value platform for quantifying, documenting, and sustainably re-deploying re-capitalized natural asset capacity and capability. By adopting value-based system concepts similar to built infrastructure accounting and information management, 'stewarded' natural assets relegated to liability- or compliance-focused outcomes become 're-capitalized' operational assets able to support new or expanded mission. This growing need for new accounting and management paradigms to capture natural capital value is achieving global recognition, most recently by the United Nations, world leaders, and international corporations at the Rio+20 Summit in June of 2012. Natural Capital Asset Management (NCAM) TM is such an accounting framework tool. Using a quantification-based design, NCAM TM provides inventory, capacity and value data to owners or managers of natural assets such as the DOE that parallel comparable information systems currently used for facility assets. Applied to Environmental Management (EM) and other DOE program activities, the natural asset capacity and

  12. Natural Capital Management: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Sustainable Restoration Investment - 13455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetz, Maureen T. [Koetz and Duncan LLC, Suite 30J, 355 South End Avenue, New York, NY 10280 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Unlike other forms of capital assets (built infrastructure, labor, financial capital), the supply of usable or accessible air, land, and water elements (termed Natural Capital Assets or NCA) available to enterprise processes is structurally shrinking due to increased demand and regulatory restriction. This supply/demand imbalance is affecting all forms of public and private enterprise (including Federal Facilities) in the form of encroachment, production limits, cost increases, and reduced competitiveness. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are comprised of significant stocks of NCA that function as both conserved capital (providing ecosystem services and other reserve capacity), and as natural infrastructure (supporting major Federal enterprise programs). The current rubric of 'Environmental Stewardship' provides an unduly constrained management paradigm that is focused largely on compliance process metrics, and lacks a value platform for quantifying, documenting, and sustainably re-deploying re-capitalized natural asset capacity and capability. By adopting value-based system concepts similar to built infrastructure accounting and information management, 'stewarded' natural assets relegated to liability- or compliance-focused outcomes become 're-capitalized' operational assets able to support new or expanded mission. This growing need for new accounting and management paradigms to capture natural capital value is achieving global recognition, most recently by the United Nations, world leaders, and international corporations at the Rio+20 Summit in June of 2012. Natural Capital Asset Management (NCAM){sup TM} is such an accounting framework tool. Using a quantification-based design, NCAM{sup TM} provides inventory, capacity and value data to owners or managers of natural assets such as the DOE that parallel comparable information systems currently used for facility assets. Applied to Environmental Management (EM) and other DOE program

  13. Fueling innovation in medical devices (and beyond): venture capital in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, D Clay; Valverde, Ana M; Diener, Lawrence W; Dossary, Kristin L; Schulman, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in health care requires new ideas and the capital to develop and commercialize those ideas into products or services. The necessary capital is often "venture capital," but the link between public policy and the venture capital industry has not been well examined. In this paper we explore the link between venture capital and innovation in health care, and we present new descriptive data from a survey of health care venture capital fund managers. Respondents generally viewed policy levers (for example, reimbursement and regulations) as important risks to venture capital investments, potentially affecting their ability to raise capital for early-stage investment funds.

  14. Infrastructure investment and incentives with supranational funding

    OpenAIRE

    Socorro, M. Pilar; De Rus, Ginés

    2011-01-01

    Public infrastructure investment is usually co-financed by supranational organizations. The selection of projects is supposed to be decided using the information provided by conventional cost-benefit analysis. Nevertheless, we show that the type of institutional design regarding the financing mechanism affects the incentives of national governments to reduce costs and increase revenues, affecting project selection, the infrastructure capacity, the choice of technology, and the type of contrac...

  15. HUMAN CAPITAL: Major Human Capital Challenges at SEC and Key Trade Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to appear here today to discuss the human capital challenges facing the agencies that play key roles in monitoring publicly traded companies and enforcing our nation's trade laws...

  16. Information and the Cost of Capital: An Ex Ante Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique; Feltham, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent articles have demonstrated that increased public disclosure can decrease firms' cost of capital. The focus has been on the impact of information on the cost of capital subsequent to the release of the information (the ex post cost of capital). We show that the reduction in the ex post cost...... investors may actually benefit from a higher ex post cost of capital....... of capital is offset by an equal increase in the cost of capital for the period leading up to the release of the information (the preposterior cost of capital). Thus, within the class of models framing the recent discussion, there is no impact on the ex ante cost of capital covering the full time span...

  17. Challenges in Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing: Analysis of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Edward

    2003-01-01

    ... $2 billion in expenditures per year, DFAS itself is a sizable portion of the DoD infrastructure Second, we believe the pricing issues that DFAS confronts are similar to those faced by other Defense Working Capital Fund (DWCF...

  18. Social opportunity cost of capital: empirical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, S.

    1978-02-01

    This report develops estimates of the social-opportunity cost of public capital. The private and social costs of capital are found to diverge primarily because of the effects of corporate and personal income taxes. Following Harberger, the social-opportunity cost of capital is approximated by a weighted average of the returns to different classes of savers and investors where the weights are the flows of savings or investments in each class multiplied by the relevant elasticity. Estimates of these parameters are obtained and the social-opportunity cost of capital is determined to be in the range of 6.2 to 10.8%, depending upon the parameter values used. Uncertainty is found to affect the social-opportunity cost of capital in two ways. First, some allowance must be made for the chance of failure or at least of not realizing claims of a project's proponents. Second, a particular government project will change the expected variability of the returns to the government's entire portfolio of projects. In the absence of specific information about each project, the use of the economy-wide average default and risk adjustments is suggested. These are included in the empirical estimates reported. International capital markets make available private capital, the price of which is not distorted by the U.S. tax system. The inclusion of foreign sources slightly reduces the social-opportunity cost of capital. 21 references.

  19. The Effects of Public Infrastructure and Household Characteristics on Inequality and Infant Mortality in Mexico: What Has Changed Between 1990 and 2005?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S MEINDL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reduction of infant mortality (IM continues to be a primary goal throughout much of the developing world, and a suite of methods have been proposed with which to achieve it. However, most attempts at IM reduction have taken place within the context of an almost bewilderingly complex regimen of simultaneous changes occurring in the physical environment, sociopolitical structure, and health care. Which of these various elements is truly causal in reducing IM and which may be merely a correlated but nonprimary agent? During the past two decades Mexico has constituted an extraordinary field laboratory with which to decipher the roles of these various potential agents of IM reduction. Health resources include community access to proper drainage, safe drinking water, electrical power, as well as a suite of individual, if highly intercorrelated, family and household characteristics. Despite considerable demographic and socioeconomic heterogeneity, dramatic reductions in IM have been achieved, and additional ones are certainly possible. We weigh the factors that have reduced infant mortality in this country. Particular infrastructure improvements in the Pacific South, the Gulf, and the Yucatan peninsula must be continued. This would impact both inequality and, in turn, infant health and survival in this country. Resumen La reducción de la mortalidad infantil (MI continúa siendo un objetivo primario en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, para lograrlo se ha propuesto un conjunto de métodos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los esfuerzos para lograr la reducción de la mortalidad infantil ha tenido lugar dentro del contexto de un régimen complejo de cambios simultáneos que ocurren en el ambiente físico, en la estructura sociopolítica y en el cuidado de la salud. ¿Cuál de estos elementos tiene mayor peso en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil y cuál puede estar meramente correlacionado, pero no ser un agente primario

  20. Output responses to infrastructure investment in the Netherlands, 1850-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter; Jacobs, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    1995-01-01

    This paper combines a new historical data set regarding capital formation in infrastructure in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century with data-oriented econometric techniques aimed at testing the causal relationship between these infrastructural investments and economic growth. The resulting

  1. Building an evaluation infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandrup, Morten; Østergaard, Kija Lin

    Infrastructuring does not happen by itself; it must be supported. In this paper, we present a feedback mechanism implemented as a smartphone-based application, inspired by the concept of infrastructure probes, which supports the in situ elicitation of feedback. This is incorporated within an eval...

  2. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  3. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  4. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, R.

    1995-01-01

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  5. Infrastructures for healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Tue Odd; Amstrup, Mikkel Hvid; Mørck, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Danish General Practitioners Database has over more than a decade developed into a large-scale successful information infrastructure supporting medical research in Denmark. Danish general practitioners produce the data, by coding all patient consultations according to a certain set of classif...... synergy into account, if not to risk breaking down the fragile nature of otherwise successful information infrastructures supporting research on healthcare....

  6. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  7. Basic infrastructure for a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include development of nuclear policies and regulations, feasibility studies, public consultations, technology evaluation, requests for proposals and evaluations, contracts and financing, supply, construction, commissioning, operation and finally decommissioning. This publication addresses the 'basic' infrastructure needs, which are adequate until the issue of the construction license. It is obvious that a fully developed nuclear infrastructure will be required for the further implementation stages of a nuclear power reactor. The officials and experts in each country will undertake the transition from a basic infrastructure to a fully developed infrastructure that covers the stages of construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The publication is directed to provide guidance for assessing the basic infrastructure necessary for: - A host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, and - A supplier country to consider when assessing whether the recipient country is in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of a nuclear power project. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in the governmental organizations, utilities, industrial organizations and regulatory bodies in the countries adopting nuclear power programmes or exporting supplies for these programmes. The governmental organizations that may find this publication useful include: Ministries of Economy, Energy, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Mining, Internal Affairs, Academic Institutions, Nuclear Energy Agencies and Environmental Agencies. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power programmes and to establish and enhance national nuclear infrastructure. This publication should be used in conjunction with the IAEA Safety Standards Series and other

  8. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  9. Platform capitalism: The intermediation and capitalization of digital economic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Langley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new form of digital economic circulation has emerged, wherein ideas, knowledge, labour and use rights for otherwise idle assets move between geographically distributed but connected and interactive online communities. Such circulation is apparent across a number of digital economic ecologies, including social media, online marketplaces, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding and other manifestations of the so-called ‘sharing economy’. Prevailing accounts deploy concepts such as ‘co-production’, ‘prosumption’ and ‘peer-to-peer’ to explain digital economic circulation as networked exchange relations characterised by their disintermediated, collaborative and democratising qualities. Building from the neologism of platform capitalism, we place ‘the platform’ – understood as a distinct mode of socio-technical intermediary and business arrangement that is incorporated into wider processes of capitalisation – at the centre of the critical analysis of digital economic circulation. To create multi-sided markets and coordinate network effects, platforms enrol users through a participatory economic culture and mobilise code and data analytics to compose immanent infrastructures. Platform intermediation is also nested in the ex-post construction of a replicable business model. Prioritising rapid up-scaling and extracting revenues from circulations and associated data trails, the model performs the structure of venture capital investment which capitalises on the potential of platforms to realise monopoly rents.

  10. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  11. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  12. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  13. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  14. Natural gas infrastructure requirements for merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Merchant power plants are complicated with diverse risks. Of course where there are risks there are opportunities for reward. Creating an effective merchant plant requires a strong organization that is committed to marketing, trading and risk management. The organization must have the infrastructure to capitalize on the opportunities a merchant plant provides. The market dynamics are ever changing and move at incredible speeds--what was a moneymaking deal yesterday is no longer valid today. The merchant plant owner is the expert in setting up the actual infrastructure for trading the various commodities, including forward pricing, cash and physical trades, transportation and operation for maximizing the plant's potential. Optionally, the plant's risk profile and a risk management program are the key factors in determining the sucres of the merchant plant project

  15. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junran Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. Method In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East, conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia’s most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, measures of chronic illness and mental health measures, as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Results Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. Conclusion From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  16. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Rammohan, Anu

    2016-07-22

    A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East), conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia's most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), measures of chronic illness and mental health measures), as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation) is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  17. Critical Race Theory, Democratization, and the Public Good: Deploying Postmodern Understandings of Racial Identity in the Social Justice Classroom to Contest Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses an academic capitalist knowledge regime (i.e. the increasing engagement of public institutions of higher education in market-based ventures) and the alterations to teacher and student behavior and the learning environment that result. Social justice-oriented university courses are positioned as sites where democratization and…

  18. Bilingual Education Project: Evaluation of the 1973-74 French Immersion Program in Grades 1-3 in the Federal Capital's Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill

    The school performance of pupils in grades 1-3 of the French immersion program in operation in Ottawa public schools is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of grade 1 immersion program pupils taught reading in French are found to lag behind their peers in the regular…

  19. Private equity and venture capital: investment fund structures in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zinecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A working private equity and venture capital market (PE/VC market stimulates the business environment in a positive manner and impacts the level of economic growth of national economies. A study of the Austrian Private Equity and Venture Capital Organisation/AVCO (2004, p. 6 defines prerequisites for a correct operation of the PE/VC market. It views the legislative provision for suitable legal fund structures for PE/VC investments and their tax treatment as a key factor. In its publication, Private Equity & Venture Capital in the Czech Republic (2010, p. 14, the Czech Venture Capital Association/CVCA stresses that legal barriers are an important reason behind the limited scope of resources available to domestic PE/VC funds. Legal barriers prevent the establishment of a standard PE/VC fund in the territory of the Czech Republic, which fact in turn has a negative impact on the level of development of the domestic PE/VC market (fundraising, investment volumes, establishment of the infrastructure required for the operation of PE/VC funds. The purpose of this article is, based on an analysis of the relevant information sources, to assess how the current Czech legislation regulates the legal fund structures for PE/VC investments and their tax treatment. Proposals for a potential improvement of the situation are based on a comparison of the legislative framework applicable in the Czech Republic and the requirements defined by the European Venture Capital Association/EVCA, as well as the AVCO study (2004, 2006.

  20. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  1. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...

  2. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  3. Expecting the Unexpected: Towards Robust Credential Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Cryptographic credential infrastructures, such as Public key infrastructure (PKI), allow the building of trust relationships in electronic society and electronic commerce. At the center of credential infrastructures is the methodology of digital signatures. However, methods that assure that credentials and signed messages possess trustworthiness and longevity are not well understood, nor are they adequately addressed in both literature and practice. We believe that, as a basic engineering principle, these properties have to be built into the credential infrastructure rather than be treated as an after-thought since they are crucial to the long term success of this notion. In this paper we present a step in the direction of dealing with these issues. Specifically, we present the basic engineering reasoning as well as a model that helps understand (somewhat formally) the trustworthiness and longevity of digital signatures, and then we give basic mechanisms that help improve these notions.

  4. Joint deployment of refuelling infrastructure and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of fuels will be used in future transportation technologies. This presentation discussed refuelling infrastructure solutions for alternative fuels. A well-placed demonstration infrastructure will help to accelerate market development. Stakeholder collaboration is needed to create high value business paradigms and identify stakeholder benefits. Infrastructure paradigms include the home; businesses; retail public refuelling forecourts; and multi-fuel waste heat recovery sites. Commercial nodes can be developed along major transportation routes. Stakeholder groups include technology providers, supply chain and service providers, commercial end-users, and government. A successful alternative fuel infrastructure model will consider market development priorities, time frames and seed investment opportunities. Applications must be market-driven in order to expand. A case study of the natural gas vehicle (NGV) program in Ontario was also discussed, as well as various hydrogen projects. tabs., figs.

  5. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  6. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  7. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  8. Social capital and maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheabo Dessalegn, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the effect of social capital on maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia. Reports show that in Ethiopia, despite the huge investment in health infrastructure and the deployment of health professionals to provide maternal health services free of charge, utilization remains low.

  9. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  10. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...

  11. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  12. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  13. Capital budgeting under relational contracting: optimal ranking and duration criteria for schemes of concession, project-financing and public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Project-financing and public-private partnership schemes are joint projects of investment that are generally submitted to investment valuation criteria based on compound discounting. However, the theoretical basis of these criteria is at issue nowadays. According to recent studies on relational contracting economics and behavioral finance, joint projects of investment can be considered as special relational environments where the project's returns improve on alternativ...

  14. Human and Inhuman Capital, and Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Krašovec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of human capital are becoming an increasingly common reference in both newer pedagogical theories as well as political documents, outlining the plans for reforms of science and education. As a part of broader ideology of knowledge society, human capital theories represent ideological legitimation of neoliberal trends in science and education policies. Increased investment in human capital on both social and individual level is supposed to increase the competitiveness of the economy as a whole as well as employability and welfare of individuals. In the first part of the article, we sketch the intellectual history and the socio-political context of the development of theories of human capital. Second part is dedicated to a critique of characteristically neoliberal equalization of labor with capital and of a theory, according to which investment in human capital brings profits to individual workers. In the third part, we outline a general socio-historical dynamics of the development of high-tech capitalism and show that “investments in human capital” and economic innovations do not bring about increased social welfare. In the fourth, final part, we analyze in detail how current educational reforms impact the learning process and working conditions at public universities.

  15. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  16. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  17. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  18. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  19. Pennsylvania Reaches Infrastructure Milestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a series of “aye” votes, the Pennsylvania agency that turns EPA funding and state financing into water infrastructure projects crossed a key threshold recently – $8 billion in investment over nearly three decades

  20. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to ''... produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles ...'' [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge